Update on treatment of hereditary angioedema

Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare disease characterized by recurrent, self-limiting episodes of swelling. New therapies have recently emerged and are now available; however, many physicians are not aware of the new medications, and their indications and contraindications. To update allergists and primary care physicians on new advances in HAE therapies. A PubMed literature search was used to develop this manuscript. English language peer-reviewed angioedema articles were selected. High quality Phase II and III placebo-controlled clinical trials were reviewed and summarized. Until 2008, therapy for HAE consisted of symptom relief with narcotics, hydration and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Androgens and FFP are frequently used despite multiple, significant side effects. Newer therapies include C1-inhibitor--both human plasma derived and recombinant--as well as contact system modulators such as ecallantide and icatibant. All of these products can be used for treatment of acute attacks of HAE, and C1-inhibitors can also be used for prophylaxis. New, disease-specific therapies have recently emerged which are more efficacious, are proven to work by placebo-controlled studies, have minimal adverse effects, and can be utilized for the treatment of HAE.
    • "The appropriate use of disease-specific treatments for HAE improve patients' quality of life and reduce HAE-associated morbidity and mortality. However, many of the newer treatments represent financial challenges due to high costs, which are not always balanced by the reduction of other medical expenses [27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous involvement characterized by urticarial lesions with or without angioedema and itch is commonly observed in routine medical practice. The clinical approach may still remain complex in real life, because several diseases may display similar cutaneous manifestations. Urticaria is a common disease, characterized by the sudden appearance of wheals, with/without angioedema. The term Chronic Urticaria (CU) encompasses a group of conditions with different underlying causes and different mechanisms, but sharing the clinical picture of recurring wheals and/or angioedema for at least 6 weeks. Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of non-pruritic, non-pitting, subcutaneous or submucosal edema affecting the extremities, face, throat, trunk, genitalia, or bowel, that are referred as “attacks”. HAE is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a deficiency of functional C1 inhibitor, due to a mutation in C1-INH gene (serping 1 gene) characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells, leading to their accumulation, and possibly mediator release, in one or more organs. In childhood there are two main forms of mastocytosis, the Systemic and the Cutaneous. The clinical features of skin lesions in urticaria, angioedema and mastocytosis may differ depending on the aetiologic factors, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The diagnostic process, as stepwise approach in routine clinical practice, is here reviewed for CU, HAE and mastocytosis, resulting in an integrated method for improved management of these cutaneous diseases. Taking into account that usually these conditions have also a relevant impact on the quality of life of children, affecting social activities and behavior, the availability of care pathways could be helpful in disentangle the diagnostic issue achieving the most cost-effective ratio.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
    • "During the last five years treatment options for HAE patients in the US have been dramatically revolutionized. Until recently these patients were treated with transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma (which contains endogenous C1-INH), despite potential risk of blood-borne pathogens, and with antifiblinolytics and attenuated androgens, despite frequent adverse effects due to residual hormonal activity of androgens888990. Currently, there are several therapies that are licensed specifically for treatment of HAE acute attacks or prophylaxis (Table 2)919293. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a unique anti-inflammatory multifunctional plasma protein best known for its key role in regulation of the classical complement pathway, contact activation system and intrinsic pathway of coagulation. By sequence homology and mechanism of protease inhibition it belongs to the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. However, in addition to its inhibitory capacities for several proteases, it also exhibits a broad spectrum of non-inhibitory biological activities. C1-INH plays a key role in the regulation of vascular permeability, best demonstrated in Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) which is triggered by the deficiency of functional C1-INH in plasma? Since 1963, when the link between HAE and C1-INH was first identified, considerable progress has been made in the investigation of C1-INH structure and biological activities, understanding its therapeutic potential, and in the research and development of C1-INH-based therapies for the treatment of HAE and several other clinical conditions. However, augmentation therapy with C1-INH concentrates for patients with HAE is currently the only approved therapeutic application of C1-INH. This manuscript provides an overview of the structure and functions of human C1-INH, its role in HAE, summarizes published data available for recently approved C1-INH therapeutic products, and considers possible use of C1-INH for other applications.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by long-term recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal edema in different parts of the body. A comprehensive review of the literature on burden of illness for patients with HAE is presented. A Boolean search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Internet. Articles discussing aspects of the burden of illness in HAE were selected. Topics focused on the course of the disease, nature of attacks, treatment, quality of life, and costs. Hereditary angioedema is associated with a significant and multifaceted disease burden. Diagnosis is often delayed for years, with patients receiving ineffective treatment and unnecessary medical procedures before diagnosis. HAE attacks are painful, unpredictable, and debilitating and often require emergency medical attention. Attacks can affect a patient's daily activities, including work or schooling. Depression and anxiety are prevalent in patients with HAE. Recent advances in treatment provide patients with effective and well-tolerated prophylactic and on-demand therapeutic options. However, end points specific to HAE that better measure the impact of treatment on disease burden are lacking. Furthermore, there is a notable paucity of literature directed toward physicians who are instrumental in diagnosing and treating patients with HAE (eg, emergency department). More publications are broadening the understanding of HAE. However, important gaps remain. Effective management of HAE requires a more comprehensive understanding of the disease burden so that disease management can be individualized to meet specific patient needs.
    Article · Nov 2013
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