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Integrative Frontiers in Environmental Policy Theory and Research

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Abstract

Environmental policy research continues to advance toward a more Kuhnian “normal” science where theory and empirical tools are brought to bear on real-world policy systems to better understand social processes and determine the context in which policies work best. Traditional environmental policy tools now involve more flexible market-based instruments, voluntary agreements, and information provision tools like ecolabels and sustainability indicators. Policy process theories continue to be refined through hypothesis testing and are evolving into more integrative and multidisciplinary frameworks. Interdisciplinary methods are also being employed to better measure and analyze environmental outcomes, which has always been a major challenge in environmental policy research. These research tools are being explored in emerging policy approaches like collaborative partnerships and with novel environmental issues like climate change adaptation, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and nanotechnology.

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... This approach provides insights into the various meanings of sustainability and serves as a foundation for an assessment of the literature's lacunae, strengths and weaknesses, and possible paths for forthcoming research. Niles and Lubell (2012) conduct an excellent analysis of the integration of environmental policy research concerning how synthetic theoretical perspectives and multidisciplinary strategies are being formulated to understand the connections between the social and ecological systems found in environmental issues. They observe that, "Environmental policy theory is now explicitly integrating a broader range of disciplines to better understand the linkages between human and natural systems" (2012, p. 42). ...
... Working in strategically organized multidisciplinary groups can lead to more accurate and comprehensive definitions and conceptions of sustainability. Niles and Lubell (2012) are correct in suggesting that future scholars should make a stronger effort to conduct research on critical policy topics with those working in other complementary fields of inquiry. ...
Article
en This paper reviews theoretical and empirical approaches drawn from influential journal articles and books on sustainability policy published over the last 10 years (2007 through 2017). Due to the widespread application of sustainability as a concept and space limitations, the paper more narrowly focuses on sustainability research in three critical policy areas: climate change, urban development, and agroecology and food systems. Drawing from information provided primarily by citation indexes, the study identifies and analyzes the research literature related to sustainability in these three fields. Future theoretical and empirical research approaches that can better integrate and connect the current diffuse and incongruent literature on sustainability are discussed in the paper. The findings of the literature review generate a number of possible future research directions that are discussed in the study. Abstract zh 本文检验了自2008–18年间发表的有关富裕国家中经济不平等的政策文献。本文聚焦于这十年的原因在于它以2008–09年经济大衰退为开端,以2018年经济复苏结束。在此期间,社会政策学者对不平等的关注大幅增加,笔者认为这反映了学者对不平等趋势和再分配社会政策的关注。笔者在文献中发现,为理解社会政策和经济不平等之间的关系,以及再分配社会政策变化的决定因素,相关努力仍在持续。笔者还注意到,研究传统、和用于应对实际的、方法论和理论空白的途径,这两个方面在文献中存在显著差异。本文总结了文献中提到的方法和结果,并探讨了研究结果对研究公共政策学术领域中经济不平等的意义。 Abstract es Este ensayo revisa la literatura orientada a las políticas sobre la desigualdad económica en los países ricos publicada desde 2008–18. Nos centramos en esta década porque es un período que se debe tanto al comienzo de la Gran Recesión de 2008–09 como a la recuperación. Durante este período de tiempo, la atención a la desigualdad por parte de los académicos en política social creció sustancialmente, lo que argumentamos refleja un interés tanto en las tendencias de desigualdad como en la política social redistributiva. Observamos en la literatura los esfuerzos sostenidos para comprender tanto la relación entre la política social y la desigualdad económica, como los determinantes de los cambios en la política social redistributiva. También observamos variaciones sustanciales en las tradiciones de investigación, así como oportunidades para abordar brechas sustanciales, metodológicas y teóricas. Nuestra revisión resume los enfoques y hallazgos de la literatura y discute las implicaciones de los hallazgos para el estudio de la desigualdad económica dentro del campo académico de la política pública.
... Other evaluations focus on participant satisfaction with the process, which affects satisfaction with the outputs [5,6]. Participant satisfaction, however, may not be a good measure, proxy, or indicator of successful ecological outcomes [3,[7][8][9][10][11]. Coglianese [9] Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/marpol ...
... points out that to avoid cognitive dissonance, stakeholders involved in intensive participatory processes such as negotiated rulemaking, may have a more positive view of the outcomes than is warranted by the outcomes themselves [5]. To date, few studies have considered how well stakeholder perceptions align with empirical trends [3,9,11,12]. In other words, few studies have examined whether stakeholder perceptions of mission success or failure are accurate. ...
... However, they can be expensive and make it easier to identify 'winners' and 'losers', which might trigger societal opposition (Kuhlmann & Blum, 2021 Creating an air quality unit with the local authority; appointing or re-allocating staff to work on air quality projects; gathering information or undertaking research into possible policy options informational instruments, which are relatively easy to introduce because they are cheap and do not involve coercion (Glaus, 2021;Kirschke & Kosow, 2021;Lesnikowski et al., 2020). However, their voluntary nature means they are less likely to result in the level of behavioural change that might be necessary to achieve policy objectives (Niles & Lubell, 2012). In the specific case of air quality, for example, a recent study found that 'only [command and control] regulations that are put into practice through well-equipped and -designed implementation structures can be systematically associated with reductions in air pollutant emissions' and that 'new' environmental policy instruments (such as advertising campaigns) 'do not make any difference' (Steinebach, 2022, p. 14, our emphasis; see also Pascal et al., 2013;Taylor et al., 2012). ...
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The literature on policy mixes tends to focus on the instruments that different jurisdictions adopt to tackle public problems, and how policies may complement or conflict with each other. Fewer studies examine the factors that influence instrument choice, particularly within multilevel contexts, despite a recognition that policy mixes to tackle similar issues vary substantially across and within countries. We present a new framework to help understand and predict policy choice in subnational governance, arguing that the level of local support for action influences the type of policy a city adopts, whereas top‐down drivers shape the breadth of instruments it deploys. Drawing on in‐depth stakeholder interviews and documentary analysis, we apply this framework to explain why two contrasting English cities selected their own distinctive policy mixes to combat air pollution. We suggest that where top‐down drivers for action are strong but bottom‐up support is muted, as was the case in Nottingham, municipal governments are likely to adopt a broad range of largely (re)distributive, informational and administrative instruments to tackle policy problems. Where local support is strong, as in Westminster, city authorities prefer to introduce regulations, because restrictions entail fewer political costs in these contexts and are more likely to be effective.
... Both contrast (1) in the type of crisis they represent and (2) their longevity as public problems. Gerring (2007) 1.6.1.2.1 Two related-but-different complex problems Climate change and air pollution 11 are both commonly treated as subdomains of environmental policy (Castán Broto, 2017;Niles & Lubell, 2012;Ramírez de la Cruz & Smith, 2016). As such, both would belong to the same domain as, for example, the preservation of biodiversity or water conservation. ...
Thesis
The thesis analyzes environmental policy coordination processes in cities. Based on acomparative case study of air quality and climate change policies in Mexico City and Paris, theresearch demonstrates that policy coordination in cities is a dynamic, sequential process whereactors from the four governance dimensions – urban, vertical, horizontal, and international –with different competences and perceptions on how their actions affect each other, interactstrategically under particular institutional configurations and cognitive references. The thesisdevelops a theoretical framework based on historical institutionalism, that addresses institutionsas changing, power distributional elements, and cognitive theories of public policy that explainthe organization of policy processes around ideational paradigms or frames of reference. Themain argument is divided into two parts. First, policy coordination results from the interplaybetween institutions that shape governance arrangements by distributing competences andestablishing frameworks for action, cognitive frameworks and ideational processes that definereferences, paradigms, and problems, and the strategic interactions taking place within. Thethree elements combine, leading to positive coordination, negative coordination, or conflict.Second, those arrays remain steady until changes in the institutional context, either abrupt orincremental, rearrange the interactions by altering the frameworks of action, leading to differentcoordination sequences. Hence, I argue that due to the changing nature of the institutionalcontext, coordination processes are sequential, rather than one-shot interactions.
... The concept of incentives has long been used by both the public and private sectors to encourage behavioral change among targeted audiences (Hutton and Markley 1991). By realigning EIs with individual choice and behavior, rather than relying on mandatory behavior backed by enforcement (Niles and Lubell 2012), they empower drivers and reduce barriers (Ecorys 2012), increase net benefits by reducing compliance costs and increasing flexibility in achieving environmental goals (Olmstead 2010). This encourages targeted changes in corporate processes and customer behavior to solve environmental challenges (Watkins et al 2019). ...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of environmental policy research focusing on market-based instruments, and their applicability to developing countries, especially Nigeria. It also addresses more general developments in the field of Deposit Refund Systems and explores the practicality of a deposit-refund system (DRS) to litter management in Nigeria. A prominent theme of our discussion is economic instruments, wherein approaches will be explored, to understand the link between compliance, and neglect inherent in environmental issues of a developing country like Nigeria. Where the objective is to reduce littering, deposit-refund system was considered the choice for the framework of this study after researches detailed its benefits, and relevance to the research problem. Deposit Refund System (DRS) is subsequently discussed as a policy intervention, and the feasibility of introducing the system in Nigeria is evaluated. By understanding the implementation mechanisms, the economic viability, and environmental effectiveness of a deposit refund system, it is concluded that a DRS can support a country’s drive to solve some of its pressing issues of environmental concern even with the bare minimum of government administration. The consolidation of information from this research can kick-start the conversation on ways to incorporate this system as part of Nigeria’s solid waste management policy.
... A pesquisa interdisciplinar é baseada na colaboração de diferentes disciplinas em toda cadeia de valor de base biológica, incluindo as Ciências Naturais, as Ciências Econômicas e as Ciências Sociais, consistindo em uma abordagem sistêmica (MORIN, 2003;VASCONCELOS, 2002), que permite a avaliação de desafios complexos, por meio das perspectivas social, ambiental e econômica e demais dimensões postuladas por Sachs (2002). Já as abordagens transdisciplinares (JAPIASSÚ, 1996;NILES & LUBELL, 2012) comportam o anseio da proposição emergente da bioeconomia em contribuir na superação de alguns dos mais relevantes desafios sociais, atentando assim para as dimensões social, ambiental, cultural, institucional, político (nacional e internacional), territorial, ecológico, integrantes e indissociáveis do princípio da sustentabilidade (ELKINGTON, 2000;SACHS, 2001 (extensivamente sobre alimentos humanos e para animais); e os bioquímicos (ácidos láticos e succínios); Impactos positivos e criação de novos modelos de negócios sobre vários segmentos da economia: alimentos, novas energéticas alternativas, segmentos da saúde, farmacêutica, indústria química. Investimento em recursos humanos; Monitoramento das condições edafoclimáticas e das externativas negativas que impactam os setores produtos, sociais e ambientais; Investimento em infraestrutura para PD&I; Conflitos entre produzir alimentos, energias para o mercado doméstico e para o mercado externo; Altas volatilidades das cotações internacionais e dos preços domésticos das comodites agrícolas, com potencializais vetores tecnológicos qu4 alternam a produção de bens alimentícios para a produção de insumos às fontes alternativas de energias, que venham a compor as matrizes energéticos; Avanço na proteção aos direitos de propriedade intelectual e de resultados de pesquisa; Concorrência inter-setoriais nos segmentos circunscritos a clusters industriais; O uso racional e adequado do solo agrícola e agropastorial; Escalas de produção em territórios produtivos regulados e com práticas de produção de bens agrícolas e de criação de animais sustentáveis; Modernização do marco regulatório para aumentar a segurança jurídica para os novos modelos de negócios, a partir dos bioinsumos, produtos éticos e sustentáveis. ...
... Based on the estimates of UNEP (2019) and IPCC et al. (2018), in order to put the world on a least-cost pathway to limiting global warming to 2 C, global GHG emissions in 2030 need to be approximately 25% lower than in 2017 and even 55% lower to aim at a global warming of 1.5 C. Given the crucial role played by the land sector, ambitious mitigation efforts in land-based activities can substantially contribute in meeting the global climate goals (Bombelli et al., 2019). However, on the other side, the high degree of variability across climate, soil, type of management and other local conditions (Henault et al., 2012;Hof, 2019: IPCC, 2019) makes mitigation in the land sector more challenging compared to point-source sectors as the energy and industrial ones (Niles and Lubell, 2012). ...
Article
Free download by 23 February 2021: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cMJT3QCo9YoKh Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU sector) cover the 24% of global emissions, representing the second hot spot in the contribution to climate change after the energy sector. Thus, the land sector plays a crucial role in the context of climate change, being both a contributor to the problem and part of its solution, particularly thanks to the capacity of soils and biomass to sequester atmospheric carbon. The challenge of this paper is to understand the extent to which sustainable land management can be a valuable solution for increasing the mitigation potential of the land sector, particularly at small-scale rural landscape level.The paper presents and tests a land-based approach to be applied at small-scale rural landscape level, aiming at reducing and offsetting GHG emissions from the livestock activities, one of the main sources of GHG emissions of the whole agricultural sector. The proposed land-based approach builds on an ensemble of methodologies, including Geographic Information System (GIS) elaboration, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and methodologies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), that allow estimating livestock GHG emissions and the mitigation potential of sustainable land-use options applied in the same small-scale rural landscape.Results from a case study in Italy show that land-based mitigation options applied at small-scale rural landscape level can reduce and completely offset the GHG livestock emissions of the same area, leading to carbon neutral livestock systems. Thus, this study confirms that the land sector can strongly contribute to climate change mitigation if sustainable land-use options are applied.
... Procedural instruments aim at assessing the environmental impact of certain production processes and determine alternative arrangements that are environmentally friendly, examples are environmental impact assessment [8]. Persuasive instruments such as information provision tools work best where there is information gap-such that the missing information becomes a hindrance to behavioural change in reducing environmental impacts [9]. Co-operative instruments such as voluntary agreements and energy efficiency measure work best where there are existing incentives to behavioural change integrated with prevailing laws [8,10]. ...
Chapter
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Advancement in energy policies has stimulated the adoption of instruments used in the renewable energy sector and climate change mitigation. Renewable energy policies play a crucial role in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, by providing access to modern energy and energy security by diversifying energy supply. There have been numerous policies developed in Ghana to improve the uptake of renewable energy for electricity production and to ensure efficient use of electrical energy. Some of the specific government policy objectives include reducing technical and commercial losses in power supply, support the modernization and expansion of the energy infrastructure to meet the growing demands, ensure reliability and accelerate the development and utilisation of renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. These policies have defined targets and period to be implemented. This chapter outlined the renewable energy and energy efficiency policies in Ghana by matching the policy objectives against policy instruments and outcomes to measure what has been achieved. A comparative analysis was made with South Africa and Morocco's renewable energy sectorial policies on the basis of various strategies adopted to their achievements and what Ghana can learn from.
... Lastly, several scholars consistently warn that power imbalances within collaborative governance arrangements can undermine the success of these structures as a whole [6,13,17,18,27,28]. An unequal distribution of power is found to result in distrust and weak commitment, and to obstruct fairness, legitimacy and the e cacy of the decision-making process [6,13]. ...
Article
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This paper presents interdisciplinary research focusing on the municipality of Braunsbach in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, where, in May 2016, a flash flood attracted media attention and scientific scrutiny that highlighted the fact that certain aspects of flood risk were overlooked during earlier assessments conducted by the municipality, such as sediment transport. Using a network analysis and a focus-group discussion, we traced the flow of knowledge through the reported interactions between governmental, private, and academic actors in the two and a half years after the event. From our analysis, we learned that the extreme event attracted scientists to the formal and informal assessment of the hazard and the associated damages. Most importantly, we found conditions under which scientific scrutiny is not detached from but becomes integrated in a governance setting. While it is through this process that sediment transport has become an integral part of flood-risk management in Baden-Württemberg, with an evident impact on the measures already implemented, the impact of morphological changes, as well as large wood and sediment transport, have not been factored into the risk assessment as of yet. These variations in scientific impact on the assessment can be explained by decision biases that can occur when decision makers are under pressure to tackle vulnerabilities and thus lack the time to deliberate in a way that uses all the available evidence.
... • The policy/solution stream concerns the broader set of policy tools for addressing climate change. These policy tools can be divided into two categories: command-and-control regulation that mandates behavior, and other tools such as market-based instruments, voluntary agreements, and information provision that attempt to realign economic incentives with individual behavior (Niles & Lubell, 2012). Prior to the TNEC, the city of Tallahassee used a combination of ordinances and market-based approaches to promote sustainable behavior. ...
Article
Although public managers and nongovernmental actors play important roles in promoting sustainable communities, little is known about how these actors collaborate with each other across sectors when it comes to sustainability innovation. This case study illustrates how a policy entrepreneur partnered with local government, businesses, and community organizations to implement an innovative neighborhood energy competition that achieved community-wide energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. The outcome of this case suggests that local communities can promote bottom-up sustainability innovation through cross-sector collaboration that combines grassroots efforts led by policy entrepreneurs and nongovernmental actors with technical capacity provided by the government. The outcome also suggests that financial incentives are important, albeit with caveats, for motivating citizen participation in sustainability innovation. There are, however, a number of challenges associated with sustaining such innovation over time. This case offers useful insights into collaborative governance and practical recommendations for utilizing energy competitions as a sustainability policy tool.
... Heeding Niles and Lubell's (2012) call for a "dialogue between theory and empirics," our codebook allowed us to identify key conceptual and methodological dimensions of studies, including: theory, study design, hypotheses, type of data, environmental issue, unit of analysis, time dimension, geographic location, and jurisdiction. The last four categories operationalize key dimensions of scale in environmental governance research. ...
Article
en Policy scholars have effectively leveraged policy process models, theories, and frameworks to respond to a variety of important environmental questions. For example, how do environmental issues arrive on the agendas of policymakers? What factors contribute to environmental policy change? What are the designs and effects of institutions (e.g., policies or cultural norms) on environmental governance? In this review, we survey the field of policy process scholarship, focusing on environmental governance, with three objectives. The first objective is to catalog the policy process models, theories, and frameworks most often featured in studies of environmental governance. The second is to capture the methodological choices commonly employed in the application of these models, theories, and frameworks in environmental domains. The third is to identify how these approaches deal with issues central to environmental governance research, including time, space, and policy scale. We aim to identify trends and strategies for integrating key considerations of scale into empirical policy process scholarship. Abstract zh 政策学者已有效利用政策过程模型、理论和框架回应一系列重要环境问题。比如,环境问题如何出现在政策制定者的议程之上?哪些因素促进环境政策变化?制度(例如政策或文化规范)设计有哪些,它对环境治理产生了什么作用?在这篇文章中,作者调查了政策过程学术领域,聚焦于环境治理。作者有三个调查目标。第一个目标是对环境治理研究中最常涉及的政策过程模型、理论和框架进行分类整理。第二个目标是获取在应用这些模型、理论和框架时最常使用的方法选择。第三个目标是识别这些方法如何应对环境治理研究的中心问题,包括时间、空间和政策范围。笔者致力识别出用于将关键考量融入实证政策过程学术的趋势和策略。 Abstract es Los expertos en políticas han aprovechado de manera efectiva los modelos, teorías y marcos de procesos de políticas para responder a una variedad de preguntas ambientales importantes. Por ejemplo, ¿cómo llegan los temas ambientales a las agendas de los responsables políticos? ¿Qué factores contribuyen al cambio de la política ambiental? ¿Cuáles son los diseños y efectos de las instituciones (por ejemplo, políticas o normas culturales) en la gobernanza ambiental? En esta revisión, examinamos el campo de la beca de procesos de políticas, centrado en la gobernanza ambiental, con tres objetivos. El primer objetivo es catalogar los modelos de procesos de políticas, las teorías y los marcos que se presentan con mayor frecuencia en los estudios de gobernanza ambiental. El segundo es capturar las elecciones metodológicas comúnmente empleadas en la aplicación de estos modelos, teorías y marcos en dominios ambientales. La tercera es identificar cómo estos enfoques abordan los temas centrales para la investigación de la gobernanza ambiental, incluidos el tiempo, el espacio y la escala de políticas. Nuestro objetivo es identificar tendencias y estrategias para integrar consideraciones clave de escala en la investigación empírica del proceso de políticas.
... Counterfactual scenarios (i.e. without policy) cannot be implemented experimentally, for practical and ethical reasons among others, as it is not justifiable to expose one group to a policy against a harmful pollutant and not others (Niles and Lubell 2012). ...
Chapter
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Environmental policy struggles with some conceptual and empirical challenges, so a good starting point for analysis is what constitutes ‘good’ policy design. Within the definition of ‘good’ policy design, ecosystem properties and problems, the performance of existing policies, practices and actors need to be considered common elements. Analysts and policymakers should better understand the temporal dynamics of policy change, how and why specific policies work (or not) and how policy choices interact in increasingly complex policy mixes.
... However, the diffuse nature of N2O emissions across agricultural fields makes mitigation more challenging from a policy standpoint as compared to point-source emissions (e.g. energy, industrial and transportation sources; Niles and Lubell, 2012). As a result, efforts to mitigate agricultural N2O emissions in the United States have thus far largely been voluntary and incentive-based through government or private programs. ...
Preprint
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The majority of nitrous oxide emissions- a potent greenhouse gas- are from agricultural sources, particularly nitrogen fertilizer applications. A growing focus on these emission sources has led to the development of carbon offset protocols that could enable payment to farmers for reducing fertilizer use or implementing other nitrogen management strategies. Despite the development of several protocols, the current regional scope is narrow, adoption by farmers is low, and policy implementation of protocols has a significant time lag. Here we utilize existing research and policy structures to propose an “umbrella” approach for nitrogen management greenhouse gas emissions protocols for carbon markets that has the potential to streamline the policy implementation and acceptance of protocols. We suggest that the umbrella protocol could set forth standard definitions common across multiple protocol options, and then “modules” could be further developed as scientific evidence advances. Modules could be developed for specific crops, regions, and practices. We identify a policy process that could facilitate this development in concert with emerging scientific research and conclude by acknowledging potential benefits and limitations of the approach.
... Scholars distinguish four types of policy instruments in China's environmental governance [4,[15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
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China is struggling between accelerating environmental protection and accelerating environmental damage. Although the central government is investing extensively in environmental laws and policies, China's annual environmental goals have hardly been achieved. What is often poorly recognized by top decision-makers is that the environmental governance system is so complex that multiple elements, including laws, policy items, actors and issues, have become intentionally or emergently entangled. Without knowing the roles, positions and interconnections of the system elements, it is difficult for people to find the critical points for further improvements. Taking this challenge, this research conducts a retrospective analysis on the developmental trajectory of China's environmental governance. The analysis helps us to pinpoint the role of law, the position of actor, and the linkage of policy that promote or prevent environmental protection; it can also question or reaffirm the effectiveness of the environmental laws and policies, and thereby aid China's future prognosis and some recommendations.
... Agriculture is also an important source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 10-12% of total anthropogenic emissions annually [5]. These facts highlight the need to balance effective mitigation efforts that reduce greenhouse gas emissions with robust adaptation initiatives that enable farmers to cope with the effects of climate change and thus safeguard the resilience of social-ecological systems like agriculture [6][7][8]. In the United States, California has been one of the first states to provide a policy framework for climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives, many of which have implications for the agricultural sector [9,10]. ...
Article
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In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation.
... It appears that farmers may be able to overlook negative experiences or perceptions if the government provides the right incentive to do so. Using the government carrot rather than a stick to encourage action on climate change could garner widespread support and participation, particularly if combined with other policy strategies (Niles and Lubell, 2012; Wilson, 1996). As indicated by one farmer, ''If regulation and goals are set that are paired with incentive type efforts that provide assistance to farmers to make the transitions and change that they need to make, you do see farmers changing and you do see change happening.'' ...
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This paper considers how farmers perceive and respond to climate change policy risks, and suggests that understanding these risk responses is as important as understanding responses to biophysical climate change impacts. Based on a survey of 162 farmers in California, we test three hypotheses regarding climate policy risk: (1) that perceived climate change risks will have a direct impact on farmer's responses to climate policy risks, (2) that previous climate change experiences will influence farmer's climate change perceptions and climate policy risk responses, and (3) that past experiences with environmental policies will more strongly affect a farmer's climate change beliefs, risks, and climate policy risk responses. Using a structural equation model we find support for all three hypotheses and furthermore show that farmers’ negative past policy experiences do not make them less likely to respond to climate policy risks through participation in a government incentive program. We discuss how future research and climate policies can be structured to garner greater agricultural participation. This work highlights that understanding climate policy risk responses and other social, economic and policy perspectives is a vital component of understanding climate change beliefs, risks and behaviors and should be more thoroughly considered in future work.
... Policy tools research has a long tradition in economics based on market failures and government intervention (Niles and Lubell 2012;Salamon and Lund 1989). Environmental policy tools research has evolved from a focus on top-down coercive methods for curbing pollution to more market-based mechanisms and voluntary approaches in recent decades (Fiorino 2006;Keohane, Revesz and Stavins 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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How might social inequality influence local government decisions to adopt green building incentives or mandates? Extant research has considered the influence that political homophily, environmental activism, and pressure groups play in the spread of sustainability policies. But to what extent do concerns over environmental justice motivate local government adoption of green building, development, and remodeling programs? This study begins to disentangle these questions by asking: do cities within regions with higher levels of social inequality adopt green building policies less frequently than those in areas of lower inequality? Using national survey data, we find measures of wealth and “reformed” government positively influence the use of green-building tools, while regional income inequality dampens these effects.
... Despite these criticisms, consensus-based processes can create second-and third-order benefits, even if consensus is not achieved, such as external collaborations, generation of innovative ideas and social capital, increased trust and communication, and decreased animosity [6]. Natural resource agencies have employed consensus-based, multi-stakeholder negotiations to address complex environmental problems on a wide variety of institutional and ecological scales with the goal of combining scientific expertise , practical knowledge, and public values [11,25,414243. One such process includes marine mammal take reduction planning required by the MMPA and implemented by NMFS. ...
... On a watershed basis, the following recommendations are grounded in nested theories within the social ecological theoretical framework. Policy network theory, as described by Niles and Lubell (2012), explains interactions within and between representatives on an advisory committee, where policy actors are linked by social relationships and the structure of the network influences policy decisions and outcomes. In promoting a dynamic inclusive planning process at the watershed scale, adaptive management theory further explains the interactions and feedback loops within and between social and ecological systems as they evolve over time (Bunch, Morrison, Parkes & Venema, 2011). ...
Research
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This Report considers how population health principles are included in the 2010 Ontario Low Water Response Plan. Section 1 describes the key elements of the Plan and provides an overview and justification that the disciplines of risk management and water resource economics are relevant to the analysis of this intervention. Section 2 defines a number of population health principles that are evident within the Plan and a critique of how these are addressed from the two disciplinary perspectives. Section 3 details recommendations to strengthen the Plan from a population health perspective in both the short and long term. A brief conclusion completes this Report.
... The application of higher level evaluation models and higher evaluation cultures within regional bodies raises confidence that these organisations will be able to support the 'call for empirical research on environmental outcomes, especially in the context of emerging, complex environmental problems like climate change' as raised by Niles and Lubell (2012) who see this as critical to driving policy sciences forward through providing better observations of causal processes in policy settings. The lack of connections between some regional bodies and the research institutions, however, is likely to impact on the capacity of these regions to participate and to drive policy relevant to their regions and issues. ...
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Established under a joint venture between the Australian Government and the individual state and territory governments, Australia's regional natural resource management (NRM) organisations have been the primary structures for delivering NRM investment programs across Australia. The quantity of investment devolved through these organisations places significant accountability pressure on them and requires them to evaluate the impacts of their programs. Despite the increasing volume of literature about these NRM bodies, no previous review has established a baseline of the regional bodies' evaluation practices and capabilities on a national scale. This research reviews the monitoring and evaluation drivers, barriers and practices of these regional bodies. Findings include the identification of two main driver factors (improvement and maintenance), two barrier factors (skills and resourcing, and technical) and three practice factors (monitoring and evaluating intermediate outcomes, appropriateness of investment aspects, and need and benefit). The majority of regional bodies were operating within the higher level expanded contextual (25 percent) and constitutive and bounded rationality (58 percent) evaluation model groups. The results suggest that very few regional bodies are operating within the more narrowly focused organisational excellence (11 percent) and political and symbolic (6 percent) evaluation model groups. Evaluation capabilities and culture were also high across the regional bodies in line with the high level evaluation models generally being applied.
... According to the research group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the climatic variations that have affected the Planet will continue in the coming decades [7]. Given the vulnerability of the wine-growing ecosystem [8,9], it is crucial to identify sustainable solutions that allow the probable effects of climate change to be tackled and to safeguard the production capacity [10,11] of viticultural systems. ...
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The current paper presents the results of an economic evaluation of a new drought-resistant rootstock (M4), capable to maintain in adverse environmental conditions high photosynthetic activity, to accumulate osmotic compounds and to compensate for the accumulation of sodium and chlorine in the grapevines, in two core Italian grapevine growing areas: the North-East and Sicily. After collecting data on quantitative (yield per plant in kg) and qualitative parameters (°Brix, , anthocyanins, pH) of experimental vineyards (Cabernet Sauvignon variety) planted using the traditional rootstock 1103P and the innovative M4 rootstock, over a seven-year period, a cost-benefit analysis calculated the effects of replacing the traditional rootstock. The results show that M4 rootstock yields higher net revenues compared to the best situation of 1103P rootstock, roughly in 40% of North-East vineyards and in more than 80% of their Sicilian counterparts. In addition, 14% of North-East vineyards and more than 94% of Sicilian vineyards are currently exposed to drought risk, and these areas are expected to increase in the coming years. Thus the M4 rootstock, as other related innovations [52, 53, 54], could significantly improve water-saving strategies, which are gaining increasing attention from both public bodies and wine companies.
... It appears that farmers may be able to overlook negative experiences or perceptions if the government provides the right incentive to do so. Using the government carrot rather than a stick to encourage action on climate change could garner widespread support and participation, particularly if combined with other policy strategies (Niles and Lubell, 2012; Wilson, 1996). As indicated by one farmer, ''If regulation and goals are set that are paired with incentive type efforts that provide assistance to farmers to make the transitions and change that they need to make, you do see farmers changing and you do see change happening.'' ...
... Recent years have seen a rise in information-based and voluntary policies (Niles and Lubell 2012). Following the command-and-control policies typical of the major federal environmental legislation (e.g., CAA, CWA, ESA, RCRA), a second wave of federal environmental legislation and regulatory efforts has emphasized the role of information provision in improving environmental quality and promoting voluntary " green " or healthy behavior. ...
Article
Metropolitan smog alerts are prominent public information campaigns designed to enhance public health and to curb driving and other emissions. Unlike many other voluntary information-based environmental policies, air quality alerts target household behavior via forecast information about ambient concentrations rather than firm or product characteristics. This paper explores behaviors with high emissions (driving) and with high exposure (outdoor recreation) and underscores the difference between altruistic and risk aversion motivations. Behavioral impacts are identified using the threshold nature of daily air quality forecasts. A regression discontinuity (RD) design finds elderly users and exercisers tend to curtail their use of a major park following smog alerts. The RD design also reveals that households do not drive less on smog alert days. Juxtaposing high emissions behavior with high exposure behavior in the same study highlights how public forecast information may better trigger some responses and struggle to trigger others.
... Legislative policies contain some combination of carrots and sticks for the purpose of motivating behaviors which governing institutions explicitly promulgate (Salamon, 2000). The policy tools found within legislative policies-particularly for scientific and technical areas of regulation such as environmental policy-can be quite complex given the groups and behaviors for which they are targeted (for an excellent review, see Niles & Lubell, 2012). While there are multiple tools in a policy, each tool may serve to motivate multiple behaviors. ...
Article
Do government choices, rather than legislative policies (i.e., mandatory regulations or incentives), influence the choices private actors make? In this article we develop a concept of “policy by doing,” which examines the power of government actions as hortatory tools to encourage other community members to act. “Policy by doing” can be an attempt to shape outcomes by providing symbolic leadership, reducing uncertainty, creating market, and telegraphing actions. Empirical analysis of privately held green buildings in 591 U.S. cities from 2004 to 2010 suggests that when governments increase their own commitment to green building for their facilities; private actors will be more likely to build green. We find that the actions of local governments, rather than those of state or federal, exert the strongest substantive influence on private decision making. Our findings contribute to understanding how governments can augment existing policy regimes by modeling the behavior they hope to inspire in other actors.
... In line with recent scholarship advocating for an environmental justice approach that incorporates relevant health and environmental data (see Brulle & Pellow, 2006;Holifield, 2012;Lam, 2012;Maguire & Sherriff, 2011;Niles & Lubell, 2012), the present research study proposes a methodology for the geographic declaration of areas determined to be at greater relative risk of exposure to environmental toxins. In doing so, it is asserted that three main criteria should be followed: a) Spatial scale cannot affect the outcome of the analysis. ...
... The rationale for government support of collaborative groups is often that such groups will alleviate a perceived current lack of coordination amongst network actors (by reducing or subsidizing transaction costs of networking). While collaborative groups are widely employed throughout the US and internationally (Niles and Lubell 2012), there is little evidence regarding the effect of collaborative groups on organizational networks. Lubell et al. (2010 importantly, none of these works are able to link collaborative groups to network structure and thus examine how initiating and supporting a collaborative group alters an underlying organizational network. ...
... Agriculture is also an important source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 10–12% of total anthropogenic emissions annually [5]. These facts highlight the need to balance effective mitigation efforts that reduce greenhouse gas emissions with robust adaptation initiatives that enable farmers to cope with the effects of climate change and thus safeguard the resilience of social-ecological systems like agriculture678. In the United States, California has been one of the first states to provide a policy framework for climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives , many of which have implications for the agricultural sector [9,10]. Under California's Global Warming Solutions Act (AB-32), which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, the state is developing policies to encourage voluntary mitigation and adaptation among farmers through the adoption of water and crop management practices, renewable energy technologies, and possible participation in carbon markets [10,11]. ...
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In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation.
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Os recentes arranjos de cidades têm chamado a atenção dos atores, que atuam no tríplice hélice, para o atendimento dos desafios coletivos centrados nos ambientes urbanos. O termo cidades sustentáveis e inteligentes propõe dois eixos de estudos: as abordagens conceituais; e as abrangências práticas sobre os processos decisórios dos gestores públicos. O termo também guarda relação direta com os desafios dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS), especialmente, aqueles em relação às cidades e comunidades sustentáveis. Sob esta perspectiva, este estudo objetiva analisar as abordagens conceituais dos termos cidades sustentáveis, cidades inteligentes e cidades sustentáveis e inteligentes, à luz dos desafios dos ODS. Trata-se de uma pesquisa, baseada em revisão bibliográfica sistemática, de ordem exploratória, cujo tratamento teve natureza qualitativa. Os resultados apontaram que as abordagens conceituais de cidades sustentáveis não se traduzem, necessariamente, em cidades inteligentes. Igualmente, as cidades inteligentes não devem ser consideradas, de forma automática, como cidades sustentáveis. Assim, o termo mais apropriado seria cidades sustentáveis e inteligentes. A partir desta reflexão, sugere-se às partes interessadas, o desenho de políticas públicas mais eficazes voltadas aos desafios coletivos centrados nos ambientes urbanos mais sustentáveis e com os aportes tecnológicos inteligentes.
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As proposições da Bioeconomia apontam para uma transição tecnológica de uma economia baseada em energias fósseis para uma economia baseada em fontes renováveis das biomassas, um meio de sequestro de carbono. As proposições da economia circular buscam romper com o ciclo fechado extrair-produzir-descartar, alternando-se para o reaproveitamento racional dos resíduos no ciclo produtivo mais limpo. As proposições da agroindústria 4.0 trazem a conexão em rede digital, de sistemas físicos, sob o suporte da Tecnologia da Informação e Comunicação, um direcionamento alternativo de formação de cadeias produtivas agroindustriais mais sustentáveis e inteligentes. Assim, questiona-se o quanto às abordagens teóricas e às respectivas proposições tecnológicas da Bioeconomia, da economia circular e da agroindústria 4.0 estão alinhadas para o sequestro de carbono. Sob esta perspectiva, este ensaio teórico dedica-se a refletir sobre os alinhamentos das abordagens teóricas e às respectivas proposições tecnológicas da Bioeconomia, da economia circular e da agroindústria 4.0 para o sequestro de carbono. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva, fruto de uma revisão bibliográfica, com abordagens exploratórias multi e interdisciplinares. Os resultados apontaram para a existência de uma transição da abordagem conceitual inicial da Bioeconomia para uma nova vertente, a Bioeconomia sustentável, com vista ao sequestro de carbono. Refletiu-se que as abordagens conceituais e as proposições tecnológicas da Bioeconomia sustentável estão relativamente alinhadas com as da economia circular e ambas estão igualmente relativamente alinhadas com a agroindústria 4.0. Refletiu-se também em relação às restrições evidenciadas entre as três proposições, o que significa a existência de desafios a serem superados.
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Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht befasst sich mit dem Transfer von Klima-Policies (z.B. Strategien zur Dekarbonisierung oder Ansätze zur Klimawandelanpassung) zwischen Städten und fokussiert sich hierbei auf Literaturbeiträge aus den Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaften sowie der Humangeographie. Policies werden hierbei als übergreifender Begriff verstanden, der auf Problemlösung abzielende Aktivitäten staatlicher Akteur*innen zusammenfasst. Im Fokus des Berichts stehen insbesondere konzeptionelle Ansätze zu Transfer und Skalierung, interne und externe Voraussetzungen für den Transfer, sowie die Entstehungsbedingungen und das Transferpotential von Policies. Zentrale Erkenntnisse der Literaturstudie sind: - Die spezifischen Kontextbedingungen der aufnehmenden Stadt sind entscheidend für das Gelingen des Transfers, wobei die Erfolgsaussichten bei sich ähnelnden Städten (z.B. ähnliche Größe und institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen) am größten sind. - Policies werden nur äußerst selten unverändert von einer Stadt auf eine andere übertragen. - Ebenso wichtig wie die räumliche Skalierung (Übertragung einer Policy von einer Stadt auf eine andere) ist auch die zeitliche Skalierung (langfristige institutionelle Einbettung und Verstetigung der Policy). - Transfer und die Skalierung von Policies können durch lokale Schlüsselakteur*innen (z.B. Umweltdezernent*innen) sowie durch Transferagenturen (z.B. Energie- und Klimaagenturen) entscheidend begünstigt werden. Der Bericht wurde erstellt im Rahmen des BMBF-geförderten Projekts ExTrass Urbane Resilienz gegenüber extremen Wetterereignissen – Typologien und Transfer von Anpassungsstrategien in kleinen Großstädten und Mittelstädten (2018-2020). ExTrass verfolgt das Ziel, die Resilienz von Groß- und Mittelstädten gegenüber Hitze und Starkregen messbar zu stärken sowie Transferpotenziale zwischen Städten besser nutzbar zu machen. Dabei wird Resilienz als adaptiver (Lern-)Prozess verstanden, in dem Kommunen Maßnahmen aufgreifen und um-setzen, von denen ein schadensreduzierender Effekt bei Wetterextremen erwartet wird (z.B. die Reduktion von Sachschäden oder von Rettungseinsätzen). Auf diesen konzeptionell ausgerichteten Bericht folgt Ende 2021 ein weiterer Bericht. Dieser umfasst - anders als der vorliegende Bericht - auch empirische Ergebnisse zum Thema Transfer von Policies zwischen Städten, die im Rahmen des Projekts ExTrass generiert wurden. Zudem wird der Fokus dann weniger auf Policies sondern stärker auf konkreten Instrumenten und Maßnahmen zur lokalen Klimaanpassung liegen. https://leibniz-irs.de/wissenstransfer/transferpublikationen/irs-dialog/transfer-und-skalierung-von-lokaler-klimapolitik
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This study analyzed the environmental management in the municipalities in the state of São Paulo based on the results of the program “Município VerdeAzul” (PMVA) [GreenBlue municipalities program], relating them to population size, public environmental expenditures and health conditions of the population. Data from 2008 to 2013 were collected from public databases and analyzed using descriptive statistics techniques, multilevel analysis, correlation and the construction of maps to represent the geographic distribution of the indicators. The paper evidences discontinuity in the adhesion to PMVA, as well as intraregional and interregional differences in the environmental performance with concentration of the worst results in the southern region of the state, which is not explained by population size. The ten cities identified with the best environmental performance were: Novo Horizonte, Santa Rosa de Viterbo, Santa Fé do Sul, Itu, Gabriel Monteiro, Sorocaba, Franca, Piacatu, Dirce Reis and Lins. In addition, analysis showed the inexistence of a pattern of environmental investment in the state. It was also observed that the amount of environmental expenditure is slightly and positively correlated with PMVA performance and with lower hospitalization rates for diarrheal diseases in children. This study helps public decision-making, enabling an integrated and holistic view of environmental management in São Paulo.
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The majority of emissions of nitrous oxide – a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) – are from agricultural sources, particularly nitrogen fertilizer applications. A growing focus on these emission sources has led to the development in the United States of GHG offset protocols that could enable payment to farmers for reducing fertilizer use or implementing other nitrogen management strategies. Despite the development of several protocols, the current regional scope is narrow, adoption by farmers is low, and policy implementation of protocols has a significant time lag. Here we utilize existing research and policy structures to propose an ‘umbrella’ approach for nitrogen management GHG emissions protocols that has the potential to streamline the policy implementation and acceptance of such protocols. We suggest that the umbrella protocol could set forth standard definitions common across multiple protocol options, and then modules could be further developed as scientific evidence advances. Modules could be developed for specific crops, regions, and practices. We identify a policy process that could facilitate this development in concert with emerging scientific research and conclude by acknowledging potential benefits and limitations of the approach. Key policy insights • Agricultural greenhouse gas market options are growing, but are still underutilized • Streamlining protocol development through an umbrella process could enable quicker development of protocols across new crops, regions, and practices • Effective protocol development must not compromise best available science and should follow a rigorous pathway to ensure appropriate implementation
Chapter
This chapter indicates the advanced issues of environmental management; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing; waste management, environmental sustainability, and environmental benefits; Solid Waste Management (SWM); electronic waste management; construction waste management; and the importance of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM). Environmental management is a systematic strategy that companies can apply to find the different ways for saving water, energy, and materials, and for reducing the negative environmental impacts. Environmental management aims to prevent pollution, preserve natural resources, and reduce environmental risks toward creating an environmentally-friendly image with different stakeholders. Effective waste management method reduces the consumption of natural resources and lowers the ultimate needs for waste disposal. The chapter argues that enhancing environmental management and waste management has the potential to increase environmental performance toward environmental sustainability.
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The promise of collaborative governance is to implement policies that address uncertain and multi‐scale environmental problems while also allowing local social systems to successfully adapt. The success of such efforts is contingent on the capacity of community‐based institutions such as lake associations to effect change. These organizations encapsulate the values communities hold for lakes and their catchments and can play a central role in managing the integrity of lakes’ freshwater resources. To this end, we develop a framework to delineate the pathways lake associations can take to contribute to the management of lakes and their catchments. We suggest the cornerstones of effective engagement in collaborative governance are the goals the organization sets for itself (mission), the capital that can be mobilized by the organization (capacity) and the activities the organization undertakes (actions). We propose measurable indicators for each component and suggest how the framework can be used to assess contributions of lake associations to multi‐scale governance. Finally, we suggest how this framework can be integrated with ecological monitoring frameworks as part of a long term social‐ecological research and monitoring program.
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Figuring out if environmental policy is working is more critical now than ever. This chapter provides an overview of how environmental policy is evaluated and the complexities of its evaluation. Much of policy evaluation has to do with the quantification of various variables, which is understandably complex in this policy realm. We consider how this is done, with a significant portion of this chapter devoted to both understanding how cost–benefit analysis and risk assessment are conducted. Our chapter’s voice and case challenge the contemporary notions of cost–benefit analysis through an examination of environmental justice. Our voices section notes the important work of Matthew Tejada. Our case study examines longitudinal research on commercial hazardous waste, defining for the reader, the intricate details of environmental justice in the United States.
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O artigo analisa os resultados da gestão ambiental pública em um município de pequeno porte do semiárido nordestino. Partindo do Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD- Framework) de Elinor Ostrom, o trabalho discute a configuração institucional dos atores e os instrumentos da gestão ambiental, avaliando a atuação do poder local e dos representantes da sociedade civil. A pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória, tendo como unidade de análise o município de Independência localizado no estado do Ceará. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 29 atores chaves, representantes do poder público e da sociedade civil. Os resultados da pesquisa indicam que prevalece, na gestão ambiental do município de Independência, uma concepção defensiva e setorial, onde a integração é viabilizada de forma parcial.
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Majora Carter has championed green development in urban locations, especially in low-income and minority neighborhoods. She has made urban renewal her mission because she believes that Americans “shouldn’t have to leave your neighborhood to live in a better one.” She says she focuses on minority neighborhoods because, as an African American, she is “twice as likely as a white person to live in an area where air pollution poses the greatest risk to my health…[and] five times more likely to live within walking distance of a power plant or chemical facility” (Carter 2006). Although these statistics might seem alarming, they are supported by facts (see the US EPAs Environmental Justice website). Carter believes that public health and green space are connected, and she has made greening the ghetto her goal.
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The conceptualization of environmental policies aiming to promote pro-environmental behavior has long been based mainly upon the theoretical inputs provided by standard economics. As a result of a growing awareness about the limited effectiveness of such concepts there is to be observed a re-orientation of environmental policy toward “soft-policy” instruments. In this connection, social scientists and policymakers have increasingly given attention to behavioral economics as a basis for designing more effective policy instruments. Research concerning this approach and especially its actual application are, however, still at an early stage, and, moreover, the field of behavioral economics is still developing.
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'Theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich, this book provides an overview of the introduction, development, and use of new policy instruments and new modes of environmental governance in the European context, taking into account both national and European Union experiences. This is a welcome addition to the field!' - Miranda Schreurs, Environmental Policy Research Centre and Free University of Berlin, Germany.
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This paper examines collaborative management groups from the perspective of policymakers seeking to increase coordination within a policy network. While governments often support collaborative groups as a tool to address perceived network failures such as a lack of coordination, the net impact groups have is unclear. I use valued exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to model relationships of varying strength among a regional network of organizations involved in 57 collaborative groups. This provides a unique opportunity to study the interplay between numerous groups and organizations within a large-scale network. Valued ERGMs are a recently developed extension of standard ERGMs that model valued instead of binary ties; thus, this paper also makes a methodological contribution to the policy literature. Findings suggest that participation in collaborative groups does motivate coordination and cooperation amongst individual network organizations; however, this effect is strongest for: (i) organizations that are not already members of another group and (ii) organizations that do not have a preexisting tie. These results support a transaction-cost–based perspective of how government-sponsored collaborative groups can influence network coordination; further, they also provide an empirical example of the Ecology of Games, in which multiple collaborative institutions have interactive effects on one another within a policy network.
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Professionally facilitated multi-stakeholder meetings of marine mammal Take Reduction Teams, such as the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team, are mandated by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. These meetings employ consensus-based decision-making to create policies to safeguard marine mammals. This opportunistic case study examines the history of the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team multi-stakeholder group, and policy decisions the team made to address harmful interactions between harbor porpoises and the New England and mid-Atlantic groundfish fishery. For more than a decade, stakeholders regularly met to create regulations designed to mitigate the accidental entanglement of harbor porpoises in gillnets, called bycatch. A series of disruptions, including a new political appointee and the addition of new team members, altered how stakeholders interacted with one another and how regulations were implemented. These shocks to the formerly well-functioning team, placed the future of consensus-based policy creation at risk. Lessons from this case study can be applied to increase understanding of how multi-stakeholder methods, which are incorporated into many regulatory decision-making processes operate in practice and illustrate the fragile nature of long-standing consensus.
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Collaborative governance and organizational networks are popular and well-documented topics, but the relationship between them is not always clear. In this paper, we examine the extent to which publicly sponsored collaborative groups are associated with network ties between individual organizations by applying exponential random graph models to model how co-membership and co-participation in a publicly sponsored collaborative group is associated with the likelihood of two organizations engaging directly in three types of network ties: consultation, planning, or management. Our data come from a member survey of 57 collaborative groups that involve independent public, nonprofit, and private organizations in collective efforts to restore marine areas and freshwater ecosystems. We find that the probability of observing a network tie between two organizations increases with the extent to which both organizations participate in the same collaborative group, but that this association diminishes as organizations belong to an increasing number of groups. This association is strongest for organizations that report that their participation in a collaborative group has increased their access to information and resources and increased their awareness of other organizations. Given that public agencies often seek to use collaborative groups as a means by which to foster relationships between organizations in a policy network, it is important to know whether the initiation and sponsorship of collaborative groups is associated with the formation of inter-organizational network ties.
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Irrigated agriculture plays a significant role in global food security and poverty reduction. At the same time its negative impacts on water and land resources threaten environmental sustainability. With the objective of improving the understanding on the complexity of governing water resources for irrigated agriculture, this paper introduces the concept of scalar alignment, which is used to analyse governance implications of spatial and temporal scales. Using empirical data from irrigated agriculture in Turkey, implications of spatial and temporal alignment on environmental sustainability are examined. The findings indicate that both spatial and temporal alignment influence the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policy instruments. Increasing the degree of scalar alignment in irrigated agriculture can contribute to sustainable water governance by contributing to the alleviation of negative impacts and the prevention of further degradation.
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New Environmental Policy Instruments (NEPIs) are becoming increasingly attractive. From a global perspective, there has been a rapid diffusion of these market-based, voluntary or informational instruments. This article examines the spread of four different NEPIs – eco-labels, energy or carbon taxes, national environmental policy plans or strategies for sustainable development, and free-access-of-information (FAI) provisions. The adoption of NEPIs by national policy makers is not simply a reaction to newly emerging environmental problems or to real or perceived deficits of traditional command and control regulation, rather the use of NEPIs can also be ascribed to the inner dynamics of international processes of policy transfer or policy diffusion. These processes make it increasingly difficult for national policy makers to ignore new approaches in environmental policy that have already been put into practice in ‘forerunner’ countries.
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A phenomenon of the last 20 years has been the rapid rise of the network form of governance. This governance form has received significant scholarly attention, but, to date, no comprehensive theory for it has been advanced, and no sufficiently detailed and theoretically consistent definition has appeared. Our objective in this article is to provide a theory that explains under what conditions network governance, rigorously defined, has comparative advantage and is therefore likely to emerge and thrive. Our theory integrates transaction cost economics and social network theories, and, in broad strokes, asserts that the network form of governance is a response to exchange conditions of asset specificity, demand uncertainty, task complexity, and frequency. These exchange conditions drive firms toward structurally embedding their transactions, which enables firms to use social mechanisms for coordinating and safeguarding exchanges. When all of these conditions are in place, the network governance form has advantages over both hierarchy and market solutions in simultaneously adapting, coordinating, and safeguarding exchanges.
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Livestock farming in New Zealand and the United States is increasingly being scrutinised for its environmental impact. In some regions regulations intended to reduce non-point source pollution have been introduced. Regulations can impact agricultural sustainability and may have undesirable consequences including land use change. Livestock farmers in two catchments, Lake Taupo and Tomales Bay (California) were interviewed regarding the impacts of new water quality regulations on farm sustainability. The interviews identified motivations for farming and incentives for farms to improve water quality. The impact of a market-based strategy to reduce and cap N leaching in the Lake Taupo catchment seems to be resulting in fewer but more intensive farms. Concerns of future sustainability have driven some farmers in the catchment to sell their farms. The Tomales Bay catchment strategy, which requires self-assessment of farm water quality impacts, is resulting in most farmers initiating new conservation practices with little impact to farm sustainability. Regulations that go beyond market-based incentives and include substantial technical assistance and cost-share incentives may be more effective at providing opportunities for sustaining less intensive farms.
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Facilitators that use a collaborative governance approach are regularly pushed, mandated, or naturally desire to achieve broad inclusion of stakeholders in collaborations. How to achieve such inclusion is an important but often overlooked aspect of implementation. To fully realize the value of collaborative governance, we investigate how institutional design choices made about inclusion practices during the critical early stages of collaboration affect stakeholders' expectations of each other's contribution to a civic program and subsequently influences collaboration process outcomes. Informed by field observations from uniquely successful community health programs, we identify two institutional design choices related to inclusion that are associated with favorable group outcomes. The first design process uses time instrumentally to build trust and commitment in the collaboration, whereas the second design process includes new participants thoughtfully to limit their risk exposure. Based on experimental economics, strategic behaviors of stakeholders are formalized as a minimum effort coordination game in a multiagent model. A series of simulated experiments are conducted to gain fine-grained understanding of how the two design processes uniquely engender and reinforce commitment among stakeholders, minimize uncertainty, and increase the likelihood of positive process outcomes. For practitioners, the findings suggest how to navigate collaboration tensions during the early stages of their development while still respecting the competing need for stakeholder inclusiveness. The theoretical framework and the multiagent method of this study embrace the complexity of collaborative processes and trace how each intervention uniquely contributes to increases in trust and commitment.
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EU climate policy based on reduction (mitigation) of greenhouse gas emissions is coupled with measures aimed at responding efficiently to the unavoidable consequences of climate change (adaptation). However, as the European Commission stated recently in its Green and White Papers on adaptation in Europe, there is still need to develop an overall EU adaptation strategy. Moreover, such a strategy should take into consideration both efficiency and equity concerns. In this article we propose a framework for EU adaptation policy that addresses the two concerns and which enables a transparent decision-making process. In the proposed scheme universal weightings of the individual policy objectives have to be agreed upon prior to actual decision-making. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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This article examines stakeholder involvement and influence as part of voluntary environmental agreements between regulatory agencies and companies. Ten pilot projects that were part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Project XL (excellence and leadership) were examined to evaluate process goals (fairness and competence) and outcome goals (trust and incorporation of public values in decisions). The ten case studies encompass a range of businesses, locations, and ideas for regulatory “reinvention” projects, and they span a spectrum of stakeholder participation processes and outcomes. Although results point to numerous problems in implementation, they also indicate that in several cases, stake holder groups significantly affected the final project agreement (FPA) and enforceable permit. The evidence suggests that companies can work collaboratively and constructively with residents of local communities, members of national environmental organizations and other interest groups, and government regulatory officials to craft voluntary environmental agreements that are cooperative and environmentally beneficial.
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Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. It has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real-world regulatory and management problems. This problem can be corrected if biodiversity is recognized as an end in itself, and if measurable indicators can be selected to assess the status of biodiversity over time. Biodiversity, as presently understood, encompasses multiple levels of biological organization. In this paper, I expand the three primary attributes of biodiversity recognized by Jerry Franklin — composition, structure, and function—into a nested hierarchy that incorporates elements of each attribute at four levels of organization: regional landscape, community-ecosystem, population-species, and genetic. Indicators of each attribute in terrestrial ecosystems, at the four levels of organization, are identified for environmental monitoring purposes. Projects to monitor biodiversity will benefit from a direct linkage to long-term ecological research and a commitment to test hypotheses relevant to biodiversity conservation. A general guideline is to proceed from the top down, beginning with a coarse-scale inventory of landscape pattern, vegetation, habitat structure, and species distributions, then overlaying data on stress levels to identify biologically significant areas at high risk of impoverishment. Intensive research and monitoring can be directed to high-risk ecosystems and elements of biodiversity, while less intensive monitoring is directed to the total landscape (or samples thereof). In any monitoring program, particular attention should be paid to specifying the questions that monitoring is intended to answer and validating the relationships between indicators and the components of biodiversity they represent.
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The increasing use of stakeholder analysis in natural resource management reflects a growing recognition that stakeholders can and should influence environmental decision-making. Stakeholder analysis can be used to avoid inflaming conflicts, ensure that the marginalization of certain groups is not reinforced, and fairly represent diverse interests. We present a case study from the Peak District National Park in the UK, where we used social network analysis to inform stakeholder analysis. This information helped us identify which individuals and categories of stakeholder played more central roles in the network and which were more peripheral. This information guided our next steps for stakeholder selection. The paper ends with a discussion on the strengths and limitations of combining social network analysis with stakeholder analysis.
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Using Japanese facility-level data from an OECD survey, we estimate the effects of implementation of ISO14001 and publication of environmental reports on the facilities' environmental performance. While most previous studies focused on an index of emissions toxicity, this study examines three areas of impacts, none of which have been explored in the literature: natural resource use, solid waste generation, and wastewater effluent. The study is also unique in that the effectiveness of ISO14001 is considered in relation to environmental regulations. Our findings are summarized as follows. First, both ISO14001 and report publication help reduce all three impacts; the former appears more effective in all areas except wastewater. Second, environmental regulations do not weaken the effect of ISO14001. Third, assistance programs offered by local governments--a voluntary approach--promote facilities' adoption of ISO14001. These findings suggest that governments can use command-and-control and voluntary approaches concurrently.
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Comparative case studies and analyses of the influence of domestic politics on countries' climate change policies and Kyoto ratification decisions. © 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
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Do voluntary approaches deliver the expected environmental benefits? Do they help reach environmental targets in a cost-effective way? This report provides an assessment of the use of voluntary approaches building on a number of new case studies. Analysis is on the environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency and the administrative costs either used in isolation or as part of "policy mixes". The book concludes that the environmental effectiveness of voluntary approaches is often questionable, and their economic efficiency is generally low.
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The regulation of risky technologies is not limited to questions amenable to technical risk assessment, but also engages a range of broader social and ethical concerns. The European Union has, apparently, fully embraced the notion that broader social and ethical concerns are a legitimate part of the regulatory process, and certain institutional developments (e.g. enhanced public participation, the consultation of experts in ethics) can be interpreted as an effort to bring these broader issues to the attention of decision-makers. However, this article argues that when we examine regulation closely, safety is generally the only value that competes with the presumed economic benefits of innovation. The broader social and ethical issues either disappear, or, as with socio-economic analysis in chemicals regulation, are likely to be used to justify otherwise unacceptable levels of risk. In this article, I examine the regulation of nanotechnology in the European Union, particularly the regulation of nanomaterials as chemicals, food and cosmetics. I argue that the institutional innovations introduced to bring broader social and ethical issues into regulatory decision-making (including an explicitly political stage to decision-making, as well as public participation and ethical expertise) are likely to disappoint for as long as the regulatory framework is narrowly framed around risk. @copy; 2010 Thomson Reuters (Legal) Limited and Contribbutors.
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This paper presents a comparative study of forest management across four countries in East Africa and Latin America: Kenya, Uganda, Bolivia, and Mexico. It focuses on one question: Do varying proportions of women (low, mixed, high) in forest user groups influence their likelihood of adopting forest resource enhancing behavior? We found that higher proportions of females in user groups, and especially user groups dominated by females, perform less well than mixed groups or male dominated ones. We suggest that these differences may be related to three factors: gender biases in technology access and dissemination, a labor constraint faced by women, and a possible limitation to women's sanctioning authority. Mixed female and male groups offer an avenue for exploiting the strengths of women and men, while tempering their individual shortcomings.
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This is the text of the closing plenary address to the 8th International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in Bellingham, WA, on 22 June 2000. The author was asked to offer his reactions to what he heard at the symposium and read in the journal Society & Natural Resources.
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Future changes in climate pose significant challenges for society, not the least of which is how best to adapt to observed and potential future impacts of these changes to which the world is already committed. Adaptation is a dynamic social process: the ability of societies to adapt is determined, in part, by the ability to act collectively. This article reviews emerging perspectives on collective action and social capital and argues that insights from these areas inform the nature of adaptive capacity and normative prescriptions of policies of adaptation. Specifically, social capital is increasingly understood within economics to have public and private elements, both of which are based on trust, reputation, and reciprocal action. The public-good aspects of particular forms of social capital are pertinent elements of adaptive capacity in interacting with natural capital and in relation to the performance of institutions that cope with the risks of changes in climate. Case studies are presented of present-day collective action for coping with extremes in weather in coastal areas in Southeast Asia and of community-based coastal management in the Caribbean. These cases demonstrate the importance of social capital framing both the public and private institutions of resource management that build resilience in the face of the risks of changes in climate. These cases illustrate, by analogy, the nature of adaptation processes and collective action in adapting to future changes in climate.
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This paper summarizes recent empirical research on compliance costs and strategies and on permit market performance under the U.S. acid rain program, the first large-scale, long-term program to use tradeable emissions permits to control pollution. An efficient market for emissions permits developed in a few years, and this program more than achieved its early goals on time, and it cost less than had been projected. Because of expectation errors, however, investment was excessive, and permit prices substantially understate abatement costs. The tradeable permits approach has worked well, but it is not a miracle cure for environmental problems. Coauthors are Paul L. Joskow, A. Denny Ellerman, Juan Pablo Montero, and Elizabeth M. Bailey. Copyright 1998 by American Economic Association.
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Coming Clean is the first book to investigate the process of information disclosure as a policy strategy for environmental protection. © 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
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Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adaptation has recently gained importance, yet adaptation is much less developed than mitigation as a policy response. Adaptation research has been used to help answer to related but distinct questions. (1) To what extent can adaptation reduce impacts of climate change? (2) What adaptation policies are needed, and how can they best be developed, applied and funded? For the first question, the emphasis is on the aggregate value of adaptation so that this may be used to estimate net impacts. An important purpose is to compare net impacts with the costs of mitigation. In the second question, the emphasis is on the design and prioritisation of adaptation policies and measures. While both types of research are conducted in a policy context, they differ in their character, application, and purpose. The impacts/mitigation research is orientated towards the physical and biological science of impacts and adaptation, while research on the ways and means of adaptation is focussed on the social and economic determinants of vulnerability in a development context. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the national adaptation studies carried under the UNFCCC are broadening the paradigm, from the impacts/mitigation to vulnerability/adaptation. For this to occur, new policy research is needed. While the broad new directions of both research and policy can now be discerned, there remain a number of outstanding issues to be considered.
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Controversy surrounds climate change policy analyses because of uncertainties in climatic effects, impacts, mitigation costs and their distributions. Here we address uncertainties in impacts, and provide a method for quantitative estimation of the policy implications of such uncertainties. To calculate an “optimal” control rate or carbon tax a climate-economy model can be used on estimates of climate damages resulting from warming scenarios and several other key assumptions. The dynamic integrated climate-economy (DICE) model, in its original specification, suggested that an efficient policy for slowing global warming would incorporate only a relatively modest amount of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, via the mechanism of a small (about $5 per ton initially) carbon tax. Here, the DICE model is reformulated to reflect several alternate published estimates and opinions of the possible damages from climatic change. Our analyses show that incorporating most of these alternate damage estimates into DICE results in a significantly more aggressive optimal policy than that suggested by the original model using a single damage function. In addition, statistical distributions of these damage estimates are constructed and used in a probabilistic analysis of optimal carbon tax rates, resulting in mostly much larger (but occasionally smaller) carbon taxes than those of DICE using point values of damage estimates. In view of the large uncertainties in estimates of climate damages, a probabilistic formulation that links many of the structural and data uncertainties and thus acknowledges the wide range of “optimal” policies is essential to policy analysis, since point values or “best guesses” deny policy makers the opportunity to consider low probability, but policy-relevant, outliers. Our presentation is offered as a prototypical example of a method to represent such uncertainties explicitly in an integrated assessment.
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Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden-allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas-and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.
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Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing us, and it requires urgent policy action. Although climate change policies are mainly being discussed at international level by means of the United Nations Conventions and the Kyoto Protocol, the bulk of the impact will be felt at regional and local level. Regional and local governments are thus important actors. Moreover, regional governments in many parts of the world hold a wide range of the competences to implement policy actions for both adaptation and mitigation. This paper illustrates the important role of regions in climate policies and considers many of the policy instruments being designed and implemented. The paper describes 23 leading regions in climate policy. Finally, the case of Basque climate policy is described as an example of an industrial region in Europe where the degree of decentralization is significant. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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Sustainable development has become an overall policy objective in Europe. The sustainability transition is seen as the process of coming to terms with sustainability in all its ecological, social, economic, and institutional dimensions. This challenging process is as much about new ways of knowing as it is about resource management and product innovation. I analyzed how scientific tools such as environmental, socioeconomic, and integrated models have been developed and used to provide a solid foundation for sustainable policy objectives. I used a scoping study to compare current impact assessment exercises and research policy cases within the European Commission (EC). Although the EC is recognized as having supported environmental policy integration for more than three decades, updated insight is relevant because the current impact assessment system within the EC is highly dynamic, involving frequent new policy commitments and institutional initiatives to strengthen its practice and quality within the last three years. In addition, a broad range of research projects have been initiated to support this process by developing new concepts and tools and linking them with actual policy initiatives. Finally, the focus on design and use of scientific tools will contribute to a better understanding of what hinders the tools from being relevant, accurate, and legitimate. For example, while being simplifications of reality, many scientific models remain so complex that they are seen as black boxes instead of transparent analytical tools. Consequently, research outcomes do not fully reach policy makers.
Article
Sustainable development has become an overall policy objective in Europe. The sustainability transition is seen as the process of coming to terms with sustainability in all its ecological, social, economic, and institutional dimensions. This challenging process is as much about new ways of knowing as it is about resource management and product innovation. I analyzed how scientific tools such as environmental, socioeconomic, and integrated models have been developed and used to provide a solid foundation for sustainable policy objectives. I used a scoping study to compare current impact assessment exercises and research policy cases within the European Commission (EC). Although the EC is recognized as having supported environmental policy integration for more than three decades, updated insight is relevant because the current impact assessment system within the EC is highly dynamic, involving frequent new policy commitments and institutional initiatives to strengthen its practice and quality within the last three years. In addition, a broad range of research projects have been initiated to support this process by developing new concepts and tools and linking them with actual policy initiatives. Finally, the focus on design and use of scientific tools will contribute to a better understanding of what hinders the tools from being relevant, accurate, and legitimate. For example, while being simplifications of reality, many scientific models remain so complex that they are seen as black boxes instead of transparent analytical tools. Consequently, research outcomes do not fully reach policy makers. copy; 2010 by the author(s).
Article
In this article we argue that nanotechnology represents an extraordinary opportunity to build in a robust role for the social sciences in a technology that remains at an early, and hence undetermined, stage of development. We examine policy dynamics in both the United States and United Kingdom aimed at both opening up, and closing down, the role of the social sciences in nanotechnologies. We then set out a prospective agenda for the social sciences and its potential in the future shaping of nanotechnology research and innovation processes. The emergent, undetermined nature of nanotechnologies calls for an open, experimental, and interdisciplinary model of social science research.
Book
Theories of the Policy Process provides a forum for the proponents of the most promising and widely used theories to present the basic propositions of their frameworks, to assess the empirical evidence that has developed over the past decade.
Article
This paper examines the phenomena of nanotechnology and takes some tentative steps towards defining new regulatory frontiers within which this technology may operate. While nanotechnology has attracted much attention with respect to its scientific and business potential, debate on associated ethical, policy, regulatory and legal aspects has been limited. This paper builds on the conceptual frameworks of Ayres and Braithwaite [Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992] and Grabosky [Discussion paper: Inside the pyramid: towards a conceptual framework for the analysis of regulatory systems, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 25 (1997) 195–201], in order to address the regulatory challenges posed by the novel properties and products emerging from nanotechnology. The paper considers the current regulatory frameworks that impact upon nanotechnology in Australia, and concludes that there is an emerging regulatory gap between the exciting commercial advances being made in this sector and the community's expectations for regulatory safeguards and protections. The paper also concludes that, unlike earlier technologies, there is now a unique opportunity to carefully consider the benefits as well as the impacts of nanotechnology before it arrives. This will require clearer articulation of policy, regulatory and legal frontiers crucial to the emerging nano-age.
Article
To what extent do stakeholders in a conflict over natural resources interact with actors of congruent policy core beliefs or with actors who have perceived influence? The response to this question is structured principally by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) using questionnaire and interview data collected from stakeholders involved in California Marine Protected Area policy. The findings indicate that shared beliefs are the best predictor for policy network relationships, supporting the ACF. Perceived influence, while less important than shared beliefs, is another significant predictor.
Article
In an earlier review of political theories of the policy process, Sabatier (1991) challenged political scientists and policy scholars to improve theoretical understanding of policy processes. This essay responds by comparing and building upon three emerging theoretical frameworks: Sabatier's advocacy coalitions framework (ACF), institutional rational choice (IRC), and Moe's political theory of bureaucracy, which he calls the politics of structural choice (SC). The frameworks are compared using six criteria: (1) the bound aries of inquiry; (2) the model of the individual; (3) the roles of informa tion and beliefs in decision making and strategy; (4) the nature and role of groups; (5) the concept of levels of action; and (6) the ability to explain action at various stages of the policy process. Comparison reveals that each framework has promising components, but each remains short of provid ing a full explanation of the processes of policy formation and change. Directions for future theory development and empirical examination are discussed.
Article
This article uses exponential random graph models to investigate the roles of policy-relevant beliefs and social capital as drivers of network structure. The advocacy coalition framework argues that actors with similar policy beliefs are more likely to form coalitions, leading to policy subsystems fragmented into ideological groups. Social capital is defined as trust and norms of reciprocity, which helps cement cooperative relationships. Hypotheses are tested using survey data of policy elites involved in land-use and transportation planning in four regions of California. The findings suggest that coalitions of actors with similar belief systems are knit together by policy brokers seeking to build transitive social relationships.
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Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1–5ngm−3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.
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The consensus-building processes that characterize many environmental partnerships are often thwarted by cognitive conflict, which occurs when stakeholders have conflicting beliefs about the parameters of environmental problems and institutional performance. The author argues cognitive conflict results from stakeholders behaving like intuitive lawyers, who interpret uncertain situations in ways consistent with their self-interest. The implications of this argument are tested using survey data from stakeholders in the Environmental Protection Agency's National Estuary Program. The findings suggest cognitive conflict is a significant source of transaction costs for consensus-building processes, a barrier that should be directly addressed within partnership decision-making structures.
Article
In this article I combine two existing policy theories, institutional rational choice and the Advocacy Coalition Framework, to explain actor perceptions of the effectiveness of public policies targeting common-pool resource dilemmas in coastal watersheds. Survey data from estuaries with and without the USEPA’s National Estuary Program provides evidence for two main hypotheses. First, perceived policy effectiveness is a function of “collective-action beliefs”: beliefs about situational variables that determine the benefits and transaction costs of collective action within the estuary action arena. Second, the effects of policy-core beliefs and institutional structure on perceived policy effectiveness are interdependent. In particular, governance institutions have a favorable effect on perceived policy effectiveness among political actors whose policy-core beliefs are congruent with the structure of the institution.
Article
It took decades for the workplace to acknowledge the dangers of smoking and to recognize the deadly effects of exposure to second-hand smoke. Once acknowledged, it was a few more years before the workplace became safe for all workers from the dangers of second hand smoke. We propose in this paper that fragrance is following the same trajectory. To date most of the research on fragrance exposure has been localized in the health care profession and has not received the necessary attention it deserves in the management literature for managers to become knowledgeable about the extent of employer liability and what constitutes a good faith effort to protect workers. This paper serves as a much-needed bridge to fill this vital gap in managerial knowledge. Current laws (e.g., Americans with Disabilities Act, Workers Compensation, and OSHA regulations) are identified that can be applied to fragrance exposure. The relevant laws and subsequent court cases are analyzed and the legal liability they create for employers with employees exposed to synthetic fragrance in the workplace are clearly identified. We also provide recommendations for organizations who want to demonstrate a good faith effort and be proactive to reduce or limit employees' fragrance exposure in the workplace, before being sued We present the results of several organizations that have some experience with addressing the issue in their workplaces and identify the lessons learned We conclude by recommending actions employers can take to proactively respond (react) to common situations of exposure that arise for employees with fragrance sensitivity.
Book
This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.
Book
North American policy responses to global climate change are complex and sometimes contradictory, and reach across multiple levels of government. For example, the U.S. federal government rejected the Kyoto Protocol and mandatory greenhouse gas (GHG) restrictions, but California developed some of the world's most comprehensive climate change law and regulation; Canada's federal government ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but Canadian GHG emissions increased even faster than those of the United States; and Mexico's state-owned oil company addressed climate change issues in the 1990s, in stark contra ... More North American policy responses to global climate change are complex and sometimes contradictory, and reach across multiple levels of government. For example, the U.S. federal government rejected the Kyoto Protocol and mandatory greenhouse gas (GHG) restrictions, but California developed some of the world's most comprehensive climate change law and regulation; Canada's federal government ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but Canadian GHG emissions increased even faster than those of the United States; and Mexico's state-owned oil company addressed climate change issues in the 1990s, in stark contrast to leading U.S. and Canadian energy firms. This book examines and compares political action for climate change across North America, at levels ranging from continental to municipal, in locations ranging from Mexico to Toronto to Portland, Maine. It investigates new or emerging institutions, policies, and practices in North American climate governance; the roles played by public, private, and civil society actors; the diffusion of policy across different jurisdictions; and the effectiveness of multilevel North American climate change governance. The book finds that although national climate policies vary widely, the complexities and divergences are even greater at the subnational level. Policy initiatives are developed separately in states, provinces, cities, large corporations, NAFTA bodies, universities, non-governmental organizations, and private firms, and this lack of coordination limits the effectiveness of multilevel climate change governance. In North America, unlike much of Europe, climate change governance has been largely bottom-up rather than top-down.