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The Use of Observational Learning by Athletes

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The Use of Observational Learning by Athletes
Natascha N Wesch; Barbi Law; Craig R Hall
Journal of Sport Behavior; Jun 2007; 30, 2; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source
pg. 219
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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... [14][15][16] These results highlight the The research regarding gender differences in the use of observational learning has been conflicting. In particular, some researchers found that females used the performance function of observational learning significantly less than males, 19 but others found no gender differences. 18 Team versus individual differences in observational learning use have also been reported. ...
... 18 This questionnaire measures the frequency with which athletes employ the three functions of observational learning, namely skill, strategy, and performance. Based on several studies that used folQ, it was found that athletes frequently employed the skill function of observational learning, followed by the strategy, and performance functions respectively, [17][18][19] differences in the use of the functions of observational learning were also investigated based on various factors such as gender, type of sport, competitive level, and skill type. [18][19][20][21][22] velop and execute game plans and strategies (e.g., "i use ol to help me improve my game/event strategies."). ...
... Based on several studies that used folQ, it was found that athletes frequently employed the skill function of observational learning, followed by the strategy, and performance functions respectively, [17][18][19] differences in the use of the functions of observational learning were also investigated based on various factors such as gender, type of sport, competitive level, and skill type. [18][19][20][21][22] velop and execute game plans and strategies (e.g., "i use ol to help me improve my game/event strategies."). The performance function emphasizes how players use observational learning to regulate their arousal levels and psychological state for sports performance (e.g., "i use ol to learn how to cope with anxiety."). ...
Article
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of observational learning among athletes when they observed themselves (self-model) or their opponents (opponent-model). Furthermore, there was an emphasis on determining the relationships between age, experience, and the functions (i.e., skill, strategy, performance) of observational learning according to the type of model observed. Methods: A total of 158 athletes (male=70, female=88) who competed in different team (N.=83) and individual (N.=75) sports participated in the study. They ranged in age from 17 years to 32 years. Their total years of sport participation ranged from one year to 18 years. Results: Athletes reported significantly greater use of all three functions of observational learning for the self-model than for the opponent-model. Bivariate correlations revealed years of experience was significantly and positively associated with the skill, self, and performance functions of observational learning for the self-model. In contrast, age was significantly and positively related with the performance function of observational learning for the opponent-model. Conclusions: The finding provides the first empirical evidence to suggest that model type influences the use of observational learning in athletes. A positive relationship also exists between experience and self-observational learning as well as age and the opponent-performance function of observational learning. The results contribute to the observational learning literature and provide support to the Applied Model for the Use of Observation.
... Auch eine größere Achtsamkeit (Lego, Vogt & Werner, 2019;Möhle, 2011) (Wesch, Law & Hall, 2007). ...
... Dementsprechend sind Demonstrationen besonders bei einfachen Bewegungen mit großer kognitiver Komponente hilfreich (Hodges & Franks, 2002) und sowohl Anfänger als auch Experten verschiedener Sportarten nutzen die kognitiven Funktionen stärker als die motivationalen Funktionen des Nachmachens (Wesch et al., 2007). (Shafizadeh, Platt & Bahram, 2013). ...
Chapter
Lernkasten Traditionelles Nachmachen und Nichtlinearität bilden zwei mögliche Extreme eines Kontinuums der Vermittlungsdidaktik ab und bilden Anhaltspunkte zur Reflexion des trainingspädagogischen Handelns im Inhaltsfeld des Kämpfens. Das Nachmachen vorgegebener Bewegungen und das Erkunden individueller Bewegungslösungen stellt Alternativen in einem Raum sinnvoller vermittlungsdidaktischer Entscheidungen dar und hält jeweils besondere Erfahrungs-und Lerngelegenheiten für Schüler bereit. Während das Nachmachen Erwartbarkeit, Wiederholbarkeit, Sicherheit und Orien-tierung bietet, wirft die nichtlineare Pädagogik Variabilität, Individualität und Prob-lemlösefähigkeit in die Waagschale. Als reflektierte Praxis kennt die Vermittlung des Kämpfens im Sportunterricht kein Entweder-oder, sondern nur ein Sowohl-als-auch. Dieses Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit traditionellen und modernen Vermittlungsmethoden für kämpferische Interaktionen im Schulsport. Es soll deutlich werden, wie komplex und vielfältig der Bereich Kämpfen ist und welche curricularen Vorgaben bei der Umsetzung zu beachten sind.
... In addition to improving proficiency in the particular set of focal tasks pertaining, in our case, to athletics, a dedicated practice regimen yields significant cognitive benefits (Ericsson, 2006;Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996). These cognitive benefits can be categorized as follows: (1) perception and mental imagery, (2) memory, and (3) metacognition (Cumming & Hall, 2002;Hall et al., 2009;Wesch et al., 2007). ...
... Knowledge and scientific evidence about the difference between congenital and acquired impairment on sport performance is very limited. It is recognised that observational learning has an important role in motor and technical skills acquisition (Hodges & Williams, 2007;Weiss et al., 1998;Wesch et al., 2007). Also, observational learning effect and outcomes are known to be influenced by age (Ashford et al., 2006). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of congenital and acquired visual impairments on the international performance of Para swimmers and Para track and field athletes. We collected results from visually impaired Para athletes competing in Para swimming or Para athletic events at all IPC-labelled competitions between 2009 and 2019. The dataset contained 20,689 events results. Impairment origin was collected from the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) website. We separated impairment origin into two groups to distinguish those with a congenital impairment from those with an acquired impairment. In visual impairment sport classes (11–12-13), the performance level and the age performance relationship were investigated according to the impairment origin. In classes 11 and 12, peak performance was achieved earlier by male and female swimmers with a congenital impairment compared with those who had an acquired impairment (p < 0.05). No differences were present in class 13 or in any class in Para athletics (p > 0.05). A similar performance level was observed among the two sport disciplines for each class (p > 0.05). This study demonstrated that impairment origin can influence the performance pathway among visually impaired swimmers.
... Within observational learning the skill level of the model may influence the learning process (Kitsantas et al., 2000;Shea et al., 2000;Wesch, Law, & Hall, 2007). Some have advocated the use of expert models, since they display a standard of reference against which observers are able to detect their own errors and issue appropriate correction, which facilitates constructing a mental representation (Carroll & Bandura, 1987;Ferrari, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigated the effects of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by conceptually replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a novice model were expected to surpass participants observing an expert model who in turn were expected to outperform participants who learned without a model. Reflection was hypothesized to have a positive effect. 156 High school and university students were tested three times: in a pretest, after a modeling intervention, and after a practice round. Contrary to what was expected, we found no main effects of modeling type and reflection. No interaction effects were found either. There was an effect of testing moment, indicating that participants improved dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-reaction scores over time. With these findings, we are not able to replicate Kitsantas et al. From our study, we conclude that observational learning, irrespective of the model’s skill level, combined with physical practice, yields similar results as mere physical practice.
... This context factor of training versus performance is tied together with the function of observation, or the why, as the practitioner needs to determine the intended focus of the intervention within the given context; i.e., is it to improve the technical aspects of the movement pattern (skill function), or to develop/ execute strategic aspects of the overall goals of the movements (strategy function), or to optimize arousal/mental states of the individual (performance function), or a combination of these? These three functions (skill, strategy, and performance) of observation have been identified in the literature (Cumming, Clark, Ste-Marie, McCullagh, & Hall, 2005) and have been shown to be used by athletes (Cumming et al., 2005;Law & Hall, 2009;Wesch, Law, & Hall, 2007), as well as coaches and officials (Hancock, Rymal, & Ste-Marie, 2011). Ste-Marie et al. (2012) proposed that observation intervention designs could vary dependent on why it was being used; for example, a different model type might be chosen if one was trying to improve an athlete's skill execution versus modifying the mental state of the athlete. ...
Article
Purpose: To provide a review of current articles that have used observation interventions to enhance motor skill acquisition or performance of applied tasks, and to situate the research within the Applied Model for the Use of Observation (AMUO) with the goal of forming a basis for evidence-based guidelines for practitioners. Method: Key words (e.g., observation/modeling) were searched in varied data bases (e.g., Google Scholar/PubMed), along with a citation search of the relevant AMUO article, to generate a pool of articles for possible review. Selection criteria included publication between 2011 and 2018, and that the research focus was on the effects of an observation intervention on the acquisition or performance of an applied motor task. Results: Forty-eight articles were reviewed, with 21 of these targeting the basic question of whether observation is effective, and the remaining pertaining to the What, When, Who, and How features of the AMUO. The effectiveness of observation interventions was not only affirmed, but also extended to a wider scope of populations and settings. Greater insight into the necessary information with respect to the demonstration (what) and whether it should be before, after, or during physical practice (when) was obtained. As well, advantages of combining model types (who) and providing control to the learner (how) were reported. Conclusions: While more clarity was brought to certain features of the AMUO that could be used to provide evidence-based guidelines, more research is needed to fully inform practitioners for the effective use of observation interventions.
... The authors determined athletes used observational learning for three functions, shown from most to least frequently used: (1) skill (acquire or improve motor skills); (2) strategy (develop and execute sport strategies); and (3) performance (attain optimal mental states). While the FOLQ has frequently been used to assess observational learning among athletes (Law & Hall, 2009;Wesch, Law, & Hall, 2007), little is known about how coaches and officials use the different functions of observational learning. To address this gap, Hancock, Rymal, and Ste-Marie (2011) adapted the FOLQ for coaches and officials, comparing results among athletes (n = 80), coaches (n = 80), and officials (n = 80). ...
Article
Sport participants continually seek methods to hone their skills and achieve expert performance. One means to achieve this is through the use of observational learning (OL). The Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ) was created to measure the types of OL athletes used. The data presented herein builds from prior research in which the use of the FOLQ was extended to coaches and officials. The researchers included the following open-ended question: “Do you observe others/self for anything not addressed above?” Responses to this question, however, have yet to be reported. As such, the purpose of this study was to analyze participants’ responses to understand how coaches and officials use observational learning. Many identified codes encompassed ideas already included within the FOLQ; however, new coding categories emerged. Specifically, coaches reported using observational learning for Self-Reflection , officials reported using observational learning for Self-Presentation , and both groups reported using observational learning to improve Communication . These results demonstrate the importance of OL to coaches’ and officials’ development. Further, the results highlight that the FOLQ might overlook coaches’ and officials’ uses of OL. Regardless, the various uses of OL ought to be included in coaching and officiating education programs to foster elite performance.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate the effects of individual-level observational learning (OLINDV), team-level observational learning (OLTEAM), and multi-level observational learning (OLMULTI) on efficacy beliefs, task cohesion, and performance across three studies in sports teams. Design Cross-sectional, experimental and single-case designs were employed across the three studies, respectively. Method Study 1 used a cross-sectional design to explore the predictive relationship between OLINDV and OLTEAM use, and collective efficacy and task cohesion in 210 team sports athletes. Study 2 used a repeated-measures experimental design to compare effects of OLINDV versus OLTEAM interventions on collective and self-efficacy in two soccer teams. Study 3 used a single-case A-A-B-B design to assess the effectiveness of OLMULTI interventions on self-efficacy, collective efficacy, task cohesion and performance in an elite age-grade rugby union team across a competitive season. Results In study 1, both OLINDV and OLTEAM use predicted collective efficacy, but only OLTEAM use predicted task dimensions of cohesion. In study 2, collective efficacy increased for both the OLINDV and OLTEAM interventions while self-efficacy increased only for the OLINDV intervention. In study 3, visual and effect size analyses indicated increased self-efficacy, collective efficacy task cohesion, and performance for the team during the off- and in-season intervention phases where the OLMULTI interventions were administered alongside usual sporting involvement (training sessions and/or competitive fixtures). Conclusions The novel findings of this investigation show that OLINDV, OLTEAM and OLMULTI interventions can enhance efficacy beliefs in practical contexts and warrant application in groups across domains.
Article
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that athletes employ the skill function of observational learning more frequently than the functions of strategy and performance respectively, and that various factors affect these differences. However, there remains a lack of information about observational learning use in young participants and in competition situations. Hence, this study examined youth athletes’ observational learning use in competitions and whether differences existed in their reported use based on gender and competition level. METHODS: Participants included 167 elementary and high school student- athletes comprised of 76 males and 91 females. Age ranged from 10-18 years old and had competitive badminton experience ranging from 1 to 12 years. RESULTS: Overall, results demonstrated that, in contrast to their adult counterparts, young athletes used the strategy function most frequently, followed by the skill function, while the performance function of observational learning was the least used. Furthermore, high-school athletes used the strategy function of observational learning more frequently than elementary athletes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that while competition level affected the athletes’ use of observational learning, gender did not. The observational learning function pattern of strategy > skill > performance is a novel finding compared to previous studies and highlights the importance of the observer/task/where/why components in providing effective intervention via observation that may be applied to physical education and sport settings.
Article
In a self-modelling intervention, the content of the video is edited to show only the subject’s adaptive behaviour and can be delivered as a feed-forward (FF) or as a feedback method, known as positive self-review (PSR; Dowrick, 1999). In this study, a PSR video intervention – based on self-modelling theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997) – was delivered to four elite youth soccer players over 13 weeks of the competitive soccer season. A multiple-baseline, repeated measures single-subject design was used to explore the impact of the intervention on subcomponents of soccer performance and psychological variables, including self-efficacy and positive/negative affect. Performance in games was analysed by independent coaches. Visual inspection of the data suggested that the video intervention had a positive impact on performance for three of the four players. However, multiple overlapping data points for one player (#4) reduced the confidence of this finding. Statistical analysis of the data (two-tailed independent-samples t-tests) subsequently indicated that for three combinations of player and skill, there were significant changes apparent between pre- and post-intervention scores for two players (1 & 3) on three subcomponents of performance (turns, headers and tackles). Positive changes in self-efficacy and affect were also observed for three players in response to the video intervention. Players’ responses to the intervention were captured through post-intervention social validation interviews. The findings of this study highlight the potential benefits of designing individualised pre-match video interventions with elite youth athletes.
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