Article

Nucleic acid scavengers inhibit thrombosis without increasing bleeding

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 07/2012; 109(32):12938-43. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1204928109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Development of effective, yet safe, antithrombotic agents has been challenging because such agents increase the propensity of patients to bleed. Recently, naturally occurring polyphosphates such as extracellular DNA, RNA, and inorganic polyphosphates have been shown to activate blood coagulation. In this report, we evaluate the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity of nucleic acid-binding polymers in vitro and in vivo. Such polymers bind to DNA, RNA, and inorganic polyphosphate molecules with high affinity and inhibit RNA- and polyphosphate-induced clotting and the activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation in vitro. Moreover, [NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2)](G = 3);dendri PAMAM(NH(2))(32) (PAMAM G-3) prevents thrombosis following carotid artery injury and pulmonary thromboembolism in mice without significantly increasing blood loss from surgically challenged animals. These studies indicate that nucleic acid-binding polymers are able to scavenge effectively prothrombotic nucleic acids and other polyphosphates in vivo and represent a new and potentially safer class of antithrombotic agents.

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    • "High levels of cfDNA appear to have high discriminative power to predict mortality in severe sepsis patients[13,20,23,24]. In recent years, DNA-binding polymers have been developed to inhibit coagulation and thrombosis without increasing the propensity to bleed[52]. In addition to activation of coagulation, impairment of the fibrinolytic system also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of microvascular thrombosis and organ dysfunction in DIC[53,54]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, which manifest as a spectrum of haemorrhage and thrombosis complicating many primary conditions including sepsis, trauma and malignancies. The pathophysiology of this condition is complex. In the recent years there is growing evidence that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DIC. Upon cell-death and/or cell activation of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells extracellular cell-free DNA as well as DNA binding proteins (e.g. histones and high mobility group box 1 protein [HMGB1]) are released into circulation. This release is a highly regulated process mediated among others by serine proteases, such as factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) and DNase1. Circulating cell-free DNA has been demonstrated to influence primary and secondary hemostasis by inducing platelet aggregation, promoting coagulation activation, inhibition of fibrinolysis and directly interfering with clot stability. In this respect cell-free DNA in tissue as well as released into the circulation after neutrophil activation in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been shown to be cytotoxic and highly procoagulant. DNA-binding proteins such as histones and HMGB1 are also strongly procoagulant and are involved in the pathogenesis of DIC. The present review gives an overview on how extracellular DNA is released into circulation and the structure of circulating DNA. In addition it summarizes the effect of extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins on platelet activation, plasmatic coagulation as well as fibrinolysis.
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic polyphosphates are linear polymers of orthophosphate that modulate blood clotting and inflammation. Polyphosphate accumulates in infectious microorganisms and is secreted by activated platelets; long-chain polyphosphate in particular is an extremely potent initiator of the contact pathway, a limb of the clotting cascade important for thrombosis but dispensable for hemostasis. Polyphosphate inhibitors therefore might act as novel antithrombotic/anti-inflammatory agents with reduced bleeding side effects. Anti-polyphosphate antibodies are unlikely owing to polyphosphate's ubiquity and simple structure, and while phosphatases such as alkaline phosphatase can digest polyphosphate, they take time and may degrade other biologically active molecules. We now identify a panel of polyphosphate inhibitors, including cationic proteins, polymers and small molecules, and report their effectiveness in vitro and in vivo. We also compare their effectiveness against the procoagulant activity of RNA. Polyphosphate inhibitors were antithrombotic in mouse models of venous and arterial thrombosis, and blocked the inflammatory effect of polyphosphate injected intradermally in mice. This study provides proof of principle for polyphosphate inhibitors as antithrombotic/anti-inflammatory agents in vitro and in vivo, with a novel mode of action compared to conventional anticoagulants.
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