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Vibration at the wrist and elbow joints during the golf swing reveals shaft-specific swing kinematics

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Current methods of shaft fitting are only partially successful at matching players with optimal equipment. This could be due to player adaptation. Twenty-four players hit drives into a net with clubs of different shaft flexes. This was repeated with vibration applied. Club kinematics were stable across flex conditions with no vibration, and it is probable that players varied the application of torques during the downswing to compensate for changes in club mechanics. With vibration, for eleven players, club head speed and grip speed at impact increased with flex. This suggests these players could not apply desired torques, perhaps due to noise in proprioceptive feedback caused by vibration.
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... It turns out that club vibrations generated during the contact with the ball play a part in the feeling and performance of the participant. Osis and Stefanyshyn [27] showed that vibrations of the club shaft decrease the golfer's accuracy, since they propagate up to body joints (wrist and elbow). In 2005, Roberts et al. [28] concluded that out of experience, golfers perceive a high dose of vibrations whenever swing is improperly executed: therefore, vibratory feedback is intimately related to performance. ...
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... In the second case the vibration can be whole body vibration or just applied to the hand-arm system. For the whole body vibration there are studies that show the decrease of transmissibility to the head when the frequency increases [38] the effects in the increase of the force [39] the vertical jump performance [24,39,40], the movement range [40] and flexibility [41]; for the hand-arm system the studies show a decrease of elbow torque [42], a reduction of the ability to apply a precise quantity of force [43] and a diminution of the force-recall performance [44] under vibration. The results of this second case can be extended to the study in cycling because it affects the extremities in a similar way. ...
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... In the second case the vibration can be whole body vibration or just applied to the hand-arm system. For the whole body vibration there are studies that show the decrease of transmissibility to the head when the frequency increases [38] the effects in the increase of the force [39] the vertical jump performance [24,39,40], the movement range [40] and flexibility [41]; for the hand-arm system the studies show a decrease of elbow torque [42], a reduction of the ability to apply a precise quantity of force [43] and a diminution of the force-recall performance [44] under vibration. The results of this second case can be extended to the study in cycling because it affects the extremities in a similar way. ...
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