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Chemical composition and stimulating effect of Citrus hystrix oil on humans

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Abstract

Kaffir lime essential oil was obtained from fresh peels of Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC–MS. The effects of kaffir lime oil on human autonomic and behavioural parameters after massage were investigated in this study. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Autonomic parameters recorded were skin temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate and blood pressure. Behavioural parameters were assessed by means of visual analogue scales (VAS). The kaffir lime oil caused a significant increase in blood pressure and a significant decrease in skin temperature. Regarding the behavioural parameters, subjects in the kaffir lime oil group rated themselves more alert, attentive, cheerful and vigorous than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent stimulating/activating effects of the kaffir lime oil and provide some evidence for the use of kaffir lime oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief from depression and stress in humans. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... breathing rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, skin temperature and skin conductance, changes in brain wave activities, e.g. electroencephalogram, contingent negative variation, changes in mood, cognitive performances and emotion (Bensafi et al., 2000;Diego et al., 1998;Heuberger et al., 2000;Heuberger et al., 2006;Hongratanaworakit et al., 2005;Hongratanaworakit et al., 2007;Hongratanaworakit, 2009;Hongratanaworakit, 2010;Inoue et al., 2003;Moss et al., 2003;Rutledge and Jones, 2007). However, up to now, no experiments about the effects of blended oil on human autonomic parameters and on emotional changes after inhalation have been carried out. ...
... They consisted of 100 mm lines for 4 items: relaxation, vigor, mood and alertness. Each subject was asked to mark his or her feeling for each item between the two possible extremes: relaxed (on the left) and tense (on the right) for the item 'relaxation', vigorous (on the left) and feeble (on the right) for the item 'vigor', cheerful (on the left) and bad tempered (on the right) for the item 'mood', alert (on the left) and tired (on the right) for the item 'alertness' (Heuberger et al., 2006;Hongratanaworakit et al., 2005;Hongratanaworakit et al., 2007;Hongratanaworakit, 2009;Hongratanaworakit, 2010;Sayorwan et al., 2013). ...
... The blended oil caused a significant increase of blood pressure. Since blood pressure is determined by the activity of the sympathetic branch of the ANS, an increase of blood pressure shows an increase in sympathetic tone, i.e., an increase of autonomic arousal (Andreassi, 2000;Heuberger et al., 2006;Hongratanaworakit et al., 2005;Hongratanaworakit et al., 2007;Hongratanaworakit, 2009;Hongratanaworakit, 2010;Hugdahl, 1995;Sayorwan et al., 2013). ...
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The blended essential oil was composed of eucalyptus, rosemary, patchouli, and pine oils. The blended oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of blended oil on autonomic parameters and emotional changes in humans following inhalation were an investigation in this study. Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this study. Autonomic parameters, i.e. systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse rate were recorded. Additionally,emotional changes were assessed by means of visual analog scale. A quasiexperimental with one group pretest-post-test design was used to compare the differences in ANS parameters and emotional changes. Data was analyzed using paired t-test. The blended oil mainly contained 1,8-cineole (33.8%), camphor (14.2%), and α-pinene (12.2%). The blended oil showed significant increases in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate which indicated an increase of autonomic arousal. In addition, inhalation of the blended oil led to activation at the behavioral level, i.e. subjects feel more alert, more vigorous, and more cheerful than before the administration of the oil. This finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. Thus, the effects of blended oil by inhalation may be characterized by the concept of stimulating/activating effects.
... This finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. Thus, the effects of rosemary oil by means of percutaneous administration may be characterized by the concept of stimulating/activating effects which has also been described for sandalwood oil, kaffir lime oil, and the essential oil of Citrus sinensis [29][30][31]. In addition, our findings clearly support previous studies indicating the stimulating effect of rosemary oil [19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... In contrast, percutaneous administration gives an evidence for pure pharmacological effect and exclusion of olfactory processing. Therefore, in order to differentiate between pharmacological and psychological effects of fragrances, subjective evaluation of the odors must be prevented [29][30][31][37][38][39][40][41][42]. ...
... The experimental protocol has been previously described by our group [29][30][31][37][38][39][40][41][42]. Briefly, one session consisted of two trials of 20 min each. ...
Article
Massage of essential oils is increasing being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in humans is rather scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Labiatae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. Thirty five healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rosemary oil caused significant increases of breathing rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure which indicate an increase of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects feel more attentive, more alert, more vigorous, and more cheerful than before the administration of the oil. This finding suggests an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the stimulating effect of rosemary oil and provides evidence for its use in medicines for the relief of depression and stress in humans.
... Natural compounds found in essential oil are very important in health science [7][8] . Citrus essential oils are very important in medicine and are attracting particular interest from the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries [9][10] . As a flavouring agent, essential oil is used in pharmaceutical industries to mask unpleasant tastes of drugs. ...
... Sabinene ( 15.88% ) and 1,8 Cineole (38.45% ) contents in leaves essential oil from this study were higher ( Table 2) than those of oil extracted from the leaves of C. aurantium in northern Iran ( 0,5% and 0% , respectively) , Constantine, Algeria ( 1.8% and 3% , respectively) and Greece ( 0.37% and 0% , respectively) [1,2,14] The concentrations of the main components in peel essential oil from the current study were also higher than the ones identified in peel oil of C. aurantium from north Iran [2], Tunisia [18], Greece [14] and other species like C. aurantifolia [ 11] and C. hystrix [ 9] ( Table 3) . All of the chemical compositions of peel oil from this study were also identified in oil extracted from C. aurantium peel in Tunisia [ 18] , North Iran [ 2] and Greece [14]. ...
Article
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Citrus aurantium L. has been used as a traditional medicine worldwide for a very long time. Different parts of this plant offer valuable benefits to mankind. This study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves and peel of Somsa (C. aurantium L.) sampled from Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand and to evaluate their antioxidant activity against the free radical ABTS (2,2-Azino-Bis-3 Ethylbenzthiazoline-6 Sulphonic Acid) and DPPH (2,2 Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl). Essential oil was extracted from the leaves and peel by hydro-distillation. Chemical composition of the extracted oil was then analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and MS inert mass selective detector for characterization of the essential oils. Antioxidant activity of oil extracts from C. aurantium L. leaves and peel was analyzed by ABTS and DPPH assays. Twenty eight (28) different compounds were identified in essential oil from leaves representing 99.03% and peel representing 93.61% of total oil content. The main components of the oil extracted from leaves include 1,8 Cineole (38.45%), Sabinene (15.88%), Linalool L (11.47%), ɑ-terpineol (8.63%) and Ocimene (6.88%). On the other hand, beta-myrcene (21.7%), Octanal (9.63%), ɑ-pinene (8.42%), Germacrene-D (6.92%) and ɑ-terpineol (6.31%) were identified as the major components in the peel oil. Antioxidant activity (inhibitory percentage) of essential oil from the leaves in DPPH assay (38.28%) and ABTS assay (18.58%) was higher compared to that of the peel oil (16.09% and 11.84%, respectively). Essential oils from both parts (leaves and peel) were more effective in DPPH assay than the ABTS assay.
... This finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. Thus, the effects of rosemary oil by means of percutaneous administration may be characterized by the concept of stimulating/activating effects which has also been described for sandalwood oil, kaffir lime oil, and the essential oil of Citrus sinensis293031. In addition, our findings clearly support previous studies indicating the stimulating effect of rosemary oil192021222324. Rosemary essential oil contains abundant oxides and monoterpenes, and has the main action of stimulating the nervous system under sympathetic control, leading to increase in alertness, attentiveness and concentrating abilities [32]. ...
... The experimental protocol has been previously described by our group293031373839404142. Briefly, one session consisted of two trials of 20 min each. ...
Article
Full-text available
Massage of essential oils is increasing being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in humans is rather scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Labiatae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. Thirty five healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rosemary oil caused significant increases of breathing rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure which indicate an increase of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects feel more attentive, more alert, more vigorous, and more cheerful than before the administration of the oil. This finding suggests an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the stimulating effect of rosemary oil and provides evidence for its use in medicines for the relief of depression and stress in humans.
... Some of the plants used in steam-bathing have been documented to have ethnomedicinal uses in several tropical regions but are understudied for their potential pharmacological activity. Citrus hystrix oil causes a significant increase in blood pressure and a significant decrease in skin temperature (Hongratanaworakit and Buchbauer 2007) and inhibits the growth of bacteria that cause skin diseases such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (Kongtun and Suracherdkaiti 2009). Alpinia galanga has also been found to be beneficial in the treatment of bronchitis, heart disease and diabetes (Indrayan et al. 2009;Rao et al. 2010). ...
... The leaves of Etlingera elatior mainly contain b-pinene, whereas its stem mainly contains 1,1-dodecanediol diacetate ). The leaves of Citrus hystrix mainly contain b-citronellal , whereas its fruits mainly contain sabinene (Tinjan and Jirapakkul 2007;Kasuan et al. 2013) and limonene (Hongratanaworakit and Buchbauer 2007). Although the essential oils in the steam-bathing materials are complementary, it is possible for them to be overlapping. ...
Article
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This study aimed to document (1) the Batak people's knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for steam-bathing, (2) the preparation and operation of steam-bathing, and (3) the benefits of steam-bathing. To attain these objectives, data were collected by using ethnobotanical survey and interview methods. The survey was conducted in Kabanjahe and Berastagi traditional markets, in Kaban Tua village, and in Tanjung Julu village. The participants for the interview were nine medicinal plants traders, nine midwives, and 32 mothers. The basic principle of steam-bathing by the Batak people is based on thermotherapy and aromatherapy. A total of 59 species (belonging to 37 genera and to 25 families) have been documented as medicinal plants for their use as steam-bathing materials by the Batak people. The traders, midwives and mothers are all aware of the benefits of steam-bathing. Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume and Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.), the species that produce distinctive aromas and reduce pain, would be interesting to study for their phytochemical and pharmacological properties.
... However, the major cons tuent of C. hystrix leaf essen al oils were citronellal (80.04%) and 18 other cons tuents [22]. This result is similar to the results in the study of Hongratanaworakit and Buchbauer, the main compounds of fruit peel oil consist of limonene (30.73%), β-pinene (18.76%), terpinene-4-ol (10.63%), α-terpineol (8.35%), γ-terpinene (6.18%), α-terpinene (5.09%) and terpinolene (4.33%) [23]. In other studies, C. hystrix fruit peel essen al oils co nta i n e d 5 4 co n s t u e nt s . ...
Article
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Herbal medicines have played a critical role in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. Among a diversity of natural medicinal sources, Citrus hystrix DC. is an outstanding plant broadly distributed in tropical regions. Citrus hystrix DC. has many biological activities, and it has been used in traditional medicine for treating various illnesses, particularly cold pain and stomach disorder. This review article focuses to enhance and prepare a comprehensive review on phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Citrus hystrix CD., and aims to lay the foundation for further study on the extraction enhancement of these biomolecules and more useful formulations. Based on published scientific data, these plants may suggest a gigantic biological potential of an abundant source of chemical constituents and a variety of bioactivities contributing to therapeutic values.
... However, citronellal (66.9%) and âcitronellol (6.6%) were the major components essential oil in kaffir lime peel (from Selangor), obtained using the hydro-distillation method. Other research also reported that the essential oil of fresh fruit-peel is mainly consisted of monoterpene hydrocarbons, with limonene (30.73%) and âpinene (18.76%) as the principal components with other minor components such as terpinene-4-ol (10.63%), á-terpineol (8.35%), ã-terpinene (6.18%), á-terpinene (5.09%) and terpinolene (4.33%) 38 . In other study, citronellal was found to be the major component (80.04%) in C. hystrix leaf oil; In contrast, C. hystrix fruit peel essential oil consisted of other components: limonene (40.65%), terpinene-4-ol (13.71%) and á-terpineol (13.20%) 39 ...
... Recently, some more additional flavour compounds such as neryl acetate, a-bergamotene, valencene and germacrene-D have been reported (Veriotti & Sacks, 2001). Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) volatile oil has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and relieve depression in human studies (Hongratanaworakit & Buchbauer, 2007), which provides strong evidence on potent health benefits of citrus volatile oils. The above studies have demonstrated that citrus fruits and their bioactive compounds have a significant role in human disease prevention. ...
Article
Fruits of Citrus aurantifolia were subjected to hydro-distillation using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain volatile oil. Chemical composition of volatile oil was analysed by GC–MS. Twenty-two compounds representing more than 89.5% of the volatile oil were identified. d-limonene (30.13%) and d-dihydrocarvone (30.47%) were found to be the major compounds in the lime volatile oil. This oil showed 78% inhibition of human colon cancer cells (SW-480) with 100 μg/ml concentration at 48 h. Lime volatile oil showed DNA fragmentation and induction of caspase-3 up to 1.8 and 2- folds after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, which may be due to the involvement of apoptosis. Analysis of apoptosis-related protein expression further confirmed apoptosis induction by lime volatile oil. The above results suggested that lime volatile oil has potential benefits in colon cancer prevention. This is the first report, showing the possible mechanism of antiproliferative effect of lime volatile oil for the prevention of colon cancer in cell culture models.
... Fax: 98-831-4276471. anti-fungal, anti-depressant effects and to reduce blood 2007; Patil et al., 2009;Chutia et al., 2009;Razzaghi-Abyaneh et al., 2009;Komori et al., 1995;Hongratanaworakit and Buchbauer, 2007). ...
... Secondary metabolite compounds from plants may be potential as biolarvicide for mosquitoes; thereby this topic requires further investigation [20]. Citrus hystrix is one of the plants, which has a high economic value and popular due to its high content of vitamin C and is important in the cuisines of South East Asia countries [21,22]. The leaf of C. hystrix contains secondary metabolites, which include essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, steroid, and terpenoid [23,24]. ...
Article
Indonesia is one of the largest countries in the dengue endemic region and ranked first in ASEAN by the highest number of cases in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The use of chemical agents such as larvicides causes development of resistance, health, and environmental problem. Plant extracts with larvicidal activity from plants, which are easily available in large quantities and are safe for human needed to replace the chemical larvicides. The aim of this research was to obtain polar (methanol) and non-polar (n-hexane) extract fraction from leaves of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) which are known to possess several insecticide and an effective biolarvicide. The experiment was designed as a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for comparative analysis. Polar and non-polar extract fractions of C. hystrix were tested with concentrations of 500 ppm, 1375 ppm, 2250 ppm, 3125 ppm, and 4000 ppm against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The experiment was replicated five times. The number of mosquito larvae mortality was calculated after 24 hours of treatment. The dead larvae were counted and the data was analyzed using probit. The results show that non-polar extract fraction from C. hystrix is more toxic and is an effective biolarvicide with LC90 = 2,885 ppm compared with polar extract fraction from C. hystrix which has an LC90 = 3,180 ppm.
... Besides playing an important role in the South East Asian cuisine, the oil from the leaves and the fruits are used commercially in Malaysia as flavour and fragrance agents, as well as in perfumery and medicinal preparation. The chemical constituents of the Kaffir lime peel oil are mostly monoterpene hydrocarbons, with limonene (30.73%) and β-pinene (18.76%) as the major components, whereas the minor components are terpinene-4-ol (10.63%), α-terpineol (8.35%), γ-terpinene (6.18%), α-terpinene (5.09%) and terpinolene (4.33%) 1 . ...
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A study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the emulsions containing essential oil of Kaffir lime, Citrus hystrix. The emulsions were formulated according to the information obtained from the constructed phase equilibriums consisting of water, Tween 80, Span 80 and hexane. Stability tests were carried out within the following three weeks to determine the emulsions' stability index, followed by antibacterial tests. Emulsion with surfactant mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 at the ratio of 90:10 with 2% essential oil had the most effective antibacterial properties.
... [4] It is also convincingly proved that antioxidants can recover the skin damaged due to sunlight. [2,3,[5][6][7] It has been shown that vitamin C and nerolidool, prevent sunburn-associated erythema following UV exposure. Reactive oxygen species in the skin is generated by UV radiation, leading to damaging reactions, which have been associated with premature skin ageing, photosensitivity or photocarcinogenesis. [8,9] Thus, initiated the mechanism of action underlying skin protective effects of antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species. ...
Article
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Objective: To study the effect of two different microemulsions containing Beackea frutescence supplements composed of nerolidool, selenium and vitamin E on absorption effect related to skin health and skin aging. Materials and methods: A total of 39 volunteers with normal and healthy skin were divided into three groups (n = 13) and supplemented for a period of 12 weeks. Group 1 received a mixture of lutein (3 mg/day), lycopene (3 mg/day), α-tocopherol (10 mg/day), selenium (75 μg/day) and β-nerolidool (4.8 mg/day) and Group 2 was supplemented with a mixture of β-nerolidool (4.8 mg/day), lycopene (6 mg/day), selenium (75 μg/day) and α-tocopherol (10 mg/day). Group 3 was the placebo control. Wrinkling, smoothness, scaling and roughness of the skin were determined by Surface Evaluation of Living Skin (Visioscan). Results: Upon supplementation, serum levels of selected nerolidool increased in both groups. Skin thickness and density were determined by ultrasound measurements. A significant increase for both parameters was determined in the serum groups. Roughness and scaling were improved by the supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients. In the placebo group, no changes were found for any of the parameters. Conclusion: Beackea frutescence microemulsion supplements have shown significant change in the texture of human skin as well as scaling, wrinkling, smoothness and roughness were improved by the supplementation.
... Hosni et al. (2010) reported b-pinene (1.55%) and limonene (92.6%) as the major components of the EO of CR cultivated in Tunisia which tend to correlate with the profile summarised in Table 6. Nonetheless, a dose of 3.23% of a-pinene, 18.76% b-pinene and 30.73% limonene was observed in the EO of CH studied by Hongratanaworakit and Buchbauer (2007) which is different in composition of these major components compared to our results. However, Njoroge et al. (2005) purported a near to similar dosage in the major components of the EO of CGl recorded in the present study. ...
... The results obtained from the GC/MS analysis are illustrated in Table 2. The major constituents of makrut lime oils originated from Thailand agreed that three abundance compounds in makrut lime peel oil are limonene, β-pinene, and terpinen-4-ol 23 , but results received from fruits do not confirm that compatibility. Another study by Sutthanont et al 24 also confirmed the presence of these compounds in oil originated from fruit peels from Thailand, whereas Malaysian fruits oil primarily consists of sabinene (35%) 25 . ...
Article
The essential oil obtained from the peel of Citrus hystrix fruits is a colourless or light yellow liquid with a strong citrus scent. It was analysed for its constituents using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The major components of the oil were β-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, α-pinene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, and α-terpineol. The antibacterial activity of C. hystrix essential oil was tested by disc diffusion and serial macrodilution methods against 50 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The results confirmed its good activity expressed by minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 0.125–1 µl/ml. The effect on the viability and proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and the human melanoma cells (WM793 and A375) was also examined. The observed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities were dependent on the dose of tested oil and the incubation time. Melanoma cells (WM793 and A375) were more sensitive to the essential oil from C. hystrix peel than normal cells (HSF). These results suggest a need for more detailed research on its possible use in therapy. © 2017, Science Society of Thailand under Royal Patronage. All rights reserved.
... Citrus essential oils proved to have many pharmacological properties, i.e., antioxidant [1], anticancer [2], anti-inflammatory [3], antiparasitic [4], antifungal [5], antibacterial [6], antimicrobial [7], larvacidal [8], stress release, and sleep [9]. One Citrus spp., kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) is also rich in essential oil both in leaves and fruit [10] with numerous biological activities, such as anti-acne [11], anticancer [12], biolarvacidal [13], antimicrobial [14], and mood enhancer [15]. ...
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Previous studies revealed the impact growing location has on the quantity and quality of essential oils derived from numerous Citrus spp., except on the kaffir lime. This study aims to analyze the relationship shared by agroclimatic variables and soil-plant nutrient status to kaffir lime leaves essential oil yield and main composition. The experiment was conducted between February and April 2019 in four growing locations, namely Bogor (6°36′36″ S, 106°46′47″ E), West Bandung (6°48′12″ S, 107°39′16″ E), Pasuruan (7°45′5″ S, 112°40′6″ E) and Tulungagung (8°6′27″ S, 112°0′35″ E). The highest essential oil yield was obtained from Bogor (1.5%), while the lowest one was from Tulungagung (0.78%). The yield was positively and significantly correlated with the rainfall, soil organic carbon, soil pH, and macronutrient levels, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium. Citronellal, the major component in metabolites’ profile of kaffir lime leaves essential oils, was significantly affected by the growing location. The absolute content of citronellal was positively and significantly correlated with the actual soil pH and leaf Ca content; furthermore, it negatively correlated with the leaf content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Pearson correlation analysis also showed (i) a negative significant correlation between the relative percentage of citronellol and annual rainfall intensity; (ii) a negative significant correlation between altitude and relative percentage of caryophyllene, and (iii) a positive significant correlation between the relative percentage of linalool and leaf K content.
... This is on the grounds that key oils have exceptionally complex regular blends which can contain 20 to 60 components. Some of the major component of kaffir lime oil are mostly monoterpene hydrocarbon, with limonene (30.73%) and -pinene (18.76%).For the minor components are terpinene-4-ol (10.63%), α-terpineol (8.35%), γ-terpinene (6.18%), α-terpinene (5.09%) and terpinolene (4.33%) [3]. In this way, they have been utilized broadly as bactericides, virucides, fungicides, against parasites, and bug sprays in different applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical, sterile, restorative, sustenance and farming commercial enterprises [1]. ...
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Essential oil extracted from kaffir lime leaves through hydrodistillation. The objective of this study is to quantify the oil production rate by identify the significant influence of particle size on kaffir lime leaves. Kaffir lime leaves were ground and separated by using siever into 90, 150, 300 μm and other kaffir lime leaves. The mean essential oil yield of 0.87, 0.52, 0.41 and 0.3% was obtained. 90 μm of ground gives the highest yield compared to other sizes. Thus, it can be concluded that in quantifying oil production rate, the relevance of different size of particle is clearly affects the amount of oil yield. In analysing the composition of kaffir lime essential oil using GC-MS, there were 38 compounds found in the essential oil. Some of the major compounds of the kaffir lime leave oils were detected while some are not, may due to oil experience thermal degradation which consequently losing some significant compounds in controlled temperature.
... 24 Nevertheless, all the essential oils evaluated in the aforementioned studies showed limonene as major constituent. [25][26][27][28][29] Limonene and a-pinene may be mainly responsible for the inhibition of collagenase and elastase exerted by the essential oil of this study. Chidambara Murthy et al. 30 found that the d-limonene-rich volatile oil from blood oranges decreased the expression of MMP-9, whereas Rufino et al. 31 found an inhibitory activity of a-pinene on the expression of collagenase (metalloproteinases MMP-1, also known as interstitial collagenase and MMP-13 or collagenase type 3). ...
Article
The chemical composition of the essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum cultivated in central Italy, Marche region, was analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-eight components, accounting for 98.71% of the whole essential oil composition, were identified and quantified. Neryl acetate showed the largest relative abundance in the composition, accounting for 15.75% of the oil, followed by α-pinene (8.21%); 4,6,9-trimethyl-8-decene-3,5-dione, (Italidione I), (7.34%); ar-curcumene and β-selinene (5.37%); γ-curcumene (4.83%); nerol (4.75%); α-selinene (4.68%); limonene (4.55%); linalool (4.42%), and 2,4,6,9-tetramethyl-8-decene-3,5-dione (Italidione II), (4.26%). The oil inhibited in vitro collagenase and elastase activities, with IC50 values of 36.99 ± 1.52 and 135.43 ± 6.32 μg/mL, respectively. Neryl acetate, nerol, and linalool, distinctive compounds of the oil obtained from this plant, tested alone or in mixture, at the same percentages shown in the essential oil, exhibited no activity against the two enzymes. On the contrary, α-pinene and limonene, tested alone and in mixture, showed inhibitory activity on both collagenase and elastase.
... Stress Reduction: Although most people don't think of Kaffir limes as being particularly useful in aromatherapy, the oil extracted from these powerful fruits can be used aromatically with great effect. Inhaling these soothing vapors can calm the body and mind if you suffer from anxiety or various nervous disorders (Hongratanaworakit & Buchbauer 2007). ...
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The presence of cockroaches in homes and buildings is common. They are one of the most important agents in transmission of bacteria, yeast, protozoa, and parasite worm species to human life either mechanically or biologically. In this work, the potential of Kaffir lime peel toward cockroaches is reported. The peel of Kaffir lime was extracted by hydrodistillation to obtain its essential oil. The repellency of the essential oil was evaluated at different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, v/v). The duration of the observation for 3 and 6 h was conducted to the cockroaches at lab scale. From the result obtained, the essential oil of Kaffir lime peel exhibited complete repellency at concentration of 50% v/v and above. Such results may be considered as novel findings in the course of searching for potent botanical insecticides against the cockroaches. The result of the present study will provide knowledge and information about Kaffir lime peel as an insect repellent.
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Chemical composition of the essential oil hydrodistilled from aerial parts of Sonchus arvensis subsp. uliginosus is reported for the first time. GC and GC-MS analyses of the oil enabled the identification of 114 components that represented 97.4% of the total oil. Main identified constituents were heneicosane (28.4%), (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (19.0%), (E)-2-hexen-1-ol (11.6%), 1-eicosanol (7.5%) and tricosane (5.3%). Fatty acid derived compounds ("green leaf' volatiles, alkanes, n-alkenes, n-aldehydes and n-alcohols) were by far predominant (89.4%). A much lower percentage of shikimate metabolites (5.0%), carotenoid-derived compounds (1.7%) and terpenoids (0.9%) has also been detected in the oil. Compositions of the essential oils of S. arvensis subsp. uliginosus and other 18 randomly chosen species, characterized by a wide range of essential oil yields, belonging to different plant genera, were compared using multivariate statistical analysis. The results strongly suggest that the main volatiles of essential oil poor species (yields less then 0.1%) are fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds, while essential oil rich taxa (essential oil yields much higher then 0.1%) are generally characterized by the specific production of mono- and sesquiterpenoids, and/or phenylpropanoids.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage with jasmine oil (Jasminum sambac L., Oleaceae) on humans. Human autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation, breathing rate, and skin temperature, were recorded as indicators of the arousal level of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, subjects had to rate their emotional condition in terms of relaxation, vigor, calmness, attentiveness, mood, and alertness in order to assess subjective behavioral arousal. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Jasmine oil was applied topically to the skin of the abdomen of each subject. Compared with placebo, jasmine oil caused significant increases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which indicated an increase of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the jasmine oil group rated themselves as more alert, more vigorous and less relaxed than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests an increase of subjective behavioral arousal. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the stimulating/activating effect of jasmine oil and provide evidence for its use in aromatherapy for the relief of depression and uplifting mood in humans.
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The essential oils from the leaves of Citrus macroptera and C. hystrix, collected in New Caledonia, have been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A total of 35 and 38 constituents were identified, representing 99.1 and 89.0% of the essential oils, respectively. Both essential oils were rich in monoterpenes (96.1 and 87.0%, resp.), with beta-pinene as major component (33.3 and 10.9%, resp.), and poor in limonene (2.4 and 4.7%, resp.). Other main components of C. macroptera oil were alpha-pinene (25.3%), p-cimene (17.6%), (E)-beta-ocimene (6.7%), and sabinene (4.8%). The essential oil of C. hystrix was characterized by high contents of terpinen-4-ol (13.0%), alpha-terpineol (7.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), and citronellol (6.0%). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five bacteria and five fungi strains. Both oils were inactive against bacteria. However, the C. macroptera leaf oil exhibited a pronounced activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, with a minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 microg/ml.
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The essential oil (EO) of M. aquatica L. growing wild in Corsica was isolated by dry vapor distillation and submitted to combined analysis by column chromatography over silica gel, GC(RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The composition was dominated byoxygenated monoterpenes and characterized by the occurrence of menthofuran (50.7%) as the major component. In parallel, seven laboratory-distilled oil samples isolated from individual plants collected in Corsica were analyzed by GC(RI) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Onlyquantitative differences were observed between the samples. Beside the usual terpenes, various p-menthane lactones (mintlactone, isomintlactone, hydroxymintlactone, menthofurolactone and epimenthofurolactone) have been identified in all the oil samples.
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Elsholtzia communis (Collett & Hemsl.) Diels (family: Lamiaceae) is a wild edible plant employed as a remedy for skin irritation and consumed as vegetables by the indigenous tribes of North East, India. In view of its traditional uses, our present study aims to characterize the chemical constituents of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of E communis and evaluate its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant and angiotensin‐I‐converting enzyme inhibiting properties. GC‐FID and GC‐MS analyses of the essential oil led to the identification of fifty‐one compounds with a yield of 0.88% (v/w). 71.72% of compounds are identified under the category of oxygenated monoterpenes, where neral (28.85%) and geranial (24.1%) were the most prevalent compounds. Ethyl geranate (4.82%), methyl nerate (4.71%), piperitone (4.07%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.75%) were other major constituents of the oil. The oil displayed excellent antifungal properties against C albicans with MIC value of 7.5 ± 0.13 µg/mL, comparable with that of fluconazole (7.5 ± 0.25 µg/mL). Cytotoxic assay of the essential oil disclosed significant results with IC50 value of 8.09 ± 2.67 µg/mL and 26.13 ± 0.90 µg/mL against HeLa and L6 cell lines, respectively. DPPH scavenging capability was assessed using ascorbic acid (1.57 ± 0.001 µg/mL) as reference. The result explicates promising antioxidant behaviour of the oil (21.92 ± 0.074 µg/mL). The oil (23.82 ± 0.078 µg/mL) was also found to possess potential ACE inhibitory effects, with ramipril (9.35 ± 0.02 µg/mL) serving as standard. The diverse pharmacological properties of the essential oil truly justify its traditional uses. GC‐MS analysis of the oil revealed fifty‐one compounds, where oxygenated monoterpenes comprised 71.72% of the oil from leaves of Elsholtzia communis (Collett & Hemsl.) Diels. Neral and geranial were characterized as the most dominant compounds. The oil exhibited significant antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant and ACE inhibiting properties.
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A detailed analysis of Mentha suaveolens ssp. insularis (Req.) Greuter essential oil (EO) and hydrolate extract (HE) was carried out by combination of GC–RI, GC–MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. After fractionation by column chromatography, 51 components of the EO and 27 components of the HE, accounting for 96.1% and 98.3%, respectively, were identified. The main components were pulegone (44.4% and 14.8%) and cis-cis-p-menthenolide (27.3% and 67.3%). This -methylen--butyrolactone, reported for the first time as a natural product, was isolated and its structure elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Both EO and HE exhibited a fair antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Nanoporous silica was prepared and functionalized with amino propyl-triethoxysilane to be used as a highly porous fiber-coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The prepared nanomaterials were immobilized onto a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fiber. The proposed fiber was evaluated for the extraction of volatile component of Citrus aurantium L. leaves. A homemade microwave-assisted extraction followed by headspace (HS) solid-phase apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components. For optimization of factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the volatile compounds, a simplex optimization method was used. The repeatability for one fiber (n = 4), expressed as RSD, was between 3.1 and 8.6% and the reproducibility for five prepared fibers was between 10.1 and 14.9% for the test compounds. Using microwave-assisted distillation HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 53 compounds were separated and identified in C. aurantium L., which mainly included limonene (62.0%), linalool (7.47%), trans-β-Ocimene (3.47%), and caryophyllene (2.05%). In comparison to a hydrodistillation method, the proposed technique could equally monitor almost all the components of the sample, in an easier way, which was rapid and required a much lower amount of sample.
Chapter
The species is native to tropical southeast Asia, southern China and Malaysia. It has been introduced and cultivated elsewhere in the tropics and sub-tropics including in northern Australia.
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Essential oils are natural products used in many fields, including perfumes, cosmetics, aromas, spices and nutrition. Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC), which belongs to the Rutaceae family, is a prominent tree in the southwest region, particularly in An Giang province (Vietnam). Moreover, Kaffir Lime is known as a potential candidate for aromatherapy and cosmetics, a natural alternative for insect repellents, an antioxidant and spice for food. Therefore, the purpose of this study is analyze the phytochemical content of Kaffir Lime essential oil using the steam distillation method. The process of steam distillation was conducted by continuously applying heat onto 500 g of imported Kaffir Lime peels. After 15 min of condensation, the yield of essential oil extraction achieved 1.6%. The essential oil was primarily composed of monoterpene hydrocarbon, aldehyde and ester with sabinene (22.875%), (3-pinene (33.939%), D-limonene (15.847%) and P-citronellal (14.791%) being the main components. Other ingredients included a-pinene (3.099%), (3-myrcene (0.836%), eucalyptol (0.354%), y-terpinene (0.476%), 4-terpineol (2.246%), a-terpineol (1.426%and linalool (1.139%). The presented extraction process as well as phytochemical profiles of Kaffir Lime suggested further studies on potential bioactivities of these constituents.
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In search for new plant-derived biologically active compounds against malaria parasites resistant to commercially available drugs, twenty essential oils extracted from Malagasy aromatic plants were assessed for their anti-plasmodial activity against the multi-drug-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum FCM29. The plants were subjected to steam distillation and the aromatic volatile oils captured using a Clevenger trap. Fourteen essential oils were active against Plasmodium falciparum in culture with IC50s ranging from 27-225 μg/mL. While the essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus and Lantana camara) showed activities similar to that of chloroquine, none exhibited the high activity as achieved by quinine.
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Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) is a tropical plant with aromatic leaves. It produces fruits that are used in Asian cuisines as a flavoring agent. Essential oil from the leaves and peel of kaffir lime is a complex mixture of volatile and semi‐volatile compounds. It is rich in bioactive molecules that act synergistically to improve the well‐being of an individual. The method of extraction is important as it affects the quality and quantity of essential oil significantly. Kaffir lime oil is used as raw material in many fields, some of which include pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sanitary, cosmetic, and perfume industries. It is also used extensively in aromatherapy and as an essential ingredient of various cosmetic and beauty products. Hydrodistillation, steam distillation, pressurized liquid extraction, and soxhlet extraction are some of the commonly used methods for extracting essential oil from kaffir lime as they are cost‐effective, environment friendly, and easy to implement on commercial scale. This review discusses about the condition's of extraction, merits, and demerits of various extraction methods used for kaffir lime oil and their application in healthcare products to induce positive effect in humans. Different extraction methods for extracting essential oil from the leaf and peel of kaffir lime and its application in health care products is critically reviewed.
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In this study, the antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Thymus broussonetii and Thymus vulgaris grown in Morocco were investigated. The results obtained will help complete the already published data on these types of plants, especially using untested bacterial and fungal strains with these plants' essential oils. The major volatile compound was found to be thymol for the T. algeriensis (33.24%), while it was carvacrol for T. broussoneii (67.85%) and T. vulgaris (27.31%). The mortality rate, in the insecticidal assay, reached 100% at low concentrations (3 μL) after 48 hours for all testes oils. The radical scavenging activity of the essential oils, measured by the inhibition of the free radicals DPPH● and ABTS●+, showed that the essential oils of the three Thymus species have a slightly similar efficiency. Additionally, the tested oils inhibited the growth of the strains used in this study, with efficiency more or less close to 90%. These results reveal promising prospects for the future exploitation of Thymus essential oil as a potential source of natural pesticide, antibacterial and antioxidant substances that may be used for future investigations.
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One increasingly popular type of alternative therapy is aromatherapy, but scientific validation in this field is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Five autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and skin temperature, were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rose oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic blood pressure, which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the rose oil group rated themselves as more calm, more relaxed and less alert than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the rose oil and provide some evidence for the use of rose oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief of depression and stress in humans.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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Although essential oils are used increasingly for the improvement in quality of life as well as for the relief of various symptoms in patients, scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in healthy volunteers is rather scarce. Up to now, no experiments about the effects of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis) on human physiological parameters and on behavioral measures after inhalation have been carried out. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of this fragrance compound on physiological parameters as well as selfevaluation in healthy human subjects following inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were blood pressure, breathing rate, skin temperature, and heart rate. Self-evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation, and vigour. Additionally, the fragrance was rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity, and effect. Sweet orange oil caused significant increases in heart rate as well as in subjective alertness, which are likely to represent a stimulating effect of the oil. These findings furnish scientific proof for the use of sweet orange oil in aromatherapy for the relief of mild forms of depression and stress in humans.
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Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae) is a well-known spice in Cameroon (locally named “cotimajo”), in Africa and in Asia, where the aerial plant parts are used, for example, to flavour fish soup. The essential oils of flowers and leaves of two varieties (chemotypes) of O. canum from Cameroon were analysed by GC, GC/MS and olfactometry. The significant odour impression of the essential O. canum leaf oil of type-I is an intense floral-fruity aroma (direction of lavender, rose and citrus), while the essential oils of leaves and flowers of O. canum of variety II show intense fresh-fruity (direction of eucalyptus and citrus) odour notes with pinene-like and warm-spicy-woody (cadinene-like) side notes. The essential O. canum leaf oil of type I is characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene alcohols (total 91.9%), represented especially by linalool (44.9%) and geraniol (38.2%). The essential leaf and flower oils of O. canum from type-II contain less oxygenated monoterpenes (total about 25.0% and 30.9%), but more monoterpene hydrocarbons (total about 61.3–24.1%) and sesquiterpene derivatives (total about 13.2–44.0%) with the main components limonene (41.5% and 5.7%) 1,8-cineole (10.1% and 18.5%), δ-cadinene (4.0% and 18.0%), α-pinene (4.7% and 10.2%) and α-terpineol (6.9% and 6.4%).
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The effects of chiral fragrances (enantiomers of limonene and carvone) on the human autonomic nervous system (ANS) and on self-evaluation were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Each fragrance was administered to each subject by inhalation using an A–A–B design. Individuals were tested in four separate sessions; in one session one fragrance was administered. ANS parameters recorded were skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Subjective experience was assessed in terms of mood, calmness and alertness on visual analog scales. In addition, fragrances were rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity and stimulating property. Inhalation of (+)-limonene led to increased systolic blood pressure, subjective alertness and restlessness. Inhalation of (–)-limonene caused an increase in systolic blood pressure but had no effects on psychological parameters. Inhalation of (–)-carvone caused increases in pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure and subjective restlessness. After inhalation of (+)-carvone increased levels of systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure were observed. Correlational analyses revealed that changes in both ANS parameters and self-evaluation were in part related to subjective evaluation of the odor and suggest that both pharmacological and psychological mechanisms are involved in the observed effects. In conclusion, the present study indicates that: (i) prolonged inhalation of fragrances influences ANS parameters as well as mental and emotional conditions; (ii) effects of fragrances are in part based on subjective evaluation of odor; (iii) chirality of odor molecules seems to be a central factor with respect to the biological activity of fragrances.
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To determine whether aromatherapy with lavender oil is effective in the treatment of agitated behaviour in patients with severe dementia. A placebo controlled trial with blinded observer rater. A long-stay psychogeriatric ward. Fifteen patients meeting ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for severe dementia and suffering from agitated behaviour defined as a minimum score of three points on the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS). A 2% lavender oil aromatherapy stream was administered on the ward for a two hour period alternated with placebo (water) every other day for a total of ten treatment sessions. For each subject 10 total PAS scores were obtained. Five during treatment and five during placebo periods. Nine patients (60%) showed an improvement, five (33%) showed no change and one patient (7%) showed a worsening of agitated behaviour during aromatherapy compared with placebo. A comparison of the group median PAS scores during aromatherapy showed a significant improvement in agitated behaviour during aromatherapy compared with placebo (median PAS scores 3 c.f. 4; Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test p = 0.016 (one-tailed)). Lavender oil administered in an aroma stream shows modest efficacy in the treatment of agitated behaviour in patients with severe dementia.
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Many patients suffering from cancer make use of complementary therapies, with aromatherapy being a popular choice. Quantitative studies, using questionnaire data, have shown that aromatherapy may reduce psychological distress and enhance symptom control in cancer patients. However, little is known about the personal meanings patients associate with the therapy. This study explored the patients' experiences of aromatherapy using of a focus group interview. Eight themes emerged from the analysis, six of which have been acknowledged to some extent by previous authors: de-stressing effects of aromatherapy, the counselling role of the aromatherapist, aromatherapy as a reward, patient empowerment, communication through touch, and negative aspects of the service. Two apparently new themes emerged concerned with security of context (where the aromatherapy took place) and preconceived perceptions of the value of aromatherapy as a treatment of cancer patients. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the perceived role of counselling, collaborative practice and training in complementary therapies.
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We investigated the effects of fragrance inhalation on sympathetic activity in normal adult subjects using both power spectral analysis of blood pressure fluctuations and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels. Fragrance inhalation of essential oils, such as pepper oil, estragon oil, fennel oil or grapefruit oil, resulted in 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in relative sympathetic activity, representing low frequency amplitude of systolic blood pressure (SBP-LF amplitude), compared with inhalation of an odorless solvent, triethyl citrate (P<0.05, each). In contrast, fragrance inhalation of rose oil or patchouli oil caused a 40% decrease in relative sympathetic activity (P<0.01, each). Fragrance inhalation of pepper oil induced a 1.7-fold increase in plasma adrenaline concentration compared with the resting state (P = 0.06), while fragrance inhalation of rose oil caused a 30% decrease in adrenaline concentration (P<0.01). Our results indicate that fragrance inhalation of essential oils may modulate sympathetic activity in normal adults.
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This study was designed to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and rosemary (Rosmarlnus officinalis) on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers. One hundred and forty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three independent groups, and subsequently performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery in a cubicle containing either one of the two odors or no odor (control). Visual analogue mood questionnaires were completed prior to exposure to the odor, and subsequently after completion of the test battery. The participants were deceived as to the genuine aim of the study until the completion of testing to prevent expectancy effects from possibly influencing the data. The outcome variables from the nine tasks that constitute the CDR core battery feed into six factors that represent different aspects of cognitive functioning. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory, and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to controls. In contrast, rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil ( Santalum album, Santalaceae) and alpha-santalol on physiological parameters as well as on mental and emotional conditions in healthy human subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation, the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Eight physiological parameters, i. e., blood oxygen saturation, blood pressure, breathing rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and surface electromyogram were recorded. Subjective mental and emotional condition was assessed by means of rating scales. While alpha-santalol caused significant physiological changes which are interpreted in terms of a relaxing/sedative effect, sandalwood oil provoked physiological deactivation but behavioral activation. These findings are likely to represent an uncoupling of physiological and behavioral arousal processes by sandalwood oil.
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Scientific evaluations of the effects of fragrances on humans are rather scarce. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of ylang-ylang oil (Cananga odorata, Annonaceae) on hu-man physiological parameters and self-evaluation. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Fragrances were administered by inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were skin temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate and blood pressure. Self-evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation and vigor. Additionally, fragrances were rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity and effect. The present investigation showed that ylang-ylang oil may be characterized by the concept of "harmonization" rather than relaxation/sedation. Compared to an odorless placebo, ylang-ylang oil caused significant decreases in blood pressure and pulse rate as well as significant increases of subjective attentiveness and alertness. Correlational analyses revealed that the observed effects are mainly due to a subjective odor experience.
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We investigated the effects of the odor of jasmine tea on autonomic nerve activity and mood states in a total of 24 healthy volunteers. We used the odor of jasmine tea at the lowest concentration that could be detected by each subject but that did not elicit any psychological effects. R-R intervals and the POMS test were measured before and after inhalation of the odors for 5 min. Both jasmine tea and lavender odors at perceived similar intensity caused significant decreases in heart rate and significant increases in spectral integrated values at high-frequency component in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). In the POMS tests, these odors produced calm and vigorous mood states. We also examined the effects of (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, at the same concentration as in the tea, and (S)-(+)-linalool. Only (R)-(-)-linalool elicited a significant decrease in heart rate (P < 0.05) and an increase in high-frequency component in comparison with the controls, and produced calm and vigorous mood states. Thus, the low intensity of jasmine tea odor has sedative effects on both autonomic nerve activity and mood states, and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its components, can mimic these effects.
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The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the essential oils of orange and lavender on anxiety, mood, alertness and calmness in dental patients. Two hundred patients between the ages of 18 and 77 years (half women, half men) were assigned to one of four independent groups. While waiting for dental procedures patients were either stimulated with ambient odor of orange or ambient odor of lavender. These conditions were compared to a music condition and a control condition (no odor, no music). Anxiety, mood, alertness and calmness were assessed while patients waited for dental treatment. Statistical analyses revealed that compared to control condition both ambient odors of orange and lavender reduced anxiety and improved mood in patients waiting for dental treatment. These findings support the previous opinion that odors are capable of altering emotional states and may indicate that the use of odors is helpful in reducing anxiety in dental patients.
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In Ayurvedic medicine, East Indian Sandalwood is an important remedy for the treatment of both somatic and mental disorders. In this investigation, the effects of inhalation of East Indian Sandalwood essential oil and its main compound, alpha-santalol, on human physiological parameters (blood oxygen saturation, respiration rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, surface electromyogram, and blood pressure) and self-ratings of arousal (alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation and vigor) were studied in healthy volunteers. Compared to either an odorless placebo or alpha-santalol, Sandalwood oil elevated pulse rate, skin conductance level, and systolic blood pressure. alpha-Santalol, however, elicited higher ratings of attentiveness and mood than did Sandalwood oil or the placebo. Correlation analyses revealed that these effects are mainly due to perceived odor quality. The results suggest a relation between differences in perceived odor quality and differences in arousal level.
Article
Perception of odours can provoke explicit reactions such as judgements of intensity or pleasantness, and implicit output such as skin conductance or heart rate variations. The main purpose of the present experiment was to ascertain: (i) the correlation between odour ratings (intensity, arousal, pleasantness and familiarity) and activation of the autonomic nervous system, and (ii) the inter-correlation between self-report ratings on intensity, arousal, pleasantness and familiarity dimensions in odour perception. Twelve healthy volunteers were tested in two separate sessions. Firstly, subjects were instructed to smell six odorants (isovaleric acid, thiophenol, pyridine, L-menthol, isoamyl acetate, and 1–8 cineole), while skin conductance and heart rate variations were being measured. During this phase, participants were not asked to give any judgement about the odorants. Secondly, subjects were instructed to rate the odorants on dimensions of intensity, pleasantness, arousal and familiarity (self-report ratings), by giving a mark between 1 (not at all intense, arousing, pleasant or familiar) and 9 (extremely intense, arousing, pleasant or familiar). Results indicated: (i) a pleasantness factor correlated with heart rate variations, (ii) an arousal factor correlated with skin conductance variations, and (iii) a strong correlation between the arousal and intensity dimensions. In conclusion, given that these correlations are also found in other studies using visual and auditory stimuli, these findings provide preliminary information suggesting that autonomic variations in response to olfactory stimuli are probably not modality specific, and may be organized along two main dimensions of pleasantness and arousal, at least for the parameters considered (i.e. heart rate and skin conductance).
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Aromatherapy and massage have gained wide popularity amongst nurses in their clinical practice in recent years. The intensive care setting offers a challenge to nurses to meet the psychological and physical needs of the patient within a highly technological environment. A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effects of aromatherapy and massage on post-cardiac surgery patients. Foot massage given over 20 min, with or without the essential oil of neroli, on day 1 postoperatively showed that a statistically significant psychological benefit was derived from both the groups receiving massage, compared to controls; however, significant physiological differences were limited to respiratory rate as an immediate effect of massage with or without the essential oil. A further follow-up questionnaire on day 5 post surgery indicated a trend towards greater and more lasting psychological benefit from the massage with the neroli oil compared to the plain vegetable oil.
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Essential oils are used in skincare products for perfuming and aromatherapy purposes. In this study, the bioactivities of seven essential oils commonly used and claimed for skincare namely citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC), Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were investigated. Investigation of the in vitro susceptibility of the oils against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using the broth microdilution technique revealed that citronella grass oil exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 0.005–0.3 and 0.6–1.2 μl/ml, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of lemongrass oil were 0.6 μl/ml and those of kaffir lime oil and holy basil oil were 5 μl/ml. Antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the IC50 values of holy basil oil (0.03 μl/ml), plai oil (6.9 μl/ml) and citronella grass oil (2 μl/ml) were lower than that of ascorbic acid (7.9 μl/ml). Anti-inflammatory activity of the oils determined using the 5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay found that IC50 values of holy basil oil (0.04 μl/ml), kaffir lime oil (0.05 μl/ml) and citronella grass oil (0.15 μl/ml) were less than that of nordihydroquaretic acid (1.7 μg/ml). Since P. acnes has a role in the inflammation of acne leading to scar formation, citronella grass oil may help to relieve acne blemishes. However, further investigation in the form of clinical studies would be necessary.
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The Petitgrain essential oils of Citrus latifolia Tanaka (two varieties, Lime Tahiti and Lime de Perse) and Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (three varieties, Meyer, Eureka, Doux), Family Rutaceae, from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) have been analysed by GC–MS. Some major components found on Supelcowax column are β-pinene, sabinene, limonene, citronellal, linalool, neral, geranial and neryl acetate, in different amounts according to variety. The chemical composition of each variety is responsible for the typical olfactory notes. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects influence the motility of mice in inhalation studies under standardized conditions. A significant drop in the motility of mice was registered following exposure to these fragrances. The same results were achieved when the mice were artificially induced into overagitation by intraperitoneal application of caffeine and subsequently subjected to inhalation of fragrance compounds and essential oils. These results proved the sedative effects of these fragrants via inhalative exposure in low concentrations. Blood samples were taken from the mice after a 1-h inhalation period. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used to detect and characterize the actual effective compounds after solid-phase extraction. Serum concentrations of 42 different substances, including fragrance compounds, were found in low ranges (ng/mL serum). The results contribute to the correct interpretation of the term aromatherapy (i.e., a stimulating or sedative effect on the behaviour of individuals only upon inhalation of fragrance compounds).
Article
The Citrus hystrix peel extract (2,000 ppm) and butylated hydroxytoulene(BHT) (200 ppm) were added to the frying oil. The antioxidant activities were determined during deep fat frying of fish crackers for 4 consecutive days. Each frying period was for 5 h and intermittent frying at 180C with half an hour interval was carried out. The antioxidant activities were determined by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AnV), totox value, iodine value (IV), percent free fatty acids, color and viscosity of the oil. Results indicated that the ethanol extract of the citrus peel exhibited antioxidant properties and therefore has a potential as one of the new sources of natural antioxidants.
Article
One hour after the addition of 0.5 ml rosemary oil per cage for evaporation (141 of volume) the concentration of 1,8-cineole in the blood, 11.15 nl/g, approached that in the breathing air, 13.65 nl/ml. Inhalation and oral administration of various doses of rosemary oil produced dose-related increases in blood levels of 1,8-cineole. An increase in locomotor activity was observed in both cases. The disappearance of 1,8-cineole from the blood immediately after the termination of a 60-min inhalation period was biphasic: a rapid phase of elimination of about 10 min with a short blood half life (t/2 = 6 min) was followed by a slower rate of elimination (t/2 = 45 min). Since the blood levels of 1,8-cineole (if taken as an indicator for the blood levels of rosemary oil) associated with the stimulation of locomotor activity were similar regardless of whether the oil was administered by inhalation or orally, it is suggested that the stimulation of locomotor activity by rosemary oil is due at least in part to the direct pharmacological action of one or more of its constituents.
Article
The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a consistent response in ongoing EEG due to repetitive olfactory stimulation. Two odors of different hedonic quality were presented bilaterally to five male subjects at suprathreshold levels. A room-air blank served as the control stimulus. Each odor was presented six times to each subject in each of three sessions. Electrocortical activity, heart rate, skin conductance and breathing cycle were recorded continuously. EEG variables assessed were difference scores of absolute power in the frequency bands theta, alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 at eight locations. Phenylethyl alcohol was rated pleasant, while valeric acid was judged unpleasant. Within 8 s after stimulus release, valeric acid increased alpha2 power, whereas phenylethyl alcohol did not. No further frequency bands were affected by olfactory stimulation. These findings suggest that smelling an unpleasant odor leads to a cortical deactivation. Chem. Senses 20: 505–515, 1995.
Article
In our previous experiments on animals evidence was found that citrus fragrance can restore the stress-induced immunosuppression, suggesting that citrus fragrance may have an effect on restoring the homeostatic balance. Since a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine and immune function is thought to be associated with psychosomatic or psychiatric disorders an attempt was made to restore their mental health by stimulation of one of the sensory systems. Fragrance (citrus was our choice) which comforts through stimulation of the olfactory system was applied to depressive patients. It was given to 12 depressive subjects and the results indicated that the doses of antidepressants necessary for the treatment of depression could be markedly reduced. The treatment with citrus fragrance normalized neuroendocrine hormone levels and immune function and was rather more effective than antidepressants.
Article
EEG activity, alertness, and mood were assessed in 40 adults given 3 minutes of aromatherapy using two aromas, lavender (considered a relaxing odor) or rosemary (considered a stimulating odor). Participants were also given simple math computations before and after the therapy. The lavender group showed increased beta power, suggesting increased drowsiness, they had less depressed mood (POMS) and reported feeling more relaxed and performed the math computations faster and more accurately following aromatherapy. The rosemary group, on the other hand, showed decreased frontal alpha and beta power, suggesting increased alertness. They also had lower state anxiety scores, reported feeling more relaxed and alert and they were only faster, not more accurate, at completing the math computations after the aromatherapy session.
Article
In order to assess the influence of odors on human performance and implicit memory for odors, 108 subjects completed a variety of tests in weakly scented (jasmine, lavender or odorless) rooms without having been made aware of the odor. After a 30 min interval the subjects were shown slides of different surroundings, including the room they had been in, and were requested to rate how well a set of 12 odors, including a blank, would fit to these surroundings. Half of these contexts contained visual cues related to two of the presented odors (leather and coffee). After the rating of fit the subjects had to rate the odors for pleasantness, were asked to identify the odors with their correct names and to tell where and when they had last smelled these odors. One subject remembered smelling the odor (jasmine) in the room and was discarded from the analysis of the results for the rating of fit. None of the others reported recollection of the experimental odors. The results showed that in general jasmine had a negative and lavender a positive effect on test performance. If an odor-related visual cue was present in the context, the related odor was always rated highest in fit to that context. Furthermore, the subjects working in rooms with an odor subsequently assigned this odor to the visual context of that room to a significantly higher degree than subjects working in rooms with different odors. Since none of the subjects reported that they had smelled the odor in the rooms where performance testing took place, it was concluded that the memory for these odors was implicit. Further analysis showed that such memory was only found in subjects who were unable to supply the right name for the odor. The possible consequences of this latter finding for understanding the relationship between sensory (episodic) and semantic odor memory are discussed.
Article
This study was designed to investigate the effect of foot-bath with or without the essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system. Randomized crossover controlled study. Nursing college, Nagano, Japan. Young women sat with their feet soaked in hot water for 10 minutes with and without the essential oil. An electrocardiogram, finger tip blood flow and respiratory rate were recorded. Autonomic function was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. The foot-bath caused no changes in heart or respiratory rates, but produced a significant increase in blood flow. Using spectral analysis, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly during the both types of foot-bath. In the case of the foot-bath with the addition of essential oil of lavender, there were delayed changes to the balance of autonomic activity in the direction associated with relaxation. A hot foot-bath and oil of lavender appear to be associated with small but significant changes in autonomic activity.
Article
Volatile oils extracted by steam distillation from four plant species (turmeric (Curcuma longa), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus) and hairy basil (Ocimum americanum)), were evaluated in mosquito cages and in a large room for their repellency effects against three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oils from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil, especially with the addition of 5% vanillin, repelled the three species under cage conditions for up to eight hours. The oil from kaffir lime alone, as well as with 5% vanillin added, was effective for up to three hours. With regard to the standard repellent, deet alone provided protection for at least eight hours against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, but for six hours against An. dirus. However, deet with the addition of 5% vanillin gave protection against the three mosquito species for at least eight hours. The results of large room evaluations confirmed the responses for each repellent treatment obtained under cage conditions. This study demonstrates the potential of volatile oils extracted from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil as topical repellents against both day- and night-biting mosquitoes. The three volatile oils can be formulated with vanillin as mosquito repellents in various forms to replace deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), the most common chemical repellent currently available.
Article
A random controlled trial of the relaxing effects of an aromatherapy massage on disordered behaviour in dementia was conducted. Twenty-one patients were randomly allocated into one of three conditions, aromatherapy and massage (AM), conversation and aromatherapy (CA) and massage only (M). AM showed the greatest reduction in the frequency of excessive motor behaviour of all three conditions. This reached statistical significance between the hours of three and four pm (p < 0.05). Post hoc analysis suggested that at this time of day the AM consistently reduced motor behaviour when compared with CA (p = 0.05). This provides preliminary evidence of a measurable sedative effect of aromatherapy massage on dementia within a robust scientific paradigm. Further research is recommended with an expanded sample size.
Article
Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia are frequent and are a major management problem, especially for patients with severe cognitive impairment. Preliminary reports have indicated positive effects of aromatherapy using select essential oils, but there are no adequately powered placebo-controlled trials. We conducted a placebo-controlled trial to determine the value of aromatherapy with essential oil of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) for agitation in people with severe dementia. Seventy-two people residing in National Health Service (U.K.) care facilities who had clinically significant agitation in the context of severe dementia were randomly assigned to aromatherapy with Melissa essential oil (N = 36) or placebo (sunflower oil) (N = 36). The active treatment or placebo oil was combined with a base lotion and applied to patients' faces and arms twice a day by caregiving staff. Changes in clinically significant agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]) and quality of life indices (percentage of time spent socially withdrawn and percentage of time engaged in constructive activities, measured with Dementia Care Mapping) were compared between the 2 groups over a 4-week period of treatment. Seventy-one patients completed the trial. No significant side effects were observed. Sixty percent (21/35) of the active treatment group and 14% (5/36) of the placebo-treated group experienced a 30% reduction of CMAI score, with an overall improvement in agitation (mean reduction in CMAI score) of 35% in patients receiving Melissa balm essential oil and 11% in those treated with placebo (Mann-Whitney U test; Z = 4.1, p < .0001). Quality of life indices also improved significantly more in people receiving essential balm oil (Mann-Whitney U test; percentage of time spent socially withdrawn: Z = 2.6, p = .005; percentage of time engaged in constructive activities: Z = 3.5, p = .001). The finding that aromatherapy with essential balm oil is a safe and effective treatment for clinically significant agitation in people with severe dementia, with additional benefits for key quality of life parameters, indicates the need for further controlled trials.
Article
Perception of odours can provoke explicit reactions such as judgements of intensity or pleasantness, and implicit output such as skin conductance or heart rate variations. The main purpose of the present experiment was to ascertain: (i) the correlation between odour ratings (intensity, arousal, pleasantness and familiarity) and activation of the autonomic nervous system, and (ii) the inter-correlation between self-report ratings on intensity, arousal, pleasantness and familiarity dimensions in odour perception. Twelve healthy volunteers were tested in two separate sessions. Firstly, subjects were instructed to smell six odorants (isovaleric acid, thiophenol, pyridine, L-menthol, isoamyl acetate, and 1-8 cineole), while skin conductance and heart rate variations were being measured. During this phase, participants were not asked to give any judgement about the odorants. Secondly, subjects were instructed to rate the odorants on dimensions of intensity, pleasantness, arousal and familiarity (self-report ratings), by giving a mark between 1 (not at all intense, arousing, pleasant or familiar) and 9 (extremely intense, arousing, pleasant or familiar). Results indicated: (i) a pleasantness factor correlated with heart rate variations, (ii) an arousal factor correlated with skin conductance variations, and (iii) a strong correlation between the arousal and intensity dimensions. In conclusion, given that these correlations are also found in other studies using visual and auditory stimuli, these findings provide preliminary information suggesting that autonomic variations in response to olfactory stimuli are probably not modality specific, and may be organized along two main dimensions of pleasantness and arousal, at least for the parameters considered (i.e. heart rate and skin conductance).
Article
The effect of jasmine tea odor on the autonomic nervous system was investigated by a power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. We assigned eight volunteers to two groups with either a predilection for or antipathy toward the jasmine tea odor. We tested both high- and low-intensity jasmine tea odors. The low-intensity odor was produced by diluting 20-fold the jasmine tea used for the high-intensity odor test. The low-intensity odor produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity in both the predilection and antipathy groups. The high-intensity odor produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity in the predilection group, but an increase in sympathetic nervous activity in the antipathy group. The odor of Chinese green tea, a basic ingredient of jasmine tea, produced no effects similar to those of the jasmine tea odor. These results suggest that the jasmine tea odor activated the parasympathetic nerve, whereas the higher-intensity odor activated the sympathetic nerve in those subjects who disliked the odor.
Article
Using GC-MS and GC-flame ionization detection (FID)/olfactometry, 95 volatile components were detected in orange essence oil, of which 55 were aroma active. In terms of FID peak area the most abundant compounds were: limonene, 94.5%; myrcene, 1%; valencene, 0.8%; linalool, 0.7%, and octanal, decanal, and ethyl butyrate, 0.3% each. One hundred percent of the aroma activity was generated by slightly more than 4% of the total volatiles. The most intense aromas were produced by octanal, wine lactone, linalool, decanal, beta-ionone, citronellal, and beta-sinensal. Potent aroma components reported for the first time in orange essence oil include: E-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, Z-4-decenal, E,E-2,4-nonadienal, guaiacol, gamma-octalactone, and m-cresol. Over 20 compounds were identified for the first time in orange essence oil using MS, however, most did not exhibit aroma activity.
Article
The different ways of describing peak positions on gas chromatograms are reviewed. The retention index is preferred to the theoretical nonane system and the relative retention.The equation given by Kováts for the calculation of the retention index in case of isothermal operation is transformed to a more general form to include also the case of linear temperature programmed operation. This generalized equation gives the same retention index for both ways of operation.
Article
A randomised controlled pilot study was carried out to examine the effects of adjunctive aromatherapy massage on mood, quality of life and physical symptoms in patients with cancer attending a specialist unit. Participants were randomised to conventional day care alone or day care plus weekly aromatherapy massage using a standardised blend of oils for four weeks. At baseline and at weekly intervals, patients rated their mood, quality of life and the intensity and bother of two symptoms most important to them. Forty-six patients were recruited to the study. Due to a large number of withdrawals, only 11 of 23 (48%) patients in the aromatherapy group and 18 of 23 (78%) in the control group completed all four weeks. Mood, physical symptoms and quality of life improved in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in any of the outcome measures. Despite a lack of measurable benefit, all patients were satisfied with the aromatherapy and wished to continue. Whilst this pilot study has shown that a randomised controlled trial of complementary therapy is feasible, it has also identified several areas that would require further consideration when designing future studies, e.g., the recruitment and retention of appropriate numbers of patients and the outcome measures used.
Article
Two controlled trials of aromatherapy to decrease agitation in persons with dementia have recently produced promising results. However, both studies combined the use of essential oils with massage. Thus, it is unclear if the effect of the aromatherapy intervention was the result of smelling or the cutaneous absorption of the oils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether smelling lavender oil decreases the frequency of agitated behaviors in patients with dementia. The study design was within-subjects ABCBA (A = lavender oil, B = thyme oil, C = unscented grapeseed oil): 4 weeks of baseline measurement, 2 weeks for each of the five treatment conditions (10-week total intervention time), and 2 weeks of postintervention measurement. Oil was placed every 3 hours on an absorbent fabric sachet pinned near the collarbone of each participant's shirt. A long-term care facility specifically for persons with dementia. Seven agitated nursing home residents with advanced dementia. Agitation was assessed every 2 days using a modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Olfactory functioning was assessed with structured olfactory identification and discrimination tasks, and with qualitative behavioral observation during those tasks. Split-middle analyses conducted separately for each patient revealed no treatment effects specific to lavender, no treatment effects nonspecific to pleasant smelling substances, and no treatment effects dependent on order of treatment administration. There were no differences between participants with more and less intact olfactory abilities. There is significant evidence in the neurologic and neuropsychologic literature that persons with dementia have impaired olfactory abilities. Concordant with this literature, this study found no support for the use of a purely olfactory form of aromatherapy to decrease agitation in severely demented patients. Cutaneous application of the essential oil may be necessary to achieve the effects reported in previous controlled studies.
Article
Smelling a delightful aroma can be a very pleasurable experience, but can it be measured scientifically? Over the past 20 years International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. (IFF) has been working to refine its methods of measuring both the subjective and physiological effects of aromas and fragrances on emotions. We have developed a selfreport method called Mood Mapping™ that reliably measures the mood associations of aromas, whether simple ingredients or finished fragrances in consumer products (Warrenburg, 2002). Mood Mapping provides a choice of eight mood categories to panelists, who are asked to smell the aroma of a sample and ‘pick the mood category that best matches the aroma of the sample’. We found that this straightforward voting technique results in clearer and more reliable differentiation among aromas than do techniques that require respondents to rate each mood for each sample being evaluated. The resulting mood profiles of each aroma can be mapped by multidimensional scaling or principal component analysis. Figure 1 displays the voting results for clementine, a citrus aroma, versus vanilla. Both are equally pleasant, but the former is more stimulating and the latter more relaxing. The Mood Map reflects these differences by their positions in the Arousal (Y) dimension, yet also shows their hedonic similarity on the Positive/Negative (X) dimension. The other points are other aromas that evoke different patterns of the eight moods. Measurement of moods in this way can be conducted in combination with consumer research of fragranced (or flavored) products. When these results are mapped we have found that the four positive moods identify the major dimensions of the map. Thus, positive consumer reactions tend to reflect the major mood dimensions of happiness, stimulation, relaxation and sensuality that underlie a wide variety of specific attributes identified as applying to such products. Furthermore, we have found that this is true in populations tested around the world. We have built a database for our creative staff, called the Consumer Fragrance Thesaurus, that catalogs the moods, attributes, colors and other qualities of fragrances tested in different areas of the world (Warrenburg, 1999). One of our principal interests has been to discover whether fragrance can be used as a stress-relief agent in a consumer product. Stress is a global affliction, a fact that is not only acknowledged anec
Article
Alertness, mood, and math computations were assessed in 11 healthy adults who sniffed a cosmetic cleansing gel with lavender floral blend aroma, developed to be relaxing using Mood Mapping. EEG patterns and heart rate were also recorded before, during, and after the aroma session. The lavender fragrance blend had a significant transient effect of improving mood, making people feel more relaxed, and performing the math computation faster. The self-report and physiological data are consistent with relaxation profiles during other sensory stimuli such as massage and music, as reported in the literature. The data suggest that a specific cosmetic fragrance can have a significant role in enhancing relaxation.
Article
Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1 x 10(4)cells/well of KB cell line and 1 x 10(5) cells/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962 mg/ml. In KB cell line, Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0379 mg/ml (4.37 times more potent than vincristine) whereas Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil gave the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0362 mg/ml (12.7 times less potent than 5-FU) in P388 cell line. The results demonstrated the potential of essential oil from Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment.
Article
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM), Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small molecules, like phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising anti-herpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV agents.
Article
Peppermint, a stimulating odor, increases alertness while awake and therefore may inhibit sleep. This study examined peppermint's effects on polysomnographic (PSG) sleep, alertness, and mood when presented before bedtime. Twenty-one healthy sleepers (mean age +/- S.D., 20.1 +/- 2.0 years) completed three consecutive laboratory sessions (adaptation, control, and stimulus nights). Peppermint reduced fatigue and improved mood and was rated as more pleasant, intense, stimulating, and elating than water. These perceptual qualities associated with sleep measures: subjects rating peppermint as very intense had more total sleep than those rating it as moderately intense, and also showed more slow-wave sleep (SWS) in the peppermint than control session. Furthermore, subjects who found peppermint stimulating showed more NREM and less REM sleep while those rating it as sedating took longer to reach SWS. Peppermint did not affect PSG sleep, however, when these perceptual qualities were not considered. Peppermint also produced gender-differentiated responses: it increased NREM sleep in women, but not men, and alertness in men, but not women, compared with the control. Thus, psychological factors, including individual differences in odor perception play an important role in physiological sleep and self-rated mood and alertness changes.
Article
Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ylang ylang oil (Cananga odorata, Annonaceae) on human physiological parameters and self-evaluation after transdermal absorption. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Physiological parameters recorded were skin temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate and blood pressure. Self-evaluation was assessed by means of visual analog scales (VAS). The ylang ylang oil caused a significant decrease of blood pressure and a significant increase of skin temperature. At the behavioral level, subjects in the ylang ylang oil group rated themselves more calm and more relaxed than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the ylang ylang oil and provide some evidence for the usage of the ylang ylang oil in aromatherapy such as causing a relief of depression and stress in humans.
Article
The specific physiological responses induced by inhaling R-(-)- as well as S-(+)-linalool in 24 human subjects undergoing experimental stress were investigated in this study. Various physiological parameters of the autonomous nervous system (heart rate, blood pressure, electrodermal activity) as well as the endocrine system (salivary cortisol) were monitored. The study clearly indicated that odorants can modulate salivary cortisol levels, with both linalool enantiomers exerting relaxing effects. Concerning blood pressure and heart rate, S-(+)-linalool acted as an activating agent in contrast to electrodermal activity. R-(-)-linalool proved to be stress-relieving as determined by heart rate. In conclusion, the results revealed that (1) chirality crucially influences the physiological effects of odorants and that (2) odorants may act differently on certain physiological parameters.
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