PGASO: A synthetic biology tool for engineering a cellulolytic yeast

Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 115, Taiwan. .
Biotechnology for Biofuels (Impact Factor: 6.04). 07/2012; 5(1):53. DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-53
Source: PubMed


To achieve an economical cellulosic ethanol production, a host that can do both cellulosic saccharification and ethanol fermentation is desirable. However, to engineer a non-cellulolytic yeast to be such a host requires synthetic biology techniques to transform multiple enzyme genes into its genome.
A technique, named Promoter-based Gene Assembly and Simultaneous Overexpression (PGASO), that employs overlapping oligonucleotides for recombinatorial assembly of gene cassettes with individual promoters, was developed. PGASO was applied to engineer Kluyveromycesmarxianus KY3, which is a thermo- and toxin-tolerant yeast. We obtained a recombinant strain, called KR5, that is capable of simultaneously expressing exoglucanase and endoglucanase (both of Trichodermareesei), a beta-glucosidase (from a cow rumen fungus), a neomycin phosphotransferase, and a green fluorescent protein. High transformation efficiency and accuracy were achieved as ~63% of the transformants was confirmed to be correct. KR5 can utilize beta-glycan, cellobiose or CMC as the sole carbon source for growth and can directly convert cellobiose and beta-glycan to ethanol.
This study provides the first example of multi-gene assembly in a single step in a yeast species other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We successfully engineered a yeast host with a five-gene cassette assembly and the new host is capable of co-expressing three types of cellulase genes. Our study shows that PGASO is an efficient tool for simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in the kefir yeast KY3 and that KY3 can serve as a host for developing synthetic biology tools.

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    • "In our previous study, we have engineered a recombinant K. marxianus KY3 strain, called KR5, that possesses the cbhI, egIII, and npabgs genes and can secrete the CBH, EG and BGL enzymes simultaneously [24]. Although KR5 can grow on media with cellodextrins, such as cellobiose and beta-glycan, it does not have the ability to utilize more complex cellulose substrates, such as filter paper and avicel. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Many microorganisms possess enzymes that can efficiently degrade lignocellulosic materials, but do not have the capability to produce a large amount of ethanol. Thus, attempts have been made to transform such enzymes into fermentative microbes to serve as hosts for ethanol production. However, an efficient host for a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) remains to be found. For this purpose, a synthetic biology technique that can transform multiple genes into a genome is instrumental. Moreover, a strategy to select cellulases that interact synergistically is needed. Results To engineer a yeast for CBP bio-ethanol production, a synthetic biology technique, called “promoter-based gene assembly and simultaneous overexpression” (PGASO), that can simultaneously transform and express multiple genes in a kefir yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus KY3, was recently developed. To formulate an efficient cellulase cocktail, a filter-paper-activity assay for selecting heterologous cellulolytic enzymes was established in this study and used to select five cellulase genes, including two cellobiohydrolases, two endo-β-1,4-glucanases and one beta-glucosidase genes from different fungi. In addition, a fungal cellodextrin transporter gene was chosen to transport cellodextrin into the cytoplasm. These six genes plus a selection marker gene were one-step assembled into the KY3 genome using PGASO. Our experimental data showed that the recombinant strain KR7 could express the five heterologous cellulase genes and that KR7 could convert crystalline cellulose into ethanol. Conclusion Seven heterologous genes, including five cellulases, a cellodextrin transporter and a selection marker, were simultaneously transformed into the KY3 genome to derive a new strain, KR7, which could directly convert cellulose to ethanol. The present study demonstrates the potential of our strategy of combining a cocktail formulation protocol and a synthetic biology technique to develop a designer yeast host.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel dual-microbe Bacillus/yeast co-culture system is developed for cellulosic bioethanol production. A recombinant cellulosomal Bacillus subtilis that carries eight cellulosomal genes of Clostridium thermocellum, including one scaffolding protein gene (cipA), one cell-surface anchor gene (sdbA), two exo-glucosidase genes (celK and celS), two endoglucanase genes (celA and celR), and two xylanase genes (xynC and xynZ) was constructed. The partner microbes for the dual-microbe combination are the wild type kefir yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus KY3, K. marxianus KY3-NpaBGS, which carries a β-glucosidase (NpaBGS) gene from rumen fungus, and the K. marxianus KR5 strain, that harbors endoglucanase (egIII), exo-glucanase (cbhI) and NpaBGS genes. All three Bacillus/yeast co-culture systems could achieve the cellulose saccharification and ethanol conversion simultaneously better than KR5 alone. The combination of Bacillus/KY3-NpaBGS outperformed that of Bacillus/KY3, as they could produce β-glucosidase enzyme for the system. Although, KR5 produces two more kinds of cellulases than KY3-NpaBGS. Bacillus/KR5 could not perform better than Bacillus/KY3-NpaBGS. Our results suggest that the dual-microbe Bacillus/yeast co-culturing system could leverage the advantages from both microbes and have a great potential for integrating into consolidated bioprocessing system.
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