Article

Music while You Work: The Differential Distraction of Background Music on the Cognitive Test Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

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Abstract

The current study looked at the distracting effects of ‘pop music’ on introverts' and extraverts' performance on various cognitive tasks. It was predicted that there would be a main effect for music and an interaction effect with introverts performing less well in the presence of music than extraverts. Ten introverts and ten extraverts were given two tests (a memory test with immediate and delayed recall and a reading comprehension test), which were completed, either while being exposed to pop music, or in silence. The results showed that there was a detrimental effect on immediate recall on the memory test for both groups when music was played, and two of the three interactions were significant. After a 6-minute interval the introverts who had memorized the objects in the presence of the pop music had a significantly lower recall than the extraverts in the same condition and the introverts who had observed them in silence. The introverts who completed a reading comprehension task when music was being played also performed significantly less well than these two groups. These findings have implications for the study habits of introverts when needing to retain or process complex information. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... According to Kotsopoulou and Hallam (2004), many students tend to listen to music while studying. In a study conducted by Oldham, Cummings, Mischel, Schmidthe and Zhan (1995) and same reported by Furnham & Bradley (1997) shows people prefer to do their work with music as the situation calm and have a major impact on work performance, assessment of fatigue and satisfaction in an organisation. However, according to Perham and Vizard (2011) showed that listening to music while working disturb them because they think like listening to someone speak. ...
... In this case, when music had been introduced, extravert's personality type may show the better performance rather than introverts. In the year 1997, Furnham & Bradley (1997) study on radio distraction level and radio extracts on recall memory and reading tasks (comprehension) in 10-Extravert and 10-Introvert individuals. The results of this experiment showed asignificant difference between the extrovert and introvert group. ...
... The overall results show instrumental music condition is better for both verbal and spatial task performance. The previous study by Furnham & Bradley (1997)showsone of the factor effects on the result obtain is the different type of background music. In addition O'Hare (2011) and Furham & Bradley (1997) mentioned about the positive effect of instrument music on memory recalled which is showed that vocal condition is in the line with poor performance. ...
Article
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three different backgrounds of music vocal, instrumental and silent on the verbal and spatial task performance in learning. The samples from Master students of Education in University Putra Malaysia which consisted of 36 students from Faculty of Educational Studies. This experimental research design to test hypothesis the effect of three different backgrounds of music vocal, instrumental and silent on the verbal and spatial task performance in learning. Data was analyse using IBM Statistics where this study used independent sample T-test and two-way analysis variance (ANOVA). The T-test result of analysis show there is differences between vocal condition (t = 1.101, p = 0.172), instrumental condition (t = 2.06, p = 0.018), and silent condition difference (t = 2.712, p = 0.022) on the verbal and spatial task in learning. Two-way ANOVA Task-Music group Greenhouse-Geisserwas reported in the significant level (p<0.05).
... Several studies have compared performance of introverts and extraverts on a variety of reading comprehension and memory recall tasks. Both personality types have performed worse in the presence of either music or background noise compared to silence (Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002), but results for introverts compared to extraverts are conflicting, as studies have shown both lower (Dobbs, Furnham, & McClelland, 2011;Furnham & Allass, 1999;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002) and higher (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007) performance. Additionally, some studies have not found any significant differences between these personality types for performance (Avila et al., 2012;Furnham, Trew, & Sneade, 1999;Kou, McClelland, & Furnham, 2018). ...
... Several studies have compared performance of introverts and extraverts on a variety of reading comprehension and memory recall tasks. Both personality types have performed worse in the presence of either music or background noise compared to silence (Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002), but results for introverts compared to extraverts are conflicting, as studies have shown both lower (Dobbs, Furnham, & McClelland, 2011;Furnham & Allass, 1999;Furnham & Bradley, 1997;Furnham & Strbac, 2002) and higher (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007) performance. Additionally, some studies have not found any significant differences between these personality types for performance (Avila et al., 2012;Furnham, Trew, & Sneade, 1999;Kou, McClelland, & Furnham, 2018). ...
... For example, Cassidy and MacDonald (2007) found the best task performance for both introverts and extraverts occurred in silence, compared to both noise and music. Similarly, both Dobbs et al. (2011) and Furnham and Bradley (1997) found that cognitive test performance declined for both groups when music or noise was present, compared to completing the tests in silence, although Kou et al. (2018) found no performance differences between music, noise, and silence conditions. Additionally, extreme responses to music can result in lowered attention (e.g., Huang & Shih, 2011), and a minority of respondents have typically indicated that they found music annoying (e.g., Gatewood, 1921), further emphasizing the role of individual differences in response to music. ...
Article
The effects of music on human performance have been studied across many disciplines. Music has been shown to impact task performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, and learning (i.e., training), but the implications of the study of music in the workplace have not yet been fully realized. Therefore, we conduct an interdisciplinary review of research on music relevant to the field of management. We also offer a solution to the lack of theoretical grounding in previous work by applying activation theory to understand the effects of music in the workplace. Taken together, the literature shows that music works through the mediator of mood and emotion. Findings also illustrate the consequences of extraversion, task complexity, and listening autonomy in relation to individual affective reactions to music. While the evidence suggests music may potentially have significant value in the workplace, more research is needed to understand how music might be effectively utilized by organizations.
... The influence of background music on several activities and on cognition in general is still a matter of debate. Most of the work published so far has focused on exposure to music in a workrelated setting or while engaging in routine activities such as driving a car (Jäncke et al., 1994;Furnham and Bradley, 1997). The influence of background music on the performance of school-related skills and academic tasks has also been investigated (Fogelson, 1973;Etaugh and Ptasnik, 1982;Crawford and Strapp, 1994;Hallam et al., 2002;Doyle and Furnham, 2012). ...
... A positive influence of background music has also been found for emotional reactions and sports achievements (Kämpfe et al., 2011). Conversely, some studies have provided evidence that performance is better without than with background music (Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Sousou, 1997). Furthermore, some studies have concluded that music has detrimental effects on completing memory tests, reading comprehension (Furnham and Bradley, 1997), or driving a car in a computer-simulated setting (Jäncke et al., 1994). ...
... Conversely, some studies have provided evidence that performance is better without than with background music (Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Sousou, 1997). Furthermore, some studies have concluded that music has detrimental effects on completing memory tests, reading comprehension (Furnham and Bradley, 1997), or driving a car in a computer-simulated setting (Jäncke et al., 1994). A metaanalysis by Kämpfe et al. (2011) also revealed that background music has a negative influence on reading comprehension and on a variety of memory tasks. ...
Article
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The influence of background music on cognitive functions is still a matter of debate. In this study, we investigated the influence of background music on executive functions (particularly on inhibitory functions). Participants completed a standardized cued Go/NoGo task during three different conditions while an EEG was recorded (1: with no background music, 2: with relaxing or 3: with exciting background music). In addition, we collected reaction times, omissions, and commissions in response to the Go and NoGo stimuli. From the EEG data, event-related potentials (ERPs) were calculated for the Go and NoGo trials. From these ERPs, the N2 and P3 components were specifically analyzed since previous studies have shown that these components (and particularly the Go-NoGo difference waves) are strongly associated with inhibitory functions. The N2 and P3 components of the difference waves (N2d and P3d) were used for statistical analyses. The statistical analyses revealed no differences between the three conditions in terms of amplitudes and latencies of the N2d and P3d components. In addition, reaction times, omissions, and commissions were comparable across all conditions. Our results suggest that in the context of this paradigm, music as background acoustic stimulation has no detrimental effects on the performance of a Go/NoGo task and neural underpinnings.
... In order to elucidate the effects of background noise several studies investigated students' performance and attention while doing their homework when simultaneously distracting sounds in the background were presented. It was shown that these inhibited their performance depending on the kind of background noise (Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Pool et al., 2000). ...
... which include the visual cortex, DLPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus and ACC (Britz et al., 2010;Custo et al., 2017). Regarding the behavioural test results, we propose that auditory background distraction would have a negative impact on subjects' recall performance (Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Pool et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Processing of sensory information is embedded into ongoing neural processes which contribute to brain states. Electroencephalographic microstates are semi-stable short-lived power distributions which have been associated with subsystem activity such as auditory, visual and attention networks. Here we explore changes in electrical brain states in response to an audiovisual perception and memorization task under conditions of auditory distraction. We discovered changes in brain microstates reflecting a weakening of states representing activity of the auditory system and strengthening of salience networks, supporting the idea that salience networks are active after audiovisual encoding and during memorization to protect memories and concentrate on upcoming behavioural response.
... For example, introverted persons already have their optimal activation level without background stimulation and work worse when additionally influenced by background music. Extroverted people, on the other hand, can achieve a better level of activation through additional stimulation and work better qualitatively and quantitatively [25][26][27]. Other studies have also found a significant improvement in performance under the influence of music [25]. ...
... Extroverted people, on the other hand, can achieve a better level of activation through additional stimulation and work better qualitatively and quantitatively [25][26][27]. Other studies have also found a significant improvement in performance under the influence of music [25]. The degree of difficulty of the main activity, the length of the background music and the individual personality played a role here [28]. ...
Article
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The use of portable media has become an integral part of our increasingly mobile society. The use of digital audio books is also growing steadily in Germany. The connection between the psychological effect of music of different volumes and rhythms and the change in reaction in road traffic with a corresponding increase in risk behavior, especially when driving, has already been proven in previous studies. Only a few studies are available on the effects of listening to radio plays on reaction behavior and concentration in road traffic as well as on risk behavior among pedestrians and cyclists. In the present study, we have investigated the influences of pop music and a radio play on reaction behavior and thus driving ability during the execution of a traffic psychological test series from the “Wiener Test System”. The central topic deals with the performance of the test subjects in the individual tests. Conclusions are drawn on the reaction behavior and concentration during participation in road traffic and thus the risk of distraction and possible increased risk of accidents. Studies on the influence of auditory stimuli and their effects on concentration and reaction during participation in traffic are of great interest from the point of view of traffic psychology and occupational medicine, since a reduction in the risk of accidents can increase general traffic safety and lead to a decrease in sick leave and therefore fewer absences from work.
... In contrast to some reports in the literature (e.g. Furnham and Bradley 1997, Cassidy and MacDonald, 2007, Furnham and Strbac, 2002; which claims that introverts perform worse in noise condition. Based on studies, we conclude that background music has the potential to be used as an effective aid for reading classes, in conditions where the music is prepared carefully with the participant's needs and their favorite; it is not act as a distraction but also acts as a facilitator for better thinking. ...
... Different studies like Ahmed and Qazi, (2011) and Moqbel and Kock (2018) etc. have investigated the impact of SNSs addiction on employees' performance. Some studies have also evaluated the impact of task distraction on employees' performance like Furnham and Bradley, (1997) and Lee and Brand, (2010) etc. However, the mediating role of task distraction in the relationship of SNSs addiction and employees' performance for nurses and how the relationship of SNSs addiction and task performance is moderated by self-management has never been tested in the earlier researches. ...
Article
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Aims: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship of social networking sites (SNSs) addiction on nurses' performance and how this relationship is mediated by task distraction and moderated by self-management. Design: This cross-sectional study is design to empirically test the relationship of SNSs addiction, task distraction and self-management with the nurses' performance. Methods: Data were collected by conducting an online-survey on nurses across the world using a web-based questionnaire developed through 'Google Docs' and distributed through 'Facebook' from 13 August, 2018 - 17 November, 2018. The Facebook groups were searched using the selected key terms. In total, 45 groups were found to have relevance to this research; therefore, request was made to the admins of these groups to participate in this research and to post a link in their groups. Only 19 group admins responded positively by uploading a link of the research instrument on their respective group pages and 461 members of these groups participated in the research. Results: Results of the data collected from fifty-three different countries indicated that SNSs addiction results in lowering the nurses' performance. This relationship is further strengthened by task distraction introduced as a mediating variable. The results show that self-management mediates the relationship between SNSs addiction and employees' performance. Moreover, the results of the study confirm that self-management reduces the negative impact of SNSs addiction on nurses' performance. Conclusion: SNSs addiction and task distraction reduces the nurses' performance, whereas, self-management enhances nurses' performance. Impact: This study addresses the problem of using SNSs at the workplace and its potential effect on nurses' performance. Results demonstrate that SNSs addiction reduces the performance which is further decreased by task distraction; however, self-management of nurses can enhance the nurses' performance. The research has numerous theoretical and practical implications for hospital administration, doctors and nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In the process of work or study, listening to music has a different influence on people's concentration, according to their personality traits. The results of one study on this topic showed that listening to music was a distraction, and that extroverts were less affected by music than introverts [7]. However, there are differing opinions about the influence of music on studying. ...
Conference Paper
The research on the influence of indoor sound environments on human behaviour is limited at present. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the influence of music on interactive behaviour in indoor environments. This study used a laboratory experiment, with 40 participants, to consider five social relationship types: relatives/friends (RF), lovers (L), classmates/colleagues (CC), superior /subordinate (SS), and strangers (S). The results showed that in the with music condition, the scores for the degree of influence of noise sources on the conversation were between 0.5 and 6 points lower those in the without music condition. In addition, in the L group, the scores for the participants' interest in the conversation were 0.5 to 3.67 points higher. It also showed that music creates a more positive sound environment; positive scores were up to 7.5. This study suggest that music can be used to change the indoor sound environment and regulate people's interactive behaviour and dialogue quality.
... Meanwhile, classical music did not affect mental test performance negatively. This is supported by the evidence that studies conducted on popular music leads to detrimental effects (Adriano, 2010;Anderson and Fuller, 2010;Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Fogelson, 1973;Henderson et al., 1945) while some studies found that classical music have positive effects (Hallam et al., 2002;DeMers, 1996). However, Thompson et al. (2011) revealed that classical music is most likely to disrupt reading comprehension when the music is fast and loud. ...
Article
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Majority of adolescent read, study for test, and complete their homework while listening to music. Listening to music while studying is known as multitasking. Focus and ability to multitask play a large role whether or not adolescents listen to music while studying. Previous studies on the effect of background music on the performance of certain tasks have shown positive, negative, and neutral effects. The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of background music in completing academic task in Malaysian schools. A total of thirty-eight (N = 38) secondary school students completed the test papers, under the no music condition and with background music condition. An analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA) determined that there is no significant difference in test scores between the two groups. Thus, the learning condition without music or learning condition with music does not have any effect on the students’ test scores. Results are important for students, parents, and educators to enhance and improve students’ academic achievement through students’ learning styles.
... Cognitive load refers to the effort that performing a particular task imposes on one's cognitive functions (Paas and Van Merri€ enboer 1994). Because human cognitive architecture assumes that working memory is limited when it comes to the ability to store and process information (Cowan 2001), adding cognitive load could hurt cognitive performance such as learning (Hutchinson and Alba 1991) and memory (Kang and Lakshmanan 2017;Furnham and Bradley 1997;Srull and Wyer 1989). Certain tasks that individuals perform when being exposed to the ads or media, such as doing homework, checking emails, or reading the news, can create high cognitive load. ...
Article
The rise of mobile usage, as well as increasing amount of information, contribute to individual’s inattention to ads and multitasking behavior. In many situations, multitasking has taken attention away from advertising messages, leading to a decrease in message effectiveness. Nonetheless, previous research has shown a potential benefit of multitasking on memory because, in some situations, multitasking could reduce mind wandering, which is a hidden distraction in ad processing. This research compares how different types of secondary tasks (cognitive vs. perceptual) affect ad memory. The results showed that a low perceptual load secondary task increased memory about ad content while decreasing mind wandering. However, cognitive load secondary tasks did not interfere with the cognitive processing more than the control condition.
... Easy listening classical music or slow tempo music (between 60 and 80 beats/min) are acknowledged to be most strongly associated with these results, and particularly when played at a low volume (Bonny, 1986;Anyanwu et al., 2016). Recordings with both voice and instruments seem less efficient for tasks requiring memory or comprehension than instrumental music (Belsham and Harman, 1977;Furnham and Bradley, 1997;Chou, 2010). However, there is no evidence of a preferential style of classical music: renaissance period, baroque, romantic or 20 th century music. ...
Article
Anatomical dissection on cadavers can be a source of anxiety for medical students. Studies in other stressful settings have shown a reduction in anxiety when there is background music. The objective of this study was to determine if music can have an impact on student anxiety, student satisfaction and student performance in dissection room. This cluster randomized interventional trial included 187 second year medical students. The intervention was standardized background music, selected based on the literature, with a tempo of between 60 and 80 bpm. Six balanced clusters were randomized (1:1) to music or no music during dissection sessions. The main assessment criterion was a validated self-evaluation scale score for anxiety, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Student satisfaction was measured using a visual analog scale and dissection performance was evaluated by an examination. The outcomes were analyzed with mixed models adjusted on group effect, chronic anxiety and confounding factors. A significant (58%) relative decrease in acute anxiety, odds ratio 0.423 [0.160; 0.710] was found for the intervention group. Music also had a positive impact on performance with students in the intervention group attaining higher grades than those in the control group (0.42/10 higher, P = 0.0016). The study also showed a non-significant increase in satisfaction with 0.37 extra points (P = 0.137) in the intervention group. Background music had a significant impact on anxiety in the dissection room and on technical and theoretical performance in the subsequent anatomy examination. This music intervention could be extended to other stressful work environments.
... An individual's information processing ability depends on the amount of resources allocated to process a particular message. The ability to process information is limited by several factors including cognitive load (Srull and Wyer 1989), external distractions (e.g., background noise) (Furnham and Bradley 1997), media multitasking Chinchanachokchai, Duff, and Sar 2015), and internal distraction (mind wandering) (Smallwood and Schooler 2006). While existing literature has explored the impact of some of these factors on ad processing (Chinchanachokchai et al. 2015;Lee and Faber 2007), there has been virtually no examination of the impact on advertising of internally generated distraction (mind wandering). ...
Article
Full-text available
People frequently do not pay full attention to advertising messages to which they are exposed. While external distraction such as active avoidance (e.g., multitasking while ads play) or background noise have been identified as causes, in many situations, consumers may also be distracted by an internal cause- mind wandering. While external distractions are thought to lead to worse ad outcomes, this research examines the potential benefits of multiple tasks (multitasking) in the context of mind wandering and how they affect memory for ad content. Through a series of three experiments, we show that even when no external alternative activity is occurring, memory for ad content may still be negatively impacted by the increased presence of mind wandering. However, multitasking with a low-level perceptual task can actually increase memory about ads while decreasing mind wandering.
... There may be differences in an individual's perception of any stimuli depending on the type of music being played and the difference between effects of vocal and instrumental music. [6] Ra:ga identification consists of methods that identify different notes from a piece of music and classify it into the appropriate ra:ga. [7] Raga identification is a process of listening to a portion of music, blending it into series of notes, and analyzing the sequence of notes. ...
Article
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Background: Music perception is a multidimensional concept. The perception of music and identification of a ra:ga depends on many parameters such as tempo variation, ra:ga variation, stimuli (vocal/instrument) variation, and singer variation. From these, the most important and relevant factor which is important for the perception of the ra:ga is the stimuli and the singer variation. However, the identification of a ra:ga also depends on an individual’s music perception abilities. This study was aimed to compare the NOTE‑50 (the minimum number of notes required to identify a ra:ga with 50% accuracy) identification of two different ra:gas with vocal or instrumental rendering in individuals with and without musical training. Methods: Thirty participants were divided into two groups as with and without musical training based on the scores of “Questionnaire on music perception ability” and “The Music (Indian music) Perception Test Battery.” Two basic ra:gas Kalya:ni ra:ga and ma:ya:ma:l̩avagavl̩a ra:ga of Carnatic music was taken as test stimuli. An experienced musician played violin in these two ra:gas in octave scale. Two ra:gas were also recorded in vocal (male and female singer) and instrumental rendering. These ra:gas were edited and slided for each note and combination of the notes. Hence, a total of 16 stimuli were prepared which were randomly presented 10 times for identification task. Results and Conclusion: The results revealed that there was a difference in perception of all the variations of the stimuli for those with musical training and without musical training. The stimuli with male rendering had better identification scores of NOTE‑50 than the other stimuli. The number of notes required to identify a ra:ga correctly was lesser for participants with musical training. This could be due to the musical training and their better perceptual ability for music. Hence, it’s concluded that identification, perceiving, understanding, and enjoying music require superior musical perceptual ability which could be achieved through musical training.
... In the past, researchers have used various methods to induce distraction among study participants. For example, researchers have asked drivers to perform mental arithmetic calculations during driving operations (Ersal et al. 2010); students have been exposed to visual stimuli presented as video clips (e.g., television) during study sessions (Pool et al. 2003); and working professionals have been exposed to auditory stimuli (e.g., music) while at work (Furnham and Bradley 1997). Because hazard recognition largely involves the visual examination of the workplace to identify relevant hazards, visual distractors are expected to cause higher levels of impairment [as suggested by multiple resource theory (Wickens 2002)]. ...
Article
Both hazard recognition and safety risk perception are fundamental to effective safety management. When construction hazards remain unrecognized or the associated safety risk remains unperceived, the likelihood of human errors and injuries increases. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that a large number of construction hazards remain unrecognized in typical workplaces. Likewise, past research has demonstrated that safety risk is widely underestimated in construction. Therefore, to improve safety performance, a proper understanding of factors that influence hazard recognition and safety risk perception is vital. Toward achieving this goal, the objective of the current study is to evaluate the effect of distractions - which are ubiquitous in construction environments - on the hazard recognition performance and safety risk perception of workers. The study goals are accomplished through an experimental effort involving 70 construction workers representing various specialty trades. The workers were randomly assigned to a distracted or undistracted condition, and their hazard recognition performance and safety risk perception levels were measured using construction case images. The study findings revealed that the distracted workers recognized a smaller proportion of hazards compared with undistracted workers. However, there were no significant differences in the level of perceived safety risk between the two groups. A closer examination of the data revealed that the safety risk perception levels for the undistracted workers are positively related to their hazard recognition performance. In other words, when undistracted workers recognize a larger proportion of hazards, they also perceive higher levels of safety risk. However, no such relationship was observed for the distracted workers, suggesting that the perceived risk was unrelated to or not dependent on their hazard recognition performance. The findings suggest that workplace distractions can adversely affect hazard recognition, safety risk perception, and safety performance. Given that constuction workers are already exposed to numerous distractors in typical workplaces, contractors seeking to introduce emerging technologies such as drones, mobile devices, and smart robots must be cognizant of their potential distracting effects. The current study represents the first empirical effort investigating the effect of workplace distraction on construction hazard recognition and safety risk perception.
... Although the perception of musical elements in relation to dyslexic reading has not been extensively studied yet, its findings are often contradictory and conflicting [93,94]. A number of studies indicate that there are more benefits to listening to classical music while executing a cognitive task, a phenomenon known as the Mozart effect [95] than other types of music [96]. ...
Article
The magnocellular pathway deficit theory has long been considered to be a possible cause for dyslexia, providing an alternative method to explain auditory and visual processing deficits. Several studies have attempted to classify these deficits with the application of machine learning in anatomical brain imaging, rendering the classification techniques using EEG graph measures both robust and reliable. In this paper, a classification of university students with and without dyslexia is attempted with the use of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Device and an Interactive Linguistic Software Tool in order to validate the application of such a device in classifying dyslexia in a higher education population. EEG signals acquired from a wearable, sensory EEG recording device from 12 university students with dyslexia along with 14 typically developed, age matched individuals are recorded, while participants were examined in three different experimental conditions: a) auditory discrimination, b) visual recognition c) visual recognition with background music. Spectral features extracted from each EEG rhythm (δ, θ, α, β, γ) are used to train a Random Forests classifier, aiming to identify quantitative EEG features that characterize dyslexia in different brain regions. Results show high levels of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity (above 95%) in the entire brain, followed by the left and right hemisphere, with the highest discrimination performance reported during the third experimental condition with the presence of background music. Different experimental conditions provide high classification accuracy that results in correct discrimination between higher education students with and without dyslexia.
... Another way of using non-speech sound is to embed it as a background to regulate emotions through which enhances the quality of the learning experience (Chou, 2010;Fumham & Bradley, 1997;Grice & Hughes, 2009;Perham & Currie, 2014;Perham & Vizard, 2011). ...
Chapter
As one of the basic information sources, non-speech sound enables us to function effectively in daily life. In the existing literature, non-speech sound is used to trigger attention, regulate emotions, and convey information in the learning materials such as instructional videos, auditory clips, and computer-based learning modules. When non-speech sound is embedded as the static media, limited interaction between learners and the learning interface is required. Given new technologies getting highly interactive, non-speech sound has great potential to enhance learner-interface interaction, thereby facilitate learning process. We reviewed existing literature to understand the circumstance in which non-speech sound has been used, and explored the possibilities of using non-speech sound in the interaction process to facilitate learning. Moreover, a rapid prototyping design of the integration of non-speech sound in the interaction process is described. In addition, a Web Audio API technique is introduced and the benefits of using this technique to generate non-speech sound are also discussed. Keywords: non-speech sound, learner-interface interaction, Web Audio API
... People are often exposed to background music in daily life. Previous studies have shown that listening to music impairs performance of cognitively-demanding tasks, although its effect size depends on multiple factors including the task involved (Banbury, Macken, Tremblay, & Jones, 2001;Boyle, 1996), the type of music played (Cassidy & Macdonald, 2009;Furnham & Allass, 1999;Perham & Sykora, 2012), and characteristics of the person (Crawford & Strapp, 1994;Furnham & Bradley, 1997). One cognitive task that has been consistently demonstrated to be susceptible to music interference is reading comprehension, as typically demonstrated by contrasting music versus no music (Dalton & Behm, 2007;Kampfe, Sedlmeier, & Renkewitz, 2010). ...
Article
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The current research looked at how listening to music affects eye movements when college students read natural passages for comprehension. Two studies found that effects of music depend on both frequency of the word and dynamics of the music. Study 1 showed that lexical and linguistic features of the text remained highly robust predictors of looking times, even in the music condition. However, under music exposure, (a) readers produced more rereading, and (b) gaze duration on words with very low frequency were less predicted by word length, suggesting disrupted sublexical processing. Study 2 showed that these effects were exacerbated for a short period as soon as a new song came into play. Our results suggested that word recognition generally stayed on track despite music exposure and that extensive rereading can, to some extent, compensate for disruption. However, an irrelevant auditory signal may impair sublexical processing of low-frequency words during first-pass reading, especially when the auditory signal changes dramatically. These eye movement patterns are different from those observed in some other scenarios in which reading comprehension is impaired, including mindless reading.
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The effects of in-store music on consumer behavior have attracted much attention in the marketing literature, but surprisingly few studies have investigated in-store music in relation to employees. Conducting a large-scale field experiment in eight Filippa K fashion stores in Stockholm, Sweden, we investigate whether it is beneficial for store owners to give employees more opportunities to influence the in-store music. The experiment lasted 56 weeks, and the stores were randomly assigned into a treatment group and a control group, with the employees in the treatment stores having the opportunity to influence the in-store music through an app developed by Soundtrack Your Brand (SYB). The results from the experiment show that sales decreased by, on average, 6% in treatment stores when employees had the opportunity to influence the music played in the store. Interviews revealed that employees frequently changed songs, preferred to play high-intensity songs, and had diverse music preferences that were not congruent with the brand values of the company. Our results thus imply that employees choose music that suits their preferences rather than based on what is optimal for the store, suggesting that store owners might want to limit their opportunities to influence the background music in stores.
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Web survey respondents are frequently distracted during survey completion, which potentially affects the quality of data they provide. This article reports on results from a laboratory experiment examining how distractions during web survey completion influence data quality. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental groups using a 2 (device type) × 3 (form of distraction) between-subject factorial design. They were asked to complete a web questionnaire on either a PC or a tablet and were allocated to one of the three distraction conditions: (1) the presence of other people in the room who have a loud conversation, (2) the presence of music, or (3) no distraction. The study examines the effect of distraction on various measures of data quality and attentiveness. While participants felt significantly more distracted in the presence of other people or music, the study found no significant effect of distraction for any of the data quality and attentiveness measures. The findings are encouraging for survey practitioners: Even if web respondents listen to music or are in noisy environments, these forms of distraction generally do not seem to affect the quality of responses they provide.
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Recent studies suggest that females and males show different levels of susceptibility to neuropsychological disorders which might be related to sex differences in executive control of behaviour. Music, as a cognitively salient factor, might influence cognitive functions; however, it is unclear how sex and music interact in influencing executive control of behaviour in a dynamic environment. We tested female and male participants in a computerized analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) while listening to music or in silence. We found that music decreased the percentage of correct trials in both sexes. While music decreased response time in females, it had an opposite effect in males. Response time increased in error trials (error slowing), and music sex-dependently influenced error slowing. Conflict between potential rules adversely influenced performance in the current trial (conflict cost) in both sexes and listening to music increased conflict cost. These findings suggest that music shows both adverse and beneficial effects on various behavioural measures in the WCST, some of which are sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that in using music as an adjunct for rehabilitation of neuropsychological disorders, both adverse and beneficial effects and sex dependency need to be considered.
Article
Based on previous findings about the role of music as an emotional stimulus, as well as the potential benefits of music-driven emotional engagement in written production and creative behaviour, the present study investigates the impact of emotional background music on translation quality and creativity. A translation experiment in two different conditions (music vs. silence) was conducted in a controlled environment. Participants translated two literary texts of opposing emotional contents (happy vs. sad) while they listened to an emotionally-matching soundtrack. Statistical analysis of within- and between-group comparisons only revealed conclusive results for the sad condition, showing a positive effect of sad music on translation creativity and a negative effect on accuracy.
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In two experiments, we sought to determine whether (a) people are aware of the frequently observed performance costs associated with engaging in media multitasking (Experiment 1), and (b) if so, whether they modulate the extent to which they engage in multitasking as a function of task demand (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants completed a high-demand task (2-back) both independently and while a video was simultaneously presented. To determine whether people were sensitive to the impact that the concurrent video had on primary-task performance, subjective estimates of performance were collected following both trial types (No-Video vs. Video trials), as were explicit beliefs about the influence of the video on performance. In Experiment 2, we modified our paradigm by allowing participants to turn the video on and off at their discretion, and had them complete either a high-demand task (2-back) or a low-demand task (0-back). Findings from Experiment 1 indicated that people are sensitive to the magnitude of the decrement that media multitasking has on primary-task performance. In addition, findings from Experiment 2 indicated that people modulate the extent to which they engage in media multitasking in accordance with the demands of their primary task. In particular, participants completing the high-demand task were more likely to turn off the optional video stream compared to those completing the low-demand task. The results suggest that people media multitask in a strategic manner by balancing considerations of task performance with other potential concerns.
Article
Despite recent growth in popular press about introversion and negative responses to introversion at work, academic work has yet to directly investigate this topic. This may be at least partly due to a sensitive issue: do negative responses to introversion at work purely constitute mistreatment, or are these legitimate responses to introversion? We propose a framework that incorporates both perspectives as interlinked explanations for this phenomenon: the Stereotype-Driven Process, which is driven by bias and associated with mistreatment, and the Target-Driven Process, which is driven by introversion itself and can be associated with legitimate responses to introversion. As such, this paper describes how negative responses to introversion come about, introduces perceived introversion mistreatment, examines negative outcomes associated with negative responses to introversion, and delineates numerous testable propositions that can guide future research on the topic.
Book
Wie man Vorlesungen, Seminare und Projekte effektiv gestaltet Hochschuldidaktik ist ein schwammiges Forschungsfeld ohne klare Befunde? Bei fachlich kompetenten Dozierenden ist die Lehrmethode unwichtig? Hochschulen brauchen eine völlig neue Lehrkultur? – Nichts davon ist wahr. Unbemerkt von den meisten Lehrenden ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten ein erfolgreiches internationales Forschungsfeld entstanden, in dem Fragen der Gestaltung effektiver Hochschullehre mit den Methoden der empirischen Lehr- und Lernforschung untersucht werden. Mit Hilfe quantitativ-empirischer Experimente werden Kausaleinflüsse auf den Lernerfolg Studierender identifiziert. Als entscheidend erwies sich dabei, wie Dozierende Vorlesungen, Seminare und Projekte im Detail gestalten und welche Denkprozesse dies in den Köpfen der Studierenden jeweils auslöst. In Metaanalysen über Einzelstudien wurden zahlreiche Gestaltungsprinzipien gefunden, die unabhängig von Hochschultyp und Studienfach den Lernerfolg erhöhen. Das vorliegende Buch gibt Dozierenden einen prägnanten und handlungsorientierten Überblick über empirisch gut belegte Gestaltungsprinzipien effektiver Lehre. Es richtet sich an junge ebenso wie an bereits erfahrene Dozierende. Die Kapitel gehen ein auf die Themenfelder Vorlesung, Seminar, Projekt, PowerPoint-Präsentation, Prüfung und Lehrevaluation. Ergänzende Interviews mit Lehrpreisträgern illustrieren in jedem Kapitel Möglichkeiten und vermeidbare Fallstricke bei der praktischen Umsetzung. Die Herausgeber Michael Schneider ist Professor für Pädagogische Psychologie an der Universität Trier und forscht zur Rolle von Wissenserwerb und Konzeptwandel bei der Entwicklung von Kompetenzen. Maida Mustafić ist wissenschaftliche Projektmitarbeiterin am Institute of Cognitive Science and Assessment der Universität Luxemburg und forscht zur Kompetenzentwicklung über die Lebensspanne.
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Everyday reading occurs in different settings, such as on the train to work, in a busy cafeteria, or at home, while listening to music. In these situations, readers are exposed to external auditory stimulation from nearby noise, speech, or music that may distract them from their task and reduce their comprehension. Although many studies have investigated auditory distraction effects during reading, the results have proved to be inconsistent and sometimes even contradictory. Additionally, the broader theoretical implications of the findings have not always been explicitly considered. In the present study, we report a Bayesian meta-analysis of 65 studies on auditory distraction effects during reading and use meta-regression models to test predictions derived from existing theories. The results showed that background noise, speech, and music all have a small, but reliably detrimental effect on reading performance. The degree of disruption in reading comprehension did not generally differ between adults and children. Intelligible speech and lyrical music resulted in the biggest distraction. While this last result is consistent with theories of semantic distraction, there was also reliable distraction by noise. It is argued that new theoretical models are needed that can account for distraction by both background speech and noise.
Article
Previous research has found that the performance of introverts on complex cognitive tasks is more negatively affected by background music than that of extraverts. This study explored the impact of background music on cognitive performance by using the reaction test and the visual pursuit test of the Vienna Test System. A total of 15 introverts and 15 extraverts carried out the reaction test and visual pursuit test in silence and with the presence of background music. The results showed that there was significant interaction effect (Music*EPQ) on visual pursuit test performance. However, no significant interaction effect on reaction test performance was found. The visual pursuit test performance in silence was significantly higher than that in the presence of music. However, no significant difference was found in the results of the reaction test between the two conditions. Extraverts performed better than introverts on the visual pursuit test in the presence of music; but in silence, the performances of the two groups were the same. In traffic or sports area, the effects of background music on visual reaction and visual pursuit ability need to be paid more attention.
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Interruptions are unexpected breaks that introduce new tasks on top of ongoing activities. In work environments, interruptions occur when operators and decision-makers have to deal simultaneously with several stimuli and information sources and have to make decisions so as to maintain the flow of activities at a satisfactory level of performance or quality of service. The causes and effects of interruptions and their subsequent management strategies in workplace environments have been researched in the past, however, only a few review articles are available to report on current advances in this area, to analyze contributions, and to highlight open research directions. This paper offers an up-to-date review and a framework for interruptions and interruption management strategies. The current approaches to identify, report, and manage interruptions in a variety of workplace environments are reviewed and a description of environmental characteristics that favor the occurrence of interruptions and influence interruption management in workplace environments is provided. Various approaches to classify and model the different types of interruptions and their cause-consequence relationships are discussed and the strategies to manage interruptions and approaches to measure human performance when dealing with interruptions are analyzed. Based on these insights, several guidelines to manage interruptions in workplace environments are provided, and future research directions are highlighted.
Article
In contrast to background white noise, the detrimental effects of background speech on verbal working memory (WM) were often explained by speech interference in the same verbal modality. Yet, those results were confounded with potential differences between arousal levels induced by speech and white noise. To address the role of arousal, in the present study, we minimized the verbal interference by using a visual WM task to test the influence of background speech or white noise. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was recorded simultaneously to indicate participants' arousal levels. Results showed that both background speech and white noise significantly improved visual WM performance, which further correlated with individuals' changes of EDA signals. Taken together, our results suggest that background sounds of both speech and white noise facilitate visual WM by raising the arousal level.
Article
Music used by students during studying should help them. To assess the effect of instrumental, background music on concentration and working memory in 1-year medical students. 60-girls and 60-boys of 1-year MBBS, were randomised into music and control groups equally. Concentration was assessed using 3 different forms of SDMT as pre-test, during music/control session and post-test using total, correct and error score. For assessing working memory, Rey-Ostherrieth-complex-figure-test was used. (significant p value<0.05). Music group showed significant improvement in correct (p=0.02) and total (p=0.029) scores during post-test while errors reduced (p=0.002). For ROCF, recall was better in music group compared to controls but the values were not statistically significant (p=0.223). Performance improves with repetition of a specified task; the improvement can be enhanced by associating it with background instrumental music. Performance is best seen at the end of music session showing that, music can increase the required arousal to an optimal level. Instrumental music does not seem to have an influence on working memory, it does not hamper it.Students can be advised to use instrumental music, preferably of raga Malkauns, in background while studying which will help them concentrate better and will not hamper their retention.
Article
Students use variety of music while studying. The aim was to analyse effect of instrumental, background music on working memory in medical students of Indian and Malaysian origin. Age and gender matched 120 1st-year MBBS students (60 Indian and 60 Malaysian), were randomised into music and control groups equally. Music used was non vocal flute, raga malkauns. After 5 min of music/rest, working memory was assessed using Rey-Ostherrieth-complex-figure-test (ROCF). After another concentration task(SDMT) and a gap of 25min, recall of figure was assessed. Copy and recall figures were scored for 36 points.(significant p value<0.05). There was no statistical difference between copy and recall score of ROCF when compared between music and control group of both ethnicities (p=0.223). Malaysian students performed significantly better in copy and recall score compared to Indian students. Instrumental music does not seem to influence working memory, but it does not hamper it too. As a diverse population, Malaysian students are bestowed with efficient working memory than Indian students. Music has no differential influence on the working memory of the two ethnic groups. Students can be advised to use instrumental music, preferably of raga Malkauns, in background while studying which will not hamper their retention.
Article
Although listening to background music is common, there is no consensus about its effects on cognitive-task performance. One potential mediating factor that could resolve the inconsistency in findings is arousal. To explore the role of arousal in mediating the effect of background music, this survey study directly explored people’s background music listening habits during a variety of everyday tasks varying in their complexity including studying, reading, driving, and monotonous tasks. Out of the 197 participants, most participants reported listening to background music during driving or monotonous tasks but fewer did so during studying or reading. Participants who did listen to music during studying or reading mostly reported choosing instrumental music and listening to music to calm them down. Contrarily, participants who listened to music during driving or monotonous tasks reported choosing vocal music more often and listening to music to feel energised. In sum, results revealed clearly different patterns in background music listening habits between tasks varying in their complexity that are consistent with arousal mediating the effect of background music. The results also revealed that people have an implicit awareness of the effects of background music and match the music to their needs as dictated by the specific task.
Article
Background: Existing studies on the impact of background music in the workplace have reported varying results, from improving production and performance to being known as an annoying factor. Given the lack of evidence of the background music influence on the cognitive factors in the work place in previous studies and the lack of study on the effect of background music on skill performance when gender and personality type is considered, research in this area seems necessary. Objective: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of background music on cognitive and skill performance in the work place with regard to gender and personality type. Methods: This study was conducted with the participation of 52 students (26 males and 26 females) aged between 18-30 years old. Sustained attention, working memory, fine finger and gross manual dexterity skills and personality type were assessed. Participants were randomly tested once when being exposed to classical instrumental music and once again when faced with complete silenceRESULTS:Playing background music improved students working memory but had no significant effect on sustained attention. Music also improved skill performance.Overall, memory performance and fine finger dexterity were found significantly better in extroverts when compared to introverts during playing background music. Conclusion: Background music improves working memory and speeds up performance in skill tasks, however the role of personality type in influencing background music on cognitive and skill performance needs further investigation.
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Across two studies, we explored whether framing an assignment as involving either multitasking or single-tasking (Srna et al. Psychol Sci 29(12):1942–1955, 2018) leads to differences in both subjective ratings of attentional engagement (i.e., depth of concentration and attentional control) and performance during the assignment. In Experiment 1, we manipulated task framing in the context of an assignment in which participants (Ncollected = 238) simultaneously completed a word-search and an anagram task (Srna et al. Psychol Sci 29(12):1942–1955, 2018). While we replicated prior findings that participants who receive multitasking instructions perform better than those who receive single-tasking instructions, we did not find any influence of task framing on participants’ subjective evaluations of their attentional engagement. Exploratory analyses, however, revealed that regardless of group assignment, those who believed they were multitasking reported greater levels of attentional engagement than those who believed they were single-tasking. In Experiment 2 (Ncollected = 238), task framing was varied in the context of the 2-back task (Kirchner J Exp Psychol 55(4): 352, 1958). Unexpectedly, we found that, relative to participants who received single-tasking instructions, those who received multitasking instructions reported exerting less attentional control over their thoughts and showed a greater number of incorrect responses to non-target trials on the 2-back. Taken together, the results do not support a straightforward conclusion regarding the influence of task framing on either subjective reports of attentional engagement or task performance. Nevertheless, they provide insight into our understanding of the role of task framing in contexts ranging from commonly performed real-world tasks to typical laboratory tasks.
Article
Students prefer to listen to music while reading because they believe it will help them focus on constructing a contextual mental picture. However, the effect of background music on the reading comprehension of primary school new readers remains unclear. This study examines the effects of two musical factors (familiarity and tempo) on the construction of poetry mental picture in 129 Chinese primary school readers with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. The study controlled for nonverbal intelligence, age, gender, working memory, and receptive vocabulary, and results showed that background music had a negative effect on poetry reading performance. Specifically, students had similar performance in easy poetry reading with background music but performed better in difficult poetry reading with unfamiliar music and slower melody. The effect size of unfamiliar background music was larger than that of melody tempo. This study provided literature on the effect of background music on surface decoding in poetry reading and suggested that the appropriate approach for readers who are in the learning to read stage should be to refrain from listening to music while reading.
Article
The effect of background music (BGM) on cognitive task performance is a popular topic. However, the evidence is not converging: experimental studies show mixed results depending on the task, the type of music used and individual characteristics. Here, we explored how people use BGM while optimally performing various cognitive tasks in everyday life, such as reading, writing, memorizing, and critical thinking. Specifically, the frequency of BGM usage, preferred music types, beliefs about the scientific evidence on BGM, and individual characteristics, such as age, extraversion and musical background were investigated. Although the results confirmed highly diverse strategies among individuals regarding when, how often, why and what type of BGM is used, we found several general tendencies: people tend to use less BGM when engaged in more difficult tasks, they become less critical about the type of BGM when engaged in easier tasks, and there is a negative correlation between the frequency of BGM and age, indicating that younger generations tend to use more BGM than older adults. The current and previous evidence are discussed in light of existing theories. Altogether, this study identifies essential variables to consider in future research and further forwards a theory-driven perspective in the field.
Chapter
The paper is devoted to the overview of studies and the summary of methodological approaches to psycho-physiological features of listening, selective hearing, and perception of music. The scientific substantiation of such applied studies is aimed at the development of functional music and music therapy techniques. It is shown that psycho-physiological signs of perception of “native” and “alien” music by listeners of various cultures have been insufficiently studied.
Article
Personality traits are one piece in the larger puzzle of political participation, but most studies focus on the Five-Factor Model of personality. We argue that the normative implications of the influence of personality on politics are increased when the personality traits being studied correlate with negative social behaviors. We investigate the role of the Dark Triad on political participation as mediated through political beliefs such as interest and knowledge. We find that Psychopathy and Narcissism are positively associated with political interest, but Narcissism is also negatively associated with political knowledge. In addition, both Psychopathy and Narcissism exert a direct, positive influence on participation. Our results imply that individuals exhibiting higher levels of Narcissism are not only less knowledgeable but also more interested in politics and more likely to participate when given the opportunity.
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The role of music in second-language (L2) learning has long been the object of various empirical and theoretical inquiries. However, research on whether the effect of background music (BM) on language-related task performance is facilitative or inhibitory has produced inconsistent findings. Hence, we investigated the effect of happy and sad BM on complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) of L2 speaking among intermediate learners of English. A between-groups design was used, in which 60 participants were randomly assigned to three groups with two experimental groups performing an oral L2 English retelling task while listening to either happy or sad BM, and a control group performing the task with no background music. The results demonstrated the happy BM group’s significant outperformance in fluency over the control group. In accuracy, the happy BM group also outdid the controls (error-free clauses, correct verb forms). Moreover, the sad BM group performed better in accuracy than the controls but in only one of its measures (correct verb forms). Furthermore, no significant difference between the groups in syntactic complexity was observed. The study, in line with the current literature on BM effects, suggests that it might have specific impacts on L2 oral production, explained by factors such as mood, arousal, neural mechanism, and the target task’s properties.
Article
This article describes the main correlations that were obtained between music preferences and personal values. It has been discovered that personal values play a significant role in people’s music preferences and they are at the forefront in proposing a map that links personal values to music preferences. According to the results, music preferences can be defined by personal values since people tend to listen to a specific type of music if corresponding values are projected such as conservatism and openness. In this case, music is broken into four preference dimensions which include reflective and complex for folk, jazz, and classical, rebellious and intense comprising of punk, rock, and alternate, conventional and upbeat comprising of pop, country, and soundtracks, and lastly rhythmic and energetic including funk, electronica, hip-hop, and soul. Besides, preferences may be defined by socio-demographic characteristics such as age and gender such that the young people tend to prefer music because of what the other peers listen to and enjoy music in social places such as bars, restaurants, and music festivals, middle-aged people listen to the music of their preferences and at the time of their choosing at homes or while carrying out activities, the aged tend to have less music preference but some cannot do anything without listening to music and therefore have to keep their preference music always. Males tend to focus on certain genres of music such as heavy metal and rock which are associated with cognitive listening and demonstrates a negatively conservative nature of music while females prefer listening to pop music more than males. This article discloses the main results that were obtained in the empirical study of different articles concerning the topic of the relationship between personal values and music preferences. No such research was conducted on Ukrainian-speaking samples before.
Article
Previous research found that introverts performed worse than extraverts on cognitive tasks in the presence of noise or music in a Western sample but not in an Asian sample. This is a cross-cultural part replication of these studies using a Western (British; N = 45) and Asian (Singaporean; N = 45) sample. Participants engaged in three cognitive tests in the presence of pop songs, background noise, and in silence. It was predicted that for British participants, introverts would perform worse than extraverts on all three tasks in the presence of background sounds, and performance would be worse in the presence of background sounds than in silence, but not for the Singaporean participants. The results did not show any performance differences between the background sound conditions for any of the tests across the two samples, nor any performance differences between extraverts and introverts across the background sound conditions, with three exceptions: extraversion for the British was a significant predictor of performance on the Raven’s test in the silence condition, extraversion was a significant predictor of performance for both groups on the mental arithmetic task in the silence condition, and extraversion was a significant predictor of performance for Singaporeans on the mental arithmetic task in the music condition.
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The attention level of car drivers is affected by many factors. Music is one of the most importantones, but its effect is rarely studied. Music can affect driving style in both positive and negative ways, as itcan reduce fatigue but also increase the level of distraction or aggression. This article presents anexperimental investigation of the effects of music on driver attention level. Several measurements on avehicle simulator were done to collect data that demonstrates the relationship between music and theperformance of the car driver. The simulation measured performance under three conditions - relaxationmusic, rock music and silence. Additionally, the measurements were repeated in both fresh and tired states.The results are, in some aspects, different from our expectations - for example, relaxation music improvedreaction time but also correlated with a higher occurrence of inappropriate steering actions. Deeperunderstanding of how the music and noise affect the driver’s actions and decisions will help to improveroad safety and reduce the probability of accidents
Article
Background: The Stroop Colour and Word Test (SCWT) is the most extensively used neuropsychological test in humans to evaluate the ability to inhibit cognitive interference. Any music played while the listener's primary attention is focused on another activity is known as background music and its effects on SCWT have not been studied well. Objective: The current study was designed to evaluate the influence of different background music (classical and heavy metal) on inhibiting cognitive interference in young adults by using the Stroop Colour and Word Test. Methods: Eighty student volunteers were invited for the study after obtaining their informed consent. They were first tested for colour blindness using Ishihara's colour test, and once passed, they were recruited to perform a computerised Stroop colour-word interference test. Each participant was requested to take part in four reading exercises: monochrome words, rectangle colours, coloured words and colour naming, respectively. These exercises were performed under three different conditions such as silence (absence of background music), presence of heavy metal and classical music, respectively. The participants' reaction time, errors made and heart rate were recorded and compared. Results: The participants' reaction time was found to be significantly decreased with classical and heavy metal background music compared with the silence condition. The heart rate and errors made by the participants did not significantly change during any of the study conditions. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate the positive impact of background music on a cognitive interference task. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying neural mechanisms.
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This research examined the effect of music use, personality and prior knowledge on mood and work performance of 62 Systems Analysts. Although the quality of the data modeling task did not appear to be affected by the experimental treatment of 10 minutes of music listening, the level of extraversion, modeling proficiency, and theoretical knowledge related to modeling showed significant effects. Nevertheless, the effects of music were demonstrated on several mood measures. The effect of music on negative and positive affect, along with their subscales, are presented. Finally, changes in the mood of participants who listened to the music are examined in the light of various demographic and personality variables.
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It has been suggested that listening to music during reading may be distracting, but the empirical results have remained inconclusive. One limitation of previous studies is that they have often had limited control over the number of lyrics present in the songs. We report 4 experiments that investigated whether song lyrics make music distracting. Participants read short paragraphs in a self-paced reading paradigm in three sound conditions: 1) silence; 2) lyrical songs at ~150 words per minute; and 3) the instrumental version of the same songs. The results showed that listening to instrumental music either did not affect reading times or led to slightly faster reading times compared to silence. However, lyrical music led to an increase in reading times in three experiments. We conclude that instrumental music does not lead to distraction during reading. Song lyrics appear to be distracting, even if the observed distraction is quite mild.
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic Working memory capacity is fundamental to multitasking ability. Online search is a typical multitasking behavior that requires constant switching between different information sources. Students who take note perform better than those who do not while reading materials with seductive but irrelevant information. What this paper adds Students working memory capacity is examined under silent and irrelevant speech conditions. Students exhibited different profile patterns in their working memory capacity under silent and irrelevant speech conditions. Taking note, either in matrix form or free form, can significantly improve students' online search performance for those with high WMC ONLY in irrelevant speech or for those with low WMC in both silent and irrelevant speech conditions. Implications for practice Note‐taking as auxiliary support may facilitate students' integration and evaluation of the online information across multiple sources during their online search. Instructions on how to self‐construct matrix note are needed to help students develop advanced note‐taking skills for their learning involving online search.
Article
Was macht eigentlich unsere Persönlichkeit aus? Bestimmen unsere Gene unsere Persönlichkeit? Oder doch die Umwelt? Können wir von Hirnscans die Persönlichkeit eines Menschen ablesen? Können wir uns überhaupt ändern oder ist unsere Persönlichkeit in Stein gemeißelt? Das vorliegende Werk gibt Ihnen einen Einblick in den aktuellen Stand der psychologischen Persönlichkeitsforschung. Es zeigt auf, wie unsere Persönlichkeit viele Facetten unseres Lebens beeinflusst, wie beispielsweise die Lebenserwartung, finanzielles Entscheidungsverhalten, aber auch den Umgang mit Smartphones und Internet. Dieses Sachbuch ist für ein allgemeines Publikum geschrieben, das sich für die menschliche Persönlichkeit interessiert und gerne mehr über sich und andere erfahren möchte. Der Autor Christian Montag ist Professor für Molekulare Psychologie an der Universität Ulm. Er ist Autor/Co-Autor von zahlreichen Publikationen. vieler Arbeiten über die (biologischen) Grundlagen der menschlichen Persönlichkeit. Zusätzlich ist er (Co-)Herausgeber der internationalen Buchreihe Studies in Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavioral Economics.
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In an initial survey of musical preferences, undergraduate groups of 22 extraverts and 26 introverts (defined on the basis of a median split of their scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory) both chose and rated rock and roll as their favourite class of music. In addition, although extraverts reported working with music twice as much (50% of the time) as introverts (25%), both groups indicated that, when they played background music while studying, they kept the volume soft. Different groups of 24 extraverts and 24 introverts, equally split into music and no-music conditions, were then individually administered a retention test for two passages which they had just read. All subjects who heard music were played rock and roll at a low volume. Scores for extraverts were similar in the two conditions, but those for introverts were significantly poorer in the presence than in the absence of music. These results are interpreted as supporting a general model of arousal and performance in which the effects of...
Article
This study examined the effects of different styles of background music on task performances of college students. In addition, students' perceptions of the music and the effect these perceptions had on performance were investigated. 96 undergraduate nonmusic majors were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: task only, task and classical background music, task and jazz background music, and task and popular background music. The performance task consisted of 220 eye/hand coordination problems, and a questionnaire was subsequently administered to the task plus background music groups to assess perception of the background environment. Analysis indicated that the experimental conditions had no significant effect on task performance.
Chapter
The territory that psychologists explore is still largely uncharted; so to find Eysenck’s model for personality in the middle of this terra incognita is rather like stumbling across St. Pancras Station in the heart of the African jungle. Faced with this apparition, one’s first question is, not “does it work?”, but “what’s it for?” This, indeed, is the right question to ask. Eysenck’s model bestrides the field of personality like a colossus. There have been other attempts to describe personality, notably Cattell’s and Guilford’s, and other attempts to explain it, above all, Pavlov’s and Teplov’s: but no one has tried to achieve both these aims on the same scale as Eysenck. In consequence, it is extremely difficult to see the Eysenckian edifice in perspective: there are too few other buildings with which to compare it, only the surrounding trackless jungle. It is by asking “what’s it for?” that we can best provide this perspective. In answer to this question, Fig. 8.1 dis plays what I take to be the general structure of Eysenck’s theory of extra version-introversion (E-I) and neuroticism (N).
Chapter
There is a tremendous volume of research concerned with the effects of individual differences on learning and memory (see M.W. Eysenck 1977 for a review), and the individual-difference variables investigated include cognitive factors (e.g. intelligence), motivational-emotional factors (e.g. anxiety) and purely motivational factors (e.g. need for achievement). The emphasis in this chapter will be on personality factors of the motivational-emotional kind, especially those that appear to constitute major, consistently replicable, personality dimensions. There is very substantial evidence (e.g. H.J. Eysenck 1967) that the orthogonal personality factors of neuroticism and introversion-extraversion fulfil these criteria, as does anxiety. It is reasonable to assume that the anxiety dimension, as measured by tests such as the Manifest Anxiety Scale (Taylor 1953), lies within the two-dimensional space defined by introversion-extraversion and neuroticism, correlating approximately +0.3 to +0.4 with the introversion end of the introversion-extraversion dimension and +0.6 to +0.7 with the neuroticism end of the neuroticism-stability dimension (Eysenck 1973).
Article
27 male and 27 female high school students read a passage of literature in the presence of silence, low information-load, or high information-load music. Comprehension was best in the first music condition, worst in the last condition.
Article
The present study examined music as a means to enhance task perceptions. The study was a 2 (complex task vs simple task) × 2 (music vs no music) experimental design in which 110 undergraduates participated. Both main and moderating effects were examined. Results suggest that music does not affect perceptions of task characteristics.
Article
Predictions derived from Eysenck's theory of personality were tested in two samples by relating extraversion scores to library study locations, frequency of study breaks, and self-report of factors which influence study location. The predicted main effects for study location were found, with extraverts occupying locations that provided greater external stimulation. Positive correlations were consistently found between extraversion and preferred level of noise, preferred level of socializing opportunities, and rated importance of socializing opportunities. The prediction that extraverts would take more frequent study breaks was supported in Sample 1 but not replicated in Sample 2. The data are interpreted as providing direct support for Eysenck's theory of behavioral differences and mixed indirect support for his theory of neurological differences between introverts and extraverts.
Article
This study examined the effects of the loudness of background music on task performance of college students. In addition, students' perceptions of the music and the effect these perceptions had on performance were investigated. Two hundred undergraduate nonmusic majors were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: (1) task only (no music); (2) task plus background music presented at 60–70 dB (all decibel measurements here are on the C scale); (3) task plus background music presented at 70–80 dB; and (4) task plus background music presented at 80–90 dB. The performance task consisted of computing mathematic problems, and a questionnaire was subsequently administered to the task plus background music groups to assess perceptions of the background environment. Results indicated that (1) the experimental conditions had no significant effect on task performance; (2) the majority of subjects did recognize the music and were able to identify some of the selections; and (3) subjects in the 80–90 dB group perceived the music as most distracting, with the majority of these same subjects reporting that the musical element of loudness seemed to be the contributing factor. Findings are discussed in relation to current music and noise research, and implications for educational and therapeutic applications are given.
Article
Proposed and tested is a causal process that could account for empirical relationships between television viewing and academic achievement. It is argued that television, when used as a secondary activity, interferes with performance on otherwise intellectually demanding tasks. Performance on seven different cognitive processing tests were examined for respondents in four television-viewing conditions and a no-TV control group. Dependent variables included measures of short-term memory, linguistic processing speed, reading comprehension, complex problem-solving abilities, and mental flexibility. Predictions based on four mechanisms were tested. Significant performance decrements in television conditions occurred for measures of reading comprehension, spatial problem solving, and cognitive flexibility. Results were most consistent with the idea that background television influences performance by causing cognitive processing capacity limits to be exceeded on difficult and complex tasks.
Article
An experiment was conducted testing Armstrong and Greenberg's (1990) model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, as it applies to reading comprehension and memory. Subjects completed a cued‐recall test of the content of an expository prose passage read under quiet conditions or concurrently with the presence of one of two types of television content (prime‐time drama versus commercials). Effects on immediate versus delayed recall were examined. Overall, significant deleterious effects of background television were found, controlling for prior abilities and motivation. Deleterious effects were stronger and more consistent when testing occurred immediately after reading, rather than after a five‐minute filled delay. Background commercials resulted in more consistently negative effects than did TV drama.
Article
An experiment was run to test the effect on reading comprehension of distraction by a television programme, which was presented while reading took place. Respondents, classified in terms of extroversion or introversion, carried out two reading comprehension tests in silence and in the presence of a television drama programme. As predicted, extroverts and introverts both performed better in silence, but there was a significant interaction that showed that extroverts performed better than introverts in the presence of television distraction. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research on this subject.
Article
Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)
Article
A selection containing 1315 lines of material on Russian history was given to five groups, each including about 40 students. All except the control group (I) worked while music was played fairly loudly in an adjoining room. Classical, popular, semi-classical, and jazz music were played to groups II to V respectively. The jazz group read significantly faster than the others, but the scores of a 50 item comprehension test showed no significant differences among the music groups or between these and the control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In testing the hypothesis that music does not interfere in situations requiring "complex mental activity," 22 IBM keypunch operators had music played during lunch and break periods alternately for 10 days. Output, error rate, and absenteeism for all combinations of pre- and postexperimental records did not show any statistical significance. Positive responses were made on a questionnaire concerning the music program. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1LG59S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using a quasi-experimental design, this study examined relations between stereo headset use and employee work responses. Employees ( N = 256) worked on 32 jobs in an office of a retail organization. Employees indicated whether they were interested in using stereos at work. From those expressing an interest, a random sample ( n = 75) was assigned to a stereo condition. These employees used headsets at work for 4 weeks. The remaining employees ( n = 181) were assigned to a control condition and were not allowed to use stereos. Results indicated that employees in the stereo condition exhibited significant improvements in performance, turnover intentions, organization satisfaction, mood states, and other responses. The mood state of relaxation best explained the relation between stereo use and performance. Finally, employees in relatively simple jobs responded most positively to the stereos. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hierarchical factor analyses were carried out on raw scored EPQ data yielded from two samples of subjects, a Gallup adult quota sample of 1198 subjects and 406 university undergraduates. Each sample was split by sex providing six data sets for analysis. Results at the second order level clearly indicated the recovery of practically all the E, N and L items as three distinct factors, P item recovery differed among males and females. Adult female and student female subject groups did not show clear recovery of a substantial majority of P items. Although P, as a factor, did not appear recognisably in the male student sample, this was interpreted as being due either to the low subject: variable ratio and/or to the low subject number (N=171) and its resultant lack of definition of initial P item variance. The P factor appeared most strongly as a second order in the total Gallup, total student, and male Gallup sample.
Article
The perceived duration of a time period may be influenced by properties of environmental stimuli that fill the period. Because music is often present in consumer environments, we conducted an experiment to explore the influence of a musical stimulus property (modality) on listeners' estimates of the duration of a time period. Findings suggest that perceptions of duration are influenced by music in a way that contradicts conventional wisdom (i.e., the "time flies when you're having fun" hypothesis). Perceived duration was longest for subjects exposed to positively valenced (major key) music, and shortest for negatively valenced (atonal) music. Thus, time did not fly when an interval was filled with affectively positive stimulation. An alternative hypothesis based on attentional and retrieval processes is supported. Implications for the design of consumer environments and for future research are discussed.
Article
The Eysenck hypothesis that introverts are more and extraverts less cortically aroused has been supported by the results of most electrodermal studies, though there is some inconsistency in the literature. Further tests of the hypothesis can be carried out using arousal-manipulation paradigms. Some studies have used caffeine or stimulus intensity to increase arousal, as was also the case in the present study. The latter, however, also introduced a preparatory signal, which may be expected under certain conditions, to reduce responses to the stimulus which follows it. Extraverts and introverts were randomly assigned to receive low, medium or high doses of caffeine or a placebo. Each S then heard two sets of tones with the tones in one set preceded by a preparatory signal. Results showed that the preparatory signal reduced phasic amplitudes only at the highest levels of stimulus intensity. Introverts had higher overall SCLs and response magnitudes. In addition, the preparatory signal had little effect on extraverts, but reversed dosage-related response patterns in introverts. Results were supportive of the basic Eysenck arousal hypothesis and also showed that the arousal difference leads to attentional variability between the two groups.
Article
DESCRIBES A SIMPLE REASONING TEST INVOLVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF SENTENCES OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY. IT IS SHORT, EASILY ADMINISTERED, AND RELIABLE. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES WITH INTELLIGENCE (.59) AND HAS PROVED TO BE SENSITIVE TO A NUMBER OF STRESSES. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.
Article
An experimental investigation is described in which personality characteristics are related to efficiency of work output. It appears that introverted subjects function less efficiently in the presence of distractions, while extraverted subjects show actual improvement in the presence of distractions. Other differences in the mode of reaction of these two groups are seen in the range and duration of exploratory movements made to improve the artificially distorted character of the stimulus: the movements of the introverts are few and slow, compared with the extravagant movements of the extraverts. It is suggested that this difference in response merits consideration in placement by personnel selection, and may result in greater contentment at work as well as in improved work efficiency.
Article
AN EXPERIMENT WAS DESIGNED TO LOOK AT THE EFFECTS OF 4 TYPES OF MUSIC, VS. NO MUSIC, ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF PRODUCTION AND THE ATTITUDE OF WORKERS ENGAGED IN THE ROUTINE TASK OF ASSEMBLING AND PACKING SKATEBOARDS. SS WERE 26 ASSEMBLY-LINE PERSONNEL AGES 18-23. 4 TYPES OF MUSIC WERE PLAYED: DANCE, SHOW, FOLK, AND POPULAR. THESE WERE CONTRASTED WITH PERIODS DURING WHICH NO MUSIC WAS PLAYED. MUSIC CONDITIONS WERE BALANCED WITH RESPECT TO DAYS OF THE WEEK OVER A PERIOD OF 5 WK. RESULTS SHOWED THAT, WHILE EMPLOYEES HAD A HIGHLY FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD MUSIC AND THOUGHT THEY DID MORE WORK WITH IT, THERE WAS NO CHANGE IN MEASURED PRODUCTIVITY.
Article
In a field study, three equally sized sales teams used on of three head-sets--left, right, both ears--for a day's selling of insurance by telephone. This had no effect on sales. In a retrospective study of records, daily sales performance including the percentage conversion rate for sales divided by the number of calls and the number and duration of calls was related to preference for type of head-set. Sales were markedly influenced by the choice of head-set. People who chose to wear the left earpiece significantly out sold the others wearing right and stereohead-sets. Neither the number of incoming calls nor the time spent on the telephone were influenced by the choice of head-set. When sales are analysed in terms of individual differences in personal preference for type of head-set, those who chose the left ear had an advantage. Forced use of the left, versus right ear or both ears for one day had no effect.
Article
Personality, as it is usually treated in psychological text-books, is a very uncertain and fuzzy topic. Textbook writers tend to treat it either with benevolent eclecticism, simply presenting eponymous chapters detailing the various virtues of models presented by writers, or by ferocious idiosyncrasy, the writer disregarding all models but his own. What is missing is a paradigm, universally accepted and giving rise to a kind of research which Kuhn characterised as “ordinary science.”
Article
The use of music in industry is discussed as a possible means of aiding alertness, especially in jobs where a certain amount of repetition is involved. Examples are given of the beneficial results obtained by using music in this way and finally there is a discussion on the form of music and the length of programme.
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