In democracy, public opinion is supposed to influence policymaking, yet evidence on the amount of congruence between policy and opinion, or the factors that affect congruence, is scarce. This paper constructs a simple measure of policy congruence on 10 separate issues in all 50 states. For these policies, states chose the outcome favored by the majority 59 percent of the time, only 9 percent more ... [Show full abstract] often than would happen with random policymaking. Congruence was approximately 17 to 19 percent higher when initiatives, a form of direct democracy, were allowed. Congruence was 12 to 14 percent lower when judges were not required to stand for reelection. Congruence was not correlated with a variety of election laws, including campaign contribution limits, public funding of campaigns, and commission-based redistricting.