Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries

Chapter (PDF Available)inAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology 25:1-65 · December 1992with 14,928 Reads 
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DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6 ·
Publisher: Academic Press, pp.1-65
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Abstract
Publisher Summary This chapter addresses the universals in the content and structure of values, concentrating on the theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, and its four basic issues: substantive contents of human values; identification of comprehensive set of values; extent to which the meaning of particular values was equivalent for different groups of people; and how the relations among different values was structured. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues. Ten motivationally distinct value types that were likely to be recognized within and across cultures and used to form value priorities were identified. Set of value types that was relatively comprehensive, encompassing virtually all the types of values to which individuals attribute at least moderate importance as criteria of evaluation was demonstrated. The evidence from 20 countries was assembled, showing that the meaning of the value types and most of the single values that constitute them was reasonably equivalent across most groups. Two basic dimensions that organize value systems into an integrated motivational structure with consistent value conflicts and compatibilities were discovered. By identifying universal aspects of value content and structure, the chapter has laid the foundations for investigating culture-specific aspects in the future.
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  • ... In time management, in nature-human-environment relations, in mutual relationship management, in behavioral motivation, values that arise in different dimensions become factors. Roceach (1979), Hofstede (2001) and Schwartz (1992) conducted pioneering studies to understand what the basic human values are, how the measurement can be performed, and the similarities and differences between people from different cultures (Hills, 2002). Hofstede defines values as belief standards determined by individuals in the distinction between right and wrong. ...
    ... Values are defined as desired aims which exist as guiding principles in the lives of individuals or other social entities, have different important levels, and maintain validity in different situations. Schwartz (1992Schwartz ( , 2006 highlighted six main characteristics which were also involved in different theoretical studies, in the value theory he created (Schwartz, Basic Human Values: Theory, Measurement, and Applications, 2006).  Values are the beliefs that are strongly connected to emotions. ...
    ... On the other hand, environmental factors are also important in the formation of many other personal values (Özkalp & Kırel, 2004). According to value theorists (Schwartz, 1992), "values" show a structure according to the perspectives owned by individuals when evaluating the assets, events, and phenomena around them. Value priorities of individuals can be measured. ...
  • ... The values of the entrepreneurs has been considered particularly important in driving and enabling their actions, because values impact behaviour through their influence on cognition and attitudes (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2005;Rokeach, 1973;Schwartz, 1992). Therefore, understanding what values are the most salient can help explain why individuals are attached to sustainability and create SOHOs in the first place (Gagnon, 2012). ...
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