What's the Price of a Tan?

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.


Growing up, I would use baby oil and iodine and lay out in the sun to get a good tan. And my daughter did what her friends were doing and got a tan at a tanning salon before the prom. Now it is hard to drive by a group of stores without seeing a tanning salon. In the past 30 years, we have seen the results of all that tanning: wrinkled, aged skin and a growing number of skin cancers. Today, almost half of us reaching 65 years will have had at least one skin cancer. There were 3.5 million cases of basal and squamous skin cancers in 2006 (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2012). Significant disfigurements can be associated with treating these cancers. More significantly, we have seen the number of people with melanoma increase each year, with 76,250 melanomas expected to be diagnosed in 2012 (ACS, 2012).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Indoor tanning has been only weakly associated with melanoma risk; most reports were unable to adjust for sun exposure, confirm a dose-response, or examine specific tanning devices. A population-based case-control study was conducted to address these limitations. Cases of invasive cutaneous melanoma, diagnosed in Minnesota between 2004 and 2007 at ages 25 to 59, were ascertained from a statewide cancer registry; age-matched and gender-matched controls were randomly selected from state driver's license lists. Self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews included information on ever use of indoor tanning, types of device used, initiation age, period of use, dose, duration, and indoor tanning-related burns. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for known melanoma risk factors. Among 1,167 cases and 1,101 controls, 62.9% of cases and 51.1% of controls had tanned indoors (adjusted OR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.42-2.14). Melanoma risk was pronounced among users of UVB-enhanced (adjusted OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 2.03-4.03) and primarily UVA-emitting devices (adjusted OR, 4.44; 95% CI, 2.45-8.02). Risk increased with use: years (P < 0.006), hours (P < 0.0001), or sessions (P = 0.0002). ORs were elevated within each initiation age category; among indoor tanners, years used was more relevant for melanoma development. In a highly exposed population, frequent indoor tanning increased melanoma risk, regardless of age when indoor tanning began. Elevated risks were observed across devices. This study overcomes some of the limitations of earlier reports and provides strong support for the recent declaration by the IARC that tanning devices are carcinogenic in humans.
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (from solar and nonsolar sources) is a risk factor for skin cancer. We sought to summarize recent estimates on sunburns, sun-protection behaviors, and indoor tanning available from national and selected statewide behavioral surveys. Estimates of the prevalence of sunburn, sun-protection behaviors, and indoor tanning by US adults, adolescents, and children collected in national surveys in 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2007 to 2009 were identified and extracted from searches of computerized databases (ie, MEDLINE and PsychINFO), reference lists, and survey World Wide Web sites. Sunburn estimates from 3 state Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Systems were also analyzed. Latest published estimates (2005) showed that 34.4% of US adults were sunburned in the past year. Incidence of sunburns was highest among men, non-Hispanic whites, young adults, and high-income groups in national surveys. About 3 in 10 adults routinely practiced sun-protection behaviors, and women and older adults took the most precautions. Among adolescents, 69% were sunburned in the previous summer and less than 40% practiced sun protection. Approximately 60% of parents applied sunscreen and a quarter used shade to protect children. Indoor tanning was prevalent among younger adults and females. Limitations include potential recall errors and social desirability in self-report measures, and lack of current data on children. Many Americans experienced sunburns and a minority engaged in protective behaviors. Females and older adults were most vigilant about sun protection. Substantial proportions of young women and adolescents recently used indoor tanning. Future efforts should promote protective hats, clothing, and shade; motivate males and younger populations to take precautions; and convince women and adolescents to reduce indoor tanning.