Chlorpyrifos acute exposure induces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats

Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, CEP 97105-900, RS, Brazil.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 07/2012; 89(5):602-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.059
Source: PubMed


In this study we evaluated the hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) after an acute exposure in rats. The mechanisms involved in hyperglycemia induced by CPF were studied. A single dose of CPF (50 mg kg(-1), subcutaneous, s.c.) was administered to overnight-fasted rats. Glucose and corticosterone levels, lipid status and paraoxonase (PON1) activity were determined in plasma of rats. Cardiovascular risk factors and the atherogenic index were calculated. Glycogen levels, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activities were determined in livers of rats. Cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also determined. CPF caused an increase in glucose and glycogen levels as well as in TAT and G6Pase activities. The CPF exposure caused an increase in corticosterone levels, an inhibition of AChE activity and a reduction of PON1 activity. Regarding the lipid status, CPF induced an increase in triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) levels and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk factors and the atherogenic index. The present study demonstrated that a single CPF administration caused hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats. The activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway, probably elicited by hypercorticosteronemia, is involved in the hyperglycemic effect of CPF in rats.

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    • "In the current investigation, repeated exposure to CPF induced moderate fasting hyperglycemia 8 weeks after the treatment started. In this context, only two studies have explored the role of CPF in disturbing glucose homeostasis throughout adulthood (Acker and Nogueira, 2012; Elsharkawy et al., 2013). Despite differences in experimental protocols, our data are in agreement with those reported by these studies, which found an increase in glucose levels in both Wistar and Sprague-Dawley adult male rats after a single acute dose of 50 mg/kg CPF (Acker and Nogueira, 2012) and following a 3 month-period of oral exposure to CPF at 30 mg/kg body weight (Elsharkawy et al., 2013). "
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    • "This antiathrogenicity comes from the ability to protect lipoprotein particles from free radical oxidation because it can hydrolyze oxidized cholesterol esters , phospatidylcholine core aldehyde , and degrade hydrogen peroxides ( Aviram and Rosenblat 2004 ) . The beneficial effect of this enzyme on atherosclerosis has been supported by several studies directly or indirectly showing that PON1 reduces oxi - dative stress ( Gabrowny , Farag , and Sallam 2007 ; Acker and Nogueira 2012 ) . This has also been supported by this study indirectly through its effect on HDL - c and LDL - c though it was not assayed in this study . "
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