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Social and Motivational Antecedents of Perceptions of Transformational Leadership: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective


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The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of the social and motivational antecedents of transformational leadership perceptions. Drawing on self-determination theory, a model was proposed in which perceptions of quality of relationships predict perceptions of transformational leadership behaviour through autonomous motivation and self-efficacy. Data were collected from 568 school principals. Results from SEM analyses provide support for the proposed model. Specifically, results indicate that the more principals perceive their workplace relationships as positive, the greater are their autonomous motivation and self-efficacy in managerial abilities, which in turn contribute to self-reported transformational leadership behaviour. Implications for theories of leadership and management practice are discussed.
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Canadian Journal of Behavioural
Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du
Social and Motivational Antecedents of Perceptions of
Transformational Leadership: A Self-Determination
Theory Perspective
Sarah-Geneviève Trépanier, Claude Fernet, and Stéphanie Austin
Online First Publication, July 16, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0028699
Trépanier, S.-G., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2012, July 16). Social and Motivational Antecedents
of Perceptions of Transformational Leadership: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement.
Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028699
Social and Motivational Antecedents of Perceptions of Transformational
Leadership: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective
Sarah-Genevie`ve Tre´panier, Claude Fernet, and Ste´phanie Austin
Universite´ du Que´bec a` Trois-Rivie`res
The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of the social and motivational antecedents
of transformational leadership perceptions. Drawing on self-determination theory, a model was proposed
in which perceptions of quality of relationships predict perceptions of transformational leadership
behaviour through autonomous motivation and self-efficacy. Data were collected from 568 school
principals. Results from SEM analyses provide support for the proposed model. Specifically, results
indicate that the more principals perceive their workplace relationships as positive, the greater are their
autonomous motivation and self-efficacy in managerial abilities, which in turn contribute to self-reported
transformational leadership behaviour. Implications for theories of leadership and management practice
are discussed.
Keywords: transformational leadership, autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, quality of relationships,
self-determination theory
Transformational leadership—a key factor in understanding ef-
fective workplace management (Piccolo & Colquitt, 2006)—is
characterised by four dimensions: charisma, inspirational motiva-
tion, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration
(Bass, 1985, 1998). Over the years, transformational leadership
has received much attention because it has been linked to impor-
tant outcomes such as employee job satisfaction and organisational
performance (Judge & Piccolo, 2004). So far, the literature on
transformational leadership has focused more on its outcomes than
on its antecedents (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Conse-
quently, little is known about the social and motivational factors
that influence transformational leadership behaviour (Bommer,
Rubin, & Baldwin, 2004). For instance, how do one’s perceptions
of workplace relationships affect one’s perceptions of transforma-
tional leadership behaviour? What are the motivational mecha-
nisms that drive individuals to perceive themselves as displaying
transformational leadership behaviour? A useful theoretical frame-
work for understanding these questions is self-determination the-
ory (Deci & Ryan, 1985).
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
Central to SDT are the concepts of autonomous motivation and
perceived competence (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Williams, McGregor,
Zeldman, Freedman, & Deci, 2004). Autonomous motivation re-
fers to the sense of volition and self-endorsement of one’s own
behaviour. It involves engaging freely in an action for its inherent
satisfaction (intrinsic motivation) or because one identifies with its
value or meaning (identified regulation). Perceived competence
refers to the perception of being efficient in one’s social interac-
tions and being able to control important outcomes (White, 1959).
It is closely related to the self-efficacy concept (Deci, 1992), which
is more specific in nature because it constitutes a socially acquired
expectancy to successfully perform a given action (Bandura,
1997). In this study, self-efficacy was used to refer to managers’
perceived competence.
According to SDT, individuals are more likely to experience a
wide range of positive psychological outcomes when they are
autonomously motivated and feel competent. In the workplace,
autonomous motivation has been linked to employee performance
(Kuvaas, 2009) and commitment (Gagne´, Chemolli, Forest, &
Koestner, 2008), while self-efficacy has been associated with
organisational commitment (Neves, 2009), job satisfaction, and
performance (Judge & Bono, 2001). Furthermore, SDT posits that
interpersonal relationships are essential to the development of
optimal functioning (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Relationships charac-
terised by meaningful interactions are the bases for well-being and
adaptive functioning (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) and as such, are
central to the concept of leadership. Based on trust, respect, and
mutual support, high-quality relationships are the necessary foun-
dation on which efficient leadership develops (Graen & Uhl-Bien,
1995). Managers must feel trusted and supported in order to instill
pride and respect in followers as well as communicate a captivat-
ing vision of the future (Bass, 1985). Indeed, in high-quality
relationships, managers appear more likely to believe that they will
succeed in promoting positive changes and attaining organisational
objectives because they feel that their subordinates will trust them
and adhere to their vision (Gerstner & Day, 1997).
Sarah-Genevie`ve Tre´panier, Department of Psychology, Universite´du
Que´bec a` Trois-Rivie`res; Claude Fernet and Ste´phanie Austin, Department
of Management, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Trois-Rivie`res.
This work was supported by a grant from the Fonds Que´be´cois de la
Recherche sur la Socie´te´ et la Culture and a fellowship from the Fonds de
la Recherche en Sante´ du Que´bec awarded to Claude Fernet.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sarah-
Genevie`ve Tre´panier, Department of Psychology, Universite´ du Que´bec a`
Trois-Rivie`res, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivie`res (QC) G9A
5H7. E-mail:
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement © 2012 Canadian Psychological Association
2012, Vol. ●●, No. , 000 000 0008-400X/12/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0028699
Drawing on SDT, we propose that managers’ perceptions of the
quality of interpersonal relationships with superiors and subordi-
nates predict their perceptions of transformational behaviour
through autonomous motivation and self-efficacy.
Motivational Factors and Leadership
Results from recent research suggest that managers motivated
internally at work (i.e., acting out of a sense of enjoyment, trust,
and self-worth) are more likely to use transformational leadership
behaviours (Barbuto, 2005). Furthermore, studies stemming from
the SDT perspective have provided results linking autonomous
motivation and certain leadership actions (e.g., Pelletier, Se´guin-
Le´vesque, & Legault, 2002; Taylor, Ntoumanis, & Standage,
2008). For instance, Taylor et al. (2008) found that autonomously
motivated teachers used more leadership-like strategies in the
classroom such as providing autonomy support (e.g., offering
choices and significant responsibilities to students), more quality
information, instrumental help, and structure, as well as more
involvement with students. As for the relationship between self-
efficacy and leadership, research suggests that leaders’ self-
efficacy is closely related to leaders’ self-perceptions and subor-
dinates’ leadership performance evaluations. In an experimental
study, Fitzgerald and Schutte (2010) found that managers who
took part in an intervention aiming to increase self-efficacy (ex-
perimental group), reported higher transformational leadership
scores than managers in the control group at post test. Further-
more, leaders’ self-efficacy has been found to strongly correlate
with leadership ratings by peers and superiors (Chemers, Watson,
& May, 2000). In light of these findings, we predict the following:
Hypothesis 1a: Managers’ autonomous motivation is posi-
tively related to their transformational leadership perceptions.
Hypothesis 1b: Managers’ self-efficacy is positively related
to their transformational leadership perceptions.
Interpersonal Relationships and Motivational Factors
Active support from significant others in the workplace seems
central to employees’ motivational factors (see Gagne´ & Deci,
2005). Growing evidence shows that the quality of workplace
relationships is associated with one’s autonomous motivation
(Fernet, Gagne´, & Austin, 2010; Richer, Blanchard, & Vallerand,
2002) and self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1997). For instance, the
support-efficacy model (Antonucci & Jackson, 1987) proposes that
it is through interpersonal support (i.e., warmth, affection, and
nurturance) that individuals develop the beliefs in their own abil-
ities to meet demands and to successfully master challenges
(Antonucci & Akiyama, 1997; Fiori, Mcilvane, Brown, &
Antonucci, 2006; Saltzman & Holahan, 2002).
Given these findings we predict the following:
Hypothesis 2a: Managers’ perceptions of the quality of rela-
tionships with subordinates and superiors are positively re-
lated to their autonomous motivation.
Hypothesis 2b: Managers’ perceptions of the quality of rela-
tionships with subordinates and superiors are positively re-
lated to their self-efficacy.
On the basis of SDT assumptions (e.g., Fernet, Guay, Sene´cal,
& Austin, 2012; Williams et al., 2004), we also expect that
autonomous motivation and self-efficacy mediate the relationship
between perceived interpersonal relationships and perceptions of
transformational leadership.
Hypothesis 3a: Managers’ autonomous motivation mediates
the link between perceived quality of relationships with their
subordinates and superiors and their transformational leader-
ship perceptions.
Hypothesis 3b: Managers’ self-efficacy mediates the link
between perceived quality of relationships with their subor-
dinates and superiors and their transformational leadership
Participants and Procedure
The sample was composed of French-Canadian principals and
vice-principals, members of the Fe´de´ration Que´be´coise des Direc-
tions d’E
tablissement Scolaire (FQDE; Federation of Quebec
school principals) in the province of Que´bec. In May 2008, all
2154 FQDE members were contacted by mail to complete an
online questionnaire addressing school management issues. A total
of 568 principals participated in the study (26% response rate). Of
the participants, 59% were women (mean age 44.94, SD
5.57), 63% held the position of principals and 37% of vice-
principals, 59% worked in elementary schools and 41% in high
schools. Participants had, on average, 6.27 years (SD 5.51) of
All measures were administered in French. Properties of all
measures are presented in Table 1.
Quality of relationships with superiors and subordinates.
The five-item Acceptance subscale of the Relatedness Feeling
scale (Richer & Vallerand, 1998) was used to assess managers’
perceptions of the quality of relationships with superiors (e.g.,
“Currently, I feel understood in my relationships with the school
administrators.”) and subordinates (e.g., “Currently, I feel under-
stood in my relationships with the school personnel.”), respec-
tively. Items were scored on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (not at
all)to5(extremely). Single items were used as indicators of the
latent constructs of quality relationships with superiors and sub-
Autonomous motivation. The Intrinsic Motivation and Iden-
tified Regulation subscales of the Work Role Motivation Scale for
School Principals (WRMS-SP; Fernet, 2011) were used to evaluate
autonomous motivation related to three work roles (administrative,
instructional leadership, and informational). Participants rated on a
7-point scale, ranging from 1 (does not correspond at all)to7
(corresponds completely), the degree to which the reasons listed
for occupying the position of school administrator corresponded to
their personal situation (“Why do you perform your work roles?”).
For each role, two items evaluated intrinsic motivation (e.g., “For
the pleasure that I get from performing this role.”) and identified
regulation (e.g., “Because this role enables me to achieve my own
work objectives.”). For each role, an autonomous motivation com-
posite score was created by averaging intrinsic motivation and
identified regulation (see Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon, &
Deci, 2004).
Self-efficacy. The 12-item School Principals Self-Efficacy
scale (Fernet, Austin, & Dussault, 2009) was used to measure three
dimensions of school principals’ role domains: administrative self-
efficacy (3 items; e.g., “I believe I can be very creative in my
administrative tasks.”), instructional leadership self-efficacy (6
items; e.g., “I believe I can ensure that the staff achieves its work
objectives.”), and informational self-efficacy (3 items; e.g., “I
believe I can play an important role in promoting my school in the
community.”). Items were rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 1
(do not agree at all)to5(completely agree). Using the mean score
obtained on each role domain, three indicators were created to
assess the latent factor of self-efficacy.
Transformational leadership. Perceived transformational
leadership was measured using the 12-item Self-Reported Trans-
formational Leadership scale (Dussault et al., 2010), which is
based on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ; Bass &
Avolio, 1989) and the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire
(Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe, 2001), two widely used
scales in the leadership field (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Three dimen-
sions were evaluated, namely, intellectual stimulation (e.g., “I get
staff involved in the problem-solving process.”), individualized
consideration (e.g., “I listen attentively to others.”), and charisma/
inspirational motivation (e.g., “I communicate my vision of the
future.”). Note that in contrast to Bass’ (1985) conceptualisation,
charisma and inspirational motivation are collapsed in this scale
rather than taken as distinct dimensions. This was done because
current research suggests that these concepts are empirically in-
distinguishable (see Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999; Bass, 1985,
1988). Items were rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (com-
pletely disagree)to4(completely agree). The mean score of each
subscale was used to create an indicator of the latent construct of
transformational leadership. Evidence supports the scale’s factor
structure and its reliability (Dussault et al., 2010).
Statistical Analyses
The adequacy of the proposed model was assessed by structural
equation modelling using EQS (Bentler & Wu, 2004). All models
were tested with standardized coefficients obtained by maximum
likelihood estimation. The goodness-of-fit of the model was eval-
uated using three fit indices: the comparative fit index (CFI), the
non-normed fit index (NNFI), and the root-mean-square error of
approximation (RMSEA). For CFI and NNFI, values greater than
.90 represent an acceptable fit (Schumacker & Lomax, 1996). For
the RMSEA, values below .05 indicate a close fit, whereas values
up to .08 represent acceptable errors of approximation (Browne &
Cudeck, 1992). In this study, we calculated Hancock’s coefficients
(also called coefficient H) to determine the reliability of the
measures (Hancock & Mueller, 2001). Computed from standard-
ized factor loadings, this coefficient estimates the stability of the
latent construct across multiple observed variables. As presented in
Table 1, coefficient H values ranged from .85 to .94, satisfying the
.70 cut-off value (Hancock & Mueller, 2001).
Preliminary Analysis
A measurement model was tested and provided a satisfactory fit
to the data,
(137) 333.297, CFI .975, NNFI .968,
RMSEA .051. All factor loadings were significant, ranging from
.42 to .93. Because all data were self-reported, we ran a single-
factor model to test for common method variance (CMV). This
model provided a poor fit to the data,
(147) 5546.580, CFI
.638, NNFI .579, RMSEA .260. Although this does not
unequivocally rule out the possibility of CMV, the results suggest
that it would be unlikely to confound the interpretation of rela-
tionships among variables. Finally, a multivariate analysis of vari-
ance (MANOVA) was performed to verify whether the model
variables differed according to background variables (gender, age,
school level, job position, and years of experience). Because no
significant differences were found, these variables were excluded
from further analysis.
Testing of the Proposed Model
To determine model adequacy, we tested two contrasting mod-
els: (a) a full mediation model, including indirect paths between
perceptions of relationships with superiors and subordinates to
perceived transformational leadership through autonomous moti-
vation and self-efficacy, and (b) a partial mediation model con-
sisting of the proposed model with the addition of two direct paths
between each perceived workplace relationship and transforma-
tional leadership perceptions. The full mediation model provides a
satisfactory fit to the data,
(139) 336.431, CFI .975,
NNFI .969, RMSEA .051. Although the fit of the partially
mediated model is almost identical,
(137) 333.276, CFI
.975, NNFI .968, RMSEA .051, adding direct paths does not
Table 1
Means, Standard Deviations, Scale Score Reliabilities, and Correlations Between All Variables
Variable Range MSD 12345
1. Transformational Leadership 1–4 3.54 0.40 (.87)
2. Relationships with superiors 1–5 3.59 0.84 .19
3. Relationships with subordinates 1–5 2.78 0.62 .46
4. Autonomous motivation 1–7 5.33 0.75 .54
5. Self-efficacy 1–5 4.16 0.43 .29
Note. Reliabilities (coefficient H values) are shown on the diagonal.
p .01.
significantly improve the model fit, ⌬␹
(2) 3.16, ns. Moreover,
the direct paths were nonsignificant: perceived quality of relation-
ships with superior to transformational leadership perceptions
(␤⫽.03, ns) and perceived quality of relationships with subordi-
nates and transformational leadership perceptions (␤⫽.11, ns).
Thus, in terms of parsimony, the fully mediated model offers the
best-fitting solution. Figure 1 presents the standardized solutions.
All hypothesised path coefficients were found to be significant.
Autonomous motivation and self-efficacy are positively associated
with transformational leadership perceptions, confirming Hypoth-
eses 1a and 1b. Perceived quality of relationships with superiors is
positively associated with autonomous motivation and self-
efficacy. Perceived quality of relationships with subordinates is
significantly and positively related to autonomous motivation and
self-efficacy. Hypotheses 2a and 2b are, thus, also confirmed.
More importantly, autonomous motivation and self-efficacy
fully mediate the relationship between perceived quality of
relationships with superiors and subordinates and perceived
transformational leadership, thereby providing support for Hy-
potheses 3a and 3b. The proposed model explains 71% of the
variance in transformational leadership. To further test the
mediating role (i.e., indirect effect) of the motivational factors,
bias-corrected bootstrap 95% confidence intervals were com-
puted from 100 samples (Mackinnon, Lockwood, & Williams,
2004; Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results reveal that all mediat-
ing (i.e., indirect) effects are significant (i.e., all confidence
intervals exclude zero; the table can be obtained from Sarah-
Genevie` ve Tre´ panier upon request).
Supplementary Analysis
In order to rule out alternative explanations, we compared the
final model with an alternative model. On the basis of SDT,
perceived competence can act as an antecedent of autonomous
motivation. We thus tested an alternative model including indirect
paths from perceived quality of relationship and self-efficacy to
perceived transformational leadership through autonomous moti-
vation. Results indicate that the full mediation model provides a
better data fit, ⌬␹
(1) 34.86, p .01, than this alternative
(140) 371.291, CFI .960, NNFI .962, RMSEA
Our study contributes to the transformational leadership lit-
erature in several ways. First, by exploring the link between
interpersonal relationships and perceptions of transformational
leadership, this study contributes to the sparse knowledge of
transformational leadership social antecedents. The results re-
veal that managers who believe that they participate in mean-
ingful relationships at work tend to view themselves as leaders
who can inspire and impart a sense of mission to others. These
results are in line with the leader–member exchange theory
(Dansereau, Graen, & Haga, 1975), which underscores the
importance of interpersonal relationships in successful organi-
sation management. Our findings contribute to this theory by
revealing the importance of motivational factors in the associ-
ation between perceived quality of relationships and perceived
transformational leadership behaviour.
In addition, this study sheds light on two specific motivational
factors involved in transformational leadership perceptions: self-
efficacy and autonomous motivation. Managers who feel efficient
in their management skills are more likely to believe that they
display actions that promote the best interests of the organisation
and its members. These results are in line with past research that
has positively linked self-efficacy and leadership (Chemers et al.,
2000; Fitzgerald & Schutte, 2010). Furthermore, by identifying
autonomous motivation as a key factor in transformational lead-
ership perceptions, this study offers an additional explanation as to
why certain managers view themselves as effective leaders. Man-
agers who engage in their job out of pleasure or from a sense of
personal significance perceive themselves as leaders who can
inspire others and stimulate interest.
This study also makes an interesting contribution to the SDT
literature. Indeed, SDT research most commonly utilizes psycho-
logical well-being outcomes when evaluating the importance of
autonomous motivation in the workplace. By showing that auton-
omous motivation contributes to perceptions of transformational
leadership, this study underscores that valuing and enjoying one’s
work is also important in professional functioning.
Although this study offers important information on the ante-
cedents of transformational leadership, it has certain limitations.
First, the use of self-reported measures may have caused common
method bias (CMB), particularly regarding self-reported leader-
ship, which has been shown to sometimes differ from assessments
of others (Fleenor, Smither, Atwater, Braddy, & Sturm, 2010).
However, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate self-
evaluations of transformational leadership behaviour. Nonetheless,
we tried to reduce CMB by employing certain procedural strate-
gies related to the questionnaire design (e.g., using different scale
formats and anchors) and reducing evaluation apprehension by
Figure 1. Results of the proposed model (standardized path coefficients).
p .01.
protecting respondents’ anonymity (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Lee, &
Podsakoff, 2003). Results of the single-factor measurement model
provided some evidence that our findings were not overly affected
by CMB. Nonetheless, future research should evaluate leadership
using other sources besides managers. Second, because the re-
search design is cross-sectional, causal direction cannot be deter-
mined. Future research using experimental or longitudinal panel
designs should attempt to replicate the present results. Third,
transformational leadership behaviour is complex, and factors
other than social ones (e.g., organisational factors) might also
influence leadership perceptions. Future studies should pay atten-
tion to such variables (e.g., job design, stress factors). Finally,
given the fairly low participation rate (26%), future research is
need to confirm that the present results generalise to the overall
school management staff.
Notwithstanding these limitations, our results provide useful
guidelines to organisations wishing to enhance managers’ trans-
formational leadership perceptions. First, changes could be made
to managers’ social context. Our findings suggest that creating an
environment that nurtures and reinforces quality relationships be-
tween managers and their work unit as well as with their superiors
would effectively facilitate perceptions of transformational lead-
ership. By valuing teamwork and respect for others, organisations
can create social conditions that foster high-quality relationships
among members. Another way to promote transformational lead-
ership perceptions would be to place emphasis on managers’
motivational factors (i.e., autonomous motivation and self-
efficacy). This could be achieved by providing managers with a
supportive and informative work context (i.e., providing managers
with choices, acknowledging and accepting their point of views,
offering positive feedback). Past research in SDT has demon-
strated successful interventions on self-motivation in different
social contexts, including the workplace (e.g., Deci, Connell, &
Ryan, 1989).
By revealing the mediating role of autonomous motivation and
self-efficacy in the link between perceptions of high-quality work
relationships and transformational leadership, this study offers
valuable insights into what may make efficient leaders and, more
importantly, how social factors are likely to act upon transforma-
tional leadership behaviour.
Le but de cette e´tude e´tait d’en arriver a` une meilleure compre´hen-
sion des ante´ce´dents sociaux et motivationnels des perceptions du
leadership transformationnel. Inspire´delathe´ orie de
l’autode´termination, un mode`leae´te´ propose´ selon lequel les
perceptions de la qualite´ des relations pre´disent les perceptions des
comportements de leadership transformationnel au moyen de la
motivation autonome et de l’autoefficacite´. Des donne´es ont e´te´
recueillies aupre`s de 568 directeurs d’e´ cole. Des re´ sultats
d’analyses de mode´lisation ont permis d’appuyer le mode`le pro-
pose´. Les re´sultats ont re´ve´le´ que plus les directeurs perc oivent
comme positives les relations dans leur milieu de travail, plus ils
te´moignent de motivation autonome et d’autoefficacite´ dans leurs
capacite´s de gestion, ce qui en retour contribue a` un comportement
de leadership transformationnel autorapporte´. Les auteurs dis-
cutent des re´percussions des re´sultats sur les the´ories relatives au
leadership et a` la gestion.
Mots-cle´s : leadership transformationnel, motivation autonome,
autoefficacite´, qualite´ des relations, the´orie de l’autode´termination.
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Received October 31, 2011
Revision received April 18, 2012
Accepted April 20, 2012
... Islamic leadership reportedly possesses traits that can raise workers' intrinsic drive, much like contemporary leadership styles (Ali, 2009). As emphasized in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory of Deci (Trépanier et al., 2012) and Herzberg's Two-Factor ...
... Islamic leadership reportedly possesses traits that can raise workers' intrinsic drive, much like contemporary leadership styles (Ali, 2009). As emphasized in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory of Deci (Trépanier et al., 2012) and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg et al., 1959), intrinsic motivation, which is the capacity of internalizing individual's desire to work, is just as significant in motivating employees as extrinsic rewards. ...
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Although leadership, motivation, and productivity have been thoroughly researched, the knowledge of how humanitarian organizations’ employees in Yemen perceive leadership as well as motivation roles in enhancing their productivity is lacking. Such knowledge is critical because humanitarian organizations in Yemen are expanding their services and putting increased demands on their employees. This study aimed at gaining in-depth knowledge on how employees in humanitarian organizations in Yemen perceive the role of leadership as well as motivation in enhancing productivity via investigating how leadership (transformational and transactional) could influence employees' productivity with and without the mediating role of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) in humanitarian organizations in Yemen. The quantitative approach was followed through distributing 361 questionnaires, yielding a 39.9% response rate. The study findings indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between leadership (transformational and transactional), motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic), and employees’ productivity. Moreover, there is a significant positive impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) as well as employees’ productivity. Besides, there is a significant positive impact of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) on employees’ productivity. Additionally, motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) significantly mediates the relationship between leadership styles and employees’ productivity. This study recommends decision makers at humanitarian organizations in Yemen to pay more attention to leadership styles and motivation in order to enhance employees’ productivity which will have positive consequences for the employees and the organization. Employees will be more productive if they are well-motivated; and if the leadership styles are practiced properly, the organizational goals in turn will be achieved effectively. Keywords: Leadership, Motivation, Productivity, Humanitarian Organizations, Yemen
... Leadership behaviour directly influences follower motivation (Kovjanic, Schuh, Jonas, Van Quaquebeke & Van Dick, 2012). Previous research confirmed the existence of a positive relationship between leadership and autonomous motivation (Trepanier, Fernet & Austin, 2012). Kovjanic et al. (2012) argue that the extent to which leaders can satisfy employees' psychological needs is the essence of their power. ...
Conference Paper
The study examined servant leadership, motivation, and work engagement at an international South African-based engineering organisation. The quantitative cross-sectional study collected 128 responses from an international convenience sample. Servant leadership was considered through the Servant Leadership Survey, while motivation was determined through the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale and work engagement through the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and a simple mediation model using the PROCESS macros installed in SPSS. The results revealed that servant leadership, motivation, and work engagement were positively associated. Servant leadership further had a significant direct effect on motivation and work engagement. Motivation demonstrated a significant indirect effect on the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement. The study concludes with final discussions, theoretical and practical implications, and makes recommendations for future research.
... Co-worker relationships, especially when positive, have been shown to enhance autonomous motivation and self-efficacy in abilities to manage. Consequently, these factors enhanced transformational leadership behaviour (Trépanier, Fernet, & Austin, 2012). Bass (1997) asserts that there are three dimensions that define transactional leadership behaviours, contingency reward, and management-by-exception (active or passive). ...
Leadership has an effect on constructive or deviant behaviour and the work engagement levels of employees. Considering the current economic and social climate of Namibia, it is of utmost importance that leaders initiate and identify ways in which work engagement can be enhanced. Making use of an electronic survey (survey research), this study investigated the effects of different leadership styles on work engagement of employees in the Khomas region. An analysis of the data was done with SPSS (version 24), making use of Pearson’s correlation and Stepwise multiple regression. Work engagement reported a negative relationship with transactional and laissez-faire leadership; a positive relationship was reported with transformational leadership. Transactional (negative) and transformational (positive) leadership were found to be significant predictors of work engagement. Leaders need to avoid compulsive focus on the mistakes or failures of employees. Focusing constantly on mistakes, problems and failures may cause anxiety amongst employees and halt work engagement. Work engagement can be enhanced when leaders clearly and confidently communicate performance standards and expectations; provide praise and recognition; involve employees in decision making whilst discussing different approaches to task completion; and help to develop employees based on their individual strengths and abilities. This study may add to existing knowledge within Industrial/Organizational Psychology, leadership and interventions to improve work engagement and performance of employees.
... Transformational leaders act as coaches and mentors to their subordinates, concentrating their efforts on long-term goals, emphasizing their vision (and inspiring subordinates to achieve the intended shared vision), encouraging their subordinates to take greater responsibility for the development of their subordinates and the development of all others (Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999;Bass, 1985;Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995;Howell & Avolio, 1993). Transformational leadership has received much more attention since establishing the link between significant results such as employee job satisfaction and organizational performance (Trépanier, Fernet, & Austin, 2012). ...
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This research focuses on the nexus between foreign direct investments (FDI) and external balance in selected Emerging European Economies (EEEs). Emerging countries in convergence process tend to have problem of structural external imbalance that is covered with foreign capital inflows. FDI are long-term and sustainable source of financing the current account deficit. The aim of this paper is to test if FDI together with chosen macroeconomic indicators are relevant factors of trading balance in EEEs in order to give useful implications towards economic policy creators in emerging economies. The research hypothesis is tested with robust micro panel models for total sample and two subperiods: before and after the structural break caused with Global financial crisis (GFC). The results indicate that substantial FDI inflows are significantly related with negative sum of trading balance on the total sample level i.e. average external position deficit is financed with the FDI inflows. Also, dummy variable for the Western Balkans indicates that FDI are significant variable that finances external imbalance in this subsample. The government policy recommendations are directed towards incentive measures for attracting greater FDI inflows, especially greenfield investments motivated with greater efficiency and export stimulation in order to stabilize trading balance and foster economic growth.
... Transformational leaders act as coaches and mentors to their subordinates, concentrating their efforts on long-term goals, emphasizing their vision (and inspiring subordinates to achieve the intended shared vision), encouraging their subordinates to take greater responsibility for the development of their subordinates and the development of all others (Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999;Bass, 1985;Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995;Howell & Avolio, 1993). Transformational leadership has received much more attention since establishing the link between significant results such as employee job satisfaction and organizational performance (Trépanier, Fernet, & Austin, 2012). ...
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Transformational leadership links creative thinking, persistence and energy, intuition and the sense for people's need for organizational culture. It strives for innovation and expresses the sense for vision and meaning. Literature analysis in this field is followed by the research that examines transformational leadership and its coherence with an organisational culture in the international service company operating in Serbia. The participants in his research have perceived the role culture as primary, particularly the culture of rules and procedures. This culture is suitable to people that expect security at work, which could be the main goal in the particular company, having in mind that work instability and insecurity have been a common denominator in the past three decades. However, if a company wants to be innovative, it would have to put more effort into transformational leadership that could not be thoroughly examined in this study. Suggestions for further investigation are given at the end of this study, lack of instruments for investigations are pointed out, with an idea for improvements.
... With its origins in the self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 2008), psychological need satisfaction advances that fostering autonomy, competence, and relatedness will lead to autonomous motivation at work. This is true for employees, but also for leaders themselves: when leaders' psychological needs are satisfied, those leaders have more energy to perform behaviors that are in accordance with positive leadership styles (Trépanier et al., 2012;Paas et al., 2020). However, despite psychological need satisfaction's prominent position in leadership research, for example, in studies on the transformational leadership (Breevaart et al., 2014a), empowering leadership or inclusive leadership (Chiniara and Bentein, 2016), a few shortcomings can be noted. ...
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Affective occupational commitment (AOC) can be conceptualized as an indicator that ones' occupation has been adequately internalized within one's professional identity. From this perspective, the present study relies on the organismic integration component of Self-Determination Theory to: (1) investigate the distinctive shapes (or profiles) taken by school principals AOC trajectories; (2) test the role of work characteristics related to the satisfaction of principals' basic needs for relatedness, competence and autonomy as core drivers of their AOC trajectories; (3) document the outcome implications of these trajectories in relation to principals' job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and burnout. Using a sample of 661 established (tenure = 6 months to 38 years) school principals (Mage = 44.94; 58 % females) measured four times over a two-year period, growth mixture analyses revealed five profiles characterized by distinct AOC trajectories. Three profiles displayed High, Moderately High, or Very Low stable levels of AOC. The other profiles displayed Slowly Increasing or Slowly Decreasing levels of AOC. Higher AOC levels were also anchored in more stable trajectories, and were accompanied by higher job satisfaction and lower burnout and turnover intentions. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness had differential short-term and long-term effects on AOC trajectories. The current study provides evidence for the malleability of AOC from a longitudinal perspective and highlights the necessary conditions to foster ideal AOC trajectories for high-level managers.
The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 disrupted lives across the globe and nations were suddenly forced to adapt in conditions that were unprecedented, uncertain and life-threatening. Nations responded by closing borders and ordering their citizens to work from home, forcing organisations and those working in them to find new ways of carrying out their core functions in conditions of disorientation, isolation, competing demands and in some cases, fear. The extent to which organisations were able to negotiate the crisis would depend on how their managers responded to their staff. This study draws on an analysis of semi-structured interviews with 26 Scottish Criminal Justice Social Workers and managers which took place during the national lockdown of March–June 2020. Drawing on theories of leadership and self-determination theory, the findings reveal that good managers at such a time of crisis are servant leaders who prioritise the fundamental human needs of their staff and reduce their level of uncertainty.
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The Covid-19 pandemic forced leaders to adapt their leadership approaches to the online environment. This chapter reviews the leadership approaches applied by managers at a Private Higher Education Institution (PHEI) in response to the Covid-19 pandemic and examines how these managers ensured that academics perform optimally while working remotely. A qualitative research methodology, combined with semi-structured interviews, enabled the researcher to source rich data from the managers and academics at the PHEI in question. Most managers indicated that only minor adjustments to their leadership approaches were required to work in a remote online environment. Participants also noted that a combination of various leadership approaches in a specific context enhances a leader’s efficiency, as it allows them to analyze a situation and consider the impact of proposed approaches on stakeholders before a decision is made.
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The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall.
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The leader-member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader-member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership.
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Relationships between leaders' motivation and their use of charismatic, transactional, and / or transformational leadership were examined in this study. One hundred eighty-six leaders and 759 direct reports from a variety of organizations were sampled. Leaders were administered the Motivation Sources Inventory (MSI) while followers reported leaders' full range leadership behaviors using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-rater version). Leaders were also administered the self-rating version of the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-rater version). The Motivation Sources Inventory subscales subsequently significantly correlated with leader self-reports of inspirational motivation, idealized influence (behavior) and individualized consideration (range, r = .10 to .29), as well as with raters' perceptions of inspirational motivation, idealized influence (behavior) and individualized consideration (range, r = .18 to .19). The Motivation Sources Inventory subscales significantly correlated with leaders' self-reports of charisma, transactional and laissez-faire leadership (range, r = .12 to .28), with rater-reports of the same variables (range, r = .16 to .29).
Transformational Leadership, Second Edition is intended for both the scholars and serious students of leadership. It is a comprehensive review of theorizing and empirical research that can serve as a reference and starting point for additional research on the theory. It can be used as a supplementary textbook in an intense course on leadership--or as a primary text in a course or seminar focusing on transformational leadership. New in the Second Edition: New, updated examples of leadership have been included to help illustrate the concepts, as well as show the broad range of transformational leadership in a variety of settings. New chapters have been added focusing specifically on the measurement of transformational leadership and transformational leadership and effectiveness. The discussion of both predicators and effects of transformational leadership is greatly expanded. Much more emphasis is given to authentic vs. inauthentic transformational leadership. Suggestions are made for guiding the future of research and applications of transformational leadership. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
The present study investigated factors that mediate the association between social support and psychological adjustment. An integrative model proposed that the link between social support and psychological adjustment is mediated by self-efficacy and, in turn, by adaptive coping strategies. The model was tested in a five-week longitudinal study with a sample of 300 college students. As hypothesized, Time 1 social support predicted decreased Time 2 depressive symptoms both directly and indirectly through self-efficacy and, in turn, adaptive coping strategies. In a prospective model that control led for initial depressive symptoms, the association between Time 1 social support and Time 2 depressive symptoms was fully mediated by self-efficacy and adaptive coping strategies.