Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijyou-cho, Kashihara-shi, 634-8522, Nara, Japan, . Child Psychiatry and Human Development
(Impact Factor: 1.93).
07/2012; 44(2). DOI: 10.1007/s10578-012-0323-0
Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Twelve treatment-naïve children with OCD and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects participated in the present study after giving consent. The relative concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were measured with prefrontal probes every 0.1 s during the Stroop color-word task, using 24-channel NIRS machines. During the Stroop color-word task, the oxy-Hb changes in the OCD group were significantly smaller than those in the control group in the prefrontal cortex, especially in the frontopolar cortex. The present study suggests that children with OCD have reduced prefrontal hemodynamic response as measured by NIRS.
Available from: Jin Narumoto
- "Therefore, NIRS has been used to examine brain function in many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder, pervasive developmental disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ota et al8 and Okada et al9 recently used NIRS to examine OCD as measured during the Stroop color-word task and reported a reduced prefrontal hemodynamic response. "
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ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls.
Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds), followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar areas.
During the verbal fluency task, significant task-related activation was detected in both the OCD group and the controls. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the OCD group than in the controls, but were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons.
Patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal, especially right dorsolateral prefrontal, cortical hemodynamic responses as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task. These results support the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the pathophysiology of OCD.
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ABSTRACT: Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled the non-invasive elucidation of the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies in human patients have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we used NIRS to investigate neurobiological function in 12 patients with OCD and 12 age- and sex-matched, healthy control subjects. The relative concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were measured with prefrontal probes every 0.1sec, during performance of a Stroop color-word task, using 24-channel NIRS. Oxy-Hb changes in the prefrontal cortex of the OCD group were significantly smaller than those in the control group, especially in the left lateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal hemodynamic responses as measured by NIRS.
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ABSTRACT: Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique in psychiatric research, and it has been wildly used for detecting the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. In order to evaluate the clinical value of NIRS data in the assistant diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), prefrontal cortex(PFC) hemoglobin concentration exchange of 30 MDD patients combined with anxious and obsession-compulsive symptom was detected by NIRS under voice fluency task(VFT), then the relationship between the severity of depressive, anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale(HAMA) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS) with NIRS data in PFC was analyzed. Hypoactivation in lateral and lower PFC of MDD patients was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, spearman correlation analyze found that oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) exchange in right-lateral PFC was associated with the severity of anxiety, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with severity of depression. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation was observed on the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptom. The results prompted that MDD patients with anxiety and obsession-compulsion symptom showed a PFC hypoactivation state in NIRS. Furthermore, the function of right-lateral PFC was associated with anxiety symptom, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with depression symptom. Different from depression and anxiety, obsession-compulsion may have different biological character in PFC function.
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