Article

Antifungal Efficacy of Brazilian green propolis extracts and Honey on Tinea capitis and Tinea versicolor

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Abstract

Aim of the study This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Tinea capitis and Tinea versicolor, and evaluate the efficacy of bee products in management of skin disorders in Congolese school children. Methodology Medical screening and care for skin disorders were carried out in five Congolese schools from November 2010 to April 2011. Hematological and mycological analyses were performed. Of the 2728 children, there were 305 patients with either Tinea capitis or Tinea versicolor. Of them, 242 eligible patients were randomly allocated to one of the following topical treatment arms: 2% Miconazole; 50 mg/ml Brazilian green propolis extracts (BPE); 100 mg/ml BPE; Acasia honey or Vaseline. Oneway ANOVA test was performed to assess the significance of the difference between treatment groups at baseline (day 1), adjusting for age, gender and the severity score of skin symptoms. Unpaired t-test was performed to assess the difference between treatments in terms of skin symptoms improvement, WBC count, leukocytes and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) on day 28 of treatment. Results This study showed that Miconazole (p < 0.01), both BPE solutions and Acasia honey (p < 0.05) markedly improved erythema and desquamation (vs. Vaseline). In addition, 100 mg/ml BPE, 50 mg/ml BPE, Miconazole and Acasia honey (p < 0.05) also significantly relieved pruritus (vs. Vaseline). No major adverse effect was observed throughout the study. Conclusions Brazilian green propolis extracts improved skin lesions as efficiently as did Miconazole and may serve as an alternative treatment for Tinea mycosis.

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... Propolis, a natural honey bee product contains various polyphenols and flavonoids in which Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is most active polyphenolic constituent responsible for anticancer activity [1]. Propolis of various regions is known to exhibit various activities including antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer activity [2][3][4]. Various in vitro and in vivo anticancer studies on propolis and its isolated constituents have been reported for anticancer activity [5][6][7]. Although propolis has beneficial anticancer activity on human cancer cell lines but it has some limitations such as it is high lipophilicity, poor solubility in water. ...
... Temperature was maintained at 25 0 + 2 0 C. The nanoparticle solution was suitably diluted with alcohol prior to determination. The percent drug content was calculated according to the equation: Drug Content (%) = (Amount of EEIP in nanoparticle/ Amount of EEIP and polymer) × 100 (1) Encapsulation efficiency was determined by separating non-encapsulated active ingredients from nanoparticle suspension by centrifugation (eppendorf Centrifuge 5424 R) at 12,000 rpm for 2 h at 4 0 C. The sediment nanoparticles were disrupted with acetone to release the entrapped EEIP; suitably diluted with phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and analyzed by developed HPLC method, (Jasco UV 2057, Japan) The percent EE was calculated using Equation (2). Encapsulation efficiency (%) = Amount of EEIP entrapped in the nanoparticle/ Initial amount of the EEIP added × 100. ...
... Encapsulation efficiency (%) = Amount of EEIP entrapped in the nanoparticle/ Initial amount of the EEIP added × 100. (2) Design of experiments DoE approach For determination of optimized nanoparticle formulation Design of experiment approach was used. Particle size and encapsulation efficiency values were measured after collecting the nanoparticles. ...
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Propolis, a natural product obtained from apiculture and is well proven for its anticancer potential. Anticancer efficacy of propolis is limited to its poor water solubility and bioavailability. The present study was designed and investigated for development of ethanolic extract of Indian propolis (EEIP) loaded Poly (ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (EPL) to achieve improved solubility, sustained drug release and enhanced cytotoxic efficacy of EEIP. Formulation development, characterization and optimization were carried out by design of experiment approach. Developed formulations were evaluated in detail for nanoparticle characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity study. Developed nanoparticles showed particle size, and encapsulation efficiency of 190 ± 1 - 230 ± 2 nm and 62.66± 1.20 - 67.18± 1.80 % respectively. Optimized formulation EPL showed sustained drug release over a period of 48 h. Concentration of the drug needed for total growth inhibition of cells in a designed time period (TGI) was decreased by 33.06% for EPL as compared to EEIP in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and 22.31% in human colon cancer cells HT-29 indicating improved cytotoxicity of EEIP. The study proven that the optimized EPL exhibited increased solubility, sustained drug release and enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines in comparison with EEIP. Thus developed system may be served as potential nanocarrier in anticancer treatment.
... The five studies included in the oral diseases group consisted of three studies on recurrent oral aphthae (ROA) [20,21,23], one study on candidal stomatitis [21], and one on mucositis [23]. Five trials addressed skin diseases; second-degree burns [24], leg ulcers [25], tinea capitis and tinea versicolour [26], acne [27], and diabetes mellitus with foot ulcer [28] were each assessed by one study. Two studies were included in the genital diseases group; one was on acute vaginitis [29], and the other was on genital herpes [30]. ...
... Four studies compared EUP with a placebo intervention that was the same form of EUP [19,20,30], and two studies compared EUP with EUP that had a different ingredient [19] and concentration [26]. A combination of EUP and other interventions was compared with a control of the same additional interventions in three trials [23,25,28]. ...
... A combination of EUP and other interventions was compared with a control of the same additional interventions in three trials [23,25,28]. Other studies compared EUP with mouthrinse [21], miconazole [21,26], silver sulfadiazine [24], acacia honey [26], Vaseline [26], pine pollen mask packs [27], and metronidazole vaginal gel [28]. ...
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Objective. The aim of this review is to provide the available evidence on the external use of propolis (EUP) for oral, skin, and genital diseases. Method. We searched twelve electronic databases for relevant studies up to June 2016. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included and analysed. Results. Of the 286 articles identified, twelve potentially relevant studies met our inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of two studies on recurrent oral aphthae (ROA) indicated that there were no significant differences in total effective rate (TER) for pain disappearance between EUP and placebo groups (RR = 1.96, 95% CI = 0.97–3.98, and P=0.06 ). In two studies on skin diseases, the combined treatment of EUP with other interventions revealed significant effects on the duration of treatment or TER. In one study on genital diseases, EUP showed significant differences in genital herpes outcome measures compared to placebo. Conclusions. Our results on the effectiveness of EUP for treating oral, skin, and genital diseases are not conclusive because of the low methodological qualities and small sample sizes. Further well-designed randomized controlled trials, with high quality and large samples for specific disorders, must be conducted to obtain firm conclusions.
... Another example is superficial tinea infections that are caused by dermatophytes that affect many regions of the body such as tinea versicolor (TVC) and tinea corporis (TC). TVC is depicted by the appearance of macules, either hypopigmented or hyperpigmented, on the face, arms, trunk, and shoulders (Mendez-Tovar, 2010;Ngatu et al., 2011), while TC is a common skin infection affecting the trunk, neck, arms and legs of predisposed individuals (especially children and immunocompromised populations) (Aly & Berger, 1996). ...
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Topical conveyance of antifungal agents like itraconazole ITZ has been giving good grounds for expecting felicitous antifungal medicines. The defiance of topical delivery of this poorly water soluble and high-molecular-weight drug, however, mightily entail an adequate vehiculation. ITZ aspasomes, newer antioxidant generation of liposomes, have been designed and enclosed in a cream to ameliorate skin deposition. The proposed creams containing non-formulated ITZ or encapsulated in aspasomes (0.1% or 0.5%) were topically applied in patients with diagnosed diaper dermatitis complicated by candidiasis, tinea corporis (TC), and tinea versicolor (TVC). Placebos (void aspasomal cream and cream base) were also utilized. The obtained results for diaper rash revealed that aspasomal cream (0.5% ITZ) was eminent with respect to complete cure and negative candida culture after 10-day therapy relative to counterparts containing 0.1% ITZ aspasomes or non-formulated ITZ (0.1% and 0.5%). For tinea, the same trend was manifested in terms of ‘cleared’ clinical response in 90% of patients and absence of fungal elements after 4-week treatment. Relative to non-formulated ITZ, ITZ aspasomal cream was endorsed to be auspicious especially when ITZ concentration was lowered to half commercially available cream concentration (1%), pushing further exploitation in other dermal fungal infections.
... Wadi reported that honey is used to treat various types of infections [5]. The in vivo studies on the efficacy of Acacia honey and Brazilian green propolis extract are used against fungal infections such as (tinea capitis and tinea versicolor) and this treatment is very beneficial in the treatment of superficial mycosis [24]. Few studies suggested that honey can be used in treatment procedures to cure an infection of external sites of the body [25]. ...
Article
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Otomycosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection of the external auditory canal. The main fungal agents of Otomycosis are Aspergillus species and Candida species. Antifungal treatment is used universally but there has been no effective medication used for Otomycosis which opens up new treatment options including the use of the natural product. Honey is a natural product that has been widely used for its therapeutic effects and it has a valued place in traditional medicine since ancient times. The present study highlights the antifungal activities of three varieties of honey: Khadi gram Udyog honey, Apis Himalaya honey, Dabur honey against fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamarii, and Candida. Honey used at different concentrations 20mg, 40mg, 60mg, 80mg, and spore suspension was inoculated in Sabouraud's dextrose broth (SDB). After incubation mycelial growth was harvested and observed microscopically for sporulation. The most effective inhibitory effect of the three types of honey is showing at 80 mg and the less effective inhibitory effect was recorded in a concentration of 20mg. The present study focuses on the three honey varieties that show effective antifungal activity. Honey can be used for the development of natural antifungal drugs for the treatment of Otomycotic pathogens.
... Wadi reported that honey is used to treat various types of infections [5]. The in vivo studies on the efficacy of Acacia honey and Brazilian green propolis extract are used against fungal infections such as (tinea capitis and tinea versicolor) and this treatment is very beneficial in the treatment of superficial mycosis [24]. Few studies suggested that honey can be used in treatment procedures to cure an infection of external sites of the body [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Otomycosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection of the external auditory canal. The main fungal agents of Otomycosis are Aspergillus species and Candida species. Antifungal treatment is used universally but there has been no effective medication used for Otomycosis which opens up new treatment options including the use of the natural product. Honey is a natural product that has been widely used for its therapeutic effects and it has a valued place in traditional medicine since ancient times. The present study highlights the antifungal activities of three varieties of honey: Khadi gram Udyog honey, Apis Himalaya honey, Dabur honey against fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamarii, and Candida. Honey used at different concentrations 20mg, 40mg, 60mg, 80mg, and spore suspension was inoculated in Sabouraud's dextrose broth (SDB). After incubation mycelial growth was harvested and observed microscopically for sporulation. The most effective inhibitory effect of the three types of honey is showing at 80 mg and the less effective inhibitory effect was recorded in a concentration of 20mg. The present study focuses on the three honey varieties that show effective antifungal activity. Honey can be used for the development of natural antifungal drugs for the treatment of Otomycotic pathogens.
... Honey reported to has antifungal effect and has been applied for treatment of some fungal infections such as: erythema, desquamation and pruritus in Tinea. mycosis [62], C. albicans infections including resistant strains [63], and many other fungal and yeast infections [48]. Honey demonstrated antiviral activity in clinical trials and in vitro studies. ...
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Honey has been used as food and medicine by ancient and modern world, and by all traditions and civilisations. Modern medicine has accepted honey as therapeutic agent for diversity of clinical ailments. Honey is a source of important macro and micronutrients, and a rich source of calories. Honey possesses modulating effects on most of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Natural honey can exert hepatoprotective effects both in term of hepatic function as well as by preserving liver structure. Natural honey proven for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer effects, and has been tried for wound healing, eye disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, neurological disorders, and fertility disorders. This review discusses the current knowledge for the important therapeutic role of honey.
... Malassezia infections were treated by azole and its derivatives ( Ngatu et al, 2011 )/6 . In the same time, azole resistant Malassezia was reported (Dwivedi et al, 2010)/7, the side effects of such pharmaceutical drugs (Santhanam et al, 2014) /8 as well as their high costs incourag to searching for a new antifungal compounds. ...
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[Eurasian Journal of Science & Engineering] The affectivity of ethanol extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum), curcumin (Curcuma longa), ginger (Zingiber officinale), and khat (Catha edulis) was examined against Malassizia furfur. Ethanol extracts were prepared as (10% W/V). The yeast was obtained from ptyriasis versicolor (PV) infections and Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium + olive oil was used to isolate the yeast from the skin scrapes. The results of triplicate tests showed no yeasts developed in clove's extract treatment. The activity of curcumin extract was less than the medicinal soap treatment which was used as a positive control. While ginger and khat, treatments affect the visible colonies' characteristics only but not on their abundance in culture plates. The MIC for the clove extract and medicinal soap was compared by a series of dilutions (10,5,2.5,1.25,o.625) mg/ml. Clove represents antifungal activity till the end, while it was 1.25mg/ml in medicinal soap treatment.
... Many compounds in plant composition can also be found in green propolis, such as artepillin C, flavonoids and p-coumaric acid, which are associated with its antioxidant capacity (Guimarães et al., 2012). Additionally, flavonoids and phenolic acids in green propolis have antifungal activities for typical agricultural, food, medical and odontological fungi (Ngatu et al., 2011;Freires et al., 2016;Martini et al., 2017). However, propolis is a tough resin that cannot be consumed in its natural form; thus, resin is typically transformed into a powder and extracted in an alcoholic or aqueous medium (Mello and Hubinger, 2012). ...
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Green propolis is found only in Brazil and due to its important biological characteristics, the food industry views it as a rich source of bioactive compounds. However, an extract must be produced for its application, which is difficult considering the rigid characteristics of raw propolis. Superfine grinding, a process capable of reducing particle size, enables the extraction of most bioactive compounds in propolis. This study evaluated the influence of grinding on size characteristics, antioxidant and antifungal properties of Brazilian green propolis for food preservation. The propolis powder was produced through six different types of grinding (different sieves and rpm), and its quality was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. After grinding, extracts and bioactive assays were produced and the total phenolic content, antioxidant and antifungal capacity were determined. The data showed that the grinding process affected all the results of bioactive assays used. Treatment B (sieve 0.08 mm, 12,000 rpm) presented statistically significant values for the bioactivity assays and thus antifungal activity against Rhizopus stolonifer (doses 0-5 %) was tested only for the control (standardized size without superfine grinding) and treatment B. Both treatments showed antifungal activity, but the control provided more effective mycelial growth inhibition (lower dose 1 %). Superfine grinding increased the antioxidant activity, although this behavior was not observed in the antifungal assay. Despite these results, green propolis extracts present important biological effects that indicate their use as food preservatives to extend shelf life of food products.
... While most of the studies on antifungal effects of honey involved in vitro studies, in vivo studies have also been reported. Ngatu et al. (2011) have conducted an in vivo study in the Republic of Congo, 22 in which effi- cacy of bee products such as Acacia honey and Brazilian green propolis extract on children with fungal infections (tinea capitis and tinea versicolor) has been assessed. They have proven that bee products showed beneficial effect in treatment of superficialmycosis. ...
Article
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Background: Otomycosis has been reported to be prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The causative pathogens causing otomycosis include Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans, for which the antifungal treatment regime has not been clearly standardized. Honey is a natural product which has been widely studied for various properties, including antimicrobial properties. This study was aimed at determining the antifungal activities of three types of Malaysian honey; Tualang, Acacia and Kelulut honey, against fungal pathogens of otomycosis. Methods: The honey samples were examined for antifungal activity against Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans. Honey was incorporated into Sabouraud dextrose agar at concentrations of 5% (v/v), 10% (v/v), 20% (v/v) and 25% (v/v). Conidial suspension was inoculated and spread onto honey-SDA agar plates. After incubation colony counts were determined. Results: The honey samples demonstrated varying levels of inhibitory activity at various concentrations against the fungi tested with colony count reducing with increasing honey concentration. All three honeys showed total growth inhibition at 25% (v/v) concentration. Comparing the three types of honey, Kelulut honey was shown to be the most active against the tested fungi. Conclusion: The three honeys used in the study showed promising antifungal activity. Malaysian honeys have shown potential as antifungal substances for possible development of antifungal drugs for the treatment of fungal infections such as otomycosis.
... Not all of the published studies have reported the geographical locations from where the propolis was collected [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. In only one study the chemical composition of propolis has been mentioned which gives this study importance since it characterized the propolis tested and listed its chemical composition [30]. ...
Article
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There are a number of disorders that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Such disorders have become a global emerging disease with a high incidence and prevalence rates worldwide. Inflammatory and ulcerative processes of the stomach or intestines, such as gastritis, ulcers, colitis, and mucositis, afflict a significant proportion of people throughout the world. The role of herbal-derived medicines has been extensively explored in order to develop new effective and safe strategies to improve the available gastrointestinal therapies that are currently used in the clinical practice. Studies on the efficacy of propolis (a unique resinous aromatic substance produced by honeybees from different types of species of plants) are promising and propolis has been effective in the treatment of several pathological conditions. This review, therefore, summarizes and critiques the contents of some relevant published scientific papers (including those related to clinical trials) in order to demonstrate the therapeutic value of propolis and its active compounds in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.
... Not all of the published studies have reported the geographical locations from where the propolis was collected [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. In only one study the chemical composition of propolis has been mentioned which gives this study importance since it characterized the propolis tested and listed its chemical composition [30]. ...
... Apart from use of propolis as a nutritional and healthy food constituent, its use in human health in folk medicine [2] has been reported from ancient time. Propolis of various regions is known to exhibit various activities including antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer activity [3][4][5]. Various in vitro and in vivo anticancer studies on propolis and its isolated constituents have been reported for anticancer activity [6][7][8]. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an important active chemical constituent of honeybee propolis which is chemically poly phenolic compound [9,10]. ...
Article
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Propolis, a natural bee hive product is well proven for its anticancer potential due its various polyphenols and flavonoids constituents. Anticancer efficacy of propolis is limited due to its poor water solubility and bioavailability. The present study is investigated for design and development of ethanolic extract of Indian propolis (EEIP) loaded folic acid conjugated Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (denoted as ELFPN) were investigated to achieve improved solubility, sustained drug release and to study synergized anticancer efficacy. Formulation development, characterization and optimization were carried out by design of experiment approach. . In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity study was carried out for optimized formulation. Developed ELFPN showed the particle size and encapsulation efficiency 178 ± 5 - 205 ± 5 nm and 73.16 ± 1.89 - 76.37 ± 1.89 respectively. Optimized formulation showed sustained drug release over a period of 48 h with no sign of blood toxicity. Moreover, concentration of the drug needed for growth inhibition of 50 % of cells in a designed time period (GI50) was decreased by 43.34 %, for ELFPN as compared to EEIP in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells indicating targeting with synergistic effect of ELFPN. An improved anticancer effect was reflected in in-vivo Daltons Ascites Lymphoma model by reducing tumor cells count. The developed ELFPN showed improved in vitro cytotoxic effect, in-vivo anti-cancer activity with desirable characteristics for nanoparticle formulation thus can be useful for biomedical applications.
... The antimicrobial and antitumoral capacity of red propolis were evidenced by many authors[18,[31][32]. Different studies identified antifungal[33], immunomodulation[34][35], anti-ulcer[19,36]and anti-inflammatory[37]properties for samples of Brazilian green propolis. Fernandes et al.[38]evaluated the antioxidant effects and the (anti)genotoxicity in samples of brown propolis from the Brazilian savanna. ...
Article
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The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.
... 308,309 Honey with or without miconazole was effective against T. capitis or T. versicolor infection in children. 175 Honey with clotrimazole was effective in the treatment of vaginitis. 184 Honey combined with olive oil and beeswax inhibited the growth of C. albicans. ...
Article
Honey has been widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions, and civilizations, both ancient and modern. For at least 2700 years, honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antimicrobial properties of honey been discovered. Honey has been reported to be effective in a number of human pathologies. Clinical studies have demonstrated that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds rapidly clears infection from the wound and improves tissue healing. A large number of in vitro and limited clinical studies have confirmed the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antimycobacterial) properties of honey, which may be attributed to the acidity (low pH), osmotic effect, high sugar concentration, presence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal factors (hydrogen peroxide, antioxidants, lysozyme, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, methylglyoxal, and bee peptides), and increase in cytokine release, and to immune modulating and anti-inflammatory properties of honey; the antimicrobial action involves several mechanisms. Despite a large amount of data confirming the antimicrobial activity of honey, there are no studies that support the systemic use of honey as an antibacterial agent.
... Its use in traditional medicine dates back to 300 years BC (Ghisalberti, 1979) and, at present, it continues to be used worldwide. In the last years, propolis has been the subject of intensive biological and pharmacological studies, including antiviral (Schnitzler et al., 2010), anticancer (Valente et al., 2011), antioxidant (Moreira et al., 2008), hepatoprotective (Banskota et al., 2001), cariostatic (Libério et al., 2009) et al., 2012), as well as antibacterial and antifungal ones (Sforcin et al., 2001;Santos et al., 2008;Ngatu et al., 2011). Due to its different activities, propolis have gained wide acceptance to promote health, preventing diseases (Ishida et al., 2011) and it is widely used in cosmetology and food industries (Banskota et al., 2001). ...
Chapter
Environmental fungal skin disorders (EFSD) or dermatomycoses have a worldwide distribution, with high prevalence in most developing countries. Causal agents include dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi (Malassezia, Candida, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus or Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Alternaria, etc.). Besides their specific risk factors, common superficial dermatomycoses share common group of associated factors, such as “environmental and geographical factors” (climate, humidity), “human factors” (population mobility, personal hygiene, abusive use of antifungal drugs), and “economic factor” (poverty), which determine their distribution in regions of the world. Trichophyton interdigitale, T. tonsurans, and M. canis are getting more frequent globally. High prevalence rate of T. capitis has been reported in African children: 50–54% in rural Ethiopia, 11.2% in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), 7.4% in Egypt, and 7.1% in Tanzania, whereas rates of 3–8% have been found in the United States. The clinical diagnosis of T. capitis is made in the presence of dry scaling-like dandruff, black dots on scalp, favus (yellow crusts, matted hair), and kerion. Tinea pedis is an environmental skin disorder of the toe web that is acquired either through a contact with infected skin or by a fungus in the environment. High prevalence of Tinea pedis has been reported in schoolchildren: 12% in the United Kingdom, 16.9% in Israel, 5.2% in Australia, and 7.8% in Peru. The diagnosis of superficial dermatomycoses can be confirmed by a dermoscopic examination or culture. Avoiding direct skin-to-skin contact with infected individual and improving personal hygiene are among measures that reduce the risk of contamination.
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Background: Propolis from apiculture is known for wide range of medicinal properties owing to its vast chemical constituents including polyphenols, flavonoids and anticancer agent Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). Objectives: The objective of the study was to extract and standardize Indian propolis (IP) with respect to selected markers by newly developed High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and biosafety of Indian propolis. Materials and methods: IP was extracted, optimized and standardized using a newly developed and validated HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of caffeic acid, apigenin, quercetin and CAPE. The standardised ethanolic extract of IP (EEIP) was screened for in vitro cytotoxicity using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, in vivo anti-carcinogenic effect against Dalton's Lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells, hemolytic effect and pesticide analysis. Results: The EEIP was found to contain more amount of total flavonoids (23.61+ 0.0452 mg equivalent of quercetin/g), total polyphenolics (34.82 + 0.0785 mg equivalent of gallic acid/g) and all selected markers except caffeic acid compared to all other extracts. EEIP showed better anti-cancer potential than CAPE on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell line and significant (p < 0.01) in vivo anti-carcinogenic effects against DLA in comparison with 5-fluorouracil. EEIP was found to be non-hemolytic. Conclusion: From in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo anti-carcinogenicity and biosafety studies it can be concluded that the standardized EEIP is safe and can be considered for further development as a biomedicine.
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Propolis is identified as natural resource with effective biological and pharmacological activities. Here, we will discuss the plant sources, chemical composition, biological activities and toxicity of different types of propolis. Propolis is considered as a natural remedy against resistant microorganisms with a promising usage in the near future, but further studies should be conducted to investigate its therapeutic role.
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Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid compounds and cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of propolis extracts from two extraction methods were investigated in this study. Propolis was collected from Phayao province and extracted with 70% ethanol using maceration and sonication techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of propolis was evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage propolis yield after extraction using maceration (18.1%) was higher than using sonication (15.7%). Nevertheless, antioxidant and flavonoid compounds of the sonication propolis extract were significant greater than using maceration. Propolis extract from sonication showed antioxidant activity by 3.30±0.15 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Total phenolic compound was 18.3±3.30 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and flavonoid compound was 20.49±0.62 mg quercetin/g extract. Additionally, propolis extracts from two extraction methods demonstrated the inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines at 24, 48 and 72 hours in a dose-dependent manner. These results are of interest for the selection of the most appropriate method for preparation of propolis extracts as potential antioxidant and anticancer agents.
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Yeasts isolated from patients with superficial mycoses were tested against propolis samples collected from different regions and honeybee races. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained using the agar dilution methods were compared to the diameters of growth inhibition zones by using the disk diffusion method. The results showed that Candida albicans, C. glabrata, Trichosporon spp., and Rhodotorula sp. were susceptible to low concentrations of propolis, the latter showing a higher susceptibility. Relative to the other propolis tested, the propolis sample collected by Apis mellifera caucasica possessed the highest antifungal activity against all of the superficial mycoses. In contrast, the propolis samples collected by A.m. carnica and A.m. anatolica were the least active samples. Also, the propolis sample from the Adana region is more active than samples from other regions. An increase of MIC values was accompanied by a decrease of growth inhibition zone diameters.
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Data
The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract against 67 yeasts isolated from onychomycosis in patients attending at the Teaching and Research Laboratory of Clinical Analysis of the State University of Maringá. The method used was an adaptation made from the protocol approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The yeasts tested were: Candida parapsilosis 35%, C. tropicalis 23%, C. albicans 13%, and other species 29%. The propolis extract showed excellent performance regarding its antifun-gal activity: the concentration capable of inhibiting the all of the yeasts was 5 × 10 -2 mg/ml of flavonoids and 2 × 10 -2 mg/ml of flavonoids stimulated their cellular death. Trichosporon sp. were the most sensitive species, showing MIC 50 and MIC 90 of 1.25 × 10 -2 mg/ml of flavonoids, and C. tropicalis was the most resistant, with CFM 50 of 5 × 10 -2 mg/ml of flavonoids and MFC 90 of 10 × 10 -2 mg/ml. In view of the fact that propolis is a natural, low cost, non-toxic product with proven antifungal activity, it should be considered as another option in the onychomycosis treatment. Onychomycosis is a common onychopathy due to invasion of the nail by fungi that represents up to 50% of all nail problems. Onychomycosis is not important in terms of morbidity and mortality, but can seriously affect the quality of patient's life (Fouilloux 2003). Different clinical patterns of infection can be observed, depending on the manner and extent by which fungi in-vade the nail, and also on the kind of fungi (Gupta et al. 2004b). Onychomycosis by yeasts can manifest itself in several clinical presentations: chronic paronychia with secondary nail dystrophy, distal nail infection, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and secondary candidiasis (Roberts et al. 2003). Onychomycosis is predominantly caused by anthro-pophilic dermatophyte fungi, but in recent years yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds have also been regarded as frequent agents of onychomycosis (Araujo et al. 2003, Gupta et al. 2004b). In the past, dermatophytes were re-sponsible by 90% of cases, but nowadays the prevalence of other agents has increased and laboratory diagnosis has become necessary (Summerbell et al. 2005). Differences in the incidence of onychomycosis have been reported not only among different countries, but also for different regions of the same country. Epidemio-logical studies concerning onychomycosis have been performed in many countries around the world: Lybia (Ellabib et al. 2002), Slovakia (Dorko et al. 2002), India + Corresponding author:
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Honey, propolis, and royal jelly, products originating in the beehive, are attractive ingredients for healthy foods. Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflamatory, antibrowning, and antiviral. Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees. This substance has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to its many biological properties to possess, such as antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Royal jelly has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity, and antitumor activity. Biological activities of honey, propolis, and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase.
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Four compounds were isolated from Brazilian propolis. They are identified as: (1) 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (PHCA), (2) 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyrane (DCBEN), (3) 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), and (4) 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DPB). The structures of the compounds were determined by MS and NMR techniques. All compounds were assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi and the bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Compounds (1) to (4) were active against T. cruzi. Except (1), all compounds presented activity against the bacteria tested. When compounds (1)-(3) were tested in the guinea pig isolated trachea, all induced a relaxant effect similar to propolis extract.
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Honey has antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidants activities and has high nutrient value. In this study we investigated the potential use of topical application of crude honey in the management of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Thirty patients with chronic seborrheic dermatitis of scalp, face and front of chest were entered for study. Twenty patients were males and 10 were females, their ages ranged between 15 and 60 years. The patients had scaling, itching and hair loss. The lesions were scaling macules, papules and dry white plaques with crust and fissures. The patients were asked to apply diluted crude honey (90% honey diluted in warm water) every other day on the lesions with gentle rubbing for 2-3 mins. Honey was left for 3 hr before gentle rinsing with warm water. The patients were followed daily for itching, scaling, hair loss and the lesions were examined. Treatment was continued for 4 weeks. The improved patients were included in a prophylactic phase, lasting six months. Half patients were treated with the topical honey once weekly and the other half served as control. All the patients responded markedly with application of honey. Itching was relieved and scaling was disappeared within one week. Skin lesions were healed and disappeared completely within 2 weeks. In addition, patients showed subjective improvement in hair loss. None of the patients ( 15 patients) treated with honey application once weekly for six months showed relapse while the 12/15 patients who had no prophylactic treatment with honey experienced a relapse of the lesions 2-4 months after stopping treatment. It might be concluded that crude honey could markedly improve seborrheic dermatitis and associated hair loss and prevent relapse when applied weekly.
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Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are two very common skin diseases. Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic superficial fungal disease usually located on the upper trunk, neck, or upper arms. In pityriasis versicolor, the lipophilic yeast Malassezia (also know as Pityrosporum ovale or P. orbiculare) changes from the blastospore form to the mycelial form under the influence of predisposing factors. The most important exogenous factors are high temperatures and a high relative humidity which probably explain why pityriasis versicolor is more common in the tropics. The most important endogenous factors are greasy skin, hyperhidrosis, hereditary factors, corticosteroid treatment and immunodeficiency. There are many ways of treating pityriasis versicolor topically. Options include propylene glycol, ketoconazole shampoo, zinc pyrithione shampoo, ciclopiroxamine, selenium sulfide, and topical antifungals. In difficult cases, short term treatment with fluconazole or itraconazole is effective and well tolerated. To avoid recurrence a prophylactic treatment regimen is mandatory. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by red scaly lesions predominantly located on the scalp, face and upper trunk. There are now many studies indicating that Malassezia plays an important role in this condition. Even a normal number of Malassezia will start an inflammatory reaction. Mild corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. However, the disease recurs quickly, often within just a few days. Antifungal therapy is effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and, because it reduces the number of Malassezia, the time to recurrence is increased compared with treatment with corticosteroids. Antifungal therapy should be the primary treatment of this disease.
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The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis in Middle Anatolia. Between February 2000 and April 2000, a school survey of 4760 primary school children was carried out and 34 cases of tinea capitis were clinically diagnosed. Sixteen (0.3%) of them were diagnosed both clinically and using culture. Eighteen cases (52.9%) were diagnosed microscopically whereas the remaining 16 cases (47.0%) had a clinical diagnose. We also isolated and identified the following species of fungi causing the infection: Trichophyton verrucosum (five cases), T. rubrum (three), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (three), Microsporum canis (three) and T. tonsurans (two). We detected a higher rate of infection than that of the country's average. Ziel unserer Studie war die Bestimmung der Prävalenz von Tinea capitis in Mittelanatolien. In einer Schule mit 4760 Grundschulschülern wurden 34 Fälle von Tinea capitis klinisch diagnostiziert. 16 (0.3%) Tinea capitis-Infektionen wurden klinisch und mikrobiologisch diagnostiziert. Mikroskopisch wurden 18 positive Fälle (52.9%) festgestellt, 16 Fälle wurden klinisch diagnostiziert. Trichopyton verrucosum (5 Fälle), T. rubrum (3), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (3), Microsporum canis (3) und T. tonsurans (2). Die von uns bestimmte Prävalenz lag höher als die des Landesdurchschnitts.
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Pityriasis versicolor is a mild or chronic condition characterized by scaly hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions usually affecting the trunk. The lesions vary depending on tropical or temperate climates. The disease seems to occur mainly at adolescence when the sebaceous glands are more active. Malassezia yeasts have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. The mycelial form of the fungus has been suggested to be the cause of lesions. Antifungal preparations have been used to treat the initial presentation effectively, although in a proportion of patients the disease tends to reoccur. They are available in a wide range of formulations and have been shown to be safe.
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Propolis has strong antioxidative activity. We investigated here whether this activity was available in intestinal Caco-2 and hepatic HepG2 cells. Phenolics in Brazilian propolis, extracted with ethyl acetate after the removal of resin and wax with 90% methanol, included artepillin C at 21 mmol/100 g, p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid relatives 24mmol, kaempferol and its derivatives 9.4 mmol, naringenin 2.8 mmol, isosakuranetin 0.9 mmol, chrysin at 0.8 mmol/100 g, and several minor components. When the extract was added to the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers, artepillin C was specifically incorporated into the cells and released to the basolateral side mostly without conjugation. Then, artepillin C was added to HepG2 cells and exposed to reactive oxygens. Artepillin C prevented oxidative damage dose-dependently, and suppressed lipid peroxidation evaluated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances by 16% and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA by 36% at a concentration of 20microM. Artepillin C is a bioavailable antioxidant.
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To evaluate the possible role of honey, olive oil and beeswax in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Thirty-seven patients with pityriasis versicolor, tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea faciei were studied. After clinical evaluation of redness, scaling, pruritus and burning/pain sensation and mycological assessment, honey mixture containing honey, olive oil and beeswax (1:1:1) was applied to the lesions three times daily for a maximum of 4 weeks. Clinical response was obtained in 86% of patients with pityriasis versicolor, 78% of patients with tinea cruris and in 75% of patients with tinea corporis. Mycological cure was obtained in 75, 71 and 62% of patients with PV, tinea cruris and tinea corporis, respectively. The patient with tinea faciei showed clinical and mycological cure 3 weeks after commencement of therapy. Honey mixture may have place in the management of these skin conditions and rigorous, controlled trials are justified.
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The in vitro activities of propolis against 29 strains of dermatophytes were compared with those of terbinafine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined according to a National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution method. Among the systemic antifungals tested, terbinafine was the most potent. Propolis showed important antifungal activity and it merits further investigation as a potentially useful agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.
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Propolis is a natural product derived from plant resins collected by honeybees. It is used by bees as glue, a general-purpose sealer, and as draught-extruder for beehives. Propolis has been used in folk medicine for centuries. It is known that propolis possesses anti-microbial, antioxidative, anti-ulcer and anti-tumor activities. Therefore, propolis has attracted much attention in recent years as a useful or potential substance used in medicine and cosmetics products. Furthermore, it is now extensively used in foods and beverages with the claim that it can maintain or improve human health. The chemical composition of propolis is quite complicated. More than 300 compounds such as polyphenols, phenolic aldehydes, sequiterpene quinines, coumarins, amino acids, steroids and inorganic compounds have been identified in propolis samples. The contents depend on the collecting location, time and plant source. Consequently, biological activities of propolis gathered from different phytogeographical areas and time periods vary greatly. In this review, the activity of bee propolis will be presented with special emphasis on the antitumor activity.
Article
The in vitro activity of a new triazole R126638 against Malassezia yeasts was compared with that of ketoconazole. With the agar dilution technique, minimal inhibitory concentrations were lower for R126638 compared with ketoconazole against Malassezia globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta and two strains of M. sympodialis. On human stratum corneum in vitro, both R126638 and ketoconazole were very effective in reducing the production of hyphae from 15% to 1% with R126638 and to 2% with ketoconazole. Scanning electron microscopy did not reveal obvious surface differences between untreated cultures and cultures exposed to ketoconazole or R126638 in the concentration range 0.01-1 microg/ml. However, transmission electron microscopy showed partial to complete necrosis of the cytoplasmic organelles of Malassezia yeasts. The combined scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy findings confirm earlier observations of the "mummifying" effect of azoles against Malassezia spp. In conclusion, R126638 is an interesting new triazole with high activity against the Malassezia yeasts, which are involved in pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis.
Standardization of propolis: present sta-tus and perspectives Available from: http://www.jaas.org.uk/articles/ standardization-of-propolis-present-and-perspectives
  • V Bankova
  • Marcucci
  • Mc
Bankova V, Marcucci MC. Standardization of propolis: present sta-tus and perspectives. Available from: http://www.jaas.org.uk/articles/ standardization-of-propolis-present-and-perspectives [Cited 30.09.11].