Article

Direct and Residual Effect of Different Organic Fertilizers on Potato and Cereals

Department of Ecology and Agrochemistry, Estonian University of Agriculture, Viljandi Road, Eerika, Tartu-EE2400, Estonia
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Impact Factor: 2.44). 04/2008; 171(3):185 - 195. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.1993.tb00130.x

ABSTRACT

Field experiment with 8 different organic fertilizers (cattle dung with and without litter, pig slurry, peat compost formed from hen and pig slurry, sawdust-duck manure, noncomposted peat and straw litter with pig slurry) was carried out on loamy brown podzoluvisol since 1985.The organic fertilizers were applied in the spring of 1985 on two backgrounds: with and without mineral fertilizers. The material is based on the data of four years (1985–1988). The arrangement of crops was the following: potato, spring wheat, barley and early barley.On both backgrounds cattle dung with litter turned out to be the best organic fertilizer, while noncomposted peat manure had a low direct and residual effect. However, before the application it must be composted with pig or hen slurry. The effect of peat composts was dependent on the background of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry had a low residual effect and acted only as a liquid nitrogen fertilizer. The joint application of straw and pig slurry can be a suitable opportunity for diminishing their undesirable effects.ZusammenfassungDie Haupt-und Nachwirkung verschiedener organischer Düngung für Kartoffel und GetreideUnser Feldversuch mit acht verschiedenen organischen Düngern war im Frühling 1985 auf lehmiger Parabraunerde angelegt worden. Es wurden 8 verschiedene Dünger verwendet: Rindermist mit und ohne Einstreu, Torfkomposte mit Schweinegülle und Hühnerkot, Schweinegülle, Niedermoortorf, Geflügelkot auf Sägemehl und Stroh. Organische Dünger ohne und mit Mineraldünger werden verglichen. Als wichtige Einflußgröße für den Düngungswert kommt der Wassergehalt in Betracht, deshalb ist die Bezugnahme auf einen gleichhohen Trockensubstanzgehalt für die Düngungsmengen zweckmäßig. Er beträgt 12, 24, 36 t/ha, nur Schweinegülle und Stroh stehen außerhalb dieser Normen.Die vierjährige Fruchtfolge besteht aus Kartoffeln mit folgenden drei Getreidearten. Organische Düngung wurde vor der Kartoffel eingepflügt und nachher drei Jahre lang die Nachwirkung geprüft.Das Hauptkriterium der Düngungseffektivität ist hier pflanzlicher Ertrag nach Menge und Qualität. Daneben wurden bodenchemische und einige bodenphysikalische und mikrobiologische Untersuchungen laufend durchgeführt.Die unterschiedlichen Formen der organischen Düngung müssen jeweils mit der Mineraldüngung im Düngungssystem optimiert werden, urn eine hohe Ackerkultur zu erreichen.Unsere Versuchsresultate bestätigen, daß 4–6 t organischer Trockensubstanz per Hektar pro Jahr ausreichend sind, wenn man die pflanzenbaulichen und die Bodenfruchtbarkeit betreffenden Forderungen berücksichtigt.Die Versuchsergebnisse zeigen, daß zuverlässige und stabile Mehrerträge während der vierjährigen Periode mit den Rindermistvarianten erzielt werden konnten.Schweinegülle dagegen wirkt in erster Linie als flüssiger Stickstoffdünger, dessen Wirkung auf den Ertrag sich bereits in den ersten zwei Jahren erschöpft.Natürlicher Torf, der den Kompostierungsprozeß mit anderen nährstoffreichen Substanzen nicht durchlaufen hat, kann die nötigen Elemente für die Kulturpflanzen nicht liefern.Zur Bereicherung passen Hühner oder Schweinegülle, aber hier hängt die Qualität zum großen Teil von der Mischungshomogenität ab.Strohdüngung hat eine direkte positive Wirkung schon im Anwendungsjahr, weil die Schweinegüllemenge und die aus letzterer bedingte mineralische Stickstoffmenge größer war als die Immobilisierungsstickstoffmenge. Jedoch ergibt sich aus den Strohdüngungs resultaten eine Erhöhungstendenz auf den Pflanzenertrag im zweiten bzw. dritten Nachwirkungsjahr.

1 Follower
 · 
24 Reads
  • Source
    • "The discrepancy in the findings may be due to the heterogeneity of the physical and chemical characteristics of the different organic fertilizers, which may give rise to different yields even under the same crop conditions. This was shown by comparison of eight types of organic fertilizers (Kanal and Kuldkepp, 1993), which included cattle dung with and without litter, pig slurry, peat compost formed from hen and pig slurry, sawdust-duck manure, non-composted peat and straw lit-ter with pig slurry applied to potato and cereal crops. The findings of that study indicate that the results obtained with different types of organic fertilizers are not readily comparable, and thus a specific agronomic evaluation is required for each type of organic fertilizer, crop and type of management. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Composting may be an effective process for treating fish waste and drift seaweed to recover organic matter and nutrient resources and to produce fertilizers for organic agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this type of compost as a fertilizer in a horticultural crop rotation. A greenhouse trial was carried out to test the effects of the compost on a tomato crop and its residual effects on the succeeding lettuce crop. Different compost rates (C1, C2 and C3: 40 t ha−1, 50 t ha−1 and 66 t ha−1) were compared to single rates of a mineral fertilizer (M) and of a certified organic fertilizer made from dehydrated broiler litter (BL) as well as to the control treatment, which lacked fertilization (C). Tomato yield increased significantly (5.56 kg plant−1) with the highest rate of compost compared to the mineral and control treatments (4.54 and 4.58 kg plant−1, respectively). This increased yield was associated with an increase in the diameter and weight of the fruits. Moreover, the lettuce yield improved with compost rates C2 (395 g lettuce−1) and C3 (367 g lettuce−1), showing a strong residual effect of the compost. This compost is suitable as organic soil fertilizer and may be recommended for improving horticultural crop yields.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Scientia Horticulturae
  • Source
    • "Also, it enhanced soil biological properties (Chai et al., 1988) and soil fertility and led to increase in crop yield (Lal and Mathur, 1989). However, organic manure may be beneficial to crop and soil on the long term (Tirol-Padre et al., 2007), and their efficiency in enhancing crop growth and yield has been reported, in the short term, by combining them with mineral fertilizers (Kanal and Kuldkepp, 1993; Mottaghian et al., 2008; Aisueni et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A field study was carried out during the years 2007 and 2008 on 30-year old Zaghloul cultivar growing in clay soil. Mineral fertilization sources: N, ammonium nitrate or NPK, ammonium nitrate + calcium superphosphate + potassium sulphate, and organic sources: chicken manure (CM), cow dung (CD) and composted domestic refuse (CDR) were applied either alone or in combinations in order to study their influence on the yield and fruit physical and chemical quality characteristics. The results revealed that applying organic manure alone or in combination with mineral NPK increased palm yield as compared to mineral fertilization alone (NPK or N). In general, fruit weight, flesh weight, length, diameter and dry weight were increased, while fruit moisture content decreased by the application of organic manures either alone or in combination with mineral NPK as compared to the mineral N. Higher fruit TSS and total sugars content were obtained by the application of organic manures alone or in combination with mineral NPK as compared with mineral fertilization alone (NPK or N). Overall values of fruit minerals content did not differ among the different treatments. Organic manures fertilization (especially CM and CD) resulted in decreasing fruit lead, cadmium, nitrate and nitrite contents more than mineral fertilization. In general, the application of organic manures either alone or in combinations with mineral NPK did not differ from each other in their effect on yield and fruit quality.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Scientia Horticulturae
  • Source
    • "There was a gradual decrease in the moisture content associated with increasing dry matter content (Table II & III). The uptake of nutrients by plants and the overall crop yields have been shown to increase when the chemical fertilizers were applied together with the organic fertilizers/compost (Kanal & Kuldkepp, 1993; Mottaghian et al., 2008). The type of fertilizers and the doses of nitrogen application can also affect the yield and yield components (Das & Ghosh, 1993; Tuncturk & Yildrim, 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study evaluated the effect of mineral and organic fertilizers with and without the supplementation of micronutrients on the chemical characteristics and quality of date fruits from two cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) viz. Khalas and Khassab. Thirty date-palm trees from each of the cultivars, 6-7 years of age, were randomly selected and divided into 10 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The study was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RCBD) during the years 2002-2004 at Al-Fairoz Private Farms in Al-Batinah region, Sultanate of Oman. The fertilizers used were organic peat (80 L) either alone or with 1 kg of urea (divided into 4 & 5 equal N-doses) together with 500 g of triple super phosphate and 800 g of K2SO4 and with or without supplementation of micronutrients. The control did not include any fertilizers. The samples of date fruit were collected at " Rutab" stage (soft, ripe). Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the chemical characteristics and quality parameters of dates on different fertilizer applications as compared to control. The highest dry matter content was observed in both the date cultivars when mineral fertilizers (NPK, in 4-N doses) were supplemented with organic peat and micronutrients. The application of organic peat alone resulted in higher tannin and pectin contents but lower titeratable acidity (TA) in both the cultivars as compared to all other treatments. During the year 2004, both the cultivars showed lower pectin, tannin and moisture contents but higher pH values as compared to the years 2002 and 2003. Overall the application of organic peat over a period of 3 years in both cultivars increased the tannin contents, whereas the mineral fertilizers reduced it. The interactions between fertilizer application, year and stage of maturity were also significant (P<0.05) for DM, tannin and TA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Show more