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Anthocyanins of Pomegranate, Punica granatum

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... (Chidambara et al., 2002;Dean et al., 1971) [10,11] . It was detected that saturated alkaloids present in the root and body rinds are not present in the leaves, whereas 2-(2propenyl)-piperidine of unsaturated alkaloids was present in the leaf extract (Du et al., 1975, Parashar et al., 2018 [12,34] . ...
... (Chidambara et al., 2002;Dean et al., 1971) [10,11] . It was detected that saturated alkaloids present in the root and body rinds are not present in the leaves, whereas 2-(2propenyl)-piperidine of unsaturated alkaloids was present in the leaf extract (Du et al., 1975, Parashar et al., 2018 [12,34] . ...
... (Tanaka et al., 1986b) [36] , and a 49% increase in reduced glutathione levels (Tanaka et al., 1985). In vitro assay of a fermented pomegranate juice (FPJ) extract and a cold pressed seed oil (CPSO) extract found the antioxidant capacity of both are superior to red wine and similar to green tea extract (Zelepukha et al., 1975Parashar et al., 2012. A separate study in rats with CCl4 induced liver damage demonstrated pretreatment with a pomegranate peel extract (PPE) enhanced or maintained the free-radical scavenging activity of the hepatic enzymes catalase, super oxide dismutase, and peroxidase, and resulted in 56% reduction of lipid peroxidation values compared to controls (Tsuyuki et al., 1981 [46] . ...
... So, unconventional treatments should be applied to avoid side effects of MTX and other drugs (Eisenberg et al., 1993, Murray et al., 1992, and Visser et al., 1992). Curcuma (Curcuma longa), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) plants are rich in different anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer components (Venkatesan et al., 2000, Antunes et al., 2001, Ammon and Wahl 1991, Lin 2007, Srivastava and Mustafa 1992, Afzal et al., 2001, Rogers et al. 1998, and Isemura et al. 2000, Mayer et al., 1977 Tanaka et al., 1986a, Du et al., 1975, Lansky et al., 1998, Schubert et al., 1999, Mayer et al., 1977 Tanaka et al., 1986a and Du et al., 1975, Lansky et al., 1998, Schubert et al., 1999). So, the extracts of these plants were chosen as unconventional treatments to test its ability to face the side effects of MTX treatments. ...
... So, unconventional treatments should be applied to avoid side effects of MTX and other drugs (Eisenberg et al., 1993, Murray et al., 1992, and Visser et al., 1992). Curcuma (Curcuma longa), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) plants are rich in different anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer components (Venkatesan et al., 2000, Antunes et al., 2001, Ammon and Wahl 1991, Lin 2007, Srivastava and Mustafa 1992, Afzal et al., 2001, Rogers et al. 1998, and Isemura et al. 2000, Mayer et al., 1977 Tanaka et al., 1986a, Du et al., 1975, Lansky et al., 1998, Schubert et al., 1999, Mayer et al., 1977 Tanaka et al., 1986a and Du et al., 1975, Lansky et al., 1998, Schubert et al., 1999). So, the extracts of these plants were chosen as unconventional treatments to test its ability to face the side effects of MTX treatments. ...
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Mice genome responses to MTX (anticancer drug) and some plant (Curcuma, Ginger, Green Tee and Pomegranate) extracts were studied. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.75 mg/kg chronic dose of MTX for two weeks. Mortality percentages, bone marrow cell divisions, morphological and biochemical characterization of treated mice groups were estimated. The mortality percentage was 40 % in the positive control while no mortality was observed in both (MTX, Curcumin) and (MTX, Pomegranate) treatments. Some treated mice had ulceration and hair loss on the ears skin. No morphological changes were observed on the negative control group. At cytogenetic level, no bone marrow cell divisions were detected in treated mice. Two Isozyme systems (Esterase and Super oxide dismutase) and Protein electrophoresis were assayed to detect biochemical genetic markers for all mice groups. These analyses reflect mice genome responses under experimental conditions. (Mus musculus) genome responses to methotrexate (MTX) and some plant extracts. Life Sci J 2012;9(4):
... These secondary metabolites accumulate in all fruit tissues and mainly in the edible part of the fruit, the arils, and in the fruit peel (Gil et al., 1995b;Hernandez et al., 1999;Tzulker et al., 2007). Six anthocyanin molecules were identified in pomegranate fruit, including mono-and di-glucosides of cyanidin (red pigments), delphinidin (purple pigments), and pelargonidin (orange pigments) (Du et al., 1975;Gil et al., 1995b). All six anthocyanin pigments were detected in pomegranate cultivars from different geographical regions, which include Israeli, Turkish, Spanish, Californian, Tunisian, Italian, and Chinese pomegranates (Gil et al., 1995a,b;Ben-Simhon et al., 2011;Turkyilmaz, 2013;Zhao et al., 2013). ...
... Cyanidine derivatives constitute about 85% of the anthocynins in ripened pomegranate fruit, while pelargonidin derivatives constitute about 15% in ripened fruit (Ben-Simhon et al., 2011). Only low or undetectable levels of delphinidins were usually found in the fruit skin (Du et al., 1975;Gil et al., 1995b;Ben-Simhon et al., 2011). However, in some dark red Chinese cultivars, large amounts of cyanidin mono-glycoside and delphinidin mono-glycoside (over 100 mg/100 g) were found in the skin (Zhao et al., 2013). ...
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important and interesting fruit tree that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In recent years, along with the increase in its cultivation and consumption there has been a dramatic increase in the scientific interest in its biology, methods of cultivation, adaptation to environmental cues and its health-promoting properties. Quite a large proportion of the various metabolites produced in the pomegranate were determined and their content in the bark, roots, leaves, and fruit was reported. Many reviews on polyphenolic compound content, antioxidant activity and health-promoting compounds were published recently. However, only very few recent reports were dedicated to primary metabolites, despite the fact that much work was done on organic acids, sugars, proteins, lipids, and amino acids of the pomegranate fruit. In this review, a special effort was made to present these recent studies and the review is devoted to primary metabolites. The reported data show high variation in the content of primary metabolites within the pomegranate fruit; therefore the data is presented (whenever possible) according to fruit tissues (peel, arils, and seeds), developmental stages of the fruit, environmental and climatic conditions, and genetic background. Most of the data on pomegranate is based on metabolic content and contains no genetic or molecular analysis except for work done on anthocyanins and hydrolyzable tannins. In those cases, gene assignment and genetic control studies were pointed out in the review. The recent publication of the genome sequences from several pomegranate varieties and transcriptomic data from fruits, flowers, and leaves is expected to facilitate the understanding of genetic control of metabolites in pomegranate.
... The anthocyanins convey the red colour to the fruit (Gil et al., 1995aGil et al., , 1995b Hernandez et al., 1999). Six pigments particularly characteristic to pomegranate are the 3-mono-and 3,5-diglucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin (Du et al., 1975; Gil et al., 1995a; Noda et al., 2002; Fischer et al., 2011). To comply with market demands it is especially important to establish the impact of water quality on the fruit colouration and phenolics content. ...
... This discrepancy is consistent with separate pathways of anthocyanin synthesis in the pomegranate fruit peel and arils. The anthocyanins detected in 'Wonderful' and 'SP-2' fruit peels, i.e., mono-and di-glucosides of cyanidins, pelargonidins and delphinidins, are typical to pomegranates (Du et al., 1975; Gil et al., 1995a; Noda et al., 2002; Fischer et al., 2011). Salinity affected the peel anthocyanin composition, thereby influencing the external colour hue of the fruit. ...
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Irrigation water salinity effects on colour and health ingredients in the pomegranate peel were studied in two accessions, 'Wonderful' and 'SP-2', grown under a wide range of salinities, 1.2 to 9 dS m –1 . Ripe fruit peels were analysed for phenolics and anthocyanins composition, and antioxidative capacity. Total phenolics concentration and antioxidative capacity were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau and FRAP assays, respectively. Phenolics and anthocyanins composition was analysed by RP-HPLC. Increased salinity enhanced considerably the overall accumulation of phenolics and anthocyanins, and the antioxidative capacity in both cultivars; the magnitude of the effects was accession dependent. Mono-and di-glucosides of cyanidins, pelargonidins, and delphinidines were detected at proportions that varied with accession and salinity. Increased concentrations of gallotannins, flavonols and ellagic acid derivatives in 'Wonderful', and punicalagins, flavonols and ellagic acid derivatives in 'SP-2' accompanied elevated salinity levels. The results may benefit the pomegranate juice and byproduct valourisation industries, especially in the face of global water quality deterioration.
... Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18–20 trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6–8 trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity)[29]. Pomegranate juice is an important source of anthocyanins, 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin[30]. It also contains 1 g/L citric acid and 7 mg/L ascorbic acid[31]. ...
Article
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Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging to cells and tissues, causing variety of chronic ailments like, aging, cancer, autoimmune problems, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders etc. Redox protective systems are present in body for general immunization against free radicals, which can be supported by antioxidants that we take in our daily diet. Natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, coumarins, xanthones, phenolics, terpenoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and proanthocyanins are found in various plant products, including fruits, leaves, seeds oils, and juices. This review gives a brief account of research reports on fruits and vegetables which provide free radical scavenging compounds to the body.
... There are several potentially active phytochemicals like lignins, sterols and terpenoids in the seeds, bark and leaves; alkaloids in the bark and leaves; fatty acids and triglycerides in seed oil ; simple gallyol derivatives in the leaves; organic acids in the juice (Ender et al., 2002;Miguel et al., 2004); flavonols in the rind (Kim et al., 2002;Van Elswijk et al., 2004), fruit (Heftmann et al., 1966;Mirdehghan and Rahemi, 2007), bark and leaves; anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, catechin and procyanidins in the juice and rind (Du et al., 1975;Kashiwada et al., 1992;Miguel et al., 2004;Newman et al., 2007;Jaiswal et al., 2010); estrogens in PJ, seeds, and peel extracts (Kho et al., 2010); and essential oils from the seeds . Coronary heart diseases, cancer (skin, breast, prostate and colon), inflammation, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cardiac disorders, hypoxia, ischemia, aging, brain disorders, liver damage and AIDS are the potential disease targets in years to come for treatments using pomegranate ingredients (Pantuck et al., 2006;Rahman and Megeid, 2006;Seeram et al., 2006;Jyotsana and Maity, 2010;Adhami et al., 2012). ...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree species, originating in Central Asia, but with a wide geographical global distribution, reflecting its adaptation to a wide range of climatic conditions. It is important for its nutritional, medicinal and ornamental properties and its high consumption and industrial value. In a bid to better utilize and improve the current genetic resources, there is a need to understand and appreciate studies related to the use, centre of origin and diversity, as well as the characterization, evaluation and conservation, taxonomy and systematics of the genus Punica. In addition to understanding the basic biology of the plant, how biotechnological tools, including cell and tissue culture and micropropagation (i.e. somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, synthetic seeds, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, haploidy, and in vitro conservation), genetic transformation and marker technology, have been used to improve pomegranate germplasm are all topics that have been covered in this review.
... Health benefits associated with anthocyanin extracts include reduced risk of coronary heart disease, anti-carcinogen and anti-tumor activity, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects (Basu and Penugonda, 2009;Viuda-Martos et al., 2010). Six different anthocyanins were identified (Du et al., 1975) as responsible for the color of pomegranate juice: delphinidin 3-glucoside (Dp3) and 3,5-diglucoside (Dp3,5), cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy3) and 3,5-diglucoside (Cy3,5) and pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg3) and 3,5-diglucoside (Pg3,5). ...
Article
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a deciduous fruit tree native of central Asia included in the so-called group of minor fruit tree species. Although not widely grown, it has some importance in the east and southeast of Spain, where there are about 3100 ha of commercially cultivated pomegranates. In semi-arid climate areas like Spain, irrigation management is a powerful tool to influence tree water status agronomic performance and fruit composition. The present research focused on determining the effects of soil fertility level, plant nutrient status and irrigation strategies on fruit quality attributes of 'Mollar de Elche' pomegranates. The experiment monitored the concentrations of 12 nutrients in leaf samples from 15 commercial orchards. Soil fertility levels in air-dried soil samples were analyzed for texture, pH (1:2.5 water extract), electrical conductivity (saturated paste extract), organic matter, nitrogen, total and active lime, extractable phosphorous (P) (Olsen), and available cations (extractable with ammonium acetate). In addition, an experimental orchard with various deficit irrigation strategies was established. No linear correlations were found between fruit color and soil and foliar nutrient composition for pomegranates grown in the soils of this area, with high levels of Ca and Na exchangeable cations. Deficit irrigation, when applied in the summer during the main linear fruit growth period, significantly increased the total anthocyanin concentration.
... Total phenolic content of the fresh aril was determined as 658.25 mg kg -1 . One of the most important quality parameters and also valuable constituent for nutrition is anthocyanins for pomegranate products (Hernandez et al 1999; Du et al 1975). Total anthocyanin content of the samples was recognized In order to determine some nutritional properties of the dried pomegranate arils, protein, oil and some mineral contents were analyzed and given inTable 2. Total protein and oil content of the dried samples ranged between 7.24-7.38%, ...
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying methods, packaging atmosphere, and storage time in preserving the quality of dried pomegranate aril on total phenolic matter, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, and CIE L, a*, b*, C, h colour values. The highest contents of phenolic matter (5580 mg kg-1), anthocyanin (679.76 mg kg-1), antioxidant capacity (IC50, 26.16 mg g-1) and CIE a* colour value (10.73) were observed in freeze dried sample, followed by vacuum, convective, and sun dried samples in descending order. Phenolic matter, anthocyanin, antioxidant capacity (1/IC50) and CIE a*, b*, C colour values of the samples packed under nitrogen gas were higher than those packed under air atmosphere. Significant changes in the quality parameters of the product were examined during storage, and the highest loss was determined in anthocyanin content among analyzed quality parameters. The result of present study indicated that freeze drying was the best method for dried pomegranate aril production.
... The therapeutic properties are reported to be due to the presence of betulic and urosolic acids and different alkaloids such as pseudo pelletierine, pelletierine and some other basic compounds [15]. There has been a remarkable increase in the commercial farming of the pomegranates globally, due to the potential health benefits of the fruit such as its high antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-hypertension activities and the ability to reduce liver injury [16][17][18][19]. Pomegranate anthocyanins have been demonstrated scavenging activities. ...
Article
Minimally processed ready-to-eat pomegranate arils have become popular due to their convenience, high value, unique sensory characteristics, and health benefits. Pomegranate is one of the most important fruit crops in India because of its adaptable nature, high profitability and being cultivated on a commercial scale in India and the fruits are good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, mainly anthocyanins which exhibit strong chemo-preventive activities such as anti-mutagenicity, anti-hypertension, anti-oxidative potential and reduction of liver injury. The research on the development of the new pomegranate derived products such as minimally processed pomegranate seeds, jams, marmalades, single strength juices, jellies, juice concentrates, frozen seeds, refrigerated seeds, seeds in syrup, candied arils, arils in brandy and in vinegar, carbonated beverages, pomegranate wine, pomegranate syrup etc. has been carried out. The processed products such as anardana, juice, concentrate; syrup and jelly were highly acceptable because of their nutritive and dessert qualities and palatability. The modified atmosphere packaging offered an additional innovative tool for the optimal use and value addition of lower grade pomegranate fruits. The minimally processed pomegranate arils and frozen arils packed in punnets and pomegranate juice are the most appealing products to consumers than whole fruit. Pomegranate juice can be used in beverages, for jellies, for preparation of pomegranate juice concentrate, as flavouring and colouring agents and for dietetic and prophylactic treatment purposes. This new sector of pomegranate industrial processing will allow the use of non commercial pomegranate fruits with some physical defects and fruit disorders, having the good quality juice and seeds, to the preparation of these new products, thus improving pomegranate utilization for human health.
... Pomegranate juice contains various types of anthocyanins mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-gluco- side, pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, del- phinidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. The outer covering of pomegranate has been known to be very rich in ellagitannins and gallotannins [42,43]. Babool (A. nilotica) is a rich source of polyphenols, mainly composed of condensed tannin and phlobatannin in addition to gallic acid, ellagic acid, (+) À catechin, and (À) À epigallocatechin- 7-gallate [44,45]. ...
Article
Introduction of natural dyes into modern dye houses is very promising green chemistry concept which should be popularized more and more to reduce the dependency of wool dyeing on some toxic and nonbiodegradable synthetic dyes (Azo and benzidine dyes). In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the possibility of wool dyeing with Adhatoda vasica extract as a natural dye. A beautiful color palette of shades of varied hue and tone were obtained by using different mordants. The effect of various metal salts (ferrous sulphate, alum and stannous chloride) and natural tannin extracts (gallnut, pomegranate peel and babool bark) as mordants on color and fastness properties of dyed wool samples was comparatively evaluated. Dyeing experiments were performed with and without mordants, using pre-mordanting technique. The color of dyed woolen yarn was investigated in terms of CIELab (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values; and fastness properties were determined as per ISO and AATCC standard test methods. As confirmed by exhaustion studies, a substantial portion of metal salts remained in residual mordant baths. The results of using biomordants for wool dyeing were comparable with that of the metallic mordants in terms of color strength and fastness characterisctics. Biomordants produced quite different color gamuts as expected from a mordant and thus offer full potential to replace metal salts in wool dyeing.
... Total phenolic content of the fresh aril was determined as 658.25 mg kg -1 . One of the most important quality parameters and also valuable constituent for nutrition is anthocyanins for pomegranate products (Hernandez et al 1999; Du et al 1975). Total anthocyanin content of the samples was recognized In order to determine some nutritional properties of the dried pomegranate arils, protein, oil and some mineral contents were analyzed and given in Table 2. Total protein and oil content of the dried samples ranged between 7.24-7.38%, ...
... The therapeutic properties are reported to be due to the presence of betulic and urosolic acids and different alkaloids such as pseudo pelletierine, pelletierine and some other basic compounds (Singh et al., 1990). There has been a remarkable increase in the commercial farming of the pomegranates globally, due to the potential health benefits of the fruit such as its high antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-hypertension activities and the ability to reduce liver injury (Du et al., 1975; Tsuda et al., 1994; Lansky et al., 1998; Gil et al., 1996a). Pomegranate anthocyanins have been demonstrated scavenging activities. ...
Article
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Pomegranate, because of its high nutritive value, therapeutic properties, antioxidant capacity, potentially bioactive compounds and consumer appeal is considered as a ‘Superfruit’ and a food medicine. In spite of numerous health benefits, pomegranate consumption is still not wide spread, due to the difficulties of extracting the arils from the fruit and the irritation of phenolic metabolites which stain the hands during preparation of seeds which is time consuming. Excellent flavour, nutritive value and medicinal properties of pomegranate fruit indicates its good potentiality for processing into value added products having extended shelf life. The new post-harvest technology application with reference to product diversification played an important role in the context of increased pomegranate production by keeping the original nutritional quality of the fruit. The pomegranate juice is considered as the one of the nature’s most powerful antioxidants. The research on the development of the new pomegranate derived products such as minimally processed pomegranate seeds, jams, marmalades, single strength juices, jellies, juice concentrates, frozen seeds, refrigerated seeds, seeds in syrup, candied arils, arils in brandy and in vinegar, carbonated beverages, pomegranate wine, pomegranate syrup etc. has been carried out. The processed products such as anardana, juice, concentrate; syrup and jelly were highly acceptable because of their nutritive and dessert qualities and palatability. The modified atmosphere packaging offered an additional innovative tool for the optimal use and value addition of lower grade pomegranate fruits. The minimally processed pomegranate arils and frozen arils packed in punnets and pomegranate juice are the most appealing products to consumers than whole fruit. Pomegranate juice can be used in beverages, for jellies, for preparation of pomegranate juice concentrate, as flavouring and colouring agents and for dietetic and prophylactic treatment purposes. This new sector of pomegranate industrial processing will allow the use of non commercial pomegranate fruits with some physical defects and fruit disorders, having the good quality juice and seeds, to the preparation of these new products, thus improving pomegranate utilization for human health.
... (Chidambara et al., 2002; Dean et al., 1971). It was detected that saturated alkaloids present in the root and body rinds are not present in the leaves, whereas 2-(2-propenyl)-piperidine of unsaturated alkaloids was present in the leaf extract (Du et al., 1975). ...
Article
In this report, the chemical composition and pharmacological properties of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) have been reviewed. In the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing on treatment and prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dental conditions, erectile dysfunction, bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance, and ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. Other potential applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis and obesity.
... The concentration of total phenolics declined at mid-ripe stage in fruit from low and high altitudes and remained relatively constant at full-ripe stage. A decreasing trend in total phenolic concentration during maturity was also reported for other pomegranate cultivars (Du et al., 1975; Al-Maiman and Ahmad, 2002). Total phenolic concentration in fruit harvested at medium altitude decreased significantly (P < 0.001) at mid-ripe stage but increased at full ripe stage. ...
... At the same time, together with industries producing PJ, also an increase of pharmaceutical companies and food supplements producers, which extracted health beneficial compounds from this fruit, was worldwide observed (Seeram, Zhang, & Heber, 2006). Pomegranate juice is primarily considered an important source of phenolic compounds: the soluble polyphenols content varies from 0.2 to 1.0 g/100 g, being anthocyanins one of the most important (Du, Wang, & Francis, 1975; Miguel, Fontes, Martins, Neves, & Antunes, 2007) together with lignans (Bonzanini, Bruni, Palla, Serlataite and Caligiani. 2009), gallagyl-type tannins, ellagic acid derivatives, and other hydrolysable tannins which contribute to the antioxidant activity of the juice (Gil, Tomas-Barberan, HessPierce, Holcroft, & Kader, 2000; Heber, 2008). ...
... This fruit is highly valued mainly due to its exceptional and unique sensory and nutritional properties. Their high anthocyanin content is appreciated due to its strong chemopreventive activities such as antimutagenicity, antihypertension, antioxidative potential and reduction of liver injury (Du et al., 1975; Tsuda et al., 1994; Gil et al., 1996b; Hertog et al., 1997; Lansky et al., 1998). However, the consumption of pomegranates is not very widespread mainly due to the difficulty of extracting the arils. ...
... Its color is varied from white to pink or red. The red color of testa is caused by anthocyanins, such as 3glucosides and 3,5-diglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (Du et al., 1975). Phenolic compounds and tannins, such as punicalin, pedunculagin, punicalagin, and ellagic acid, are abundant in testa (Kulkarni and Aradhya, 2005). ...
Article
Persia is one of the main origin centers of pomegranate; hence, a diverse germplasm has evolved in the area over the past centuries. This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of fruits of ten Persian pomegranate cultivars. The plants used for this experiment had been collected from different parts of Iran and were established in a repository. Wide variations in the main properties of the ripe fruits of the cultivars were observed. The size, weight, skin thickness and weight, and juice content of the fruits were within the range of 55.14–71.76 mm, 98.55–199.40 g, 1.07–3.93 mm, 28.96–66.95 g, and 2.00–89.33 ml, respectively. Seed weight, Aril numbers, fresh and dry weight of 100 arils were 33.80–72.90 g, 170.70–570.30, 23.16–42.82 g, and 17.22–33.87%, respectively. The levels of total anthocyanin, total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, electrical conductivity, and TSS/TA ratio were ranged between 5.91–180.70 mg/100 g, 9.35–13.93 °Brix, 0.16–2.28%, 7.15–1061 mg/100 ml, 3578–5108 mg/100 g, 2.51–4.93 dS/m, and 4.09–80.34, respectively. The results emphasized on the role of plant genotype on fruit taste parameters, bioactive compounds, and yield. The variations in the fruits indicated differences in nutritive quality, which may satisfy diverse consumer acceptance in different areas. Moreover, it provides great opportunities for improving crop yield and quality.
... Pomegranate juice is an important source of anthocyanins, such as 3-glucosides and 3, 5-diglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (Du et al. 1975 ). Anthocyanins are responsible for the bright red color of pomegranate juice, and the red color is one of its major quality parameters of pomegranate juice that affects consumers sensory acceptance (Alighourchi and Barzegar 2009; Gil et al. 2000; Hamutal et al. 2009; Patras et al. 2010). ...
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This paper investigated the feasibility for pasteurizing raw (100 %) pomegranate juice in a commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing system. The juice was processed at 35 and 38 kV/cm for 281 μs at 55 °C with a flow rate of 100 L/h. Effect of PEF processing on microbial stability, color, °Brix, pH, sediment, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, anthocyanin, and sensory properties after the treatments and during storage at 4 °C for 12 weeks were studied and compared to those of thermally processed juice. PEF treatments significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the growth of total aerobic bacteria, which remained at <2.5 log colony-forming units (CFU)/ml during the 12-week storage. No yeast and mold were detected (<0.69 log CFU/ml) in the PEF-treated juices during storage up to weeks 10 and 12, which is similar to the thermally processed juice. There were no significant differences in pH and °Brix values between the PEF processed juice and unprocessed juice. PEF processing did not alter the contents of total phenolics and anthocyanin as compared to unprocessed juice. PEF processing had significantly (p < 0.05) less impact on the color of pomegranate juice than thermal processing. PEF-treated juice had the same consumer satisfaction scores as the unprocessed juice, which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than thermally processed juice samples. There was no significant difference between the two PEF treatments in all results. This study demonstrated that PEF technology extended microbial shelf-life and preserved the major quality and nutritional characteristics of pomegranate juice, and hence, is technically feasible for commercialization in the juice industry.
... Some of them are involved in the healing process of diseases caused by free radicals (Czinner et al., 2000). Many compounds of Punica granatum, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols (such as delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin) and hydrolyzable tannins, such as punicalin, pedunculagine, punicalagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid (glucose esters) have strong antioxidant properties and have been investigated (Du et al., 1975;Tzulker et al., 2007). Anthocyanins, belonging to the family of flavonoids biosynthesized from the phenylpropanoid pathway, constitute an important class of polyphenols (Saviranta et al., 2008). ...
... It constitutes a good source of natural compounds, polyphenols, and mineral nutrients that are important for an assessment of the quality and the nutritive value of the juice (Yang et al., 2016). Pomegranate juice is also an important source of anthocyanins, 3-glucosides and 3.5-diglucosides, delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (Du et al., 1975). It contains 7 mg/L ascorbic acid and 0.1 g/100 ml citric acid (El-Nemr et al., 1990). ...
Article
The present study aims to assess the nutritional quality and the antioxidant capacity of (Punica granatum L. ‘Gabsi’) and date (Phoenix dactylifera L. ‘Bouhattam’) juices and their combination at three proportions (PPD 2:1, PD 1:1, and PDD 1:2). This investigation revealed the interesting potentialities in terms of bioactive molecules, natural antioxidants, and high organoleptic characteristics of various prepared juice formulations. For all juices, the sugar contents were averaged to 16°Brix. The highest monosaccharide content was obtained at the pomegranate/date juice (PDD) (glucose: 9.52 ± 0.88 g/100 ml, fructose: 9.91 ± 0.44 g/100 ml). The comparative study of the five juice formulations based on phenolic contents showed that they are loaded with phenolic compounds. Indeed, the PD juice had the highest polyphenols content (10.77 mg GAE/ml of juice); however, the pomegranate juice had the highest flavonoids content (5.71 mg RE/ml of juice). The assessment of the antioxidant activity was conducted based on three methods: ferric reduction power, DPPH°, and ABTS⁺ assays. Our results confirmed that all juices were loaded with natural antioxidants. Moreover, the sensorial test of the five juice formulations showed an acceptable quality by the tasting panel. To conclude, this study reveals that the formulation of a cocktail pomegranate/date juice seems to be an interesting initiative for the processing of noncommercial varieties.
... 45 percent of fruit is settled down by self-pollination of flowers and cross means increase its production to about 68 percent. According to the season and variety of fruit size of pollen and fertility may vary [11][12][13][14][15][16]. ...
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Pomegranate, grown in tropical climatic conditions has various therapeutic benefits due to bioactive compounds in it. This fruit is rich in antioxidants has been used from centuries for the treatment of inflammation, cancers, diabetes, hypertension, infertility and so many diseases. It is now being utilized in medicinal as well as nutrition industries due to its strong potential. Polyphenols present in pomegranate shows anti-proliferative properties as strong bases. Various in vitro and in vivo studies show that pomegranate is rich in organic acids, anthocyanins, sterols and catechin. India is among the top most countries producing and exporting this fruit. Some of its varieties are being used for commercial and ornamental means. However, some stress factors need to be evaluated in future to enhance its production and cultivation on national levels. In addition to this area that are producing pomegranate should be supplied by better climatic and fertility means to increase its demand.
... The results show that Cy3 has been reported to be the primary anthocyanin in pomegranate arils (Du et al., 1975). Initial anthocyanins content was (128– 129.84 mg cyanidin equivalent FW À1 ), without any significant effect of HTs, but these values decreased during storage, in agreement with Caleb et al. 2013; Maghoumi et al., 2013b). ...
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The impact of heat treatment using hot air (HT 45 °C and 55 °C for 1 h) and two active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions of high oxygen atmosphere (HOA: 80 kPa O2, 20 kPa N2) and high CO2 atmosphere (HCA: 20 kPa CO2, 80 kPa N2), individually or combined, on the antioxidant capacity, polyphenols, vitamin C content, total anthocyanins, polyphenoloxydase (PPO) activity and shelf life of fresh-cut (FC) pomegranate arils stored for 14 days at 4 °C was studied. The results indicate that HT 45 °C along with HOA inhibited PPO activity and prevented loss of antioxidant capacity, vitamin C and phenolic compounds in arils, in comparison with control and HT 55 °C. All treatments reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins, but HCA-treated arils lost more anthocyanins besides having worse a* colour parameter values. No significant differences in titrable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS) were observed between treatments. The combination of HOA and HT 45 °C enhanced the benefits of applying each treatment separately and could be useful to improve and extend postharvest life of pomegranate FC arils.
... Numerous compounds are present in the composition of POM juice (POMj) including: anthocyanins [9], flavonoids [10], phenolic acids, e.g. ellagic, gallic and caffeic acids [11], catechin and epigallocatechin gallate [12], nutrientminerals [13], aminoacids [14] and dietaryfibre (seeds) [15]. ...
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The aim of the study was to review recent findings on the use of POM supplements in athletes of various disciplines and physically active participants. Eleven articles published between 2010 and 2018 were included, where the total number of investigated subjects was 176. Male participants constituted the majority of the group (n = 155), as compared to females (n = 21). 45% of research described was conducted on athletes, whereas the remaining studies were based on highly active participants. Randomised, crossover, double-blind study designs constituted the majority of the experimental designs used. POM supplementation varied in terms of form (pills/juice), dosage (50 ml-500 ml) and time of intervention (7 days-2 months) between studies. Among the reviewed articles, POM supplementation had an effect on the improvement of the following: whole body strength; feeling of vitality; acute and delayed muscle fatigue and soreness; increase in vessel diameter; blood flow and serum level of TAC; reduction in the rate of increase for HR, SBP, CK and LDH; support in the recovery of post-training CK, LDH, CRP and ASAT to their baseline levels; reduction of MMP2, MMP9, hsCRP and MDA; and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). In the majority of reviewed articles POM supplementation had a positive effect on a variety of parameters studied and the authors recommended it as a supplement for athletes and physically active bodies.
... The outer covering of pomegranate is very rich source of ellagitannins and gallotannins (Du, Wang, & Francis, 1975;Gil, Tomas-Barberan, Hess-Pierce, Holcroft, & Kader, 2000). Ellagic acid is the main coloring component of pomegranate 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 rind (PPE). ...
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In this research work, an attempt has been made to investigate the possibility of wool dyeing with natural dye extracted from the Cinnamomum camphora middle aged/mature leaves. Visually, a range of ecofriendly shades with quite different color gamut of varying hue and tone were produced via the application of different natural mordants. The effect of various natural mordants (gallnut, pomegranate peel, arjun bark, chlorophyll extract, and citric acid) and some commonly used metal mordants (ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate, stannous chloride, and sodium dichromate) on color and fastness properties of dyed wool samples was comparatively evaluated in conjunction with 50% (o.w.f.) of C. camphora natural dye. Dyeing experiments were performed with and without mordants employing pre-mordanting technique. The color of dyed wool fibers were investigated in terms of CIELab (L*, a*, and b*) and color strength values (K/S); and fastness properties were determined as per ISO standard test methods. In general, pre-biomordanted wool fibers with P. granatum (3, 4 and 5% o.w.f.), citric acid (5% o.w.f.) and chlorophyll extract (10-50% o.w.f.) showed comparable color and fastness results compared to those of metal treated samples. Durability of color was also checked to assess the effect of washing of dyed wool fibers. This research work on the use of ecofriendly biomordants will provide a valuable reference in future for ecological and environmentally safe dyeing.
... Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a rich source of anthocyanins (Legua et al., 2016). Delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside is known as a major anthocyanin in pomegranate juice, and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-galactoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside are in the next ranks (Du et al., 1975). Moradi et al. examined the pomegranate peel extract (PPE) activity against adenovirus through using MTT assay with Hela cell line, and the extract was assumed to possess anti-adenovirus agents (Moradi et al., 2015). ...
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... Pomegranate juice is a potential source of secondary metabolites such as anthocyanins, ellagic acid, phytoestrogenic flavonoids, organic acids, tannins, and antioxidants (Tezcan et al., 2009;Fischer et al., 2011). Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids) responsible for the blue, red, and purple colors of most fruits and flowers, which are major compounds of pomegranate juices (Du et al., 1975;Alighourchi et al., 2008;Turfan et al., 2011;Mirsaeedghazi et al., 2014;Akhavan et al., 2015). Important anthocyanins in pomegranate juice are cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5 diglucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3,5diglucoside (Alighourchi et al., 2008;Turfan et al., 2011;Mirsaeedghazi et al., 2014). ...
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The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the main pest of pomegranate, Punica granatum L., in Iran and many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of 11 commercial cultivars of pomegranate (Aban-Mahi, Esfahani-Daneghermez, Gabri, Gorche-Tafti, Malase-Danesyah, Malase-Yazdi, Shahvare-Daneghermez, Shahvare-Danesefid, Tabolarze-Mehrmahi, Tafti, and Toghe-Gardan) were evaluated on life history variables, nutritional performance, and energy reserves of E. ceratoniae under the following laboratory conditions: 30 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) hours. In addition, biochemical characteristics of the tested cultivars were assessed in order to understand any possible correlation between important demographic parameters and nutritional properties with biochemical features of pomegranate juice. Our research showed that various pomegranate cultivars have significant effects on life history, demographical parameters, nutritional indices, and energy reserves of E. ceratoniae. The shortest development time was observed on Shahvare-Danesefid cultivar and the longest was on Esfahani-Daneghermez and Malase-Danesyah cultivars. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was observed on Shahvare-Danesefid and the lowest was on Esfahani-Daneghermez. Six major anthocyanin compounds were detected in juice of various pomegranate cultivars. Significant positive or negative correlations were observed between life history variables and nutritional characteristics with biochemical traits of pomegranate cultivars. The results indicated that Shahvare-Danesefid was a relatively susceptible pomegranate cultivar and Esfahani-Daneghermez was the least appropriate (most resistant) cultivar for feeding of E. ceratoniae, which could be useful in the development of integrated pest management strategies for this pest.
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Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds.
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Inactivation of microorganisms and its kinetic model of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of cloudy pomegranate juice at different pressures (300 and 400 MPa) and different treatment times (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm) were studied. Besides, HHP (400 MPa/5 min) and high temperature short time (HTST) (110 degrees C/8.6 s) treatment were comparatively evaluated by examining their impacts on microorganisms, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), color, total phenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity and shelf-life characteristics of 90 days at 4 degrees C. The inactivation effect of microorganisms by HHP fitted Weibull model well and HHP at 400 MPa/5 min inactivated microorganisms effectively. The microbial safety was ensured in HHP-treated and HTST-treated sample. A greater retention of the original color, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity and increased total phenols were observed in HHP-treated samples immediately after processing. During storage, color changed and anthocyanins content, total phenols and the antioxidant activity decreased, where the changes depended on the applied treatments. The pH, TSS and TA did not show significant change immediately after HHP or HTST treatment and during storage. Industrial Relevance: Cloudy pomegranate juice is one of the most popular fruit juice and requires strict processing and storage conditions to keep the safety and quality. Our research presents a fair comparison between HHP and HTST treatment The available data shows the different impacts on cloudy pomegranate juice of HHP and HTST treatment and the changes of quality during storage. This study would provide technical support for commercial application, evaluation and the criteria establishment for commercial production of HHP and HTST treatment in juice industry, and also provide a non-thermal treatment to meet the growing demand from consumers for healthier food products. Crown Copyright
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The overall quality, titratable acidity, total solid soluble, total polyphenol, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, sugar content and juice color of ready-to-eat arils of ‘Primosole’ pomegranate processed at harvest and after 30 or 60 days of storage of whole fruit at 5 °C and 90% RH was assessed. Minimally processed arils were packaged in polypropylene trays (150 g each), wrapped with a polypropylene film to generate a passive modified atmosphere and stored at 5 �C and 90% RH for 10 days. In-package CO2 was lower for those arils obtained from fruit with longer storage time while O2 concentrations increased. Slight or not significant changes were detected in chemical and physical parameters during the 10 days of shelf-life of packaged arils, regardless the storage time of whole fruit, even when physiological disorders of the peel significantly reduced the commercial value of whole fruit along storage. Similarly, changes in sensory analysis were negligible and did not affect the eating quality.
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From an analysis of the daily consumption per capita (g/capita/day) in the existing dataset of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008, the top seven fruit and vegetable juices (apple, grape, mandarin, orange, pineapple, pomegranate and tomato) commercially available on the Korean market were selected and analyzed. These juices showed a wide range of levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacities. The daily per capita intake of total phenolics from juice consumption was 11.70 mg gallic acid equivalents and that of total flavonoids was 1.65 mg catechin equivalents. The daily per capita intakes antioxidant capacities were 10.42 mg vitamin C equivalents (DPPH assay) and 13.21 mg vitamin C equivalents (ABTS assay). Daily per capita intakes of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacities were influenced by the compositional content and the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable juices.
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The entire world is now looking for natural and medicinal plants as a supplement for chemical drugs. The popularity of herbal medicine is very common in developing countries, many scientists and researchers are concentrating more on herbal plants and fruits. We all know that cancer is one of the most dreadful diseases. One among the cancer is Colorectal cancer (CRC), the fourth most common cancer in men and the third in women worldwide. The Kinase domain of Human HER2 is one of the important therapeutic drug targets for colon cancer and it belongs to ErbB family In this current study, we have carried out computational biology work in virtual screening on pomegranate chemical constitutes for colon cancer. Results show that compounds such as Pelletierine, Mannite and Nmethylisopelletierine are almost docked in all protein cavities with different dock scores in each site. Arg residues present in the drug target protein play an important role in receptor ligand interaction with compounds. But clinical trials and experimental results are needed to be carried out for each individual compounds to prove its bioefficay.
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In this study, the optimization of ultrasound‐assisted aqueous extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peels and seeds was conducted. A 10‐min sonication (tu) pre‐treatment (≈60 W) accelerated the extraction kinetics and intensified the polyphenol recovery from peels and seeds. Ultrasound pre‐treatment permitted the selective recovery of polyphenols from peels by maintaining a constant concentration of the total soluble matter (°Brix) before and after sonication. Two different near‐linear correlations were found between soluble matter and polyphenol extraction for the peels’ and the seeds’ extracts. Luminescence emission spectra showed significant differences between peels and seeds extracts (tu = 10 min then diffusion for 200 min) below 450 nm and above 600 nm. Ultrasound pre‐treatment enhanced the quantity of the extracted molecules from peels and seeds without affecting their diversity. The optimal ultrasound pre‐treatment duration was 10 min, since it ameliorated the polyphenol extraction compared to 5 min, and gave the same yield as 20 min. Pomegranate fruits are valuable sources of bioactive compounds (vitamins, antioxidants, flavonoids, and tannins). Their processing results in the formation of byproducts containing peels (78%) and seeds (22%), discarded as waste by the food industry. Pomegranate peels and seeds are rich sources of polyphenols that have high antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐allergic, antimutagenic, and anticancer properties. Ultrasound‐assisted aqueous extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peels and seeds can be used as a “green” technique to intensify the extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate byproducts. An optimized sonication time can prevent the degradation of the bioactive compounds and enhance the extraction of selective polyphenols from pomegranate peels and seeds. The extracts will then be spray dried to obtain highly bioactive powder with many industrial applications.
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Pomegranate fruit does not develop attractive rind and aril colour under Bijapur conditions. Although arils should develop normally in the fruit, the undesired rind colours affect the marketability of the fruit. In the present study it was noticed that spraying potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (0.5%) or potassium nitrate (1%) effectively improved rind colour to red or red yellow, the aril colour was either reddish or pink by this treatment.
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Pomegranate peel was separated into outer leathery skin (PS), mesocarp (PM), and divider membrane (PD), and its phenolic compounds were extracted as free (F), esterified (E), and insoluble-bound (B) forms for the first time. The total phenolic content followed the order PD > PM > PS. ABTS(center dot+), DPPH, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and metal chelation were evaluated. In addition, pomegranate peel extracts showed inhibitory effects against a-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and cupric ion-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation as well as peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Seventy-nine phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS" mainly in the form of insoluble-bound. Thirty compounds were identified for the first time. Gallic add was the major phenolic compound in pomegranate peel, whereas kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the major flavonoid. Moreover, ellagic acid and monogalloyl-hexoside were the major hydrolyzable tannins, whereas the dominant proanthocyanidin was procyanidin dimers. Proanthocyanidins were detected for the first time.
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Background: Pomegranate gained a widespread popularity as a functional food due to the high content of bioactive components of the whole fruit, as well as its juice and extracts. There is a large amount of research that assigns them very important functions for the human organism. Methods: The anthocyanins (ACNs) of pomegranate juice (PJ) from the Ermioni variety are quantitatively identified and their stability under a simulated digestion process (SDP) is investigated. ACNs, as well as phenolic compounds, were isolated through solid phase extraction and determined using high-performance liquid chromatography in every stage of the SDP. Total phenolics, total monomeric ACNs, polymeric color and antioxidant activity were also determined in pomegranate juice and during the digestion process. Results: The predominant anthocyanin was Cy-3-glucoside followed by the corresponding 3,5-diglucoside, which accounted for 40.8% and 27.4% of the total ACN content, respectively. About 65% of the total monomeric ACN content remained intact by the end of the simulated digestion process. Conclusions: The PJ of the Ermioni variety seems to retain a large amount of the bioactive compounds after the SDP. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) remain almost stable during the SDP, suggesting that the products formed during ACN degradation maintain the antioxidant activity of the parent molecule.
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This study was accomplished to investigate the regular changes in physical and chemical composition, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant potential by DPPH radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum and reducing power assays among the two varieties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) grown in Pakistan commonly named as Kandhari and Bedana, stored at room temperature during four different stages with specific intervals till the fruit rotten. During fruit decay, the results showed significantly increase in the density, viscosity and refractive index of juice, and significant decrease in juiciness depends upon the chemical composition including increase in pH, sugar contents, TSS, total dry matter, ash contents, TDS and decrease in total organic matter, conductance, titratable acidity, moisture contents, NaCl and total carotenoids were observed in both varieties. Bedana showed relatively high TPC, TFC and antioxidant potential in comparison of Kandhari pomegranate. TPC and TFC as well as antioxidant capacity were decreased in Bedana and Kandhari pomegranats during storage. In both pomegranates, decrease in antioxidant index observed as fruit rotten, particularly it is suitable to consumed pomegranate as fresh after full bloom. Study also emphasizing that Bedana is good source of micro-constituents and high accumulation of antioxidants and slightly higher than Kandhari whereas Kandhari is enriched in bioactive compounds as well as in juiciness. The purpose of this study is to gain the scientific evidence of better health and commercially important outcomes after the consumption of these pomegranates.
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The goal of the present study was to investigate the bioactive molecules (anthocyanins and fatty acids) present in the aril of pomegranate. Major anthocyanins present in the aril of pomegranate were identified by HRMS as delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside. In-vitro study revealed that bioaccessibility of anthocyanin in duodenal condition was varied between 7.3 and 9.7%. Encapsulation enhances the bioaccessibility of both the phenolics to some extent in gastric as well as duodenal condition. Seed oil contains significant amount of unsaturated fatty acids especially ω-5 fatty acids. Geometrical isomers of ω-5 fatty acids were also identified by GC–MS. The spray dried anthocyanin formulation has potential for food application.
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Effect of packaging materiales, extraction methods and storage period on some quality of two cultivars of Roselle calyxes extracts has been studied. Dark red and light red Roselle calyxes packed in-low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Glass bottles and stored for eight months at room temperature. Two methods were carried out for preparation of Roselle extract from both dark and light cultivars. Soaking in distilled water or acidic water (2% citric acid) at different temperatures (5, 20, 60 and 100 0 C) for several periods (1/2 : 24 hrs). The packaging type, cultivars of Roselle, extraction method soaking temperature, soaking period and storage period were highly significant effect for TSS, and anthocyanin, but there are no significant different in pH value with packaging type or extraction method. T.S.S. content was found to be increased by increasing soaking temperature, soaking period and storage period for both dark and light cultivars packed in (LDPE and Glass bottles) and soaked in distilled water or acidic water (2% citric acid). High total soluble solids content was recorded for dark red cultivar packed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) and extracted with acidic water (2% citric acid) at 100 0 C for 90 min.The PH values of Roselle calyxes extract was found to be depending on soaking temperature, soaking period and storge time.The pH value of light Roselle calyxes extract was less than that of dark red Roselle calyxes extract with all treatments. High decreament in pH value of Roselle calyxes extract was recorded for light red cultivar packed in glass bottle and extracted with acidic water (2% citric acid) at 100 0 C for 90 min. Anthocyanin value increased in Roselle calyxes extracts of both dark and light cultivars with increasing soaking temperature and soaking period in both water or acidic water (2% citric acid) but decreased with increasing storage period.
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Pomegranate peel was separated into outer leathery skin [PS], mesocarp [PM] and divider membrane [PD] and its phenolic compounds extracted as free [F], esterified [E] and insoluble-bound [B] forms for the first time. The total phenolic content followed the order of PD > PM > PS. ABTS•+, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity and metal chelation were evaluated. In addition, pomegranate peel extracts showed inhibitory effects against alpha-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and cupric ion-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation as well as peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Seventy-nine phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn mainly in the form of insoluble-bound. Thirty compounds were identified for the very first time. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in pomegranate peel while kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the major flavonoid. Moreover, ellagic acid and monogalloyl-hexoside were the major hydrolyzable tannins while the dominant proanthocyanidin was procyanidin dimers. Proanthocyanidins were detected for the first time.
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Ultrasound, enzyme and enzyme-mediated ultrasound assisted extraction processes have been used for the extraction of dye from pomegranate rind. Optimum parameters for dye extraction are found to be pH 10, extraction time 40 min and temperature 50 °C. The yields for ultrasound, enzyme, enzyme-mediated ultrasound assisted and solvent extraction are found to be 29.2%, 26.5%, 35.6% and 8.8% respectively. The dye obtained has been used for dyeing wool and cotton, keeping the optimum dye bath concentration as 10% and 8% (w/v) respectively. The fastness properties of wool are found to be very good while that of cotton is only satisfactory.
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. formerly in Punicaceae family) considered to be super food worldwide, belongs to the family Lythraceae. It is primarily cultivated in the Middle East, north and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Asia and Latin America. The medicinal potential of pomegranate is extensively mentioned in the ancient literature and also used in different system of medicines for a variety of ailments. The chemical constituents of pomegranate have increased the research concern of this fruit in the current years. It includes a variety of bioactive compounds such as quercetin, ellagic acid, punicalagin, pedunculagin, tannic acid, anthocyanins, rutin, catechin and polyphenols. These components of pomegranate possess antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anticancerous, anti-mutagenic, cytoprotective, cardiovascular protective, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal potentials. It can enhance the male fertility and also protect from the UV induced skin damage. Furthermore, it also illustrate the inhibitory effects on vital metabolic enzymes, stimulate cell differentiation and toxicological properties. The pomegranate also impedes with numerous signalling pathways, which include Bax, Bcl-X, Bad, ERK1/2, JNK, PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, MAPK and P38. The present review will extensively discuss the above properties of pomegranate and its extracts, supporting the rich nutritive and healthy advantages of the fruit belonging to the monogeneric family.
Chapter
The pomegranate was recognized as an important fruit very early in human history dating back thousands of years ago. Since ancient times, pomegranate culture was developed along with human communities all over the world. Pomegranate provides tasty, healthy and aesthetic fruit and its importance in human diet is fully appreciated in recent years. The health promoting properties of pomegranate flowers, fruits and sprouting seedlings are now being extensively studied in many laboratories around the world revealing a wide spectrum of biological activities in human and animal cells. These, include among others, antioxidant activity, chemoprevention of cancer, protection against cardiovascular diseases and antimicrobial activities. In the following years it is expected that more and more important phytochemicals that are associated with the health therapeutic capabilities of pomegranate will be isolated and characterized from pomegranate. Unfortunately, most of the public and scientific interest in pomegranate is focused on its medicinal properties and much less effort was dedicated to study the biology of the pomegranate tree, its genetic variability and the relevance of the genetic and biochemical variability to the various medicinal activities displayed by pomegranates. In this chapter an attempt was made to focus on studies that demonstrated variability in the content of various phytochemicals among different pomegranate varieties and the relevance of these aspects to studies of the effect of pomegranate on human and animal health.
Chapter
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has recently become a commercially important crop due to multitude health promoting properties attributed to different parts of the fruit. Worldwide pomegranate production has expanded greatly in traditional and new locations of diverse climatic and water conditions. The pomegranate industry demands intensely red fruit with high antioxidant content. It is therefore especially important to investigate the effects of climate and water quality on pomegranate anthocyanin and phenolics accumulation. Our research has focused on the edible part of the fruit, specifically, the arils. A diverse selection of pomegranate cultivars was employed. To explore climate effect, fruit that developed and ripened under a wide range of temperature regimes were studied. To explore water quality effect, fruit from plants irrigated with a wide range of salinities, 0.5-9 dS m-1, were studied. Anthocyanins were analyzed by RP-HPLC and phenolics content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Both abiotic factors considerably affected arils' composition. Cooler temperatures enhanced both pigment and antioxidant accumulation. Climate also affected anthocyanin composition. Increased salinity enhanced phenolics accumulation in both accessions but reduced that of anthocyanins in a cultivar dependent manner. Our results can benefit breeding and agricultural efforts to enhance pomegranate fruit quality, especially, in face of global warming and water quality deterioration.
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In this chapter, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of beverages (orange, pomegranate, red grape, apple, cherry, and apricot juices) were investigated. TAC was spectrophotometrically determined by using the main and sensor-based cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods. The modified CUPRAC methods were used to determine the ROS (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical) scavenging activity. The ascorbic acid (AA) content of beverages was measured by La-CUPRAC method. This study showed that the antioxidant capacities of beverages, unlike their ROS scavenging activities, are correlated with their ascorbic acid contents. The TAC values and AA contents of freshly squeezed fruit juices were higher than those of ready-to-drink juices. In addition, the scavenging activities of ready-to-drink juices showed irregular variations with respect to the type of ROS scavenged. This report aims to summarize the measurement of TAC, AA, and ROS scavenging activity of various fruit juices, together with correlation of data and possible effects of processing.
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During the past decade, research and development activities on pomegranate fruit were focused on the application of new postharvest storage technologies to extend the storage life and keeping the original quality of the freshly harvested fruits. These technologies included use of fungicides to control decay, and modified atmosphere packaging or controlled atmosphere storage to maintain postharvest quality and to alleviate chilling injury symptoms which occur during the storage of pomegranates below 5-7. °C, depending on the variety and storage duration. Today, consumption of fresh pomegranates and their juice is booming due to the mounting evidence about their health benefits. Pomegranate juice processing allows the use of fruits with external defects that do not influence aril quality. These fruits and the remaining tissues after juice extraction may be used for preparation of new products, such as flavonoids capsules and other nutraceuticals. This chapter provides an overview of postharvest biology and technology of pomegranates in relation to maintaining their quality between harvest and fresh consumption or processing.
Chapter
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the important semiarid fruits cultivated commercially in over 1.25 Lakh hectare areas in Western India. Its cultivation is possible even on marginal degraded lands that have previously been found unsuitable for growing crops. Apart from this, its ability to withstand salinity in soil and water has, to some extent, led this crop to emerge as a hardy fruit crop. It is commercially grown for its sweet-acidic fruits, which provide a cool refreshing juice and are valued for their medicinal properties. Its popularity is also due to the ornamental nature of the plant, particularly the bright red flowers that appear throughout the year. Its antioxidant properties are well known. The juice and seed contain large quantities of tannin and agolic acid, which are essential in the cure of several diseases. The fruit can be successfully grown under even purely rain-fed conditions in semiarid areas. In recent years, pomegranate cultivation has become an economically viable proposition. Large acreage is covered with new varieties such as Bhagwa, Arakta, and Mridula. Furthermore, some anardana types have also developed Goma khatta.
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SUMMARY— The method developed consists of extracting the anthocyanins with ethanol-1.5N hydrochloric acid (85:15) and measuring the O.D. of the extract, diluted with the extracting solvent, at 535 nm. The total anthocyanin content was calculated in absolute quantities with the aid of the extinction coefficients established for the four major cranberry anthocyanins dissolved in the alcoholic solvent system.
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The color changes produced by treating anthocyanins on filter paper chromatograms with neutral and basic lead acetate are described. An ethanolic solution of neutral lead acetate is proposed as a chromogenic reagent to detect anthocyanins which contain a catechol group. The reaction with lead acetate is faster and the color change is more definite than that produced by AlCl3.