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... It also serves as a basis for facilitating the transition of societies towards a circular economy (CE), which is "one that is restorative by design, and which aims to keep products, components and materials at their highest utility and value, at all times" according to Webster [2]. SCP is clearly based on societal needs, and therefore, SCP research (e.g., [3,4]) should be focussed upon solving the societal challenges. But, facing limited diffusion of SCP in our societies thus far (see e.g., [5]), the need for improving SCP research aiming to make real changes in societies towards sustainability is evident. ...
... For simplicity, Alternatives 2 or 3 may be chosen; the strongest relation is nominated in this case. 4. Derive a narrative for the genealogy A narrative is derived to document how the concerned series of research works evolved with cause-and-effect relations. ...
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In light of the escalating challenges for the sustainability of our societies, the need for improving the research of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) aiming to make real changes on the societies towards sustainability is evident. Transdisciplinary (TD) research is a promising way to enhance SCP research; however, insights to operationalize the concept of TD research are needed for both funders and researchers. Therefore, this article proposes an innovative way to capture and analyse a research series for transdisciplinarity assessment in qualitative and quantitative terms. This new way is termed research series review (RSR). This article adopted literature analysis and partly reflexive retrospective reasoning. In particular, citation content analysis was carried out in relation to two research series selected as the cases. The results show that RSR has advantages such as clearer traceability with cause-and-effect relationships. Furthermore, a successful SCP research series is hypothesised to form an iterative process between practical and theoretical fields as well as finding opportunities and proposing solutions.
... Further, the amalgamation is much more than just encouraging consumers to buy products that are a bit more sustainable. Tukker et al. (2010) suggest that research on consumer's consumption behavior and associated environmental impact has reached maturitydhowever, the knowledge derived so far is insufficient to answer the pertinent questions inherent in amalgamation. Stani skis (2012) outline the importance of amalgamation with a particular focus on the role of consumption in driving the production. ...
... As already noted that, SPaC resembles an amalgamation of production and consumption fronts to obtain a further clear picture of the inherent challenges and the potential solutions towards the achievement of sustainable development goals (Johansson and Lindhqvist, 2005;Lozano et al., 2015). This amalgamation (Fig. 1) is the intervening response to the maturity reached in the progress and insufficient knowledge derived while addressing the sustainable development issues from the standalone fronts (Baumgartner and Korhonen, 2010;Fedrigo and Hontelez, 2010;Tukker et al., 2010). ...
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This paper reviews the growing literature on sustainable production and consumption (SPaC) for characterizing the prevailing business focus. We perform a systematic review of the literature in order to identify the fundamental themes of research and the prevailing key issues. We find the business focus in SPaC literature to largely revolve around five principal themes. First is the conceptualization of SPaC, second is the governing role of policy frameworks in initiation and guidance of SPaC transformation, third concerns with the broader (strategic) implementation issues, fourth concerns with the finer (operational) implementation issues and fifth revolves around the importance of maintaining the progress of implementation. Based on the identified themes, we thereby propose a research framework for assisting scholars towards a more structured investigation into the field. In this framework, we focus on further explicating each principal theme to outline, the theme-specific key implications for guiding scholarly work. Overall, the outcomes of this review provide an organization to further strengthen the business focus in SPaC literature.
... Over the last decade, great efforts have been put into policies aimed at production processes. However, only in recent years the importance of the consumption perspective has been highlighted, as high levels of consumption threaten the quality of the environment and the processes of sustainable development (Tukker et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2010;Liobikien _ e and Dagili ut _ e, 2016). The main aim of sustainable consumption is not to worsen the environmental quality by growth of goods and services, not to reduce the consumption but to reduce its environmental impact. ...
... Meanwhile, the personal care products are attributed to necessity products (Wu and Chen, 2012). On the other hand, purchase of personal care products satisfies one's needs for beauty and care for one's general appearance (Todd, 2004;Kim and Chung, 2011). Therefore, in the analysis of determinants of green cosmetics purchase researchers should consider the category to which a particular cosmetic product is attributed. ...
Article
Promotion of green purchasing is one of the ways to minimize the environmental impact of products and achieve sustainability. The research on green marketing and green purchase behavior has recently become a subject of study. This review of 80 papers published from 2011 to 2017 on green purchase behavior revealed that most of the studies were conducted during the last three years. Moreover, the review showed that authors obtained different results of the analysis of the green products in general (including all green products) purchase behavior. Thus, we suggested that the future researchers consider categories to which particular green products could be attributed, since different factors influence the purchase of separate products differently. In addition, we proposed a model for the analysis of green personal care products purchase behavior, giving particular attention to the health consciousness as the main determinant with brand and quality variables, in regard to the color and styling cosmetics products. This study provides insight for future research, policy makers and marketing managers seeking the promotion of green products purchase behavior.
... Undeveloped/ developing economies According to Tukker et al. (2010), the majority of the literature on SCP discusses the factors behind consumer behaviours, their buying pattern and motivation to go for green products. But, such kind of research has reached into a maturity stage and is far developed. ...
... But, such kind of research has reached into a maturity stage and is far developed. Thus researchers may focus on governmental policy reforms and on the serious strategic policies that are required for promoting sustainable life style, to forge sustainable production systems and to stimulate sustainable consumer behaviours (Tukker et al., 2010;Church and Lorek, 2007). Strategies for SCP must be different for different nations depending upon the economic condition, demography, socio-cultural factors, etc. (Spaargaren, 2011;Darnton, 2004;Godfray et al., 2010;Tukker et al., 2008). ...
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This article reviews the literature and identifies challenges, research gaps, and further research directions on sustainable consumption and production (SCP). Several research gaps in the area of SCP are identified that includes: 1) there are very few research works analysing the mismatch between the demand and supply of sustainable products in the market, with the increasing environmental awareness of consumers; 2) despite the growing prominence of emerging nations like BRICS, research in the context of emerging markets in the area of SCP is very limited; 3) researchers on SCP do not seem to embrace mix-methodology; 4) most of the researchers mainly focus on policy reviews or factors behind customer buying patterns or on the use of cleaner energy. There is a further pressing need to explore the soft dimensions and psychological factors behind the acceptance level of policies and sustainable life style. Finally, we outline further research directions.
... We selected these two categories because consumers' large environmental footprints predominately arise from behavior in the domains nutrition and transport (Ivanova et al., 2017). Housing as the third domain will not be covered in this research since consumers less frequently make decisions in this domain (Tukker et al., 2008(Tukker et al., , 2010. ...
... We selected these two categories because consumers' large environmental footprints predominately arise from behavior in the domains nutrition and transport (Ivanova et al., 2017). Housing as the third domain will not be covered in this research since decision-making is less frequent (Tukker et al., 2008(Tukker et al., , 2010. ...
Article
The aim of the research was to investigate how to stimulate sustainable consumer behaviors that lead to a lowering of the carbon footprint. Because of environmental challenges at the individual and societal levels, researchers agree that behavioral change is necessary. We argue that when already performing a sustainable behavior, this behavior can spill over to other sustainable actions, even to more difficult ones. First, we studied whether a positive behavioral spillover occurs between product categories and whether the spillover effect depends on the ease or difficulty of the sustainable behavior. Second, we investigated whether high awareness of sustainability determines the spillover between categories. We conducted three online experiments in Central Europe, investigating whether spillover takes place between behaviors assigned to the same category (transport or food) or between behaviors assigned to different categories (transport or food). In all three studies participants had to make two independent decisions. In studies 1a (N = 281) and 1b (N = 195), the effect of the ease/difficulty of the behavior was tested. In study 2 (N = 164), awareness of CO2 emission reducing effects was manipulated. Findings revealed a behavioral spillover between sustainable choices. Consumers who behave sustainably by choosing a CO2 emission reducing option in the first decision (related to either transport or to food) were more likely to show sustainable behavior in the second decision. The difficulty of performing a sustainable behavior did not impact the spillover effect. By manipulating awareness of negative effects of CO2 emissions specifically, a positive spillover effect was found. Results thereby confirm behavioral spillover effects. Although it appears that the difficulty or ease of a behavior did not matter for the spillover effect, awareness of consequences of sustainable behavior did. The research contributes to the field of sustainable consumption by suggesting the positive behavioral spillover effect as means to increase sustainable choices. This may stimulate corporate sustainability strategies of companies. Moreover, increasing problem awareness strengthens the sustainable behavior. Education in sustainable development may address this.
... According to the findings in some pieces of research, in these areas more than 70% of the resource extraction, 70% of electricity consumption and more than 90% of the appropriated land (Holden, 2004;Lorek & Spangenberg, 2001b;Tukker, 2006) are used. It has been proved that these consumption areas also have the most serious imprint on greenhouse emissions, on the oxidizing and ozone-depleting substances, as well as the usage of resources and energy (EEA, 2005(EEA, , 2010(EEA, , 2019Tukker, 2006;Tukker et al., 2010bTukker et al., , 2010aUNEP, 2011a). What further transpires as a priority area is waste management and recycling (OECD, 2008). ...
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This paper aims at examining the sustainable urban consumption (SUC) of households in three Bulgarian cities and determining whether there are significant differences between their sustainable consumption patterns. A conceptual model for measuring SUC is developed with an emphasis on the behavioral component of the attitudes. As part of this, four indexes to study different dimensions of SUC are constructed, namely: Housing Index (provision of the housing with conditions for sustainable consumption); Electricity and Water Index; Food Index; Transportation Index. А Composite Behavioral Index (CBI) was also constructed from the four aforementioned indexes. The model was tested in an empirical study covering a total of 1049 households in the cities Sofia (403 households), Varna (342 households) and Svishtov (304 households). The results reveal that a relatively small portion of the households in the three cities tend to have sustainable lifestyles. Overall, the households from Varna perform the most sustainable behavior. The efficient use of electricity and water prevails the investments in sustainable housing conditions, which signals for orientation towards short term savings rather than reduction of costs in the long run. With no significant differences between the cities, the sustainable transportation practices are least popular among the households. Sustainable food consumption, normally related to preparing at home fresh and locally produced food of mainly vegetable origin, was more widespread among the households from Varna and Svishtov. The proposed research methodology for measuring SUC can be applied both in comparative analyses of SUC for households from different settlements and regions, and for tracking the changes of SUC for households in a given settlement.
... A rich research literature on sustainable consumption has developed over the past decade, including several special issues of international journals (Tukker et al., 2010b;Le Blanc, 2010;Kilbourne, 2010;Black, 2010;Schrader and Thøgersen, 2011). Several books, such as Prosperity without Growth (Jackson, 2009), discuss the unsustainable nature of current lifestyles, development trajectories, and economic systems, and how these could be changed in more sustainable directions. ...
... These are Target 8.4 resource productivity, Target 12.2 sustainable use of natural resources, and Target 12.5 waste reduction. With this, the SDGs put a strong focus on the underpinning roles of sustainable resource management, resource efficiency, and waste minimization achieved through more sustainable consumption and production (SCP) (158). They request ambitious policy responses on SCP to enable the successful implementation of the SDGs to achieve the desired development outcomes for a growing world population. ...
Article
The growing extraction of natural resources and the waste and emissions resulting from their use are directly or indirectly responsible for humanity approaching or even surpassing critical planetary boundaries. A sound knowledge base of society’s metabolism, i.e., the physical exchange processes between society and its natural environment and the production and consumption processes involved, is essential to develop strategies for more sustainable resource use. Economy-wide material flow accounting (MFA) is a framework that provides consistent compilations of the material inputs to national economies, changes in material stocks within the economic system, and material outputs to other economies and the environment. We present the conceptual foundations of MFA and derived indicators and review the current state of knowledge of global patterns and trends of extraction, trade, and use of materials. We discuss the relation of material use and economic development and the decoupling of material use from economic growth in the context of sustainable resource use policies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources Volume 42 is October 17, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Many studies have been conducted recently on how green and sustainable considerations can be included in the consumption and production systems (Luthra et al., 2016). However, very little research exists that uncovers the drivers related to the adoption of SCP initiatives in supply chain and fosters the development of cleaner production activities (Tukker et al., 2010;Almeida et al., 2013). ...
Article
Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns are becoming important in the implementation of sustainability in industrial contexts. In this sense, this study uniquely focuses on developing a structural model to evaluate the sustainable consumption and production adoption drivers and to improve sustainability aspects in the supply chain scenario under uncertain environments. Initially, fourteen drivers related to sustainable consumption and production adoption were selected from the literature and expert feedback. Then, the grey based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique was used; this approach not only helps to identify the causal relationships between the selected drivers but also helps to evaluate the strength of their interrelationships. The findings indicate that ten drivers are considered influencing drivers and four drivers are called influenced drivers. “Governmental policies and regulations to develop sustainable consumption and production focused system” and “Management support, dedication and involvement in sustainable consumption and production implementation” have been found as the most influencing drivers and “Gaining the market edge and improving the overall performance” and “Initiatives and promotional schemes regulated by various agencies in sustainable consumption and production implementation” the most easily influenced drivers. This work features an Indian automotive case example to show the proposed model applicability. The finding of this work provide a structural support to the managers by knowing the cause (influencing) and effect group (influenced) drivers in sustainable consumption and production implementation in industrial supply chains. By knowing the cause and effect group drivers, managers can more easily analyze the relevant issues in sustainable consumption and production adoption on the shop floor and, consequently, will be better able to improve overall performance. Finally, the unique contributions and limitation of the work are highlighted to provide a foundation for future research.
... En este contexto, el concepto de consumo sustentable se ha hecho popular. Esta noción refleja el uso de bienes y servicios que responden a necesidades básicas y proporcionan una mejor calidad de vida, al mismo tiempo minimizan el uso de recursos naturales, materiales tóxicos y emisiones de desperdicios y contaminantes durante todo el ciclo de vida, de tal manera que no se ponen en riesgo las necesidades de futuras generaciones (MNMA 1994;Ferrer-i-Carbonell & Van Den Bergh 2004;Do 2009;Fedrigo & Hontelez 2010;Krantz 2010;Munasinghe 2010;Tukker et al. 2010). El factor crítico en el consumo sustentable no es el consumo por sí mismo sino la cantidad de energía y recursos utilizados que ocasiona, al consumir un producto orgánico se contribuye con la reducción del impacto ambiental en su proceso de producción. ...
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Sustainable consumption mainly considers factors of environmental and health importance when making a purchasing decision. The main objective of this project was to determine the influence of the government, consumer behaviour, demographics and marketing strategies factors that are involved in the sustainable consumption of organic products in northwestern Mexico. To do this, the theoretical model was defined through a review of literature and a measuring instrument was designed (structured interview based on the 5 points of the Likert scale). Data were collected through a random probability sampling at the sale points. A total of 518 valid questionnaires were obtained. The technique used to identify causal relationships was the Structural Equations Model. The goodness-of-fit indicators of the model were: χ2 = 150.86 (68gl) with a p
... Our findings contribute to filling the enduring knowledge gap on SC policy effectiveness (Tukker, Cohen, Hubacek, & Mont, 2010). A better understanding of the conditions under which public policy instruments can guide consumer behaviour towards sustainability may also provide clues for policy-making. ...
Article
Important knowledge gaps exist regarding the effects of policy instruments for sustainable consumption (SC) and success factors of such instruments. This article compares and summarizes the results of six case studies on the effects and success factors of SC instruments in the need areas of housing and food. While analysing different instrument types from four different European countries, all case studies were guided by the same analytical framework and mixed-methods approach. This synthesis article particularly emphasizes factors fostering the generation of instrument effects (outcomes and impacts) or hampering the creation of such effects, respectively. These factors include instrument goals and design, the accommodation of consumer needs, and the simultaneous addressing of framework conditions, as well as market context, policy interaction, and stakeholder involvement. The findings and conclusions can contribute to a better understanding of the conditions under which policy instruments can steer consumer behaviour towards sustainability.
... Some argue that yes this is the case. In fact according, Tukker, Cohen, Hubacek, and Mont, what is needed is a complete overhaul of our current conspicuous consumer culture, so that it is oriented towards a sustainable consumption and production scenarios (Tukker, Cohen, Hubacek, Mont, 2009, pp.1-3). Whereby sustainable Consumption, is: " The use of basic services / products, but not at the cost of creating environmental destruction, so that a future generation has better quality of life. ...
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In this paper I would like to suggest, that Sustainable Consumption concept, as an alternative economical / exchange system, is what is necessary, if we are to engage sustainability concepts. As a result, I would like to put ford a proposal, whereby a Physical Activity Transaction (PAT) design, can take the form of an alternative economical / exchange system, so as to engage sustainability concepts. In fact the Purpose of a PAT process, is to link human behaviour processes, within a sustainable consumption strategy.
... Although more attention had been placed on production systems in the past, the IE community has taken up the question of consumption in recent years (Hertwich 2005;Tukker et al. 2010). The activities of households can be assessed though material flow analysis and input-output accounting, for example, with the impacts of products and services assessed with life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology (Jungbluth et al. 2011;Jungbluth 2000;Jungbluth et al. 2000;Moll et al. 2005;Mogensen et al. 2009). ...
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Food consumption is a local activity related to environmental impacts at different scales. Yet, the link between eating food as a social and cultural practice and the global implications of food consumption has not been sufficiently explored. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to relate social practices with the biophysical flows of food products at the household level. Focusing on middle-class households in Metro Manila, the Philippines, we conduct qualitative interviews to highlight preferences, habits, and perceptions about food consumption. In parallel, we collect quantitative information on food purchased. We relate our results to national trends by analyzing the recent evolution of national food expenditures. Finally, we review environmental impacts related to main food categories. Our research points to the significance of socioeconomic factors on food consumption, notably the presence of domestic help or the professional situation of household members. One main finding is the identification of eating out as an important and growing trend in Asian cities, which causes a shift of resource consumption and related environmental impacts from the household to the service sector.
... It is known that economic growth happens through industrial growth; thus, it requires the use of natural resources. The consequences of BRIC´s rapid economic growth and development have been drawing the attention of several environmentalists that are concerned about the high level of pollution emissions these countries release into the atmosphere (Abramovay, 2010) as a result of the increased number of industries and the exacerbated consumption of more products that are unsustainable (Gonçalves- Dias and Moura, 2007;Ekins, 1991;McGregor, 2005), which take a long time to decompose; require an extensive recycling process, or even compromise natural resources (Tukker et al., 2010). ...
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Over the past several decades, the amount of attention given to various countries’ environmental impact has greatly increased. Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) have been drawing special attention due to the pollution emissions released into the atmosphere by their increasing number of industries and their exaggerated consumption of products. This article aims to elucidate and analyze the evolution of some of the atmospheric indicators of the BRIC group of countries, the amount of money each country invests in research and development of renewable energies, and the possible human health consequences of excess exposure to CO2. Secondary data on atmospheric indicators of the BRIC group of countries were obtained and critically analyzed. They were first tabulated in an Excel spreadsheet and then presented in tables and figures. Linear regression and the correlation between CO2 and global warming for the next few years were also determined. The findings reveal that CO2 emissions per capita as well as the kilograms in USD$ of the GDP of the countries showed an average increase of 15% in Brazil, Russia, and India. The average increase in China was 30%. China and Brazil are the countries that invest the most in research and development. It is concluded based on the forecasted predictions that if the surveyed countries adopt effective preventive measures, the CO2 emissions and amount of air pollution could show a downward trend over time; on the other hand, if nothing is done to reverse this situation, the indexes may even exceed the forecasts. Key words: Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC), carbon dioxide, air pollution.
... In essence, an analysis of a household's carbon footprint can be undertaken by a number of life-cycle approaches [38,39]. The approach we are applying here uses three data sources; a household expenditure database, input-output tables, and matching satellite accounts containing environmental data. ...
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Crafting environmental policies that at the same time enhance, or at least not reduce people’s wellbeing, is crucial for the success of government action aimed at mitigating environmental impact. However, there does not yet exist any survey that refers to one and the same population, and that allows the identifying relationships and trade-offs between subjective wellbeing and the complete environmental impact of households. In order to circumvent the lack of comprehensive survey information, we attempt to integrate two separate survey databases, and describe the challenges associated with this integration. Our results indicate that carbon footprints are likely to increase, but wellbeing levels off with increasing income. Living together with people is likely to create a win-win situation where both climate and wellbeing benefit. Car ownership obviously creates emissions, however personal car ownership enhances subjective wellbeing, but living in an area with high car ownership decreases subjective wellbeing. Finally, gaining educational qualifications is linked with increased emissions. These results indicate that policy-making is challenged in striking a wise balance between individual convenience and the common good.
... Over the last decade, great efforts have been put into policies and programmes aimed at production processes. However, only in recent years has the importance of the consumption perspective been highlighted, as high levels of consumption threaten the quality of the environment and the processes of sustainable development (Tukker et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2010). While seeking sustainable consumption, which aims to achieve that the growth of goods and services consumption should not worsen environmental quality, the most important element is to promote more environmentally-friendly behaviour. ...
... For instance, Hepburn, Beinhocker, Farmer, and Teytelboym (2014) and Hepburn and Bowen (2013) argue prosperity within planetary boundaries. The IPCC's Fifth Assessment report (Fleurbaey et al., 2014, chapter 4) cites rich research literature on sustainable consumption developed over the past decade (Black, 2010;Jackson, 2009;Le Blanc, 2010;Schrader & Thogersen, 2011;Tukker, Cohen, Hubacek, & Mont, 2010). The authors focus on the unsustainable nature of current lifestyles, development trajectories, and economic systems and the ways in which these lifestyles could be steered in a more sustainable direction. ...
Article
This synthesis article reviews China's efforts and effects concerning low-carbon green growth (LCGG) and explores the policy implications of reformulating the country's LCGG strategy. The article first reviews China's efforts in four major areas – carbon mitigation, market construction, fostering green industries, and managing the negative effects of LCGG – and then reviews China's LCGG effects with respect to the growth effect and the low-carbon effect. The results show that the increasingly stringent low-carbon policy has not diminished the country's economic growth as some had expected. Rather, the policy has fostered green industries and brought impressive quality improvements, including structural change and increased employment. Although the efforts and effects in China are impressive, the global emissions reduction is far from sufficient to achieve the global climate change target. To solve the problem of global climate change and seize the opportunity of green growth, China must reformulate its LCGG strategy, not just enhancing its existing LCGG efforts, but more importantly, rethinking the purpose of development and shifting its development paradigm from one that is highly gross domestic product (GDP)-oriented to one that is well-being-oriented. Policy relevance China must reformulate its LCGG strategy on two levels. First, China must enhance its existing efforts. Second, China should learn lessons from the industrial countries and reformulate its development model to one that is well-being-oriented to establish a more forward-looking green growth model in the new context of the Internet era. The time is now ripe for China to make a strategic transition. The 13th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2016 to 2020) provides an opportunity for a more fundamental change in LCGG strategy. If China could succeed in exploring LCGG, it would make a significant contribution to the whole world.
... Sustainable development has attracted increasing attention from academia and practitioners (Tukker et al., 2010;Berg, 2011;Roy and Singh, 2017). Sustainable consumption and production (SCP) are often considered as two pillars of sustainable develop- ment ( Moldan et al., 2012). ...
Article
The organizations engaged in sustainable development programmes are increasingly paying serious attention towards synergetic relationships between focal firms and their partners to achieve the goal of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) via big data and predictive analytics (BDPA). The study examines the role of BDPA in collaborative performance (CP) among the partners engaged in sustainable development programme to achieve the goal of SCP. The study further investigates the contingent effect of organization fit on the impact of BDPA on CP. We used variance based structural equation modelling (PLS SEM) to test research hypotheses using a sample of 190 respondents working in auto-components manufacturing organizations in India drawn from the ACMA and Dun & Bradstreet databases. The results indicate that BDPA has a significant positive impact on the CP among partners and the organizational compatibility and resource complementarity have positive moderating effects on the path joining BDPA and CP. The study contributes to the understanding of BDPA and collaboration literature in the context of sustainable development. These findings extend the dynamic capability view (DCV) to create a better understanding of contemporary applications of big data and predictive analytics capability, while also providing theoretically grounded directions to managers who seek to use information processing technologies to continuously improve the collaboration in supply chain networks. We have also noted some of the limitations of our study and identified numerous further research directions.
... Industrial ecology is so appealing to profound changes in the modes of production and consumption. This is to initiate a pattern of "Sustainable Production and Consumption" (Tukker, Cohen, Hubacek, Mont, 2010). Energy conservation and recycling are today a first step in these changes. ...
... As noted by Mont and Plepys [18], this approach has dominated political and scientific thinking, particularly since the Earth Summit in Johannesburg in 2002, which is reflected in the concept of sustainable consumption and production (SCP). In SCP, the focus is on products and services, as well as consumer responsibility for buying environmentally sustainable products [19,20]. In accordance with the concept of SCP, the European Commission postulates increasing efficiency while consuming less raw materials, reducing costs, and limiting the impact on the environment [21]. ...
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Producers and retailers are the driving force behind the adoption of the idea of sustainability. It has been found that while preparing their product range offer, many still pay attention to the same set of criteria: size of the customers' earnings, how often they shop, and how much they buy when shopping. In general, sustainable values applied by consumers in their purchasing decisions are rarely taken into account in consumer segmentation. The aim of this study is to recognize if values such as environmental protection, producers' ethical behavior, fair trade or maximizing the utility function of consumption are important factors in the purchasing process of coffee and if they can be used as segmentation variables. The discussed findings come from a standardized online survey conducted on a sample of 800 Polish coffee consumers in July 2018. The obtained results are discussed by employing multi-dimensional analyses, such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and cluster analysis (CA). In consequence, six segments of coffee consumers are identified and described: "responsible, aspiring to be connoisseurs", "loyal coffee enthusiasts", "pragmatic users", "coffee laypersons", "sophisticated connoisseurs", and "consumerists, connoisseurs, but not at any price". Among the identified segments, the most often indicated sustainable consumption values refer to "responsible, aspiring to be connoisseurs", and the least often to "consumerists, connoisseurs, but not at any price". The conclusions may be used by manufacturing and trade enterprises operating in the coffee market to respond to the identified needs and expectations of consumers.
... In this framework, geosciences are critical to design and establish sustainable economic systems (Tukker et al. 2010), and geoscientists have a particular responsibility towards society, since they are called to provide advice on the extraction and use of natural resources, on environmental protection and on the dynamics of natural systems (Peppoloni and Di Capua 2017) 1 . ...
Article
Population growth, political and social factors, technological advances, and climate change are driving forces that are shaping a world where access to natural resources is critical. Geoscientists' contribution to the comprehensive management of natural resources is vital and this calls for the active involvement of skilled, experienced professionals. The authors describe how, in this framework, systems for professional regulation and certification of geoscientists facilitate mobility, interchanging of ideas and knowledge, best ethical practice and protection of the public and environment.
... Assessing energy use and emissions associated with household consumption has received considerable attention in environmental sustainability and climate research due to the significant emissions from households and their supply chain effects triggered through consumption choices (Druckman and Jackson, 2009;Girod and Haan, 2010;Tukker et al., 2010). Demand-side management has become increasingly important in the US for its potentialeffects on emission reduction (Dietz et al., 2009), especially given the lack of mitigation efforts and curbing and weakening of existing regulations at the national level (Jotzo et al., 2018). ...
Article
Household carbon emissions are mainly affected by income as well as demographic factors. Understanding the contribution of these factors can inform climate responsibilities and potential demand-side climate mitigation strategies. By linking US consumer expenditure survey data with a nested national within a global multi-regional input-output model, this study estimates consumption-based GHG emissions for 9 income groups and assesses the carbon inequality in the US for 2015. Our results show that the per capita carbon footprint (CF) of the highest income group (>200 thousand USD per year) with 32.3 tons is about 2.6 times the per capita CF of the lowest income group (<15 thousand USD) with 12.3 tons. This is due to large gap in consumption volume and associated carbon emissions along the entire global production chain. Consumption pattern tends to narrow the gap in household per capita CF between income groups due to the lower carbon intensity per dollar spent by higher income groups. Another important factor influencing carbon footprints is household size and thus sharing of household equipment and other consumption items. The US average per capita CF is 18.1 tons compared to the global average of approximately 5 tons. The high carbon footprint across income groups in the US is largely due to the large contribution of emissions from heating and cooling and private transport, which reflects the settlement structure and lifestyles in the US, relying heavily on cars and living in larger houses.
... For these problems, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists are encouraging the use of organic products able to respect our habitat. Presently, organic products are increasing their marketing power and social interest thanks to the high expectations of consumers towards ambient and human health [1,2]. These goods, to be considered "green" or "organic", must be produced with renewable energy, possess characteristics such as fast degradation, minimize waste production, and be environmentally friendly [3]. ...
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Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituents of the exoskeleton of many organisms and as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Presently, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encourage the use of these marine polysaccharides as a renewable source developed by alternative eco-friendly processes, especially in the production of regular cosmetics. The aim of this review is to outline the physicochemical and biological properties and the different bioextraction methods of chitin and chitosan sources, focusing on enzymatic deproteinization, bacteria fermentation, and enzymatic deacetylation methods. Thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity, the applications of these marine polymers are widely used in the contemporary manufacturing of biomedical and pharmaceutical products. In the end, advanced cosmetics based on chitin and chitosans are presented, analyzing different therapeutic aspects regarding skin, hair, nail, and oral care. The innovative formulations described can be considered excellent candidates for the prevention and treatment of several diseases associated with different body anatomical sectors.
... At that time, HW was also used for saving money while living in Bangkok, or for the cleanliness. Meanwhile, many respondents use PSS effectively for saving time and effort as well as increasing the quality of laundry, which resembles the use pattern of Japanese consumers [17]. ...
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This study aimed to define the use of product–service system (PSS) associated with laundry businesses, such as coin-operated self-service laundromats (CL) and laundry services (LS), in order to get a better understanding of the environmental implications of PSS in laundry habits in Bangkok, Thailand. The motivation to use PSS could vary according to the specific consumer needs often defined by cultures, and therefore the environmental impacts from the PSS use would result differently from country to country. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted with Bangkok residents to determine the laundry habits related to the use of PSS. As a result, the use of private washing machines (PW) was found to be the main option, and CL and LS were used as an additional option in the laundry habits. The most widely observed use pattern in Bangkok was the use of CL as an alternative to PW instead of buying a new machine for a new life in dormitories or other residences away from home. At that time, hand washing (HW) was also used for saving money and for the cleanliness. Regarding the environmental potential, the relationship between the PSS users and laundry habits was specifically analyzed. The group who uses PSS frequently tended to do laundry less often than those who only use PW. Meanwhile, the need for even more services is also expected to increase among the PSS users. The need to improve the quality of laundry is expected to increase with the improvement of quality of living in Bangkok in the near future. However, at the same time, these observations imply that a change of consumer behaviors related to the use of PSS determines the resulting energy consumption and environmental burdens. To further clarify sustainable consumption and production systems, a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of the laundry habits remains as a future task.
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This study aimed to define the use of products and services of PSS associated with laundry businesses such as coin-operated self-service laundromats (CL) and laundry services (LS) in order to get a better understanding of the environmental implications of PSS in laundry habits in Bangkok, Thailand. The motivation to use product-service systems (PSS) could vary according to the specific consumer needs often defined by cultures, and therefore the environmental impacts from the PSS use would result differently from country to country. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted with Bangkok residents to determine the laundry habits related to the use of PSS. As a result, the use of private washing machines (PW) was found to be in the main option and CL and LS were used as an additional option in the laundry habits. Regarding the environmental potential, the respondent who uses CL and LS frequently tended to do laundry less often than those who only use PW. Meanwhile, CL and LS users adopted the use of tumble dryer more often, and the need to use was high compared to others who do not use PSS. The need to improve the quality of laundry is expected to increase with the improvement of quality of living in Bangkok in the near future. However, at the same time, these observations imply that change of consumer behaviors related to the use of PSS can affect energy consumption and environmental burdens. To further clarify sustainable consumption and production systems, a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of the laundry habits remains as a future task.
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Chapter
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Report by the Sustainable Development Commission; later published as https://doi.org/10.4324/9781849774338. Prosperity without Growth? analyses the complex relationships between growth, environmental crises and social recession. In the last quarter of a century, as the global economy has doubled in size, increases in consumption have caused the degradation of an estimated 60% of the world's ecosystems. The benefits of growth have been distributed unevenly, with a fifth of the world's population sharing just 2% of global income. Even in developed countries, huge gaps in wealth and well-being remain between rich and poor.
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Individuals and households make many decisions that are critical in shaping our energy future. As citizens , people favor some policies and oppose others, support some candidates for elective of½ce and not others, write op-eds, comment on blogs, and otherwise engage in political action. They attempt to influence decisions that help determine which kind of local, state, federal, and international policies are adopted, and such policies in turn shape the energy system of the future. People sometimes engage in more direct politics by organizing to support or oppose proposed technological changes, especially the siting of new facilities. For example, the use of nuclear power in the United States stopped expanding in the 1980s largely as a result of massive public opposition to new nuclear power plants. 1 Current proposals for developing wind power facilities often face serious local opposition, as do efforts to develop unconventional shale gas deposits and to implement smart electrical grids and smart home metering. 2 Such political actions are critically important to the energy futures of democracies. We focus here, Abstract: Actions by individuals and households to reduce carbon-based energy consumption have the potential to change the picture of U.S. energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the near term. To tap this potential, however, energy policies and programs need to replace outmoded assumptions about what drives human behavior; they must integrate insights from the behavioral and social sciences with those from engineering and economics. This integrated approach has thus far only occasionally been implemented. This essay summarizes knowledge from the social sciences and from highly successful energy programs to show what the potential is and how it can be achieved.
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The report is a scientific contribution to the European Commission's Integrated Product Policy framework, which seeks to minimise the environmental degradation caused throughout the life cycle of products. This report first presents an overview of the environmental impact cause by current dietary habits in EU27. It then develops three alternative diets on the basis of health recommendations from EFSA, WHO and other organisations, and calculates the changes in environmental impacts achievable through a shift towards these diets. Finally the report analyses policy measures which stimulate the uptake of healthy diets by consumers. The report shows that current dietary habits in Europe are responsible for 27% of all environmental impacts in Europe. A shift to healthier diets shows that the contribution to overall environmental impacts in Europe can be reduced to 25% in case of reduced consumption of red meat. The contribution reduces to just 26% if indirect effects such as household budget re-distribution and price and substitution effects in the agricultural sector are taken into account. Because food and nutrition are strongly rooted in traditions and habits, policy measures aiming at stimulating a change towards healthy diets need to include a combination of different instruments, ranging from consumer awareness raising to public procurement activities.
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Sustainable development requires changes in socio-technical systems and wider societal change - in beliefs, values and governance that co-evolve with technology changes. In this article we present a practical model for managing processes of co-evolution: transition management. Transition management is a multilevel model of governance which shapes processes of co-evolution using visions, transition experiments and cycles of learning and adaptation. Transition management helps societies to transform themselves in a gradual, reflexive way through guided processes of variation and selection, the outcomes of which are stepping stones for further change. It shows that societies can break free from existing practices and technologies, by engaging in co-evolutionary steering. This is illustrated by the Dutch waste management transition. Perhaps transition management constitutes the third way that policy scientists have been looking for all the time, combining the advantages of incrementalism (based on mutual adaptation) with the advantages of planning (based on long-term objectives).
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Over the past few decades, there has been a growing concern about the social and environmental risks which have come along with the progress achieved through a variety of mutually intertwined modernization processes. In recent years these concerns are transformed into a widely-shared sense of urgency, partly due to events such as the various pandemics threatening livestock, and increasing awareness of the risks and realities of climate change, and the energy and food crises. This sense of urgency includes an awareness that our entire social system is in need of fundamental transformation. But like the earlier transition between the 1750's and 1890's from a pre-modern to a modern industrial society, this second transition is also a contested one. Sustainable development is only one of many options. This book addresses the issue on how to understand the dynamics and governance of the second transition dynamics in order to ensure sustainable development. It will be necessary reading for students and scholars with an interest in sustainable development and long-term transformative change.
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Adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit and elaborated at the Johannesburg Conference a decade later, sustainable consumption occupies an increasingly prominent political position. Numerous governmental ministries and supranational organisations have produced sustainable consumption plans. However, actual programmatic initiatives have been limited to modest information and education campaigns as policy proposals are constrained by political contexts. Researchers have documented flows of materials and energy, but have disregarded the political and economic dynamics that animate throughput movements. Inattention to factors that propel the global metabolism, scholarship largely failed to anticipate the ongoing global financial collapse. Work on the household economics and macroeconomics of consumption is reviewed and an international political economy of (un)sustainable consumption is developed. Realignment of the global economic order will require renegotiation of the tacit agreements that the USA strikes with its trading partners and the design of more efficacious systems of production and consumption.
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The developed world, increasingly aware of "inconvenient truths" about global warming and sustainability, is turning its attention to possible remedies-eco-efficiency, sustainable development, and corporate social responsibility, among others. But such measures are mere Band-Aids, and they may actually do more harm than good, says John Ehrenfeld, a pioneer in the field of industrial ecology. In this deeply considered book, Ehrenfeld challenges conventional understandings of "solving" environmental problems and offers a radically new set of strategies to attain sustainability. The book is founded upon this new definition: sustainability is the possibility that humans and other life will flourish on Earth forever. There are obstacles to this hopeful vision, however, and overcoming them will require us to transform our behavior, both individually and collectively. Ehrenfeld identifies problematic cultural attributes-such as the unending consumption that characterizes modern life-and outlines practical steps toward developing sustainability as a mindset. By focusing on the "being" mode of human existence rather than on the unsustainable "having" mode we cling to now, he asserts, a sustainable world is within our reach.
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How serious are the threats to our environment? Here is one measure of the problem: if we continue to do exactly what we are doing, with no growth in the human population or the world economy, the world in the latter part of this century will be unfit to live in. Of course human activities are not holding at current levels-they are accelerating, dramatically-and so, too, is the pace of climate disruption, biotic impoverishment, and toxification. In this book Gus Speth, author of Red Sky at Morning and a widely respected environmentalist, begins with the observation that the environmental community has grown in strength and sophistication, but the environment has continued to decline, to the point that we are now at the edge of catastrophe. Speth contends that this situation is a severe indictment of the economic and political system we call modern capitalism. Our vital task is now to change the operating instructions for today's destructive world economy before it is too late. The book is about how to do that.
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'Frank Geels's book gives us a new perspective on how society moves from one technological regime to another. Understanding these transitions is essential if we are to get to grips with what we need to do to switch our societies to more sustainable states and how technologies figure in that switch.' - Ken Green, Institute of Innovation Research, The University of Manchester, UK This important book addresses how long term and large scale shifts from one socio-technical system to another come about, using insights from evolutionary economics, sociology of technology and innovation studies. These major changes involve not just technological changes, but also changes in markets, regulation, culture, industrial networks and infrastructure.
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Acknowledgments Introduction The Communities and Their Contexts House Contents and Fuel Consumption Household Activities Consumer Awareness: Energy, Self-Image, and Conservation Energy Consumption: Cultural Mandates and Individual Rationales Energy Conservation: Cultural Sanctions and Individual Motives The New Environmental Focus Consumerism Worldview Conclusion Appendix Bibliography Index
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A case–control study of the car-free model housing project in Vienna was conducted to evaluate whether people living in this settlement have more ‘sustainable lifestyles’ than people living in comparable buildings in Vienna. Another aim was to identify the lifestyle characteristics and household activities which significantly influence the environmental impact of the residents of the car-free housing project and a control group. The control group, referred to as the reference settlement, was chosen from a nearby building complex, with similar characteristics, but without the car-free feature. Household consumption patterns were estimated based on interviews in combination with data from the Austrian consumer expenditure survey and the national accounts. The evaluation of household environmental impacts uses emissions estimates from the Austrian national accounting matrices including environmental accounts and data from life-cycle assessments. Households from the car-free settlement have substantially lower environmental impacts in the categories of ground transportation and energy use; their CO2 emissions of these two categories are less than 50% of those living in the reference settlement. The households in the car-free settlement have somewhat higher emissions in the categories air transport, nutrition, and ‘other’ consumption, reflecting the higher income per-capita. As a result, the CO2 emissions are only slightly lower than in the reference settlement, but the emissions intensity is 20% lower. Both household groups have significantly lower environmental impacts than the Austrian average reflecting less car use and cleaner heating energy in Vienna.
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The climate change issue imposes us not only to change the way we produce and convert energy but also to modify current energy consumption patterns. A substantial body of literature has shown that our behavior is often guided by habits. The existence of habits - not fully conscious forms of behavior - is important as it contradicts rational choice theory. Their presence thus calls for the setting of new instruments as it is difficult to expect consumers to be capable of exercising control over their consumption of energy in reaction to given incentives. This is further increased in our perspective where the current carbon-based Socio-Technical System constrains and shapes consumers' choices through structural, cultural, social and institutional forces. Habits being potentially "counterintentional," can be considered as a form of behavioral lock-in that may explain continued increase of energy consumption. Policies should thus specifically address the performance context of habits. © 2009, Journal of Economic Issues / Association for Evolutionary Economics.
Article
Summary This article explores the intrinsic role of context in shaping the course and outcomes of interventions aimed at changing environmentally significant behavior in home and workplace settings. Drawing on sociological theories of symbolic interactionism, we evaluate the social dynamics and mechanisms of two similar, team-based behavior change interventions at work (Environment Champions) and at home (EcoTeams). The analysis shows that the interventions open up different levels of opportunity for reviewing and renegotiating new environmentally friendly behaviors against the reactions and expectations of the immediate peer group, existing workplace or domestic roles, and the situation-specific definitions of what counts as appropriate behavior in the home and the workplace. We argue that policy studies should pay greater attention to the processes of behavior change, or the contextually sensitive relationship between interventions and outcomes, as a step toward refining or streamlining interventions aimed at changing environmentally significant behavior.
Article
Von Hippel and colleagues have highlighted the crucial role of users in innovation in different industries and types of products. They describe the innovation process in terms of the distinct domains of knowledge that producers and users possess. Producers have knowledge about technical solutions and users about their needs, the context of use, and their own capabilities as users. Both sets of knowledge are characterized by “stickiness”: They move relatively freely within their own domain but are difficult to transfer outside of it. In the case of radical innovations for sustainable consumption, the problem of “sticky information” is compounded. Both producers and consumers need to reach out of their conventional competencies and search for new solutions. “Societal actors,” such as government bodies or environmental experts, can show the way to such solutions, but this new knowledge needs to be integrated with the “sticky” knowledge about everyday practices in production and consumption. In the present article we attempt to conceptualize the role and interaction of user and producer knowledge with the knowledge of environmental experts in housing energy innovations. We do so by applying the user−producer interaction framework to a case study on the introduction of low-energy housing concepts in Finland. On the basis of this analysis, we draw conclusions on the potential and limitations of today's practices in the field. For example, we suggest that user involvement can help to enhance the acceptance of low-energy solutions but that the methods for involving users need to be adapted to the particular circumstances in each industry.
Article
Summary This article links databases on household consumption, industrial production, economic turnover, employment, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions into a spatially explicit model. The causal sequence starts with households demanding a certain consumer basket. This demand requires production in a complex supply-chain network of interdependent industry sectors. Even though the household may be confined to a particular geographical location, say a dwelling in a city, the industries producing the indirect inputs for the commodities that the household demands will be dispersed all over Australia and probably beyond. Industrial production represents local points of economic activity, employment, water use, and emissions that have local economic, social, and environmental impacts. The consumer basket of a typical household is followed in Australia's two largest cities—Sydney and Melbourne—along its upstream supply chains and to numerous production sites within Australia. The spatial spread is described by means of a detailed regional interindustry model. Through industry-specific emissions profiles, industrial production is then translated into local impacts. We show that annually a typical household is responsible for producing approximately 80 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions, uses around 3 million liters of water, causes about A$140,000 to circulate in the wider economy, and provides labor worth just under three full-time employment-years. We also introduce maps that visually demonstrate how a very localized household affects the environment across an entire continent. Our model is unprecedented in its spatial and sectoral detail, at least for Australia.
Article
In this article we apply geodemographic consumer segmentation data in an input−output framework to understand the direct and indirect carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with consumer behavior of different lifestyles in the United Kingdom. In a subsequent regression analysis, we utilize the lifestyle segments contained in the dataset to control for aspects of behavioral differences related to lifestyles in an analysis of the impact of various socioeconomic variables on CO2 emissions, such as individual aspirations and people's attitudes toward the environment, as well as the physical context in which people act. This approach enables us to (1) test for the significance of lifestyles in determining CO2 emissions, (2) quantify the importance of a variety of individual socioeconomic determinants, and (3) provide a visual representation of “where” the various factors exert the greatest impact, by exploiting the spatial information contained in the lifestyle data. Our results indicate the importance of consumer behavior and lifestyles in understanding CO2 emissions in the United Kingdom. Across lifestyle groups, CO2 emissions can vary by a factor of between 2 and 3. Our regression results provide support for the idea that sociodemographic variables are important in explaining emissions. For instance, controlling for lifestyles and other determinants, we find that emissions are increasing with income and decreasing with education. Using the spatial information, we illustrate how the lifestyle mix of households in the United Kingdom affects the geographic distribution of environmental impacts.
Article
This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked.
Article
It is often argued that ANT fails to offer a satisfactory theory of the actor which is allegedly endowed either with limitless power, or deprived of any room for manoeuvre at all. The aim of this paper is to show that the absence of a theory of the actor, when combined with the role attributed to non-humans in the description of action, is precisely one of the strengths of ANT that it is most important to preserve. This is because this combination makes it possible to explain the existence and the working of economic markets. Any particular market is the consequence of operations of disentanglement, framing, internalization and externalization. ANT makes it possible to explain these operations and the emergence of calculating agents. Homo economicus is neither a pure invention, nor an impoverished vision of a real person. It indeed exists, but is the consequence of a process in which economic science places an active role. The conclusion is that ANT has passed one of the most demanding tests: that of the market.
Article
Three things are drawn together to form the basis for this article: the contemporary debates about excessive consumption, a theoretical interest in markets and consumption, and a set of sensivities concerning the study of social practices derived from the sociology of science and techniques. The purpose of the article is to elaborate on how current theorising about markets and consumption within interpretative consumer research and market studies may be furthered by insights from a practice approach. The challenges for marketing provided by the contemporary debates on rampant materialism and excessive consumption were chosen as a suitable site for this discussion. Specifically, the article addresses three issues that emerge at the intersection of market exchange and consumption in the face of uneconomic growth: 1) calculation – how do calculative practices, broadly defined, partake in generating over‐consumption? 2) performativity – what is the role of marketing in fuelling overconsumption? 3) agency – how are “over‐consumers” constituted in practice?
Academics and policymakers claim that community-based organisations can mobilise citizens to take on more sustainable behaviours. The evidence for the influence of activities run by community-based organisations on individual sustainability is in relatively short supply, particularly in developed country contexts. There is limited understanding of the contextual conditions that are favourable for such interventions, the types of individuals that are likely to be affected and the decision-making processes of individuals in taking on particular behaviours. This paper presents a descriptive model built from current empirical literature in the area, and the wider pro-environmental behaviour literature, which begins to explain the causal factors present in interventions of this type.
Article
We evaluate the energy requirements of household expenditures for all products from the 1960–1961 Consumer Expenditure Survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. We use more detail and employ more accurate energy intensities than in a previous, preliminary work (R. Herendeen, Affluence and energy demand, Mechan. Engng, October, 1974), and also introduce a modest analysis of errors. We find that, within error bounds, one “universal” curve shows the dependence of energy impact of expenditures for households of 2 through 6 members. This curve bends down somewhat; that is, it is less than linear. The single-member household falls below the “universal” curve, apparently because of reduced purchases of actual energy. A typical poor household exerts ~65% of its energy requirements through its purchases of residential energy and auto fuel; for an affluent household, this fraction drops to 35%. We also find evidence that urban life is approximately 15% less energy intensive (Btu per dollar expended) than rural non-farm life.
Conference Paper
The potential to moderate travel demand through changes in the built environment is the subject of more than 50 recent empirical studies. The majority of recent studies are summarized. Elasticities of travel demand with respect to density, diversity, design, and regional accessibility are then derived from selected studies. These elasticity values may be useful in travel forecasting and sketch planning and have already been incorporated into one sketch planning tool, the Environmental Protection Agency's Smart Growth Index model. In weighing the evidence, what can be said, with a degree of certainty, about the effects of built environments on key transportation "outcome" variables: trip frequency, trip length, mode choice, and composite measures of travel demand, vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and vehicle hours traveled (VHT)? Trip frequencies have attracted considerable academic interest of late. They appear to be primarily a function of socioeconomic characteristics of travelers and secondarily a function of the built environment. Trip lengths have received relatively little attention, which may account for the various degrees of importance attributed to the built environment in recent studies. Trip lengths are primarily a function of the built environment and secondarily a function of socioeconomic characteristics. Mode choices have received the most intensive study over the decades. Mode choices depend on both the built environment and socioeconomics (although they probably depend more on the latter). Studies of overall VMT or VHT find the built environment to be much more significant, a product of the differential trip lengths that factor into calculations of VMT and VHT.
Article
Life cycle cost (LCC) computations are a well-established instrument for the evaluation of intertemporal choices in organizations, but they have not been widely adopted by private consumers yet. Consumer investment decisions for products and services with higher initial costs and lower operating costs are potentially subject to numerous cognitive biases, such as present-biased preferences or framing effects. This article suggests a classification for categorizing different cost profiles for eco-innovation and a conceptual model for the influence of LCC information on consumer decisions regarding eco-innovation. It derives hypotheses on the decision-making process for eco-innovation from a theoretical perspective. To verify the hypotheses, the publication reviews empirical studies evaluating the effects of LCC information on consumer investment decisions. It can be concluded that rather than finding ways to make customers pay more for environmentally sound products, the marketing challenge for eco-innovation should be reconceptualized as one of lowering customers’ perceived initial cost and increasing awareness of LCC. Most existing studies report a positive effect of LCC information on the purchase likelihood of eco-innovations. Disclosing LCC information provides an important base for long-term thinking on the individual, corporate, and policy levels.