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Abstract

The centrality of values in cross-cultural research has more than doubled over the last three decades. This Special Issue investigates values across cultures and focuses on two main levels: individual and national. At the individual level, values express broad, trans-situational motivational goals, affecting individuals’ interpretation of situations, preferences, choices, and actions. At the national level, values reflect the solutions groups develop in response to existential challenges and relate to the way social institutions function. The authors review the role of values at each level and present eight articles included in the special issue, showing the value of values in cross-cultural research.

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... Os valores são crenças que guiam ações e julgamentos por meio de situações e objetivos específicos, além daqueles imediatos, para estados finais de existência mais profundos (ROKEACH, 1968). No nível pessoal, os valores expressam as metas motivacionais e permitem a interpretação das ações dos indivíduos (KNAFO et al., 2011). ...
... Em um sistema de valores, os valores são priorizados em uma pessoa a partir da intensidade com que ocorrem e do desejo do indivíduo. Cada pessoa possui seu sistema característico de valores, originário de experiências particulares com os agentes que afetam suas vidas, como ambiente cultural, família, dentre outros (TAMAYO, 2007a;KNAFO et al., 2011). ...
... Os valores que governam os seres humanos são de difícil definição, mas residem, de forma íntima no centro do que realmente são as pessoas (KNAFO et al., 2011). Rokeach (1968) sugere que o indivíduo, com o tempo e o desenvolvimento da maturidade, se aprimora no processo de aprendizagem dos valores pessoais, até mesmo por competição, mas também por influência da expectativa social (KOOPMANN-HOLM; MATSUMOTO, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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O estudo dos valores é utilizado para esclarecer entendimentos sobre atitudes e ações das pessoas, o funcionamento das organizações e sociedades, como preditor do comportamento humano, característica que afeta o planejamento de longo prazo na vida de um indivíduo. A discussão sobre os valores pessoais para o desenvolvimento de um planejamento estratégico pessoal deve se pautar sobre um instrumento de mensuração de valores confiável, testado e validado, que possa apresentar valores universais. O Modelo das Decisões Axiológicas foi desenvolvido para auxiliar orientadores de carreira (coaches) a identificar e hierarquizar metas de planejamento de longo prazo em um processo de orientação. Palavras-chave: Planejamento Estratégico Pessoal; Planejamento de Vida; Coaching; Planejamento Profissional.
... Cultural differences may also influence hearing aid adoption. In mainland China where collectivism influences individual beliefs, values, and preferences, the journey to hearing aid adoption is expected to differ from societies where individualism is more prominent (Hofstede 2010;Knafo, Roccas, and Sagiv 2011;Zhao et al. 2015). Research on other disorders (rheumatoid arthritis and mental health problems) suggests that populations characterised by collectivism are less likely to seek help and are less able to deal with disease conditions than those from individualistic societies (Chen and Mak 2008;Devins et al. 2009). ...
... Theme one shows that although participants expected a cure, they did not ask the ENTs for an explanation when being informed that the hearing loss could not be cured. Cultural differences can affect beliefs, preferences, and choices in health help-seeking, including hearing aid adoption (Hofstede 2010;Knafo, Roccas, and Sagiv 2011;Zhao et al. 2015). Institutional power and hierarchical patient-doctor relationships are ingrained in the Chinese culture (Fan 2000). ...
Article
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Objective This study aimed to explore barriers to hearing aid adoption amongst older adults in mainland China. Design Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. Study sample The study included 12 older adults who had seen ENTs and had not adopted hearing aids. Results Three overarching themes and ten subthemes were generated to explain why older adults in mainland China do not adopt hearing aids: (1) Desire a cure for hearing loss, (2) Lack of a perceived need for hearing aids, and (3) Negative impressions of, and misconceptions about, hearing aids. Conclusion Although barriers are similar to those reported in Western societies, the under-developed hearing healthcare infrastructure, Chinese health beliefs, Chinese culture, and low health literacy play important roles in preventing older adults to adopt hearing aids in mainland China. To identify barriers to hearing aid adoption and address them, hearing health practitioners should learn what older adults know about their hearing loss, how they perceive the effects of hearing loss, and how they feel about hearing aids.
... In his seminal work, Shalom Schwartz presented a perspective on the nature and structure and functions of human values which is undoubtedly one of the most influential in psychology, in general, and in cross-cultural psychology, in particular. Looking back at only the first decade of the 2000s in publications in the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (JCCP), Knafo et al. (2011) found that about 20% of the articles published between the years 2007 and 2009 referred to values, while in the 1970s and 1980s, less than 8% of JCCP articles dealt directly with values. In Schwartz' (1992) theory, values are a motivational construct and motivational by nature. ...
... Designed in this way, human values are important constructs in the psychosocial concepts that are considered central to the prediction of attitudes and behaviors, including for the understanding of phenomena that humanities and social sciences are interested in studying. Knafo et al. (2011), in identifying Schwartz as a leader in understanding values, remind readers that Schwartz adopted a cross-cultural perspective both in the design of the theory and in its empirical test. Schwartz (1992) considers values as a universal requirement of human existence and, by proposing the theory, transformed the mere study of a list of values into a sound theory, which has been used to investigate behaviors, such as customer behavior (Voorn et al., 2021), political behavior (Tatarko, 2017), conservation behavior (Barbarossa et al., 2017), and participation in sports (Cabrera, 2008); to predict attitudinal variables, such as job satisfaction (Froese & Xiao, 2012) and organizational commitment (Glazer et al., 2004); and to study the relations with personality variables, such as social dominance , authoritarianism (Radkiewicz, 2016), Big-5 (Athota & O'Connor, 2014), and several other variables in the organizational context, like trust (Morselli et al., 2012) and well-being (Sagiv et al., 2015), to name a few. ...
Chapter
We will critically review and discuss some broader trends in the literature regarding measurement in organizational behavior research. Our comments will center around three core interrelated points. First, the increasing use of wearable technology and big data is opening up new avenues for measuring organizational behavior constructs. Second, we will discuss network models as one of the conceptual and statistical innovations that arose out of the big data revolution and highlight their potential impact on organizational theory and measurement. Third, greater attention to cross-cultural issues is needed in a more global working environment. All these points are linked, and bringing these various points back together, we will engage with more conceptual questions about the nature and future of organizational behavior measures.
... When students gave reasons against reporting, statements about not caring were exceedingly rare. Study 2 confirmed the influential role students' reasons had in guiding their decisions (Ajzen, 1985(Ajzen, , 1988Ajzen & Fishbein, 2005;Dahl et al., 2018;Knafo et al., 2011;Schwartz, 2012;Turiel, 2003). ...
... Relations between judgments and actions have received a great deal of theoretical and empirical attention (Blasi, 1980;Thoma, 1994;Stephens, 2018;Turiel, 2003;Waltzer et al., 2019). Previous research has found that people's judgments and values largely guide their behaviors (Ajzen, 1985(Ajzen, , 1988(Ajzen, , 1991Ajzen & Fishbein, 2005;Knafo et al., 2011;Schwartz, 2012). However, in Study 2, most students (55%) seemingly contradicted themselves by saying they should report but would not report. ...
Article
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Nearly all students believe academic cheating is wrong, yet few students say they would report witnessed acts of cheating. To explain this apparent tension, the present research examined college students’ reasoning about whether to report plagiarism or other forms of cheating. Study 1 examined students’ conflicts when deciding whether to report cheating. Most students gave reasons against reporting a peer (e.g., social and physical consequences, a lack of responsibility to report) as well as reasons in favor of reporting (e.g., concerns about welfare, justice, and fairness). Study 2 provided experimental confirmation that the contextual factors referenced by Study 1 participants in fact influenced decisions about whether to report cheating. Overall, the findings indicate that students often decide against reporting peers’ acts of cheating, though not due to a lack of concern about integrity. Rather, students may refrain from reporting because of conflicting concerns, lack of information about school policy, and perceived better alternatives to reporting.
... The vision of values, associated with goals or ambitions, are discussed by Rokeach (1973); Schwartz (2006) and Knafo Et al. (2011). Nonetheless, an alternative array is presented by Lewi (1952) apud Rohan (2000), inferring that values are not goals, that the individual does not try to achieve them, but rather are considered the driving force of one's decisions, thus can be regarded as guides of one's behavior. ...
... In practical terms, inferred to Knafo Et al. (2011), values command the human being, are difficult to understand and reside in an unconscious and very intimate place in the human mind. In Porto and Tamayo's (2007) opinion, value has a very broad nature when aimed at the general context of life or is very specific when directed towards certain contexts such as work, family, and religion. ...
Article
The present study aimed to identify the hierarchy of work values from higher education students in the areas of health and business management. The study used the Labor Values Scale (LVS), from Porto and Tamayo (2003) as a research and diagnostic tool. The study sample consisted of 335 students from a private college from the areas of health and business, aged over 17 years. The results show that the priority of values begins with stability, followed by fulfilment at work.
... stable, attributes for a person. As it was previously mentioned, they are consistent in time and within situations, and some value change may however occur in response to significant changes in personal circumstances and the societal environment (Knafo et al., 2011). Contrary to preferences, personal values do not have any connection with a particular situation, time or product. ...
... (Norgaard, 1994, p.41 cited in Munda, 1997 Hence, another value classification aroused in literature is cultural values, which include beliefs, motives and ideas about what is desirable for particular social and cultural groups of people (Overby et al., 2005;Allen and Ng, 1999). In Swartz classificationfurther extension of his personal value research (Knafo et al., 2011) cultural values are defined as nation-level values, which largely explain the variation in societal rules, norms, practices and policies across countries. ...
Thesis
L’objectif de cette thèse est d’analyser les différents types de valeurs qui déterminent et expliquent les choix et comportements des consommateurs avec une attention particulière pour les produits innovants. Plus particulièrement, on cherche à déterminer leurs consentements à payer pour des produits innovants avec des caractéristiques durables d’une part, et comment les préférences du consommateur et les caractéristiques du produit interviennent dans le processus de la prise de la décision d’autre part. Dans le premier chapitre, nous affirmons que les préférences individuelles sont reflétées dans leurs consentements à payer pour un produit / service et sont basées sur les valeurs individuelles. Ces valeurs sont stables pour chaque individu, guident ses préférences et ses actions en tant qu'individu (valeurs personnelles) et en tant qu'agent économique (valeurs client et consommateur). En se focalisant sur la consommation de produits innovants et durables, cette thèse aborde également les valeurs environnementales et innovantes. L'analyse des valeurs pour les produits innovants est d'une grande importance pour les entreprises, car elle permet d'anticiper les préférences et leurs changements, et par là même, elle contribue à la définition des priorités dans les processus de développement de nouvelles offres de produits. Les systèmes complexes de ces valeurs entraînent des défis particuliers pour l'estimation, qui sont discutés dans le chapitre 2. Notamment, l'exactitude des estimations du CAP dépend du choix de la méthode utilisée par le chercheur. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les consommateurs ont une valorisation positive de produits innovants avec des caractéristiques durables. Ces valorisations sont basées sur les préférences des consommateurs et ses valeurs personnelles et de consommateur. Les études empiriques présentées dans les chapitres 3 et 4 proposent deux approches expérimentales qui contribuent à la compréhension des comportements des consommateurs à l'égard de produits innovants et à la compréhension des difficultés et défis des méthodes expérimentales d'élicitation de préférences pour ces produits/services. En outre, ils démontrent la validité du concept des valeurs dans le comportement des consommateurs.
... The generation of bottom-up characteristics potentially undermines this rationale, and thus scholars may elect to more simply augment these existing models with more contemporary understandings of culture. Here, Hofstede et al.'s (2019) extended cultural typology may prove useful, in which scholars have drawn on data conducted through thousands of surveys across the world for over twenty years and utilised a multifactor analysis to generate six value dimensions of culture which might be used to augment, extend or potentially replace the GGCT model (for alternatives, see for example Schwartz 1994;Knafo, Roccas and Sagiv 2011). While many of these dimensions (individualistic/ collectivistic, masculine/ feminine, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, time perspective, indulgence/restraint) are already captured within the GGCT model, the inclusion of additional provisions, or the uncoupling of all dimensions from the four rigid cultural typologies may provide for a more nuanced approach to understanding cultural delineations of peace. ...
... However, individuals' values are flexible and adaptive systems that can respond and change in response to external circumstances such as global critical events (Bojanowska et al., 2021;Bardi et al., 2009). Some studies (e.g., Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al., 2021;Tartakovsky, 2017;Rudnev, 2014) suggest that value preferences influence migration decisions and that migrants' values are likely to change after emigrating to a culturally different country Values can be explored at individual and societal levels (Knafo et al., 2011). In this paper, however, the focus is on the individual level, where values can be described as values that express the general motivational goals of a person in different situations (Rokeach, 1973). ...
Article
This article aims to investigate the interest of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) in working virtually for their country of origin and its relationship to the values of the individual. This research contributes to our understanding of the interest in working virtually for the country of origin and its relationships to universal values. The analysis is based on a quantitative study conducted with 1,970 SIEs from Lithuania. More than half of the respondents were willing to work virtually for their country of origin. Moreover, higher motivation influences the willingness to work virtually. Positive correlations were found between collectivist and individualist values and willingness to work virtually for the country of origin and between individualist values and economic motivation. The study is based solely on self-reports of their subjective values and opinions and refers to the case of expatriates from a single country.
... Values have characteristics that can guide the behavior of the individual while defining society and the individual on the one hand (Balaman, 2015). Values guide people in society about what behavior is good and true (Knafo, Roccas & Sagiv, 2011). ...
Article
In this study, teacher opinions were taken about the availability of digital storytelling in preschool values education. 7 pre-school teachers participated in the study, which was a phenomenology from qualitative research patterns. A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed by content analysis method. At the end of the analysis the themes such as "Supportive material effect of digital storytelling", "Disadvantages in the use of digital storytelling", "Comparison of digital storytelling with traditional education" were obtained. In addition results such as “digital storytelling contributes positively to preschoolers gaining values”, “students are interested in the fact that digital stories are audio and video compared to traditional education”, “inability to use materials in case of lack of technological devices necessary for the preparation and presentation of materials” were reached.
... This congruent/conflict structure is used by Schwartz (1992) to organize his 10 values into higher-order value types of self-transcendence opposing self-enhancement and openness to change opposing conservation. While the circumplex aspect of the model has been shown to vary in how consistently it is reproduced in intraindividual value rankings of people from different countries (Gollan & Witte, 2014), the broader validity of the model has received extensive validation in its application to the analysis of individuals' values (Knafo, Roccas, & Sagiv, 2011). 2600 Chambers, Notley, Dezuanni, and Park International Journal of Communication 16(2022) Schwartz, 1992, p. 45). ...
Article
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Media literacy is often described as an approach that can be used to address pressing public concerns ranging from combating misinformation to supporting citizens' full participation in society. What is little understood, however, is the importance people give to the role of media literacy in their own lives. Drawing on data from a representative survey of Australian adults, this article examines the importance given to 14 media literacy abilities that are often the focus of media literacy programs. Incorporating Schwartz's framework of motivational values into our analysis, we find that the specific media literacy abilities people identify as important are generally closely aligned with the underlying values they prioritize in their lives. Furthermore, people's values offer more predictive power than sociodemographic characteristics when it comes to understanding the importance people place on specific media literacy outcomes. The article argues that by understanding how and why people respond differently to the goals of media literacy, educators can design more appealing and effective media literacy interventions. Around the world, governments, policy makers, public institutions, and educators have called for increased support for media literacy as a way to address pressing public concerns about a range of issues such as supporting social justice, increasing civic participation, developing creative competencies, challenging radicalization and hate speech, and combating misinformation
... Organizational values constitute the main research elements of organizational culture (Bourne & Jenkins, 2013;Knafo et al., 2011;Zander et al., 2016). Values explain what the organization stands for, what it believes in, and therefore values guide organizational behavior and decisions (Bourne et al., 2019;Esmaeili et al., 2020;Malbašić et al., 2015). ...
Article
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In order to analyze the role of humility in organizational culture, in this work, companies that formally declared humility as a value on their home pages were chosen, as to understand the internalization of this value in their practices and behaviors. The research adopted a descriptive‐analytical design with a qualitative approach, and in addition to secondary data referring to the organizational profile, fourteen semi‐structured interviews were analyzed with the decision‐making elite of the seven chosen organizations, based on theoretical‐deductive categories of the construct identified in the organizational literature. The study identified that the value of humility is effectively present in behaviors and practices of these organizations, which develop a culture of humility in their daily lives. The main results indicate that the internalized value of humility is associated with (i) shared behaviors; (ii) clear self‐assessment of strengths and weaknesses; (iii) culture of innovation; (iv) awareness of their own limitations; (v) support for third‐party contributions and feedback practices (vi) employee learning; (vii) culture of praise. The results reinforced the main categories and constructs for a Humble Organizational Culture (HOC) Model, opening opportunities for future research that explore the elaboration of cultural maturity diagnoses and humility measurement instruments in the organizational field.
... The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) is a reliable and valid measure that has been widely used in cross-cultural psychology research across multiple national samples allowing for meaningful cross-country comparisons (Davidov et al., 2008;Knafo et al., 2011;Schwartz & Rubel, 2005;. Values measured with SVS are associated with a multitude of attitudinal (Piurko et al., 2011;Schwartz & Huismans, 1995), decision-mak ing (Feather, 1995(Feather, , 2002, and behavioral (Bardi & Schwartz, 2003;Brunsø et al., 2004;Knafo et al., 2008; variables, thus convincingly demonstrating the high predictive power of this relatively simple model. ...
Article
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Managerial positions involve influencing others, hence the importance of studying the standards guiding managers' attitudes, decisions, and behavior. Drawing on structural theories and psychological findings on the effects of subjective social status, we predict that holding a managerial position is related to individual value structure via self-perceived social rank of those in managerial positions. We argue that holding a managerial position is associated positively with prioritizing values reflecting personal focus (self-enhancement and openness to change value types) and, as a consequence, negatively with prioritizing values reflecting social focus (self-transcendence and conservation value types). Using data from the European Social Survey 2012 (N = 48,105) from 29 countries, we found a mediating effect of subjective social status between holding a managerial position and personal versus social focus not moderated by the country context. We discuss the implications of these findings for psychological theories of social hierarchy and managerial practice.
... However, openness to change HOVs had a negative relation with the dependent variables only for security attitudes and only for civilians. There is a growing interest in the psychology of values and a growing recognition of the need for a deeper understanding of the ways in which values are embedded in our attitudes and perception Knafo et al. 2011). It has been indicated manners of how values can be modified to elicit different behaviors and attitudes (e.g., Maio 2017), all such manners based on three organizing principles: accessibility, interpretation, and control (Sagiv and Roccas 2021). ...
Article
Studies on crime and parking facilities also appear to have a strong focus on car theft with small emphasis on psychological and cognitive variables to investigate potential crimes in this environment. Furthermore, there is limited literature on such crimes in South America, particularly in Brazil. This study has the objective of offering an instrument to assess risk perception in public and private parking lots of free circulation, as well as to understand and describe how individual values influence this variable regarding civilians' and police officers' perception of hazards present in free circulation public and private parking lots. A psychometrically valid risk perception and security attitude scale is presented. The scores of the two groups were predicted by human values. It was observed a mapping of risk situations in parking lots, as well as attitudes that can prevent crimes. Implications for the development of social public safety policies are discussed. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11896-022-09511-z.
... It is well-known that values connect individuals to their society and determine what is good, right and desirable (Knafo et al., 2011). Values that determine consumers' choice of green products differ across emerging and developing countries. ...
Article
Purpose Today, the global market for “clean” vehicles is generating double-digit growth annually. However, in most emerging or Islamic countries, sales of such cars remain at a very low level and green consumption patterns are poorly explored. This paper aims to expand the understanding of factors influencing attitudes and behaviors toward electric vehicle in an emerging Islamic country, namely, Saudi Arabia. It investigates whether the willingness of Saudis to purchase electric vehicles depends on religious and ethical considerations. The effects of environmental concern, Islamic and some personal values (self-transcendence and conservation) on green vehicle purchase intention were considered. Design/methodology/approach The literature review is predominantly of studies on emerging or Islamic countries. A convenience sampling method was used, and a total of 354 valid questionnaires were collected. An exploratory factor analysis under the principal component analysis was used to reveal the factor structure underlying the items in the questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis on Lisrel helped to assess the validity of the measurement models. The causal relationships of the research framework were measured using simultaneous equation modeling. Findings The results suggest that Islamic Values (IsV) and Conservation (Cv) values do not influence environmental concern (EC) or Electric Vehicle Purchase Intention (EVPI). On the contrary, self-transcendence values (ST) exerted a significant influence on EVPI and the mediation of EC in this relationship was supported. Research limitations/implications The theoretical framework provides a better understanding of how customers evaluate electric vehicles and the factors underlying their attitudes and behaviors toward such products in an Islamic and emerging market. The results suggest that consumers’ intentions to purchase electric vehicles are not driven by Islam or conservation values (conformity, tradition and security). Nevertheless, subjects for whom self-transcendence is an important value that guides their lives showed a higher willingness to purchase electric vehicles. This research also confirmed that EC is predictive of EVPI. Practical implications Marketers should focus on values of self-transcendence, which are benevolence and universalism, to influence electric vehicle purchase intention in Saudi Arabia. Neither Islamic nor conservation values are useful in this regard. However, managers and authorities are advised to establish a link between Islam and environmental awareness and behavior. Marketing communication and religious preachers should point out the commandments of Islam which stand for the preservation of nature. The authors concluded that much more should be done on the part of scholars to obtain a satisfactory understanding of green behavior in the Islamic world. Although green vehicles are rarely used there, these markets hold great sales potential for such products. Originality/value Little is known about consumer attitudes and behavior toward green products in Islamic countries. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first study to investigate whether Islamic and some personal values are related to environmental concern and electric vehicle purchase intention. The results showed that EC and EVPI depend on ST. The causal model indices for IsV and Cv were not significant.
... Values are widely studied in social psychology by Inglehart and Welzel (2005), Knafo, Roccas andSagiv (2011), Osbeck, (2019), Schwartz (2008), Schwartz andBilsky (1987), Yanitsky et al. (2019). ...
... Cultural differences highlight how individual's actions and practices vary among different countries in accordance to their respective cultural values. 27 The percentage of PHL seeking help for their hearing loss varies across different countries. 9,28 For example, in a Eurotrak survey, 48% of PHL sought help and adopted a hearing aid as opposed to only 14% in Japan. ...
Conference Paper
Abstract This study examined the social representation of hearing loss and hearing aids in people with hearing loss (PHL) in India, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom and the United States using Social Representation Theory. The study helps to understand collective view of PHL about hearing loss and hearing aids. The results will aid to develop culutrally appropriate public education campaigns, marketing material and appropriate rehabilitation for PHL with the aim to reduce delay in seeking help and improve hearing aid adoption. Summary Background and Objective: Despite the negative consequences of hearing loss, people with hearing loss (PHL) wait about 10 years before seeking professional help and adopt hearing aid. Much of the knowledge in hearing help-seeking and hearing aid adoption have used attitude theories and stigma theory. However, the strategies developed based on these theories have not resulted in any substantial improvements to help-seeking behavior. Thus, it is essential to consider alternative theories (e.g., Theory of Social Representations) which have been successfully used in disability research to better understand how PHL perceives hearing loss and hearing aids to improve help seeking ad hearing aid adoption. The aim of the current study was to examine the social representation of hearing loss and hearing aids in PHL in India, Republic of Korea (ROK), United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Social representation refers to values, practices, customs, ideas, and beliefs that are shared between individuals in a society or group. Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. 424 participants were recruited using a consecutive sampling method in four countries (India, ROK, UK and US). Data was collected using a free association task self-reported questionnaire and analyzed using qualitative (i.e., content analysis) and quantitative (similarities analysis, prototypical analysis, and Chi-square analysis) techniques. Results: The free associations of the PHL relating to hearing loss were grouped into 37 categories. The most commonly reported categories were ‘communication difficulties,’ ‘negative mental state,’ ‘ageing,’ ‘assessment and management,’ ‘causes of hearing loss,’ ‘hearing ability or disability,’ ‘hearing instruments,’ and ‘symptoms of hearing loss.’ Similarities analysis and prototypical analysis highlighted two main negative categories ‘negative mental state’ and ‘communication difficulties’ which form the central elements of social representation of hearing loss. PHL associated hearing loss mainly as a negative phenomenon but with some positive and neutral aspects. ROK respondents reported a greater number of neutral associations compared to other countries. In terms of the hearing aids, the free associations were grouped into 45 categories. The frequently reported categories across all countries were ‘beneficial,’ ‘cost and time’ and ‘appearance and design.’ Approximately 50% of the associations reported were negative. There were variations in terms of the categories that were predominant in the social representation of each country. ‘Others' actions and attitude’ category was predominantly reported by PHL in India. ‘Disturbance’ and ‘dissatisfaction’ of hearing aids and the ‘repairs and maintenance of hearing aids’ categories were mainly reported from the ROK and the US, respectively. Overall, there were cross cultural similarities and differences in PHL’s social representation of hearing loss and hearing aids, although more similarities than differences were noted. Conclusions: The study provides an insight into how PHL collectively view hearing loss and hearing aids. We believe that these findings will help to develop our understanding of the influence of culture on the social representation of hearing loss and hearing aids. The results will aid the development of culturally appropriate public education campaigns, marketing material and appropriate rehabilitation for PHL with the aim to improve help-seeking and hearing aid adoption.
... Values are interrelated and form systems or hierarchies (Hofstede, 2001, p. 6). Cultural values have a significant role in the functioning of societies and their social institutions (Knafo et al., 2011). They are the standards that determine action (de Mooij, 2017), guide the way individuals, policymakers, and groups select, evaluate, and explain their conduct. ...
Article
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This study investigated the relationship between cultural value orientations and country-specific changes in mobility during the Covid-19 pandemic. The aim was to understand how cultural values relate to mobility behavior during the initial stages of the pandemic. The aggregated data include Schwartz's cultural orientations, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, number of Covid-19 cases per million, and mobility change during the Covid-19 pandemic (Google Mobility Reports; percentage decrease in retail and recreation mobility, transit station mobility, workplace mobility and percentage mobility increase in residential areas). Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for economy and severity of disease, hierarchy was the primary factor reducing mobility, such as staying at home, and mobility in public spaces, such as avoiding retail and recreation sites (marginally significant). The results are discussed in the light of previous literature and the implications for social distancing measures.
... Cultural differences highlight how individual's actions and practices vary among different countries in accordance to their respective cultural values. 27 The percentage of PHL seeking help for their hearing loss varies across different countries. 9,28 For example, in a Eurotrak survey, 48% of PHL sought help and adopted a hearing aid as opposed to only 14% in Japan. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine the social representation (SR) of hearing aids in people with hearing loss (PHL) in India, the Republic of Korea (ROK), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (US). Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The data collected by using a free association task were analysed qualitatively (i.e. content analysis) and quantitatively (i.e. chi-square analysis, similarities analysis, prototypical analysis). Study sample: 424 participants with hearing loss. Results: The most commonly reported categories across all countries were "beneficial," "cost and time," and "appearance and design." Approximately 50% of the associations reported were negative. There were variations in terms of the categories that were predominant in the SR of each country. "Others actions and attitude" category was predominantly reported by PHL in India. "Disturbance" and "dissatisfaction" of hearing aids and the "repairs and maintenance of hearing aids" categories were mainly reported from the ROK and the US, respectively. Conclusions: The current results highlight the main aspects that PHL report spontaneously when they think about hearing aids. The findings will help to further inform public health campaigns and will contribute to develop culturally appropriate media materials regarding hearing aids.
... Values may be considered as general beliefs about desirable or undesirable goals, worldview, and ways of behaving in everyday life that vary in importance and that serve as a guiding principle in one's own life (Corey et al., 2003;Schwartz, 1992). That is, values summarize the way people perceive and interpret the society all around as well as their everyday attitudes, preferences and actions (Knafo et al., 2011). In 1992, Schwartz conceived an organization of basic values into a coherent structure based on the social and psychological conflict or congruity between them that people experience every day and that should explain individual decision-making, attitudes, and behaviors . ...
Article
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By considering the theory of basic values, several studies have considered the different underlying value patterns of social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Recently, the value theory has been developed into a finer set of conceptually distinct values. Specifically, the same key assumptions have been retained, but 19 instead of 10 motivationally distinct values have been distinguished. The aim of the present research is to analyze the relationship between ideological and value orientations, using the refined theory of basic values. In line with previous studies, it was hypothesized that SDO would be mainly placed on the self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence value opposition, while RWA on that of the conservation vs. openness to change. Results on two hundred participants confirm the hypotheses. In particular, dominant people are characterized by a sense of superiority, supremacy, and unfairness, while authoritarian people by the perception of social instability and passive conformism with rules and laws. Moreover, by considering the underlying dimensions of both RWA and SDO, our results provide evidence of some differences existing in their mirror on specific value priorities.
... In our approach, reliance on value -attitudes relations allows us to indirectly assess, how people see the Olympics. Values are abstract ideas of what is good, right, and desirable (Schwartz, 1992;Knafo et al., 2011), they define what people are concerned about (Schwartz et al., 2000) and provide motivations of why they evaluate events and objects in one or another way (Schwartz, 1992). Attitudes, on the other hand, are defined as such evaluations of objects with a degree of favor or disfavor (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993). ...
Article
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In modern Russia, the Olympic Games are associated with nationalism. However, an opportunity to experience nationalistic pride may not be the only reason for people to like the event. The philosophy of Olympism portrays sport as an instrument to promote universal solidarity and internationalism, which could also be at the center of peoples' preferences. Moreover, the longstanding sportive past of the USSR may have resulted in a perception of the event as something that is valued as a tradition. This study tests which of these facets dominate the perception of the Olympic Games among Russians. We operationalize the three facets through the conceptually relevant values of Power, Universalism, and Tradition (Schwartz, 1992) and use a survey (N=421) to test how values of people relate to their attitudes towards the Olympics. The results show that preferences based on Nationalism, Olympism, and Tradition coexist and attract people with different value priorities
... Cultural differences highlight how individual's actions and practices vary among different countries in accordance to their respective cultural values. 27 The percentage of PHL seeking help for their hearing loss varies across different countries. 9,28 For example, in a Eurotrak survey, 48% of PHL sought help and adopted a hearing aid as opposed to only 14% in Japan. ...
Article
Background Hearing loss can have an effect on the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive wellbeing of an individual. Despite the research on attitudes and stigma associated with hearing loss, people with hearing loss (PHL) continue to delay seeking help. Thus, it is vital to look at alternative theories which have been successfully used in disability research to better understand how PHL perceive hearing loss. Purpose The aim of the current exploratory study was to examine the social representation (SR) of “hearing loss” in PHL in India, Republic of Korea (ROK), United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Research Design The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Study Sample In this study, 424 participants were recruited using a consecutive sampling method in four countries (India, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, and United States). Data Collection and Analysis Data collection was conducted using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using content analysis, similarities analysis, prototypical analysis, and chi-square analysis. Results The free associations of the PHL were grouped into 37 categories. The most commonly reported categories were communication difficulties, negative mental state, aging, assessment and management, causes of hearing loss, hearing ability or disability, hearing instruments, and symptoms of hearing loss. Similarities analysis and prototypical analysis highlighted two main negative categories (negative mental state and communication difficulties) which form the central elements of SR of hearing loss. PHL associated hearing loss mainly as a negative phenomenon, but with some positive and neutral aspects. Respondents from ROK reported a greater number of neutral associations compared with other countries. There were cross-cultural similarities and differences in terms of PHL's SR of hearing loss, but there were more similarities than differences. Conclusion The study provides an insight into how PHL collectively view their “hearing loss” and helps to develop our understanding of the influence of culture on the SR of “hearing loss.” The results will aid the development of culturally appropriate public education campaigns, marketing material, and appropriate rehabilitation for PHL.
... Wanneer een bepaalde sociale identiteit wordt geactiveerd, wordt een individu voor een groot deel geleid door de doelen die belangrijk zijn voor en centraal staan in deze identiteit , 2020Haslam et al., 1999;Jans et al., 2018;Unsworth & Fielding, 2014), en dus door de waarden van deze groep , 2020Bouman, Steg, & Johnson-Zawadzki, 2018;Jans et al., 2018;Knafo, Roccas, & Sagiv, 2011;Sagiv, S. H. Schwartz, & Arieli, 2011;S. H. Schwartz, 1999). ...
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To reach global climate targets, it is key that individuals support and undertake climate action. What motivates such actions? We discuss how climate actions are rooted in – and motivated by – values, which reflect stable and general life-goals that guide individuals’ behaviours. We focus on the often studied personal values, as well as on the relatively new perceived group values, and discuss how these can motivate, and be used to promote, climate action. We highlight the importance of biospheric values (i.e., caring about the environment), and the key role perceived group values play in promoting climate action, particularly among less personally motivated individuals. Keywords: values, group values, biospheric values, climate action, climate change
... Investigations based on the assumption that 'culture' is an external element are concentrated on the use of predominantly formal questionnaires and quantitative surveys that lead to macro-level deductions and the revelation of widespread norms, values, beliefs, attitudes, behavioural patterns and other cultural elements. For example, Hofstede et al. studied cultural orientations worldwide among the workers of IBM (Hofstede et al. 2010), while Schwartz's (2013) template for the studies of value orientations (Gärling et al. 2003;Schwartz 2013) became the inspiration of numerous studies of a similar kind among various societies (Knafo et al. 2011). Another meaningful example of quantification is the world values survey which has been gathering data about values in most countries of the world for decades. ...
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This paper argues that ‘culture’ is a crucial element of humans’ mental developmental dynamics and traces various threads of explorations of the concept of ‘culture’ and aims to contribute to its systemic understanding. Culture has been represented predominantly as external to a person or as something that is at the same time inside and outside of the mind by the various streams of Cartesian social sciences. The latter theoretical stances led to the essentialization, ‘entification’ and objectification of the concept/phenomenon. The systemic approach is proposed in order to more adequately reflect the relational organization of individuals, societies and cultures. ‘Culture’ should be understood as an entirety of relational processes of sense-making of experiences that are self-centred, intentional and future-oriented, however, always rooted in historically constructed sociocultural systems. Cultural elements and individuals are indissolubly and meaningfully linked and defined in relation to each other. Interaction between people and cultural elements is dialogical and is organized in intransitive hierarchical structures. The systemic approach to the cultural and semiotic dynamics allows us to understand how patterns of signs, meanings and behaviours are constructed through the past historical process and in relation to the anticipated short-term and distant future. ‘Culture’ is everywhere wherever and whenever human relates to or anticipates real or imaginary ‘other’, or whenever s/he constructs or interprets any ‘objectified’ sign. It is considered as the systemic totality of the processes of meaningful relating to others that is the basis for affectively charged meaning-making processes. The self-definition is possible only through ‘Culture’.
... When a certain social identity is activated, an individual is likely guided by the goals that are important and central to this identity (Bouman & Steg, 2019;Haslam et al., 1999;Jans et al., 2018;Unsworth & Fielding, 2014). Group values can reflect what is (perceived to be) important to a group (Bouman & Steg, 2019;Bouman, Steg, & Johnson-Zawadzki, 2018;Jans et al., 2018;Knafo, Roccas, & Sagiv, 2011;Sagiv, Schwartz, & Arieli, 2011;S. H. Schwartz, 1999) and could therefore steer members' actions. ...
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Cities can play a pivotal role in accelerating climate action (i.e., climate mitigation and adaption). Yet, the success of cities’ climate strategies strongly depends on the cities’ residents, as city residents often have to accept, adopt, undertake and participate in climate actions. In the current paper, we discuss how better understanding city residents’ motives – and particularly the personal and group values that underlie city residents’ climate actions – could foster climate action in cities. Importantly, we discuss the rich literature in social sciences on personal values, which – though typically overlooked by policy makers – highlights the relevance of focusing on personal biospheric values (i.e., caring about nature and environment) in explaining and promoting individuals’ climate actions. Additionally, we provide novel insights in how perceived biospheric group values (i.e., the extent in which relevant groups are perceived to endorse biospheric values) can strengthen the value-base for climate actions, particularly among those residents who weakly endorse biospheric values themselves. Critically, we provide concrete examples of how cities can strengthen the group value-base for climate actions, thereby showing how cities can play a unique role in engaging residents in climate action.
... We proceed from the Schwartz (1992, 2012) theory of basic values, which currently represents the most influential approach to value research (Arieli et al., 2018;Knafo et al., 2011). This theory suggests that an individual's value system reflects the basic needs of human existence, i.e. "The needs of individuals as biological organisms, requisites of coordinated social interaction, and survival and welfare needs of groups" (Schwartz, 2012, p. 4). ...
Chapter
The term values designates a psychological construct that plays an important role in motivating human actions and interactions with the world throughout individuals’ life trajectories. Values operate at both individual and social group levels, acting as a sort of lens for interpreting the world—affecting one’s perception, thoughts, feelings—and as a powerful motivational force for encouraging specific actions. Diverse theoretical perspectives conceive of values differently, focusing on their different roots and qualities. Due to the immense complexity of the psychological processes implied when we refer to values, the traditional approach of psychology has been too limited with most investigations carried out from a cognitivist quantitative methodology that simply measures the frequencies of particular pre-established values in specific populations. Pre-defined categories of fixed and mutually exclusive values, however, cannot actually explain the highly complex, plural, multifaceted, and intricate quality of human motivation. In this entry, some new venues to study and theoretically conceive of the issue will be explored, opening up possible perspectives to the investigation of the ontogenesis of values and their development in specific sociocultural contexts from a systemic cultural approach in psychology. The touchless economy of the pandemic era includes a network of virtual communities in which people participate as they conduct their everyday lives in a low-exposure-risk fashion. To help understand and put these communities in context, this entry describes a typology of virtual communities adapted from Porter (2004). The five elements of the proposed typology include (1) purpose (content of interaction), (2) population (participants in the interaction), (3) platform (design of interaction), (4) place (location of interaction), and (5) profit model (return on interaction). This five-element typology facilitates recognition of essential elements and differences between the many virtual communities that are becoming part of people’s lives in the pandemic era and helps frame and put in context (a) likely new practices and technology applications and (b) new topics for future post-pandemic research in the social, business, and computing sciences. We will probably never go to the Moon, climb Mount Everest, or swim with dolphins. Virtual reality (VR), however, can allow us to do all these things using the simulative power of computers and smartphones. Specifically, what distinguishes VR from other media is the sense of presence: the feeling of “being there” inside the virtual experience produced by the technology. The feeling of presence, associated with the high level of emotional engagement allowed by virtual experiences, turns this technology into a powerful tool for exploring what is possible and engaging with it, supporting personal and clinical change.
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The complex society is a human organization in which the number and variety of internal and external relationships are multiple and intertwined. The global unification of people's behaviors, lifestyles and thinking takes place, often through adaptation to Western standards and habits of life. Consequently, the educational action must be reviewed (with respect to all contexts of application: formal, informal and non-formal) in order to enhance the multidimensional balance and enhance uniqueness. Cultural values have a significant role in the functioning of societies and their social institutions. They serve as a guide to the ideals and behavior of the members of a culture Deardorff's (2006) model of intercultural competence is extremely explanatory of the "contagion" effect generated by individual actions of intercultural sensitivity. For this reason, it is believed that in classes with a mixed cultural background an effective model to be used is Flipped inclusion, an alternative method of teaching / learning with a view to continuing education
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Today’s globalized world is shaped by frequent intercultural encounters. Certain individuals perceive cultural differences (and hence cultural diversity) in certain situations as interesting and enriching, but there are also encounters that create frustration and disappointment, sometimes for reasons we may not understand. Therefore, a good understanding of cultural differences including how they might impact our way of thinking, feeling, and acting is instrumental in order to better navigate in cross-cultural environments. The ability to thoroughly comprehend cultural diversity relies on understanding the idea of “culture” itself.
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This article presents the results of a study on the interrelationship between values and the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) among younger and older Russians. It was assumed that for these age groups basic values play a different role in encouraging or discouraging the use of ICT. The study was carried out using a socio-psychological survey. The questionnaire included the authors’ methodology for measuring involvement in the use of ICT and a short version of Sh. Schwartz’s questionnaire for assessing basic values (ESS-21). In a comparative perspective, using the moderator analysis, the connection between the active use of ICT and basic values among younger and older Russians (N=990; average age=37.6 years; 31.4% male) were assessed, taking into account their age as a moderator. As a result, it was found that the age of respondents is negatively associated with the active use of ICT, in contrast to the level of education and income level. Nine out of ten values (excluding Stimulation) are associated with the use of ICT. Several values are associated with the use of ICT, regardless of age (Power, Tradition, Benevolence, Universalism). There is also a number of values (Achievement, Hedonism, Stimulation, Conformity, Security) which in a certain way are associated with the use of ICT only among the older generation. The article discusses the results obtained.
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Sustainable consumption behaviors are embedded in a consumption system. Their uptake is influenced by personal characteristics and the context. Feedback loops reinforce extant behavior and path dependencies enable or hinder additional sustainable consumption. This study applies a cross-national approach to reveal the influence of structural characteristics on the pattern of sustainable consumption, comparing results from Austria and New Zealand. Using Rasch Modelling, we test five propositions and find that most of the 26 behaviors investigated are taken up in the same order in both countries. Government regulations, business initiatives, and geographic characteristics influence the uptake of some sustainable behaviors, including recycling, consumption of organic food or use of public transport in the two countries. Consumers experience structural feedback loops and historic government foci have created path dependencies. The results demonstrate that a systemic view of sustainable consumption behaviors is required, to foster and increase sustainable behavior.
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Why do consumers make different decisions even when socioeconomic conditions are similar? The present article examines the effects of human values-as formulations of motivational goals-on the decision to purchase electricity storage for a photovoltaic system, a phenomenon hardly explored in prior research regarding high-priced household investments. About 50 percent of photovoltaic-system owners in Germany are also owners of an electricity storage. This study aims to explore the more deeply rooted motivational factors behind these different decisions to extend our understanding of consumers' decision-making processes regarding energy-efficiency investments. It is based on an online survey of 460 owners of residential photovoltaic systems in Germany in 2019 and focuses on the interplay between higher-order values, purchase decisions, perceived risk, and environmental concern. The analysis of the higher-order values showed direct effects of conservation and self-transcendence and indirect effects of openness to change and self-enhancement, both mediated by perceived risk.
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The concept of values is central to psychology. Values are abstract concepts representing desirable end states or attributes that transcend specific actions and situations. Typically measured at the individual or national cultural levels, we inquire if a single human value can be as relevant in the workplace as in any other environment. We then ask if we should consider organizational values, specifically, or human values, in general, when examining organizational phenomena. Are the specific measures for organizational values needed, or should we instead focus on basic human values of individuals within the workplace in order to predict and explain variables of interest? In this chapter, we reflect on these questions by delving into a prominent theory of values, Schwartz’s (Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 25:1–65, 1992) values theory and the later refined values theory (Schwartz et al., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103:663–688, 2012), and by exploring different values measures. We begin with a brief historical review of the development of the human values concept. This historical review is followed by a discussion on the definition of values, levels of analyses, theory, and some evidence on the measurement of values. We then present a debate on organizational values and close the chapter with propositions on how to think about organizational values and their use in the organizational context.
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Objective To synthesize the findings of qualitative research on help-seeking in people with subjective cognitive decline. Methods Relevant qualitative studies were identified by searching the PubMed, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Studies that investigated help-seeking behavior in older adults with subjective cognitive decline were retrieved. The systematic review was conducted in line with JBI methodology for systematic reviews of qualitative evidence. Results 11 studies were included and three themes related to the process of help-seeking for cognitive problems emerged. These themes included: detected changes, challenges in identifying the need for help and decision to seek professional help. Conclusion Making decisions to seek help for people with subjective cognitive decline is a multi-stage process. A better understanding of the complex psychological responses to subjective cognitive decline among older adults may help health care professionals to develop strategies to improve help-seeking in clinical practice.
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This paper analyses generational values changes in Western and Eastern Europe. There is strong evidence for a three-dimensional distribution of basic values in Europe. In the West values are not frozen within generations, but change. There is a solid cultural cleavage between Western Communitarian values and Eastern Authoritarian. The domination of Authoritarian values in the East is likely to last for a long time.
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The Schwartz theory of basic values is the leading model in psychological research. However, few studies qualitatively approach how people make sense of value types. We propose a way to investigate this by focusing on emerging adulthood, a developmental period of exploration. Furthermore, participants are situated in the context of Balkan societies that are characterized by transitions. Relying on personal construct theory, we explored potential interpretations of values, their subordinate constructs, diversity, valence, and similarity to the definitions proposed in the theory. We used pyramiding in order to prompt constructs subordinate to each of the ten values. We applied thematic analysis to identify subordinate constructs in the 5866 responses obtained from 281 participants. The results show that participants understand abstract values through constructs that refer to specific actions, feelings, and personality traits. The values varied in the number of subordinate constructs and the degree of their deviation from the conceptual definition. There are also differences in the connotations of values or their desirability. Results show that all values, except Universalism, have a subordinate construct that expresses the negative side of the value. This study offers a more contextualized and content-oriented approach to values and has implications for future studies.
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In this chapter we investigate the influence of culture on the effective management of the COVID-19 crisis. In order to study culture we first describe cultures in terms of values. These values are connected to the needs of the agents, giving them a certain default priority, which differs across cultures. Then we will show how culture actually influences how people react to certain types of measurements and the effect this has on the effective management of the COVID-19 crisis.
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The impact of personal values on preferences, choices, and behaviors has evoked much interest. Relatively little is known, however, about the processes through which values impact behavior. In this conceptual article, we consider both the content and the structural aspects of the relationships between values and behavior. We point to unique features of values that have implications to their relationships with behavior and build on these features to review past research. We then propose a conceptual model that presents three organizing principles: accessibility, interpretation, and control. For each principle, we identify mechanisms through which values and behavior are connected. Some of these mechanisms have been exemplified in past research and are reviewed; others call for future research. Integrating the knowledge on the multiple ways in which values impact behavior deepens our understanding of the complex ways through which cognition is translated into action.
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A major component of a society’s culture consists of the systems of values and beliefs that are characteristic of that society. This chapter presents an overview of the Schwartz’s (Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). Academic Press, New York, 1992; Appl Psychol Int Rev 48(1):23–47, 1999) theory of basic human values, the Schwartz Value Survey (1992; Measuring attitudes cross-nationally—Lessons from the European Social Survey, pp. 169–203, 2006), as well as the more recently refined theory of basic individual values (Schwartz in Online Readings Psychol Cult 2(1), 2012) alongside Inglehart’s (Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1990; Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1997; Inglehart, A revaluation of values, 2015; Cultural evolution: People’s motivations are changing, and reshaping the world. Cambridge University Press, 2018) theory of intergenerational values change. We employ these theories and research methodologies in our study of migration values and cultures.
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Relatively little is known about the extent to which culture moderates findings in applied psychology research. To address this gap, we leverage the metaBUS database of over 1,000,000 published findings to examine the extent to which six popular cross-cultural models explain variance in findings across 136 bivariate relationships and 56 individual cultural dimensions. We compare moderating effects attributable to Hofstede’s dimensions, GLOBE’s practices, GLOBE’s values, Schwartz’s Value Survey, Ronen and Shenkar’s cultural clusters, and the United Nations’ M49 standard. Results from 25,296 multilevel meta-analyses indicate that, after accounting for statistical artifacts, cross-cultural models explain approximately 5–7% of the variance in findings. The variance explained did not vary substantially across models. A similar set of analyses on observed effect sizes reveal differences of |r| = .05–.07 attributable to culture. Variance among the 136 bivariate relationships was explained primarily by sampling error, indicating that cross-cultural moderation assessments require atypically large sample sizes. Our results provide important information for understanding the overall level of explanatory power attributable to cross-cultural models, their relative performance, and their sensitivity to variance in the topic of study. In addition, our findings may be used to inform power analyses for future research. We discuss implications for research and practice.
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An emerging stream of literature argues that values entail a prime channel through which belonging to a religion and entrepreneurship are related. In this study, we introduce Schwartz’s theory of basic human values to theorize on the role of values in the reciprocal relationship between belonging to a religion and entrepreneurship. Based on the motivational goal of each value, we argue that the value priorities of people belonging to a religion are opposite to these of entrepreneurs. We also go beyond earlier studies highlighting values as a prominent channel through which religion and entrepreneurship are connected by providing empirical evidence about the extent to which values mediate this relationship. By drawing on data from eight biennial survey waves (2002–2016) of the European Social Survey (32 countries), we show that individuals who belong to a religion prioritize values related to conservation higher than values related to openness to change , whereas the opposite is true for entrepreneurs. This contrast in value priorities cushions the relationship between belonging to a religion and entrepreneurship. However, both those belonging to a religion and entrepreneurs prioritize values related to self-transcendence over those related to self-enhancement . These relationships are fairly constant across the major religions in Europe, but do depend on how actively people engage in a religion and the type of entrepreneurship. Plain English Summary New evidence about how values can explain the relationship between belonging to a religion and being an entrepreneur. For many people, religion provides the moral codes by which they live and herewith it shapes individual decision-making including the choice for certain occupations. However, religions do not prescribe occupational choices directly but shape these choices indirectly. A prominent role for values in the relationship between belonging to a religion and entrepreneurship is widely acknowledged theoretically, but hardly tested empirically. In this study, we use Schwartz’ theory of basic human values to test this relationship and show that the value priorities of individuals belonging to a religion are opposite to those of entrepreneurs. Individuals who belong to a religion prioritize values related to conserving the social order higher than values related to openness to change and novelty, whereas the opposite is true for entrepreneurs. This contrast in value priorities weakens the relationship between belonging to a religion and entrepreneurship. Our findings are fairly constant across the major religions in Europe, but do depend on how actively people engage in a religion and the type of entrepreneurship. With a rapidly changing number of individuals adhering to a religion and increasing religious diversity in many European countries, our study is of practical importance by showing how these trends may have an impact on a country’s entrepreneurship rate.
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Improving the quality of entrepreneurial activities has become a priority in policy debates globally. However, despite significant investment in resources, the outcome is disappointing, as the relative rate of opportunity compared to necessity entrepreneurship has not improved significantly across nations. Grounded in an institutional theory approach, we examine whether culture is the missing link in our understanding of the conditions that explain cross-national variance in this rate. Our analyses, based on a 10-year panel dataset comprising 58 nations, support our arguments, in that we find that the cultural dimensions of autonomy–embeddedness, egalitarianism–hierarchy, and mastery–harmony moderate the extent to which regulatory burden and cognitive infrastructure influence the relative rate of opportunity compared to necessity entrepreneurship across nations. Our findings advance the contextualized approach in entrepreneurship and illustrate that understanding the integrative effects of formal institutional environment and informal cultural framework is critical for improving the quality of entrepreneurial activities. We offer implications that will be useful for policymakers to consider as they advance programs to improve the economic growth of nations.
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Human resource (HR) scholars argue that employees perform better when their perceptions of HR practices are consistent with those of their managers. However, few studies have examined the circumstances under which employees are likely to develop consistent perceptions of HR practices as their managers. Drawing on social information processing theory, we investigate the relationship between managers’ and employees’ perceptions of HR practices and explore the factors that moderate this relationship. Cross-level analyses of data from 380 employees matched to 32 department managers in 23 Chinese state-owned enterprises reveal a positive relationship between managers’ and employees’ perceptions of HR practices. This relationship is stronger when managers and employees report similar levels of power distance, long-term orientation, and collectivism. In addition, the moderating effect of long-term orientation similarity is stronger for employees with a high level of cognitive cultural intelligence.
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Objective Values have been found to predict aggressive behavior in adolescents. Adolescents who endorse self‐enhancement values typically exhibit more aggressive behaviors, while adolescents who endorse self‐transcendent values are less likely to behave aggressively. The associations between values and aggression are low to moderate, suggesting other factors might moderate them. The study examined whether these associations were moderated by adolescent popularity, an indication of social power. Method The study included 906 adolescents from three cultures: Brazilians (N= 244), Jewish citizens of Israel (N= 250), and Arabic citizens of Israel (N=409). Personal values were assessed using the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz et al., 2001). Peer nominations (Cillessen, 2009) were used to assess direct aggression and popularity. Results Popularity moderated the associations between values and aggression: while the aggressive behavior of popular adolescents was highly associated with their personal values, the behavior of unpopular adolescents was unrelated to their values. This effect consistently emerged across samples, with specific variations for gender and culture. Conclusion Popularity enables adolescents to act according to their personal values: aggressive behaviors increase or decrease according to personal value priorities. The strength of this effect depends on cultural expectations and gender roles.
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Since 2010, scholars have made major contributions to cross-cultural research, especially regarding similarities and differences across world regions and countries in people’s values, beliefs, and morality. This paper accumulates and analyzes extant multi-national and quantitative studies of these facets of global culture. The paper begins with a summary of the modern history of cross-cultural research, then systematically reviews major empirical studies published since 2010, and next analyzes extant approaches to interpret how the constructs of belief, morality, and values have been theorized and operationalized. The analysis reveals that the field of cross-cultural studies remains dominated by Western approaches, especially studies developed and deployed from the United States and Western Europe. While numerous surveys have been translated and employed for data collection in countries beyond the U.S. and Western Europe, several countries remain under-studied, and the field lacks approaches that were developed within the countries of interest. The paper concludes by outlining future directions for the study of cross-cultural research. To progress from the colonialist past embedded within cross-cultural research, in which scholars from the U.S. and Western Europe export research tools to other world regions, the field needs to expand to include studies locally developed and deployed within more countries and world regions.
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Organizations increasingly expect people to move between roles which involve varying combinations of professional (vocational), leadership, and entrepreneurial responsibilities. While there has been considerable research into the relationship between values and leadership style, we know little about how values contribute to entrepreneurial, professional and leadership motivations. This study of 272 undergraduate students from a Singapore public university suggests that both universal and cultural values can distinguish between these motivations. Leadership and entrepreneurial motivation share a basis in personal achievement and stimulation values, while entrepreneurial motivation is distinguished by low emphasis on values of conformity and security. Entrepreneurial motivation also appeared grounded in collectivist values, while leadership motivation seems to be underpinned by a desire to benefit others. Professional motivation shares little in common with the other two types; it is characterized by hedonism and uncertainty avoidance, raising questions about the extent to which students pursuing vocational or professional careers may be willing to explore entrepreneurial and leadership options.
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The article raises the problem of destruction of the General system of values at different levels of social interaction, which leads to unpredictable relations, including business partnership. The main part of this work presents conceptual ideas about the concepts and phenomena of the value sphere of personality in the framework of entrepreneurial activity. The analysis begins with an inter-disciplinary comparison of the definition «value», followed by a brief review of the classical approaches by G. Olport, M. Rokich, Sh. Schwartz. Turning to contemporary works, we note the growing relevance of axiological topics in comparative intercultural and international studies. In foreign psychology, the study of family business values is carried out in the framework of the study of corporate culture. At the same time, the topic of values is attractive not only for psychological research, but also for some national institutes of business support and international companies. For example, the Austrian Institute for small business research, Global center of Excellence for family business, International company «PricewaterhouseCoopers». For Russian economic psychology, the topic of research of family business is quite new, so this paper presents the results of research of business values in general. The key authors in this topic are A. Zhuravlev, V. Poznyakov, N. Zhuravleva, T. Vavakina. Their comparative studies of recent years show that the orientation on moral principles and ethical values have become more prominent for temporary entrepreneurs, while the values of personal freedom and high material well-being have become less significant. At the end of this article we discuss the research methods and the importance of such studies for solving problems of social stabilization. Keywords: psychology of entrepreneurship, value, family business, values of entrepreneurs, corporate culture, business transfer, business activity of entrepreneurs.
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The article deals with the issue of studying the value orientations of entrepreneurs as an internal mechanism of small business development. Changing the value system can become a tool or “designing” a new social reality. Understanding what value orientations are typical for entrepreneurs will make the work of promoting entrepreneurship more effective. As European studies show, small business is closely intertwined with the family. Therefore, the aim of the research was the reconstruction of the content of value orientations of entrepreneurs in the field of family and business. The theoretical analysis showed that the existing psychological and sociological models of values research are based on closed lists of choices and do not give a subject reference to the sphere of social interaction. Such approaches are more focused on intercultural research. In addition, the specificity of the action of value orientations is that they originate in the subconscious structures of the psyche, and most modern techniques are aimed at identifying conscious values. In this regard, the use of projective techniques is promising. The article describes the author’s original approach to the study of value orientations of entrepreneurs, which is based on a projective in%depth interview including 7 incentive prototypical situations in the field of family and business: birth, development, cooperation, leadership, conflict resolution, death, meaning for me. As a result of the study, 93 values were identified (with a frequency of mention of more than 10%). Terminal values were more differentiated in the sphere of business, family values – undivided meanings, merging with the image-Self. The analysis of instrumental values of family and business showed that they coincide in a quarter of cases; otherwise, they are subject -specific. This conclusion is confirmed by a substantial comparison of the results obtained by us with the method of M. Rokich. Keywords: value orientations; family business; value orientations of entrepreneurs; meaning making; small business; Russian entrepreneurship; prototypical situations; M. Rokich’s method; terminal values; instrumental values.
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This article presents a theory of 7 cultural value orientations that form 3 cultural value dimensions. This theory permits more finely tuned characterization of cultures than other theories. It is distinctive in deriving the cultural orientations from a priori theorizing . It also specifies a coherent, integrated system of relations among the orientations, postulating that they are interdependent rather than orthogonal. Analyses of data from 73 countries, using two different instruments, validate the 7 cultural orientations and the structure of interrelations among them. Conceptual and empirical comparisons of these orientations with Inglehart’s two dimensions clarify similarities and differences. Using the cultural orientations, I generate a worldwide empirical mapping of 76 national cultures that identifies 7 transnational cultural groupings: West European, English-speaking, Latin American, East European, South Asian, Confucian influenced, and African and Middle Eastern. I briefly discuss distinctive cultural characteristics of these groupings. I then examine examples of socioeconomic, political, and demographic factors that give rise to national differences on the cultural value dimensions, factors that are themselves reciprocally influenced by culture. Finally, I examine consequences of prevailing cultural value orientations for attitudes and behavior (e.g., conventional morality, opposition to immigration, political activism) and argue that culture mediates the effects of major social structural variables on them.
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Applying the values construct in the social sciences has suffered from the absence of an agreed-upon conception of basic values, of the content and structure of relations among these values, and of reliable methods to measure them. This article presents data from over 70 countries, using two different instruments, to validate a theory intended to fill pan of this gap. It concerns the basic values that individuals in all cultures recognize. The theory identifies 10 raotivationally distinct values and specifies the dynamics of conflict and congruence among them. These dynamics yield a structure of relations among values common to culturally diverse groups, suggesting an universal organization of human motivations. Individuals and groups differ in the priorities they assign to these values. The article examines sources of individual differences in value priorities and behavioral and attitudinal consequences that follow from holding particular value priorities. In doing so, it considers processes through which values are influenced and through which they influence action.
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This article presents a theory of 7 cultural value orientations that form 3 cultural value dimensions. This theory permits more finely tuned characterization of cultures than other theories. It is distinctive in deriving the cultural orientations from a priori theorizing . It also specifies a coherent, integrated system of relations among the orientations, postulating that they are interdependent rather than orthogonal. Analyses of data from 73 countries, using two different instruments, validate the 7 cultural orientations and the structure of interrelations among them. Conceptual and empirical comparisons of these orientations with Inglehart’s two dimensions clarify similarities and differences. Using the cultural orientations, I generate a worldwide empirical mapping of 76 national cultures that identifies 7 transnational cultural groupings: West European, English-speaking, Latin American, East European, South Asian, Confucian influenced, and African and Middle Eastern. I briefly discuss distinctive cultural characteristics of these groupings. I then examine examples of socioeconomic, political, and demographic factors that give rise to national differences on the cultural value dimensions, factors that are themselves reciprocally influenced by culture. Finally, I examine consequences of prevailing cultural value orientations for attitudes and behavior (e.g., conventional morality, opposition to immigration, political activism) and argue that culture mediates the effects of major social structural variables on them.
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National, occupational, industrial and individual values all affect the cultural values that develop in organizations (Trice & Beyer, 1993). This chapter focuses on effects of values at the national and individual levels. Organizations must adapt to the nation-level values that prevail in their society in order to gain and maintain legitimacy and to function effectively. At the same time, the individual-level values that are important to organizational members influence the culture of the organization. We explore the effects of values at these two levels on the cultures that organizations develop. To conceptualize values, we adopt the Schwartz framework that provides theories of values at both the national (Schwartz, 1999; 2004) and the individual (Schwartz, 1992; 2006b) levels. Both theories have been studied around the world. We present each and review recent studies that apply them to organizational settings.
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This chapter has sought to make clear the differences between values as a cultural and as an individual phenomenon. It has demonstrated that the conceptual bases of the two types of values differ, the dimensions on which they vary differ, the causal factors that account for variation in them differ, and the questions they are suited to address differ. Distinguishing cultural orientations from basic individual values makes it possible to examine influences of the normative culture of societies on the values of their members. Cultural value orientations are an aspect of the cultural system of societies; basic values are an aspect of the personality system of individuals. If we do not confuse them, we can employ them together to attain a much richer understanding of human behavior across societies.
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Basic human values : theory, measurement, and applications. Applying the values construct in the social sciences has suffered from the absence of an agreed-upon conception of basic values, of the content and structure of relations among these values, and of reliable methods to measure them. This article presents data from over 70 countries, using two different instruments, to validate a theory intended to fill part of this gap. It concerns the basic values that individuals in all cultures recognize. The theory identifies 10 motivationally distinct values and specifies the dynamics of conflict and congruence among them. These dynamics yield a structure of relations among values common to culturally diverse groups, suggesting an universal organization of human motivations. Individuals and groups differ in the priorities they assign to these values. The article examines sources of individual differences in value priorities and behavioral and attitudinal consequences that follow from holding particular value priorities. In doing so, it considers processes through which values are influenced and through which they influence action.
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During the past two decades, I have developed, validated, and applied two separate theories of value related constructs. The first concerns the basic human values on which individual people in all societies differ (e.g., security, achievement, hedonism, concern for others). Basic individual values are an aspect of personality. The second theory deals with normative value orientations on which cultures differ (e.g., hierarchy, egalitarianism, harmony). These orientations underlie and justify the functioning of societal institutions. Are two value theories really necessary? Could the same value constructs or dimensions serve at both individual and cultural levels of analysis? It would certainly be more parsimonious to do with one theory. Logically, one theory would suffice if we could assume that culture is simply personality writ large or that individual values are culture writ small. Sadly—for accepting either assumption would make life easier—I find them both unacceptable. In addressing the question of the relationship between individual and culture levels, I hold that we need separate theories of values. This chapter presents and contrasts my individual-level and culture-level theories and suggests how to apply them fruitfully together. It is structured as follows: First, I explicate each theory, specifying its constructs and the relations among them and citing evidence to support them. Next, I compare the empirical structures obtained when the same values data are analyzed at the two levels of analysis and discuss how to interpret these structures as expressions of individual personality and of societal culture. I then contrast the causes of individual differences in basic values and the causes of societal differences in cultural orientations. Next, I present and illustrate the questions that cultural orientations are suited to address and the different questions that individual values are suited to address. Finally, I discuss and illustrate how multi-level analyses that exploit both types of values together can explain national and individual differences in behavior and attitudes.
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The values of 8,841 managers and organization employees from 43 countries were surveyed. The range of nations included paralleled many of those surveyed by Hofstede (1980) but added also substantial samples from ex-communist nations. Questionnaire items focused primarily on measures of universalism-particularism, achievement-ascription, and individualism-collectivism. Multidimensional scaling of country means revealed three interpretable dimensions. The relation of these dimensions to the results of earlier large-scale surveys and to a variety of demographic indexes is explored. It is found that there are continuing substantial differences in modal cultural values of organization employees and that these are largely consistent with differences reported by others. The present results suggest that the dimensions defined by Hofstede as individualism-collectivism and power distance may be better defined as representing varying orientations toward continuity of group membership (loyal involvement/ utilitarian involvement) and varying orientations toward the obligations of social relationship (conservatism/egalitarian commitment).
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Equivalence of measurement across cultures is a prerequisite for the generalization of an instrument. The measurement equivalence of 10 value types derived from Schwartz's structural model of values and measured with the Schwartz Value Survey questionnaire is evaluated in 21 countries. Based on previous research by Schwartz and colleagues, the measurement equivalence of the 10 value types is tested separately using nested multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicate that it is possible for most value types to reach acceptable levels of configural and metric equivalence; only the dimension of Hedonism is rejected at these two levels of equivalence. Four value types (Benevolence, Conformity, Self-Direction, and Universalism) also show factor variance equivalence. The hypotheses of scalar and reliability equivalence are rejected for all value types. Indications are also given of the number of items to be included for measuring the value types at the different levels of equivalence.
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Leung and colleagues have revealed a five-dimensional structure of social axioms across individuals from five cultural groups. The present research was designed to reveal the culture level factor structure of social axioms and its correlates across 41 nations. An ecological factor analysis on the 60 items of the Social Axioms Survey extracted two factors: Dynamic Externality correlates with value measures tapping collectivism, hierarchy, and conservatism and with national indices indicative of lower social development. Societal Cynicism is less strongly and broadly correlated with previous values measures or other national indices and seems to define a novel cultural syndrome. Its national correlates suggest that it taps the cognitive component of a cultural constellation labeled maleficence, a cultural syndrome associated with a general mistrust of social systems and other people. Discussion focused on the meaning of these national level factors of beliefs and on their relationships with individual level factors of belief derived from the same data set. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
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With the emergence of multicultural workplaces, understanding the impact of national culture on organisations is essential. This paper examines how the values of the society in which an organisation is nested affect the values of the organisation. We discuss three sources of influence: the value culture in the surrounding society, the personal value priorities of organisational members, and the nature of the organisation's primary tasks. We suggest that the societal culture influences organisational values directly and also indirectly through its impact on members' values and on the nature of organisational tasks. Implications for global management in European organisations are discussed.
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This article presents a theory of seven cultural value orientations that form three cultural value dimensions. This theory permits more finely tuned characterization of cultures than other theories. It is distinctive in deriving the cultural orientations from a priori theorizing. It also specifies a coherent, integrated system of relations among the orientations, postulating that they are interdependent rather than orthogonal. Analyses of data from 73 countries, using two different instruments, validate the 7 cultural orientations and the structure of interrelations among them. Conceptual and empirical comparisons of these orientations with Inglehart's two dimensions clarify similarities and differences. Using the cultural orientations, I generate a worldwide empirical mapping of 76 national cultures that identifies 7 transnational cultural groupings: West European, English-speaking, Latin American, East European, South Asian, Confucian influenced, and African and Middle Eastern. I briefly discuss distinctive cultural characteristics of these groupings. I then examine examples of socioeconomic, political, and demographic factors that give rise to national differences on the cultural value dimensions, factors that are themselves reciprocally influenced by culture. Finally, I examine consequences of prevailing cultural value orientations for attitudes and behavior (e.g., conventional morality, opposition to immigration, political activism) and argue that culture mediates the effects of major social structural variables on them.
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Using data from 88 samples from 40 countries, the authors reevaluate the propositions of a recent values theory and provide criteria for identifying what is culture-specific in value meanings and structure. They confirm the widespread presence of 10 value types, arrayed on a motivational continuum, and organized on virtually universal, orthogonal dimensions: Openness to Change versus Conservation and Self-Transcendence versus Self-Enhancement. Forty-four values demonstrate high cross-cultural consistency of meaning. In the average sample, about 16% of single values diverge from their proto-typical value types, and one pair of motivationally close value types is intermixed. Test-retest and randomly split sample analyses reveal that some two thirds of deviations represent unreliable measurement and one third represent culture-specific characteristics. Ways to identify and interpret the latter are presented.
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Publisher Summary This chapter addresses the universals in the content and structure of values, concentrating on the theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, and its four basic issues: substantive contents of human values; identification of comprehensive set of values; extent to which the meaning of particular values was equivalent for different groups of people; and how the relations among different values was structured. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues. Ten motivationally distinct value types that were likely to be recognized within and across cultures and used to form value priorities were identified. Set of value types that was relatively comprehensive, encompassing virtually all the types of values to which individuals attribute at least moderate importance as criteria of evaluation was demonstrated. The evidence from 20 countries was assembled, showing that the meaning of the value types and most of the single values that constitute them was reasonably equivalent across most groups. Two basic dimensions that organize value systems into an integrated motivational structure with consistent value conflicts and compatibilities were discovered. By identifying universal aspects of value content and structure, the chapter has laid the foundations for investigating culture-specific aspects in the future.
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Modernization theorists from Karl Marx to Daniel Bell have argued that economic development brings pervasive cultural changes. But others, from Max Weber to Samuel Huntington, have claimed that cultural values are an enduring and autonomous influence on society. We test the thesis that economic development is linked with systematic changes in basic values. Using data from the three waves of the World Values Surveys, which include 65 societies and 75 percent of the world's population, we find evidence of both massive cultural change and the persistence of distinctive cultural traditions. Economic development is associated with shifts away from absolute norms and values toward values that are increasingly rational, tolerant, trusting, and participatory. Cultural change, however, is path dependent. The broad cultural heritage of a society-Protestant, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Confucian, or Communist-leaves an imprint on values that endures despite modernization. Moreover, the differences between the values held by members of different religions within given societies are much smaller than are cross-national differences. Once established, such cross-cultural differences become part of a national culture transmitted by educational institutions and mass media. We conclude with some proposed revisions of modernization theory.
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The Schwartz (1992) theory of basic human values has promoted a revival of empirical research on values. The semi-annual European Social Survey (ESS) includes a new 21-item instrument to measure the importance of the 10 basic values of the theory. Representative national samples in 20 countries responded to the instrument in 2002–3. We briefly describe the theory and the ESS instrument and assess its adequacy for measuring values across countries. Using multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses, augmented with mean-structure information, we assess the configural and measurement (metric) invariance of the values—necessary conditions for equivalence of the meaning of constructs and scalar invariance—a precondition for comparing value means across countries. Only if such equivalence is established can researchers make meaningful and clearly interpretable cross-national comparisons of value priorities and their correlates. The ESS values scale demonstrates configural and metric invariance, allowing researchers to use it to study relationships among values, attitudes, behavior and socio-demographic characteristics across countries. Comparing the mean importance of values across countries is possible only for subsets of countries where scalar invariance holds.
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A theory of the types of values on which cultures can be compared is presented and validated with data from 49 nations from around the world. Seven types of values are identified, structured along three polar dimensions: Conservatism versus Intellectual and Affective Autonomy; Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism; and Mastery versus Harmony. Based on their cultural value priorities, nations are arrayed in a two-dimensional space, revealing meaningful groupings of culturally related nations. Analyses replicate with both teacher and student samples. Implications of national differences in cultural values for differences in meaning of work are explicated. To stimulate research on cultural values and work, hypotheses are developed regarding the cultural value emphases that are especially compatible or conflicting with work centrality, with different societal norms about work, and with the pursuit of four types of work values or goals.
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Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N = 3,497; M = 11.45 years, SD = 0.87 and M = 16.10 years, SD = 0.84, respectively) from 4 cultural groups (majority and former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel and Germany) rated their values in 3 contexts (family, school, and country). Value differentiation varied across individuals. Early adolescents showed lower value differentiation than mid-adolescents. Immigrant (especially first generation) adolescents, showed higher value differentiation than majority adolescents, reflecting the complex social reality they face while negotiating cultures.
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Six studies examined the value-behavior relation and focused on motivational properties of values, the self, and value activation. Priming environmental values enhanced attention to and the weight of information related to those values, which resulted in environmentally friendly consumer choices. This only occurred if these values were central to the self-concept. Value-congruent choices were also found in response to countervalue behavior in an unrelated context. Donating behavior congruent with central altruistic values was found as a result of enhanced self-focus, thus demonstrating the importance of the self in the value-behavior relation. The external validity of the value-centrality measure and its distinction from attitudes were demonstrated in the prediction of voting. Values were thus found to give meaning to, energize, and regulate value-congruent behavior, but only if values were cognitively activated and central to the self.
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Three studies address unresolved issues in value-behavior relations. Does the full range of different values relate to common, recurrent behaviors? Which values relate more strongly to behavior than others? Do relations among different values and behaviors exhibit a meaningful overall structure? If so, how to explain this? We find that stimulation and tradition values relate strongly to the behaviors that express them; hedonism, power, universalism, and self-direction values relate moderately; and security, conformity, achievement, and benevolence values relate only marginally. Additional findings suggest that these differences in value-behavior relations may stem from normative pressures to perform certain behaviors. Such findings imply that values motivate behavior, but the relation between values and behaviors is partly obscured by norms. Relations among behaviors, among values, and jointly among values and behavior exhibit a similar structure. The motivational conflicts and congruities postulated by the theory of values can account for this shared structure.
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Cross-cultural research is dominated by the use of values despite their mixed empirical support and their limited theoretical scope. This article expands the dominant paradigm in cross-cultural research by developing a theory of cultural tightness-looseness (the strength of social norms and the degree of sanctioning within societies) and by advancing a multilevel research agenda for future research. Through an exploration of the top-down, bottom-up, and moderating impact that cultural tightness-looseness has on individuals and organizations, as well as on variance at multiple levels of analysis, the theory provides a new and complementary perspective to the values approach.
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Definitional inconsistency has been epidemic in values theory and research. An abbreviated review of values-related theory and research is provided, and 5 aspects of the values construct that may have contributed to this inconsistency and the resulting lack of synthesis are discussed. A proposal for the process by which value priorities influence attitudinal and behavioral decisions also is outlined. Attitudinal and behavioral decisions are shown to be traceable to personal value priorities, although the link is indirect. The importance of 4 constructs in this process is highlighted. In the past, personal value systems, social value systems, worldviews, and ideologies each may have been given the generic label values.
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A central problem in social psychology concerns the relevance of individual (and modal) personality for the functioning of sociocultural systems. This problem is of especial interest in the case of the large-scale organization. However, little progress has been made despite the growing literature in this field. Empirical work is often overly narrow or conceptually sectarian. Greater attention should be given, we believe, to the development of a more comprehensive analytic scheme encompassing three major domains: (a) the individual personality; (b) the organization as a collective enterprise; and (c) the interrelations and reciprocal impact of individual and organization. We propose several areas of analysis (sets of variables) within each domain, and we cite two studies that indicate needed directions of further investigation.
Book
The revolutionary study of how the place where we grew up constrains the way we think, feel, and act, updated for today's new realities The world is a more dangerously divided place today than it was at the end of the Cold War. This despite the spread of free trade and the advent of digital technologies that afford a degree of global connectivity undreamed of by science fiction writers fifty years ago. What is it that continues to drive people apart when cooperation is so clearly in everyone's interest? Are we as a species doomed to perpetual misunderstanding and conflict? Find out in Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. A veritable atlas of cultural values, it is based on cross-cultural research conducted in seventy countries for more than thirty years. At the same time, it describes a revolutionary theory of cultural relativism and its applications in a range of professions. Fully updated and rewritten for the twenty-first century, this edition: Reveals the unexamined rules by which people in different cultures think, feel, and act in business, family, schools, and political organizations Explores how national cultures differ in the key areas of inequality, collectivism versus individualism, assertiveness versus modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can--sometimes--be managed Explains culture shock, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, differences in language and humor, and other aspects of intercultural dynamics Provides powerful insights for businesspeople, civil servants, physicians, mental health professionals, law enforcement professionals, and others Geert Hofstede, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Gert Jan Hofstede, Ph.D., is a professor of Information Systems at Wageningen University and the son of Geert Hofstede.
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Definitional inconsistency has been epidemic in values theory and research. An abbreviated review of values-related theory and research is provided, and 5 aspects of the values construct that may have contributed to this inconsistency and the resulting lack of synthesis are discussed. A proposal for the process by which value priorities influence attitudinal and behavioral decisions also is outlined. Attitudinal and behavioral decisions are shown to be traceable to personal value priorities, although the link is indirect. The importance of 4 constructs in this process is highlighted. In the past, personal value systems, social value systems, worldviews, and ideologies each may have been given the generic label values.
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Hypotheses about relations between values, valences, and choice were tested in a study in which 239 university students completed the Schwartz Value Survey (S. H. Schwartz, 1992) and then responded to 10 hypothetical scenarios, each of which presented them with 2 alternative courses of action assumed to prime different value types from the Schwartz circular structure. For each scenario, participants rated the attractiveness or valence of each alternative and then indicated which one they would choose. Results showed that, as predicted, valences were related to value types, and choice of alternative was a function of both value types and valences. The pattern of relations was consistent with the assumption that values may induce valences on potential actions and outcomes and that value types may be organized into 2 bipolar dimensions, one of which contrasts openness to change with conservation and the other of which contrasts self-enhancement with self-transcendence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
The Second Edition of this classic work, first published in 1981 and an international bestseller, explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist among members of more than 50 modern nations. Geert Hofstede argues that people carry "mental programs" which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations, and that these programs contain components of national culture. They are expressed most clearly in the different values that predominate among people from different countries. Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Cultures Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation. --Publisher.
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Two studies investigated how values affect competitive versus cooperative behavior. Each Study presented a new social-dilemma game, in which participants' interpretations of the dilemma (i.e., their subjective payoff matrix)—and consequently the dominant (i.e., rational) behavioral choice—depended on their values. The Paired Charity Game (Study 1) framed the situation in terms of cooperation. As hypothesized, contribution correlated positively with universalism and benevolence values that reflect concern for others and negatively with power, achievement, and hedonism values that promote self-interests. Furthermore, values, but not traits, predicted the participants' contribution. The Group Charity Game (Study 2) was designed to frame the situation in terms of competition. As hypothesized, contribution correlated positively with emphasizing benevolence over power values. Moreover, the impact of values was stronger when they were rendered accessible, indicating a causal influence of values on behavior. Furthermore, when their value hierarchy was rendered accessible, participants explained their choices in terms of those values that were (a) important to them and (b) relevant to the situation. The findings thus point to the mechanism through which accessible values affect behavior. Taken together, the studies promote our understanding of the value–behavior relationships, by highlighting the impact of values on perception. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The present study examines a two-person give-some dilemma characterized by the conflict between the pursuit of own benefits (not giving) and collective benefits (giving). The major purpose was two-fold: (a) to examine the effects of person perceptions manipulated along the dimensions of morality (goodness) and potency (strength) on co-operation, and (b) to examine whether pre-existing differences between individuals in their preference for specific self-other outcome distributions (social values) would modify the effects of person perception. First, we predicted and found that across social values the degree of co-operative behaviour increased as a linear function of the extent to which the other was seen as moral. Concerning the perceptions in terms of potency, we found a significant quadratic trend; another seen as moderate on potency elicited more co-operative behaviour than another seen as either high or low on potency. These effects of person perception were not moderated by social value. More interesting was the finding that even though persons classified as pro-social (co-operators and altruists) and pro-self (individualists and competitors) held about the same expectation about the magnitude of another's co-operation, pro-socials behaved more co-operatively than pro-selfs. This suggests that under certain conditions behavioural differences between pro-socials and pro-selfs are not conditional upon expectational differences between those two social values.
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Le projet GLOBE est décrit dans cet article, avec ses bases conceptuelle et méthodologique. Une introduction est indispensable puisque les travaux présentés dans ce numéro relèvent de ce projet qui est une étude exceptionnelle de 61 pays sous divers aspects et à partir de plusieurs méthodes; il porte sur la vaste question de la culture, du leadership et des pratiques organisationnelles. Plus de 150 spécialistes du management et des sciences sociales des 61 pays y ont contribué. L’objectif global du projet est le développement d’une théorie empirique destinée à décrire, comprendre et prédire l’impact de variables culturelles spécifiques sur le leadership, les processus organisationnels et leur efficience. L’article survole différents aspects de ce projet et peut être utilisé pour se repérer dans les autres contributions.
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In this first investigation of genetic and environmental influences on children's values, 271 German twin pairs (50.2% boys) reported their values at ages 7-11 years using the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz & Rubel, 2005). We distinguished between gender-neutral (conservation vs. openness to change) and gender-typed (self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement) values. Boys differed from girls in the importance given to gender-typed benevolence, achievement, and power values. Gender-neutral values showed moderate (.34) and gender-typed values showed higher (.49) heritability, with nonshared environment and error accounting for the remaining variance. For both sexes, substantial genetic effects accounted for the importance children gave to their respective gender-stereotypical end of the self-transcendence versus self-enhancement dimension. However, dramatic sex differences emerged in the gender-atypical end of the distribution. For girls, low self-transcendence (high gender-atypical values) showed a large (.76) group heritability. For boys, gender-atypical values (high self-transcendence) showed no heritability and a modest (.10) shared environment effect.
Article
Estudio acerca de los procesos que dan origen a las diferencias de pensamiento y acción social entre las culturas nacionales. El autor sostiene que los seres humanos llevan consigo "programas mentales" que son desarrollados tempranamente en el medio familiar y reforzados en las instituciones educativas y las organizaciones. Para Geert Hofstede, las diferencias culturales tienen su expresión más clara en las escalas de valores de miembros de distintas naciones y se extienden a los comportamientos, instituciones y organizaciones.
Article
Circular models of values and goals suggest that some motivational aims are consistent with each other, some oppose each other, and others are orthogonal to each other. The present experiments tested this idea explicitly by examining how value confrontation and priming methods influence values and value-consistent behaviors throughout the entire value system. Experiment 1 revealed that change in 1 set of social values causes motivationally compatible values to increase in importance, whereas motivationally incompatible values decrease in importance and orthogonal values remain the same. Experiment 2 found that priming security values reduced the better-than-average effect, but priming stimulation values increased it. Similarly, Experiments 3 and 4 found that priming security values increased cleanliness and decreased curiosity behaviors, whereas priming self-direction values decreased cleanliness and increased curiosity behaviors. Experiment 5 found that priming achievement values increased success at puzzle completion and decreased helpfulness to an experimenter, whereas priming with benevolence values decreased success and increased helpfulness. These results highlight the importance of circular models describing motivational interconnections between values and personal goals.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the 10 value types from the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz et al., 2001) both at the phenotypic (observed) level as well as the genetic and environmental level. Australian twins (N = 695) completed the PVQ as part of a larger questionnaire battery. Nine of the value types were found to have a genetic component with heritability estimates ranging from 10.8% for power to 38% for conformity. The achievement scale was best explained by environmental factors. The interscale correlations were found to range from -.02 to .70 at the phenotypic level. Of these 45 correlations, 16 were found to be explained by overlapping genetic factors and almost all (41) were found to have significant unique environment correlations.
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that values, abstract goals serving as guiding life principles, become relatively important predictors of adolescents' self-reported violent behavior in school environments in which violence is relatively common. The study employed a students-nested-in-schools design. Arab and Jewish adolescents (N = 907, M age = 16.8), attending 33 Israeli schools, reported their values and their own violent behavior. Power values correlated positively, and universalism and conformity correlated negatively with self-reported violent behavior, accounting for 12% of the variance in violent behavior, whereas school membership accounted for 6% of the variance. In schools in which violence was more common, power values' relationship with adolescents' self-reported violence was especially positive, and the relationship of universalism with self-reported violence was especially negative.