A house of cards
San Francisco, CA, USA.Journal of Cutaneous Pathology (Impact Factor: 1.58). 08/2012; 39(8):739-40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2012.01958.x
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ABSTRACT: The right shift (RS) theory (Annett, M., 1972. The distribution of manual asymmetry. Br. J. Psychol. 63, 343-358; Annett, M., 1985. Left, Right, Hand and Brain: The Right Shift Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum, London) suggests that the typical pattern of human cerebral and manual asymmetries depends on a single gene (RS+) which impairs speech-related cortex of the right hemisphere. The theory offers solutions to several puzzles, including the distribution of handedness in families (Annett, M., 1978. A Single Gene Explanation of Right and Left Handedness and Brainedness. Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry; Annett, M., 1996. In defense of the right shift theory. Percept. Motor Skills 82, 115-137), relations between handedness and cerebral speech laterality (Annett, M., 1975. Hand preference and the laterality of cerebral speech. Cortex 11, 305-328; Annett, M., Alexander, M.P., 1996. Atypical cerebral dominance: predictions and tests of the right shift theory. Neuropsychologia 34, 1215-1227) and handedness and dyslexia (Annett, M. et al., 1996. Types of dyslexia and the shift to dextrality. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 37, 167-180). If Crow's (Crow, T.J. et al., 1989. Schizophrenia as an anomaly of development of cerebral asymmetry. A postmortem study and a proposal concerning the genetic basis of the disease. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 46, 1145-1150; Crow, T.J., 1997. Is schizophrenia the price that Homo sapiens pays for language? Schizophr. Res. 28, 127-141) theory that schizophrenia is due to an anomaly of cerebral dominance is correct, and if the RS theory is correct, schizophrenia could be due to an anomaly of the RS+ gene. If the RS+ gene were at risk for a mutation which caused a loss of directional coding, the mutant could be described as 'agnosic' for left and right. Such a gene would impair either hemisphere at random. When paired with another RS+ gene, both hemispheres would be impaired in 50% of cases. The other 50% and people in whom the agnosic gene is paired with an RS-allele (neutral for asymmetry and not giving hemisphere impairment) would have one unaffected hemisphere and, thus, normal development. Quantitative predictions based on the RS genetic theory as previously developed, plus an agnosic mutant with frequency required to give schizophrenia in 1% of the population, are consistent with estimates of concordance for schizophrenia in relatives. Homozygotes of the agnosic mutant would occur at about the rate estimated for autism.
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ABSTRACT: Because cutaneous melanomas manifest a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic presentations, several other lesions enter into their differential diagnosis. This review considers those entities, including melanocytic hyperplasia, cellular nodules in congenital nevi, atypical lentiginous melanocytic proliferations, “special site” nevi, epithelioid histiocytoma, neurothekeoma, cellular schwannoma, and proliferating scars.