Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) is a popular citrus in Southeast Asia. Despite the growing interest in the peel of the fruit, the leaves are the most frequently used part of the fruit. The aim of the study was to determine the main by-products of the peel, such as pectins, minerals, essential oil, and bioactive compounds, and to evaluate the possibility of using them in various branches of industry. In the study of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation performed using the TGA chromatography technique (GC-MS), sabinene (31.93%), β-pinene (26%), and limonene (19%) were selected as the most abundant volatile compounds. Nine microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, and V), four macroelements (Mg, Ca, K, and Na), and seven ballast substances (Cd, Hg, Pb, Al, V, Sr, and Pt) were also determined using the microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry technique (MP-AES). In the case of microelements, iron 32.72 ± 0.39 mg/kg DW (dry weight) had the highest concentration. In the case of macroelements, the calcium content was 9416 ± 34 mg/kg DW. Optimization of the pectin extraction was also performed by selecting citric acid and obtaining a yield of 7.6–17.6% for acid extraction and 9.9–28.2% for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), depending on the temperature used. The obtained pectins were characterized by the degree of methylation, galacturonic acid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) analysis. Among bioactive compounds, the contents of polyphenols (22.63 ± 2.12 mg GAE/g DW), flavonoids (2.72 ± 0.25 mg CE/g DW, vitamin C (2.43 ± 0.19 mg Asc), xantoproteins + carotenes (53.8 ± 4.24 ug), anthocyanins (24.8 ± 1.8 mg CGE/kg DW), and chlorophylls A and B (188.5 ± 8.1, 60.4 ± 3.23 µg/g DW) were evaluated. Antioxidant capacity using (cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity) CUPRAC and DPPH assays was also provided with the results of 76.98 ± 8.1, and 12.01 ± 1.02 µmol TE/g DW, respectively.