Heart failure biomarkers: Focus on interleukin-1 receptor-like 1-based blood tests

Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998) (Impact Factor: 1.2). 07/2012; 48(7):479-91. DOI: 10.1358/dot.2012.48.7.1811719
Source: PubMed


Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. It is often a progressive disease, and the pathophysiology behind this adverse development is not completely understood. Biomarkers are of increasing importance in heart failure research. Despite a growing number of candidate markers, only a select few have made it into clinical practice. Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), also known as protein ST2, is the receptor for interleukin-33 (IL-33), a cytokine involved in T-cell-mediated immune responses. IL1RL1 expression is induced by cardiomyocyte stretch, and IL1RL1 may thus reflect the activity of two interacting processes in heart failure: inflammation and hemodynamic stress. In recent years, the soluble, truncated IL1RL1 isoform B has been shown to provide prognostic information in heart failure. Although ILRL1 isoform B does not seem to aid in the diagnosis of the disease, an elevated plasma/serum concentration of this marker is firmly associated with adverse outcome in patients with heart failure. This association has been established in different heart failure cohorts and is independent of age, etiology of heart failure and left ventricular function. Ultimately, the IL-33/IL1RL1 pathway may become a therapeutic target in heart failure.

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