Article

# On the nature of Romanowsky dyes and the Romanowsky Giemsa effect

(Impact Factor: 1.3). 02/1979; 1(4):247-62. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2257.1979.tb01090.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the nature of Romanowsky staining and the relationship between Romanowsky dyes and the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect (RGE). On blood and bone marrow smears the RGE is characterized by a purple colouration of nuclei and neutrophil granules. The nuclear purple contrasts strongly with the blue cytoplasmic staining of cells rich in RNA. Requirement for the occurrence of RGE are: I A cationic dye: The best dye is azure B and, though azure A gives the nuclear purple colour, the cytoplasmic blue is inferior. No other cationic dye such as methylene blue is suitable. 2 An anionic dye: Most commonly eosin Y is used, but it can be replaced by the erythrosins. Full halogenation of the fluorescein (four atoms of bromine or iodine) is not necessary. Phloxine and rose bengal are unsuitable. 3 An appropriate substrate: These are proteins with acidic side groups or proteins bound to a polyanion. For the interaction with the dyes substrates must provide a suitable three-dimensional network which is why the RGE is not obtained in solutions. A tentative theory of RGE is advanced and briefly discussed.

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• "Tissues were collected for screening for zoonotic agents and the preparation of cell lines. Romanowsky-Giemsa staining was performed as described in detail by [26]. "
##### Article: A new permanent cell line derived from the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as cell culture model for zoonotic viruses
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 60% of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, with three-fourths derived from wild animals. Many of these zoonotic diseases are transmitted by rodents with important information about their reservoir dynamics and pathogenesis missing. One main reason for the gap in our knowledge is the lack of adequate cell culture systems as models for the investigation of rodent-borne (robo) viruses in vitro. Therefore we established and characterized a new cell line, BVK168, using the kidney of a bank vole, Myodes glareolus, the most abundant member of the Arvicolinae trapped in Germany. BVK168 proved to be of epithelial morphology expressing tight junctions as well as adherence junction proteins. The BVK168 cells were analyzed for their infectability by several arbo- and robo-viruses: Vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, Sindbis virus, Pixuna virus, Usutu virus, Inkoo virus, Puumalavirus, and Borna disease virus (BDV). The cell line was susceptible for all tested viruses, and most interestingly also for the difficult to propagate BDV. In conclusion, the newly established cell line from wildlife rodents seems to be an excellent tool for the isolation and characterization of new rodent-associated viruses and may be used as in vitro-model to study properties and pathogenesis of these agents.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Virology Journal
• ##### Article: [Romanowsky dyes and romanowsky-Giemsa effect. 1. Azure B, purity and content of dye samples, association (author's transl)].
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ABSTRACT: Azure B is the most important Romanowsky dye. In combination with eosin Y it produces the well known Romanowsky-Giemsa staining pattern on the cell. Usually commercial azure B is strongly contaminated. We prepared a sample of azure B-BF4 which was analytically pure and had no coloured impurities. The substance was used to redetermine the molar extinction coefficient epsilon (v)M of monomeric azur B in alcoholic solution. In the maximum of the long wavelength absorption at v = 15.61 kK (lambda = 641 nm) the absorptivity is epsilon (15.61)M = (9.40 +/- 0.15) x 10(4)M-1 cm-1. This extinction coefficient may be used for standardization of dye samples. In aqeuous solution azur B forms dimers and even higher polymers with increasing concentration. The dissociation constant of the dimers, K = 2,2 x 10(-4)M (293 K), and the absorption spectra of pure monomers and dimers in water have been calculated from the concentration dependence of the spectra using an iterative procedure. The molar extinction coefficient of the monomers at 15.47 kK (646 nm) is epsilon (15.47)M = 7.4 x 10(4)M-1 cm-1. The dimers have two long wavelength absorption bands at 14.60 and 16.80 kK (685 and 595 nm) with very different intensities 2 x 10(4) and 13.5 x 10(4)M-1 cm-1. The spectrum of the dimers in aqueous solution is in agreement with theoretical considerations of Förster (1946) and Levinson et al. (1957). It agrees with an antiparallel orientation of the molecules in the dimers. It may be that dimers bound to a substrate in the cell have another geometry than dimers in solution. In this case the weak long wavelength absorption of the dimers can increase.
No preview · Article · Feb 1981 · Histochemistry
• ##### Article: Über Romanowsky-Farbstoffe und den Romanowsky-Giemsa-Effekt
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ABSTRACT: Azure B is the most important Romanowsky dye. In combination with eosin Y it produces the well known Romanowsky-Giemsa staining pattern on the cell. Usually commercial azure B is strongly contaminated. We prepared a sample of azure B-BF4 which was analytically pure and had no coloured impurities. The substance was used to redetermine the molar extinction coefficient $$\varepsilon (\tilde v)_M$$ of monomeric azur B in alcoholic solution. In the maximum of the long wavelength absorption at $$\tilde v$$=15.61 kK (λ=641 nm) the absorptivity is ɛ(15.61)M =(9.40±0.15) ×104 M−1 cm−1. This extinction coefficient may be used for standardization of dye samples. In aqueous solution azur B forms dimers and even higher polymers with increasing concentration. The dissociation constant of the dimers, K=2,2×10−4 M (293 K), and the absorption spectra of pure monomers and dimers in water have been calculated from the concentration dependence of the spectra using an iterative procedure. The molar extinction coefficient of the monomers at 15.47 kK (646 nm) is ɛ(15.47)M =7.4×104 M−1 cm−1. The dimers have two long wavelength absorption bands at 14.60 and 16.80 kK (685 and 595 nm) with very different intensities 2×104 and 13.5×104 M−1 cm−1. The spectrum of the dimers in aqueous solution is in agreement with theoretical considerations of Förster (1946) and Levinson et al. (1957). It agrees with an antiparallel orientation of the molecules in the dimers. it may be that dimers bound to a substrate in the cell have another geometry than dimers in solution. In this case the weak long wavelength absorption of the dimers can increase.
No preview · Article · May 1981 · Histochemie