Article

Modelling growth rate of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in intensively managed ponds: effects of temperature, pond age and stocking density

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Abstract

Records of shrimp growth and water quality made during 12 crops from each of 48 ponds, over a period of 6.5 years, were provided by a Queensland, Australia, commercial shrimp farm. These data were analysed with a new growth model derived from the Gompertz model. The results indicate that water temperature, mortality and pond age significantly affect growth rates. After 180 days, shrimp reach 34 g at constant 30 °C, but only 15 g after the same amount of time at 20 °C. Mortality, through thinning the density of shrimp in the ponds, increased the growth rate, but the effect is small. With continual production, growth rates at first remained steady, then appeared to decrease for the sixth and seventh crop, after which they have increased steadily with each crop. It appears that conservative pond management, together with a gradual improvement in husbandry techniques, particularly feed management, brought about this change. This has encouraging implications for the long-term sustainability of the farming methods used. The growth model can be used to predict productivity, and hence, profitability, of new aquaculture locations or new production strategies.

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... The initial and final mean weight of shrimp, survival, final biomass, apparent feed intake and FCR were the same for all treatments. The growth rate of the shrimp was slightly lower (1.4 to 1.5 g week -1 ) than that modelled for farmed P. monodon of the same size, grown under the same temperature regimen (1.7 g week -1 ) (Jackson & Wang 1998). Given that the disturbance of shrimp would be greater with our feeding and tank management protocols than in commercial shrimp ponds, the growth rate of the shrimp in this experiment compares favourably. ...
... Feed requirements are well known to vary between species and with fish size and age, dietary protein and energy, feeding history and environmental factors, particularly temperature. As with other animals, feeding activities in fishes exhibit "circadian-like" patterns (Noeske & Spieler 1984;Boujard & Leatherland 1992); however, numerous studies have shown that regulated feeding in aquaculture may override to some degree, the various natural rhythms associated with appetite, feeding and digestion (Davis & Bardack 1965;Boujard & Leatherland 1992;Robinson et al. 1995;Jarboe & Grant 1996;Koskela et al. 1997;Wang et al. 1998;Chen et al. 1999). ...
... The highest feeding frequency required for maximum growth of silver perch was twice daily, even for small fingerlings; more feeds did not improve growth significantly. Many species studied in aquaculture show a positive effect of feeding frequency on growth, at least up to 2 or 3 meals per day depending on species (Andrews & Page 1975;Grayton & Beamish 1977;Siraj et al. 1988;Wang et al. 1998;Lee et al. 2000;Thompson et al. 2000), although there are reports of much higher frequencies such as up to 6 daily feeds for maximum growth in young red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) (Kayano et al. 1993). However, Jarboe & Grant (1996) found no significant differences in survival and growth of channel catfish fed 3% once or 3 times daily in a recirculating raceway system, and Thommasen & Fjaera (1996) found no difference in growth of post-smolt Atlantic salmon fed a restricted ration at frequencies between 3 and 80 times/day. ...
... However, Shepherd and Hearn (1983) observed early growth of haliotids to be non-linear. The use of the Gompertz model is explored, and covariates are introduced via a modification of the model presented in Jackson and Wang (1998). ...
... where ε j represents measurement error and is a random variable with assumed distribution N(0, 2 ε ). For the Gompertz model we use a length version of the model presented in Jackson and Wang (1998) with an adaptation to fit the likelihood process (see Appendix A). The mean length is ...
... For the inclusion of time-dependent growth covariates into the Gompertz growth model we will use the model version from Jackson and Wang (1998). Using a length interpretation ...
Article
This paper presents a maximum likelihood method for estimating growth parameters for an aquatic species that incorporates growth covariates, and takes into consideration multiple tag-recapture data. Individual variability in asymptotic length, age-at-tagging, and measurement error are also considered in the model structure. Using distribution theory, the log-likelihood function is derived under a generalised framework for the von Bertalanffy and Gompertz growth models. Due to the generality of the derivation, covariate effects can be included for both models with seasonality and tagging effects investigated. Method robustness is established via comparison with the Fabens, improved Fabens, James and a non-linear mixed-effects growth models, with the maximum likelihood method performing the best. The method is illustrated further with an application to blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) for which a strong growth-retarding tagging effect that persisted for several months was detected.
... The growing season is constrained by minimum temperatures when prawn larvae are introduced to ponds and the desired size at harvest time. Water temperatures above 22°C are considered suitable for stocking ponds, with optimal growth achieved at temperatures of 30-34°C and salinity of around 25 psu, although a wide range of salinities can be tolerated (Deering et al., 1995;Jackson and Wang, 1998). Many farms have hatcheries for larval production or buy in brood stock from local producers, while others collect wild broodstock from nearby ocean regions. ...
... Heavy rainfall can also wash out roads and prevent supplies from reaching remote farms, and lower salinity below optimal levels. Temperature influences the growth of prawns (Deering et al., 1995;Jackson and Wang, 1998) and thus the timing of harvest, which is critical to delivering supply for peak market opportunities and thus farm cash flow. Tropical cyclones can result in loss of road access to farms, destruction of farm infrastructure such as sheds, generators and aerators, and loss of power (Hobday et al., 2012). ...
Article
A wide range of aquaculture industries are exposed to environmental conditions and variability which can impact on production. Information about future climate conditions on a range of time scales can improve risk management, buffer production against unfavourable environmental conditions, and allow maximised production during opportune times. Seasonal forecasting, providing information beyond weather forecasting up to several months into the future, can aid such decision making. In north-east Australian coastal pond-based prawn farms environmental stresses influence timing of farming periods, animal growth and survival. Here we describe the development, packaging and provision of regional and local forecast products, derived from the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA; version 2), to the Queensland prawn industry. Product development followed a three-stage process; (i) assessment of management needs and critical timescales, (ii) development and evaluation of the forecast products, and (iii) forecast implementation and refinement of the forecast products. Prawn farm managers identified the critical forecast variables as minimum and maximum air temperature and rainfall at lead times of up to 2-3 months. The POAMA forecast skill for all three variables was evaluated, with three spatially averaged regional environmental indexes derived from POAMA showing a strong relationship with large-scale observed conditions. Forecast accuracy was assessed using model hindcast data together with historical observations, and was similar in all three regions, higher for temperature than rainfall, and declined with lead time in all cases. Forecast indices were then scaled using local weather station information for a subset of prawn farms in the study. Discussion with prawn farm managers helped refine the format and visualisation of the forecasts. Tailored forecast packages were then delivered through a web-based system and directly by email. These forecasts could aid a range of management decisions, and user feedback led to further refinement. This approach has great potential to be extended to other coastal aquaculture industries using these and other environmental variables. Information about future conditions, such as provided by seasonal forecasting, can assist aquaculture managers in development of production plans that will be more robust to short-term environmental variability and represents the first adaptation step on a pathway to coping with longer term climate change.
... Factors such as intensification, species diversification, as well as the introduction of innovations and technologies have contributed to the growth of aquaculture (FAO, 2016). In this context, stocking density is an important factor to consider, since it has a direct influence on production (Jackson and Wang, 1998), and the consequent profitability of an enterprise (Almeida et al., 2021). Despite the environmental, sanitary, and economic advantages Rego et al., 2017a;Nguyen et al., 2019;Shinji et al., 2019;Vieira et al., 2019), implementing and operating BFT systems requires significant investment . ...
... The stocking density significantly influences production levels, enabling greater productivity in a smaller cultivation area. Consequently, it offers more efficient use of production factors and improves profitability of the enterprise (Jackson and Wang, 1998;Krummenauer et al., 2011;Almeida et al., 2021). Furthermore, the sale price used by Rego et al. (2017a) was considerably lower than the one used herein (US$ 5.91 compared to US$ 8.26), which is related to the different markets considered in each study and the influence of supply and demand on the sale price of shrimp. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, new aquaculture technologies have been developed and improved, such as the Biofloc Technology system, which is considered an alternative to the conventional aquaculture model. This study compared the bioeconomic viability of intensive production in nurseries and super-intensive production of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei bioflocs greenhouses. The investment for implementing the project was US$ 767,190.18 for intensive production and US$ 807,669.16 for super-intensive production. The analyses showed Net Present Value of US$ 363,718.21 and US$ 385,477.42, Equivalent annual value of US$ 59,830.66 and US$ 63,410.00, Net future value of US$ 965,052.69 and US$ 1,022,786.35, Payback Period 4.12 and 4.11, Discounted payback period 5.64 and 5.63, Profitability Index 1.47 and 1.48, Internal Rate of Return 20.49 and 20.55%, and Modified Internal Rate of Return 14.61 and 14.64%. The investment analysis used in this study showed that super-intensive production in a greenhouse is the best investment option. The development of a new scenario simulating the super-intensive production of shrimp in a Biofloc Technology system, considering land use as a premise, made it possible to observe the possibility of obtaining financial gains in scale, both in the reduction of production costs and in the economic performance of the enterprise. However, the financial contribution for the implementation and operation of the project increased substantially.
... Factors such as intensification, species diversification, as well as the introduction of innovations and technologies have contributed to the growth of aquaculture (FAO, 2016). In this context, stocking density is an important factor to consider, since it has a direct influence on production (Jackson and Wang, 1998), and the consequent profitability of an enterprise (Almeida et al., 2021). Despite the environmental, sanitary, and economic advantages Rego et al., 2017a;Nguyen et al., 2019;Shinji et al., 2019;Vieira et al., 2019), implementing and operating BFT systems requires significant investment . ...
... The stocking density significantly influences production levels, enabling greater productivity in a smaller cultivation area. Consequently, it offers more efficient use of production factors and improves profitability of the enterprise (Jackson and Wang, 1998;Krummenauer et al., 2011;Almeida et al., 2021). Furthermore, the sale price used by Rego et al. (2017a) was considerably lower than the one used herein (US$ 5.91 compared to US$ 8.26), which is related to the different markets considered in each study and the influence of supply and demand on the sale price of shrimp. ...
... A change in temperature of only a few degrees might mean the difference between a successful aquaculture venture and an unsuccessful one (Pittock, 2003). The variations in pond temperature had pronounced impacts on growth (Lehtonen, 1996) and on farm prawn production with maximal growth rates of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) during sustained periods of warmer pond water (Jackson & Wang 1998). Increased temperatures will affect pond evaporation rates and results in increased pond salinity, which could adversely affect less salt-tolerant species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The predictions of climate change during the recent decades viz., consistent warming trends (increase in frequency of hot days and multiple-day heat wave), increase in extreme rains, and more frequent and intense extreme weather events (flood, cyclone and drought) has greater impact on aquaculture. This impact has been disproportionately felt by small-scale farmers who are already amongst the poor and vulnerable members of the society. The present study in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh documented the climate change events experienced by aqua farmers in brackishwater and freshwater areas and their perceptions, attitudes, risk management behaviour, adaptive capacities and impacts on aquatic farming systems through focus group discussion (FGD), extensive survey of 120 farmers through standard questionnaires, and stakeholder workshop (SW). Assessment based on consequence and livelihood scores revealed that seasonal variations with 20- 40% loss in production was the highest risk in both the areas followed by cyclone in brackishwater and high temperature in freshwater areas. Though not very common in every year, cyclones, the major extreme climatic event results in 50 to 100% loss in production. Among the studied aqua farmers, 14% were highly vulnerable to climate change, whereas 55% were moderately vulnerable. Farmer’s adaptation measures, science and technology solutions and policy adaptation measures are discussed to make aquaculture as climate resilient.
... Is diversification the answer to an improved and more resilient future for NSW prawn farmers? Northern NSW is too cold in winter for BT prawn production (and tropical finfish species like barramundi) as at 20°C water temperature, growth and feeding ceases, or is negligible and death can occur at 14-15°C (Jackson and Wang, 1998). As a consequence, NSW farms produce only one summer crop and all prawns need to be harvested before winter, making them less productive and adaptable than tropical farms (between Ayr and Port Douglas, Queensland). ...
... Penaeus monodon is more sensitive to cool water temperatures than L. stylirostris; growth of P. monodon slows once temperatures fall much below 28°C 174 . Variations in pond temperature also have pronounced effects on production of P. monodon, with maximal growth rates occurring during sustained warm periods 175 . In Fiji, poor growth and increased mortality of P. monodon have been associated with winter temperatures of 22-25°C. ...
... Experimental aquaria have been used extensively to find water quality and other requirements of aquatic species. For Penaeus monodon, some of the requirements that have been modelled using aquaria include dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity , temperature , Deering et al. 1995, Chen and Chen 1999, stocking density (Jackson and Wang 1998) and nitrate toxicity (Tsai and Chen 2002). Using glass aquaria is beneficial as specimens and water quality can be observed and monitored closely, but aquaria do not necessarily sustain the variety of natural food organisms that occur in ponds. ...
... Among the many aspects of the management of shrimp farming in biofloc systems, the stocking density is related directly to the growth and survival of the shrimp (Moss & Moss 2004. The choice of the most appropriate stocking density in the culture is critical to the economic viability of farms, exerting a considerable influence on system productivity (Jackson & Wang 1998). Moreover, superintensive culture involves the use of high stocking densities in small culture units (Wasielesky et al. 2006 and has a direct influence on the increasing production of microbial flocs (Samocha et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of stocking density and the occurrence of compensatory growth in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the nursery phase reared in a biofloc culture system. Two experiments were performed in a recirculating water system with 12 experimental tanks (microcosm), each with a bottom area of 0.5 m2. The tanks were supplied by a matrix 70-m2 biofloc technology water tank (macrocosm), where a shrimp biofloc technology systems culture was maintained concurrently. The water was returned to the system by gravity, providing a daily renewal rate of approximately 4,800%. During the first experiment, L. vannamei postlarvae with an initial weight of 0.003 g were cultured for 30 days at densities of 1,500, 3,000, 4,500, and 6,000 shrimp/m2. The cultures reached significantly different final weights (P < 0.05) of 0.45 g, 0.33 g, 0.30 g, and 0.23 g, respectively. Mean survival rates were greater than 87.6% in all treatments. To evaluate the occurrence of compensatory growth in L. vannamei after a period of enclosure stress, the second experiment was organized in 2 phases. During the first, shrimp postlarvae were reared at densities of 1,500, 3,000, 4,500, and 6,000 shrimp/m2 for 35 days. The shrimp were then restocked at a density of 300 shrimp/m2 and were maintained until compensatory growth was observed. In 20 days, the shrimp showed full compensatory growth. The mean final weight and survival rate did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the treatments. The results confirm that the strategy of enclosure rearing can be applied to the culture of L. vannamei.
... Evidence indicated that the suitable water temperature for M. japonicus is 18-32 ℃, the optimal temperature is 25-32 ℃, stop feeding in 8-10 ℃, die below 5 ℃, whereas above 32 ℃ increasing mortalities are likely to occur (Hewitt and Duncan, 2001). However, in tropical storm regions, shrimp pond temperature is often as high as 34 ℃ in summer Zhang et al., 2016a;Preston et al., 1995;Jackson and Wang, 1998), so M. japonicus may encounter a high temperature problem as high as 35 ℃. High temperatures are a temperature increase above 30 ℃, which are known to decrease the growth and survival, cause oxidative stress damage and pathogen susceptibility in shrimp (Coman et al., 2002;Zhou et al., 2010;Cheng et al., 2003). ...
Article
A 56-day feeding trial followed by an acute high temperature stress test were performed to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic Clostridium butyricum (CB) on growth performance and intestine antioxidant capacity of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 9 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with diets containing different levels of C. butyricum (1 × 10⁹ cfu/g): 0 mg g⁻¹ feed (Control), 100 mg g⁻¹ feed (CB-100), 200 mg g⁻¹ feed (CB-200) as treatment groups. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of C. butyricum increased the growth performance and decreased the feed conversion rate (FCR) of shrimp in the CB-100 group. HE stain showed that C. butyricum increased the intestine epithelium height of of M. japonicus. C. butyricum supplemented in diets decreased ·O2⁻ generation capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and the expression level of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and metallothionein (mt) gene in intestine of shrimp cultured under normal condition for 56 d, while no significant changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and ferritin gene expression level. After shrimp exposed to high temperature stress 48 h, the lower level of ·O2⁻ generation capacity and MDA content, and the higher level survival, activities of T-AOC, CAT, GPx and POD, as well as hsp70, ferritin and mt gene expression level were found in intestine of two C. butyricum groups. These results revealed that C. butyricum could improve the growth performance, increase intestine antioxidant capacity of M. japonicus against high temperature stress, and could be a potential feed additive in shrimp aquaculture.
... In all cases, it was assumed that water was discharged from the production pond from 90 days until the harvest, with an exchange rate that increases in proportion to the growth rate (and feed rate) of the prawns, peaking at around 10% of pond volume per day when maximum growth rates are experienced. Jackson and Wang's (1998) model for prawn growth which estimates an asymptotic growth rate that is influenced by daily environmental conditions and current weight was used to develop a growth curve illustrated by the dashed line in Figure 21. (Because of data and time restrictions, the effect of environmental conditions on incremental growth rates was based on mean season values). ...
... The results show that feeding a lower specification diet significantly restricts a shrimp's ability to express its full genetic potential. These data also lend themselves to the potential development of nutritional energetics models, which have seen critical application in a range of fish species but are yet to make much impact in shrimp nutrition (Jackson & Wang 1998;Franco et al. 2006;Sara et al. 2009;Richard et al. 2010). ...
Article
Selected (G8) and wild-type (W) genotypes of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) juveniles (initial weight G8 = 9.14 ± 0.36 g per animal and W = 8.44 ± 0.10 g per animal) were fed either of two diet types in a clear-water tank trial to examine the effects of diet type and genetics on growth and feed utilization parameters. Animals were fed twice daily at one of the five ration levels from starvation to apparent satiety. All uneaten feed was accounted for and moults removed. Starved animals were measured after 3 weeks; those fed were measured at both three and 6 weeks. Diet type varied by protein content, raw material choice and the presence [high-specification diet (HSD)] or absence [low-specification diet (LSD)] of bioactive substances. At the end of the study, faecal samples were also collected to determine the digestible protein and energy content of each diet by each genotype. Whole animal protein and energy content were also assessed from samples from the initial populations and those from each tank. Growth after 6 weeks of those animals fed to satiety showed that the G8 animals fed the HSD diet had grown at a rate of 2.56 g week−1, significantly faster than any other treatment. Those G8 animals fed the LSD diet (1.81 g week−1) had grown significantly faster than the W animals fed the HSD diet (1.25 g week−1), while those W animals fed the LSD diet (0.61 g week−1) grew the slowest. Using the data from the varying ration levels, we were able to define that the growth gains of the G8 animals were achieved not only by a greater appetite, but also through lower maintenance energy costs (29 versus 57 kJ kg−0.8 day−1) and a more efficient energy conversion (19.5% versus 11.6% when fed the HSD diet). Use of a low-specification diet with the G8 and W shrimps limited their growth and impaired their potential as demonstrated by a curvilinear response of growth to intake. By comparison, those shrimp fed the HSD diet had a relatively linear growth response to intake.
... Decrease in the salinity (Preston et al., 2001), algal blooms, depletion of dissolved oxygen particularly in summer months when water exchange becomes difficult in inland and coastal areas of brackishwater shrimp ponds can significantly impact farm production. The production efficiency of tropical and sub-tropical species of farmed shrimp, such as P. monodon and Feneropenaeus merguiensis (De Man) can be increased by a rise in water temperature (Jackson & Wang 1998). On the other hand, increased temperatures will affect pond evaporation rates and the resultant increases in pond salinity could adversely affect less salt-tolerant species. ...
Article
Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming communities were divisible into two groups: members of a society/cooperative and those operating individually. The latter were large scale adopting more intensive practices. The average production cost was Indian Rupees (IRS) 80,186 ha -1 and net income in summer and winter was IRS 221,901 and IRS 141,715, respectively. The mean technical efficiency estimated using Stochastic frontier function was 7% and 54%. The present study attempts to explain the difference in efficiencies using socio-economic and climatic variables, the latter being a novel approach. Among socio-economic variables, farming experience and membership in society were found to have a significant influence to improve technical and economic efficiencies. Further improvements in identifiable facets of the practices and a consequent increase in technical efficiency will make the sector less vulnerable to climatic change impacts.
... The understanding of the life history plasticity, i.e. the mechanisms that animals use to achieve optimum life history patterns (Thorpe et al., 1998), is required in order to manage this plasticity in cultured and exploited stocks (Lorenzen, 2000). The multiple regression models of fish growth described by Pauly et al. (1993), and Jackson & Wang (1998) allow analysis of a wide range of management impacts on growth, which may aid the improvement of semi intensive and intensive culture systems of fish. Froese & Binohlan (2003), Martinez-Andrade (2003), Binohlan & Froese (2009), Bethke & Bernrenther (2010), Gubiani et al. (2012), Giarrizzo et al. (2013) have used empirical equations to estimate longetivity, growth rate, mortality, optimum length, food consumption and food conversion efficiency in different species of fish. ...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical equations were applied to the length, weight and age measurements at sexual maturity of sixty juveniles of Oreochromis niloticus reared in triplicates under 24L: 0D photoperiod for six months. Sexual maturity was determined at stage V of gonadal maturation. The mean length and weight at maturity was 12.40 ±0.2cm and 32.80 ± 0.5g respectively, while optimum temperature of the tanks was 28°C. Life history indices of the species estimated include optimum length (Lopt) which was 12.4 cm, natural mortality (M) which was low at 3.11, amount of food consumed Q/B, gross food conversion efficiency (GE) and life span (tmax) were estimated at 58.6, 0.034 and 1.8 years respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth parameter (K) was estimated at 1.67 from the t max. These estimates of the life history parameters is useful in stock dynamics, set harvest limit, determine food utilization and quality, age structure, predict the growth responses, and hence sustainable exploitation and management of the species in aquaculture. Thus, the use of aquacultural data to estimate life history parameters of fish species is more desirable and reliable than data from wild fisheries as it could provide the opportunity to understand life history parameters which could be different from that of the wild.
... When only considering the treatments fed to 100% satiation , the growth of shrimp fed the commercially formulated diet in this study (range from 1.26 g to 1.32 g shrimp À1 week À1 ) was well above that which is typical for this species in a clear-water tank system over this period, previously recorded to be 0.91 g shrimp À1 week À1 (Smith et al. 2007), or range from 0.87 g to 0.91 g shrimp À1 week À1 (Glencross et al. 2014). The growth rate of shrimp fed the diet with the microbial biomass (1.61 g to 1.71 g shrimp À1 week À1 ) was also greater than that achieved with previous administration of this ingredient to animals of a similar size in the same system, which was 1.30 g week À1 (Glencross et al. 2014), and greater than that modelled for pond-cultured P. monodon of the same size grown under the same temperature regimen, which was 1.32 g week À1 (Jackson & Wang 1998). This comparison indicates that the shrimp stock used in the present study were of high quality. ...
Article
Feed management strategies that maximize shrimp growth and optimize feed utilization are critical to the cost-effectiveness of production. In this study, juvenile Penaeus monodon (~3 g) were cultured for 6 weeks in a laboratory-based clear-water tank system. The experiment design was a three-way factorial with two diets (Diet A – standard industry formulation or Diet B – the same diet with 10% microbial biomass), two feed frequencies (twice or six times daily) and three rations (60%, 80% and 100% of satiation). The results demonstrated clear growth benefits of feeding more than two times per day and feed efficiency benefits of a restricted ration. There was also a significant interaction between frequency and ration, which demonstrated that growth improved using six feeds compared with two feeds as ration amount decreased. The effects of frequency and ration were consistent for both diets; however, the addition of a microbial biomass provided significant growth improvements across all treatments. These outcomes define the gains produced by the combined effect of frequency and ration and suggest a compromise between feed utilization and feeding effort for adoption in feed management strategies.
... Firstly, differences in stocking densities among ponds within the two treatments may have contributed. Certainly, broodstock rearing density is known to significantly affect growth rate in shrimp (Jackson & Wang 1998;Coman et al. 2004;Coman et al., 2007b). Secondly, the inherent pond to pond variation which results from each pond being its own ecosystem, and which is impossible to control completely even through consistent management, may also have impacted on observed growth outcomes. ...
Article
A 40-day reproductive performance trial was conducted to assess the effect of targeted supplementation of Penaeus monodon broodstock grow-out and maturation diets with microbial biomass (MB). Over a seven month grow-out period, shrimp were fed a typical pelleted grow-out diet with or without 10% MB. Broodstock were then transferred to a maturation facility and a subset of animals from each grow-out diet fed on a typical fresh-frozen maturation diet that included a pellet ration with or without 30% MB (5.5% of total diet fed). At nine months of age, female broodstock were unilaterally eyestalk-ablated and reproductive assessments commenced. No significant difference in ovary maturation, hepatosomatic index, spawning and egg and nauplii production parameters was found between diet treatments (p = > 0.05). However, females originating from control ponds displayed a higher gonadosomatic index at first spawn, whilst the percentage of eggs that hatched was lower in females fed a MB-inclusive maturation diet (p = < 0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of MB within broodstock grow-out and maturation diets (at the rates presented in this study) did not enhance reproductive performance of domesticated broodstock.
... Among the many aspects of the management of shrimp farming in biofloc systems, the stocking density is related directly to the growth and survival of the shrimp (Moss & Moss 2004. The choice of the most appropriate stocking density in the culture is critical to the economic viability of farms, exerting a considerable influence on system productivity (Jackson & Wang 1998). Moreover, superintensive culture involves the use of high stocking densities in small culture units (Wasielesky et al. 2006 and has a direct influence on the increasing production of microbial flocs (Samocha et al. 2007). ...
... Is diversification the answer to an improved and more resilient future for NSW prawn farmers? Northern NSW is too cold in winter for BT prawn production (and tropical finfish species like barramundi) as at 20°C water temperature, growth and feeding ceases, or is negligible and death can occur at 14-15°C (Jackson and Wang, 1998). As a consequence, NSW farms produce only one summer crop and all prawns need to be harvested before winter, making them less productive and adaptable than tropical farms (between Ayr and Port Douglas, Queensland). ...
... Multiple regression models are considered predictive, rather than explanatory tools, yet the established functional relationships are in general agreement with reports by other authors regarding the correlations between growth and survival parameters and water quality and management factors (Sadeh et al., 1986;Jackson and Wang, 1998;Wannamaker and Rice, 2000;Eby and Crowder, 2002;Valderrama and Engle, 2002;Ruiz-Velazco et al., 2010a,b). This indicates consistency and reliability in the predictability of the models. ...
Article
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We use a stock model, multivariate analysis, and a stochastic approach to predict shrimp production under commercial semi-intensive conditions as a function of water quality and alternative management schemes. Larger final weight of shrimp was obtained when temperature and duration of cultivation increased. Increases in the mortality of shrimp were associated with lower dissolved oxygen levels, shorter durations of cultivation, and higher stocking densities. There was a direct relationship between temperature and stoking density, while dissolved oxygen was inversely related with stocking density and duration of cultivation. Stocking density was inversely correlated with pond size and directly correlated with duration of cultivation. The lowest yields were predicted, using the lowest stocking densities and shortest duration of cultivation; the highest yields were predicted using the highest stocking densities and longest duration of cultivation. Yields increased from 938 to 2326 kg ha−1 (spring production cycle), and from 982 to 1907 kg ha−1 (summer production cycle). Improved management resulted in increased shrimp production and diminished variability. Sensitivity analysis indicates that final weight of shrimp and stocking density were the major factors affecting variability of shrimp yields. We conclude that stock models, multivariate analysis, and a stochastic approach constitute an effective method for studying the relationships between production parameters, water quality, and management variables, and, for analyzing variability of semi-intensive shrimp production.
... The results show that feeding a lower specification diet significantly restricts a shrimp's ability to express its full genetic potential. These data also lend themselves to the potential development of nutritional energetics models, which have seen critical application in a range of fish species but are yet to make much impact in shrimp nutrition (Jackson & Wang 1998;Franco et al. 2006;Sara et al. 2009;Richard et al. 2010). ...
... In order to represent the growth in each scenario (homogeneous and heterogeneous sizes), a mathematical structure was implemented based on bioenergetic principles and biologically interpretable parameters (Brett, 1979;Gamito, 1998;Oliveira et al., 2000). von Bertalanffy and Gompertz type equations were selected, both of which are widely used in the aquaculture of shrimps (Tian et al., 1993;Jackson and Wang, 1998;Yu et al., 2006a). Similarly, a third model was evaluated which, as with the previous, incorporated the principle of Putter's equation (Brown et al., 2004). ...
... The minimum individual harvest weight was 17 g in 2014 and 29 g in 2015. Under the P. monodon growth model of Jackson and Wang (1998), and given the mean monthly minimum water temperature of the ponds for 2014 (25°C) and 2015 (27°C), shrimp would take~120 days and 180 days to reach the minimum 2014 and 2015 harvest weights respectively (comparable with culture periods reported elsewhere; Tho et al., 2011). Mud crab (S. paramamosain, crablet stages 1 and 2) were also stocked periodically throughout the study period at densities of 0.4 ind./m 2 . ...
Article
The Mekong Delta is the most important rice- and shrimp-producing region for food and economic security in Vietnam. Rice-shrimp farming is practised where salinity fluctuates substantially between wet and dry seasons. Research points to several potential risk factors for rotational systems, but how these link directly to both rice and shrimp production remains poorly quantified for systems that stock and harvest animals year-round. We examined water and soil quality of 18 rice-shrimp-crab ponds, in which shrimp and crab are grown in both wet and dry seasons, in the Cà Mau Province of Vietnam. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that environmental conditions experienced by both rice and shrimp were suboptimal and contributed to low yields and survival. Year-round cropping of shrimp and crab was associated with sustained suboptimal salinity, intensified by drought, for the wet-season cultivation of rice. Although rice seedlings were sown in all 18 ponds, only three had a harvestable crop. Low shrimp production and survival was associated with sustained suboptimal water temperatures (too high), salinity (too high in the dry season and too low in the wet season) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (too low). Food availability and quality may also have affected shrimp production. Improving productivity of rice-shrimp-crab ponds in the study region may require (1) separation of rice and shrimp crops and improving efficiency of soil washing practices such that salinity conditions are more suitable for each when grown, and (2) management intervention to increase oxygenation of water, and the availability and quality of food for shrimp.
... There was a nursery system at Tan Bang (not at Hoa My) where postlarvae which are particularly vulnerable to predation in shrimp ponds (Rodriguez et al., 1993) were excluded from predators before being released into the study ponds, and this may have contributed positively to shrimp survival (as per Nunes and Parsons, 2000;Coman et al., 2003;Islam and Alam, 2008). However, the growth rates of shrimp were low (at ≤0.7 g week −1 on average) compared with rates observed in intensive ponds where conditions aim to maximise growth (1.3 g week −1 at 30°C; Jackson and Wang, 1998), even though the measures of nutritional condition (protein and lipid content) were comparable with those from intensive ponds (O'Leary and Matthews, 1990;Sriket et al., 2007; Table 2). While the periodic stockings and Table 4 Pearson correlation coefficients between monthly mean shrimp growth rates and monthly means for water quality, shrimp protein and shrimp lipid content and natural food source densities. ...
Article
Aquatic ecosystems are used for extensive rice-shrimp culture where the available water alternates seasonally between fresh and saline. Poor water quality has been implicated as a risk factor for shrimp survival; however, links between shrimp, water quality and their main food source, the natural aquatic biota inhabiting these ponds, are less well understood. We examined the aquatic biota and water quality of three ponds over an entire year in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, where the growing season for the marine shrimp Penaeus monodon has been extended into the wet season, when waters freshen. The survival (30–41%) and total areal biomass (350–531 kg ha⁻¹) of shrimp was constrained by poor water quality, with water temperatures, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentrations falling outside known optimal ranges for several weeks. Declines in dissolved oxygen concentration were matched by declines in both shrimp growth rates and lipid content, the latter being indicative of nutritional condition. Furthermore, as the dry season transitioned into the wet, shifts in the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton were accompanied by declines in the biomass of benthic algae, an important basal food source in these systems. Densities of the benthic invertebrates directly consumed by shrimp also varied substantially throughout the year. Overall, our findings suggest that the survival, condition and growth of shrimp in extensive rice-shrimp ecosystems will be constrained when poor water quality and alternating high and low salinity negatively affect the physiology, growth and composition of the natural aquatic biota. Changes in management practices, such as restricting shrimp inhabiting ponds to the dry season, may help to address these issues and improve the sustainable productivity and overall condition of these important aquatic ecosystems.
... It is worth mentioning that Gompertz-D2 model has been previously used to represent shrimp growth (Aragón-Noriega, 2016; Araneda et al., 2013;Jackson & Wang, 1998;Tian et al., 1993;. The use of Potential model was analysed in studies of F I G U R E 2 Simulation of the density-dependent mortality rate μ(N). ...
Article
Mathematical representation of the growth of organisms in aquaculture systems is a key factor to perform optimal production. Here, we analysed five growth sigmoidal models based on density of previous and current models described in literature (Gompertz, Bertalanffy, Potential and Pütter). These models were fitted to data of Pacific white shrimp cultured in freshwater, with 90, 130, 180, 230, 280 and 330 shrimp/m2 as initial stocking density of culture. Goodness of fit and statistic validation of the density‐dependent model modified from Gompertz proved to display the growth curve that best‐described data of shrimp grown between 90 and 180 densities, whereas the growth model modified from Potential proved to best describe higher stocking densities (230–330). The population dynamics was also modelled using a density‐dependent function. The implications of modelling and their importance in the management of fisheries are discussed.
... As aquaculture ponds are typically shallow in the study area, solar radiation is likely to be an important influence on temperature. The variations in pond temperature had pronounced impact on aquatic animals' growth (Lehtonen, 1996;Pittock, 2003) and on-farm prawn production with maximal growth rates of Tiger shrimp during sustained periods of warmer pond water (Jackson and Wang 1998). In the present study, an increase in production of 10-35 kg/ha was reported due to high temperature. ...
Article
Shrimp aquaculture in India is synonymous with coastal aquaculture. Like other agricultural activities, it appropriates a wide range of environmental goods and services, and is vulnerable to impacts of climate change as the cultured animals are sensitive to various kinds of biotic and abiotic stressors. Climate change affects the shrimp aquaculture directly by extreme weather events and seasonal variations, and indirectly alter the primary and secondary productivity, structure and composition of the ecosystems or by influencing the availability of fishmeal, fish oil and other goods and services required for aquaculture farmers. The perceptions of farmers on the impacts of climate change on shrimp aquaculture in inland and coastal areas of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh are discussed. Cyclone and flood were perceived by all the farmers, whereas irregular season, high temperature, heavy rain and drought were perceived by 79, 89, 91 and 5 % of farmers, respectively. Environmental, biological, and economic impacts of climate change drivers on aquaculture indicated 20 to 30 % loss due to seasonal variations and 50 to 100% loss due to extremely heavy rainfall, flood and cyclones. The economic risk rating was high with flood followed by the cyclone and the magnitude was more in coastal areas compared to inland areas. There is no universally applicable list of adaptation measures and need to be evaluated for individual aquaculture systems. Autonomous and planned adaptation measures to be implemented by farmers, researchers and policymakers are discussed for climate-resilient aquaculture. Planned adaptive measures are either at the primary level or non-existence, hence policy initiatives are required to formulate planned adaptive measures to enhance the adaptive capacity of the farmers.
... These results were in agreement with previous studies which found a correlation between yield and stocking density (Karim et al., 2014), pond depth (Johnson et al., 2000), salinity (Kumar et al., 2012) and crop duration (Kumaran et al., 2017;Ruiz-Velazco et al., 2010) for intensive shrimp farming. The yield of shrimp was negatively correlated with pond age (in years) and this is consistent with earlier studies (Jackson & Wang, 1998) on shrimp farming in Australia Data were analyzed to explore the relationship between yield and other parameters such as seed size at the time of stocking (PL versus juvenile), source of water (river versus canals) and seed categories (SPF, ...
Article
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Intensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon) production system is relatively new in Bangladesh, and has not yet been adequately described or its viability assessed. The aims of this study were to characterize, assess the economic performance and identify challenges for intensive shrimp farming in Bangladesh. A survey was conducted using a struc-tured questionnaire enumerated between October 2016 to June 2017 with 53 farmers in three districts of Khulna Province, southwest Bangladesh. The surveyed farms were categorized into small, medium and large scale based on the number of culture ponds. The average production, operational costs, gross and net income, net income, and cost-benefit ratios were higher in large farms, followed by medium and small farms. A Cobb-Douglas production function model was used to identify factors influencing shrimp yields, with feed management, health management, pond depth and aeration identified as significant factors. The benefit-cost ratio was higher than 1, indicative of a positive investment efficiency of intensive shrimp farming system for farmers. Major challenges were associated with quality of inputs, high investment, maintenance of biosecurity and disease outbreaks, water quality, limited number of input suppliers and lack of diagnostic services and technical information at farm level. Our findings suggest that there is an urgent need for human capacity development for shrimp farm owners, workers and technicians. It is also important to improve access to quality inputs, rapid and affordable diagnostics and other technical services.
... Growth is undoubtedly an important factor for profitable shrimp production (Benzie et al., 2001;Cheng & Chen, 1990). Domesticated shrimp do not mature well with declining growth rates over generations (Jackson & Wang, 1998). Hence, a wild black tiger shrimp broodstock is still necessary. ...
Article
Full-text available
To salvage marine ecosystems from fishery overexploitation, sustainable and efficient aquaculture must be emphasized. The knowledge obtained from available genome sequence of marine organisms has accelerated marine aquaculture in many cases. The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the most prominent cultured penaeid shrimps (Crustacean) with an average annual global production of half a million tons in the last decade. However, its currently available genome assemblies lack the contiguity and completeness required for accurate genome annotation due to the highly repetitive nature of the genome and technical difficulty in extracting high-quality, high-molecular weight DNA. Here, we report the first chromosome-level whole-genome assembly of P. monodon. The combination of long-read Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and long-range Chicago and Hi-C technologies enabled a successful assembly of this first high-quality genome sequence. The final assembly covered 2.39 Gb (92.3% of the estimated genome size) and contained 44 pseudomolecules, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number. Repetitive elements occupied a substantial portion of the assembly (62.5%), the highest of the figures reported among crustacean species. The availability of this high-quality genome assembly enabled the identification of genes associated with rapid growth in the black tiger shrimp through the comparison of hepatopancreas transcriptome of slow-growing and fast-growing shrimps. The results highlighted several growth-associated genes. Our high-quality genome assembly provides an invaluable resource for genetic improvement and breeding penaeid shrimp in aquaculture. The availability of P. monodon genome enables analyses of ecological impact, environment adaptation and evolution, as well as the role of the genome to protect the ecological resources by promoting sustainable shrimp farming.
... For each density at both 90, 130 and 180 shrimp m − 2 and 230, 280 and 330 shrimp m − 2 experiments of Pacific white shrimp cultured in freshwater, a growth curve was adjusted and a common curve was parameterized using total observations of obtained weight (from 90 to 180 shrimp m − 2 and 230-330 shrimp m − 2 experiments), this was according to the principle of residual analysis proposed by Haddon (2001) to compare individual and common models. The growth equation selected a priori was Gompertz, which is widely used in aquaculture of seawater shrimp (Yu et al., 2006;Jackson and Wang, 1998;Tian et al., 1993;Seber and Wild, 1989). Gompertz model emerged from auto-regulated growth models where growth rate decreases exponentially over time. ...
Article
In aquaculture, the application of predictive techniques based on statistical-mathematical modeling allows not only to project and study individual growth trajectories, but also to evaluate the probable effect of external factors that would explain their behavior over time. This is the case of this work, which takes the above as a principle to demonstrate the effect of water temperature on the growth of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in fresh water (0 mg L⁻¹), using densities of 90, 120, 180, 230, 280 and 330 shrimp m⁻². Shrimp were exposed to water temperature between 11.5 °C and 31.6 °C. Temperature effect was determined using a parameterized Gompertz growth model with experimental data from each initial culture density. The best shrimp productivity yield was obtained above 26 °C, and the least efficient was below 22 °C. Densities of 90–180 shrimp m⁻² and 230–330 shrimp m⁻² generated a maximum average size of 12.6 g and 8.8 g in 30 weeks, respectively. Here we present the implications of the effect of water temperature on the intensive culture of white shrimp with zero salinity (0 mg L⁻¹) using these techniques from a predictive analytical approach.
... Moss e Moss (2004) afirmam que a densidade de esto- cagem está diretamente relacionada ao crescimento e à sobrevivência dos camarões. Além disso, a escolha da densidade de estocagem mais apropriada para o cul- tivo é fundamental para a viabilidade econômica das fazendas, exercendo grande influência sobre a produ- tividade do sistema (JACKSON e WANG, 1998). ...
Article
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Resumo: A eficiência produtiva da carcinicultura tem sido apontada na literatura como um fator importante para a consolidação desta atividade no Nordeste do Brasil. Para auxiliar a tomada de decisão na fazenda e a formulação de políticas para o setor, esta pesquisa investigou o grau e os fatores determinantes da eficiência técnica na produção de camarão no estado do Ceará. Com base nos dados do Censo da Carcinicultura, de 2011, coletados pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Camarão (ABCC), 100 fazendas foram caracterizadas por um conjunto de variáveis explicativas que descrevem os insumos empregados na produção e a forma de gerenciamento das fazendas. Para analisar os dados, foram estimados modelos de fronteira de eficiência de produção estocástica. Os resultados mostraram que quase a totalidade das fazendas (99%) pode ser considerada ineficiente do ponto de vista técnico. O fator que determinou a ineficiência das fazendas da amostra foi a densidade média de estocagem, pois as outras variáveis testadas como causadoras de ineficiência (que foram: potência de aeradores por área, recebimento de assistência técnica e uso de bandejas de alimentação) não foram significantes a um nível de significância de 5%. Com isso, conclui-se que estas variáveis não geram ineficiência no modelo.
... The growth rates of P. monodon across the growing season in these ponds were low compared with growth rates measured in intensive ponds (Jackson and Wang, 1998). This may also point in adequate nutrition for shrimp, however, periods of poor water quality have been identified in the ponds in our study, including suboptimal temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity (Leigh et al., 2020) which can affect growth rates and survival (Mudagandur et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2019). ...
Article
Rice-shrimp culture systems occur throughout Asia where there are seasonal alterations of fresh and saltwater availability. During the dry season, black tiger shrimp are grown at low densities, and in the wet season, rice, or rice and shrimp are grown together. Previous studies point to issues with suboptimal rice and shrimp production, due, in part, to climatic conditions driving changes in water quality, and pond management practices. However, the availability of natural benthic food supplies for shrimp production is less well studied. This study used a ¹⁵N‑nitrogen stable isotope tracer added to replicated enclosures within two rice-shrimp ponds to trace shrimp feeding on benthic natural biota. This experiment was conducted in both the wet and dry seasons. The ¹⁵N-ammonium rapidly enriched the ¹⁵N signature in the particulate organic matter (POM) in the water column, indicative of significant phytoplankton uptake of nitrogen (N). In contrast there was little enrichment of the benthic algae in the same time frame. After 13 d, most of the shrimp in the replicate enclosures had little or no ¹⁵N enrichment. This result occurred across both ponds and in both seasons. This suggests that enriched N was not transferred through the benthic food web to the shrimp. The results of the ¹⁵N enclosure experiments were combined with biomass estimates of benthic algae and macrobenthos, shrimp growth data, and linked to other parallel studies of water quality and sediment biogeochemistry in the same ponds. Overall, the findings point to inadequate feed stocks for shrimp, and hence the need to consider supplemental feeding with high quality formulated feeds in order to improve growth rates and survival.
... Additionally, habitat water temperature drives all biological processes of aquatic animals, including physiological and behavioural processes (Pörtner and Knust, 2007). In subtropical climate regions, especially summer, the water temperature of shrimp ponds often exceeds 34°C (Preston et al., 1995;Jackson and Wang, 1998;You et al., 2010). Elevated temperatures can also induce stress responses and cause physiological discomfort in shrimp (Hewitt and Duncan, 2001;Wang and Chen, 2006). ...
... As a poikilotherm, L. vannamei is frequently affected by water temperature. In tropical regions, especially in summer, shrimp-pond temperatures can reach 34 °C (Preston et al., 1995;Jackson & Wang, 1998;You et al., 2010), sometimes reaching over 32 °C for up to 15 d (Dong et al., 2014;Yang et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2016). Any change in the water temperature can influence the survival, molting, and physiology of shrimps (Hewitt & Duncan, 2001;Coman et al., 2002). ...
Article
We investigated the effects of thermal stress on the mucosal structure and the immune response in the intestine of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Examination of histological sections showed that thermal stress damaged the epithelium of the intestinal mucosa. The experimental shrimp were acclimated for one week before thermal stress. In response to thermal stress, there was an increase in the oxidative stress parameters, including the activity of ·O2⁻ -generation capacity and the contents of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde, while antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and the expressions of the heat shock protein 70 and thioredoxin genes showed significant variations (P < 0.05). Immune activities (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) were decreased after 24–72 h of thermal stress, and the metabolic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α gene were higher than those of the control group. These results revealed that thermal stress impaired the intestinal barrier of the shrimp by damaging the mucosal structure, inducing oxidative stress, and compromising the immune and metabolic status.
... Input water is closely monitored typically passing through filtration (Kungvankij et al., 1985) and sterilisation systems (Kungvankij et al., 1985;Treece and Fox, 1999). Monitored water quality parameters include ammonia (Boyd, 2003;Kongkeo, 2005;Tseng and Chen, 2004), dissolved oxygen (Kongkeo, 2005;V azquez-Domínguez et al., 2008), turbidity, salinity (Ferreira et al., 2011), alkalinity (Kongkeo, 2005;Mohanty et al., 2018) and temperature (Haywood and Staples, 1993;Jackson and Wang, 1998). Water exchange rates are high; typically between 50 and 100% of water is exchanged every two days (Briggs, 2006). ...
Article
Widespread agricultural use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides has resulted in the unintended contamination of aquatic environments. Water quality surveys regularly detect neonicotinoids in rivers and waterways at concentrations that could impact aquaculture stock. The toxicity of neonicotinoids to non-target aquatic insect and crustacean species has been recognised, however, there is a paucity of information on their effect on commercial shrimp aquaculture. Here, we show that commercially produced shrimp are likely to be exposed to dietary, sediment and waterborne sources of neonicotinoids; increasing the risks of disease and accidental human consumption. This review examines indicators of sublethal neonicotinoid exposure in non-target species and analyses their potential usefulness for ecotoxicology assessment in shrimp. The identification of rapid, reliable responses to neonicotinoid exposure in shrimp will result in better decision making in aquaculture management.
Article
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All organisms grow. Numerous growth functions have been applied to a wide taxonomic range of organisms, yet some of these models have poor fits to empirical data and lack of flexibility in capturing variation in growth rate. We propose a new VBGF framework that broadens the applicability and increases flexibility of fitting growth curves. This framework offers a curve-fitting procedure for five parameterisations of the VBGF: these allow for different body-size scaling exponents for anabolism (biosynthesis potential), besides the commonly assumed 2/3 power scaling, and allow for supra-exponential growth, which is at times observed. This procedure is applied to twelve species of diverse aquatic invertebrates, including both pelagic and benthic organisms. We reveal widespread variation in the body-size scaling of biosynthesis potential and consequently growth rate, ranging from isomorphic to supra-exponential growth. This curve-fitting methodology offers improved growth predictions and applies the VBGF to a wider range of taxa that exhibit variation in the scaling of biosynthesis potential. Applying this framework results in reliable growth predictions that are important for assessing individual growth, population production and ecosystem functioning, including in the assessment of sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture.
Article
In this study, we assessed the feasibility of culturing Farfantepenaeus paulensis in cages at different stocking densities during autumn (from April to June) in the Patos Lagoon estuary. Juveniles with mean weight of 4.95g (± 1.69 SD) were stocked in cages at densities of 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 ind/m2 of bottom. Shrimp were fed daily by-catch items (Micropogonias furnieri) ad libitum. Survival and wet weight were estimated at 20, 40 and 60 days after the beginning of the trial. Water temperature varied from 11 to 24°C (mean = 17.1°C), whiles salinity ranged from 3 to 26 (mean = 17.5). Survival rates at densities of 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 ind/m2 were 65%, 68%, 46%, 52% and 43,3%, respectively, being significantly higher at 20 and 40 ind/m2. After 60 days, shrimp stocked at 20 and 40 ind/m2 reached over 8.0g, which were significantly higher than those reared at 80, 100 and 120ind/m2. The highest biomass (356g/m2) was obtained at 120 shrimp per m2. Up to 250 to 350 g of shrimp with mean weight of 6.5 to 8.0g were produced per m2 even at the highest stocking densities (40 to 120 ind/m2). Survival rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 ind/m2 may be considered satisfactory, whereas growth rates where negligible after temperature dropped below 18°C. The present results confirmed the negative effect of stocking density on shrimp growth, being recommended the stocking of at the most 40 to 120 ind/m2. Although the feasibility of culturing F. paulensis in cages during autumn in southern Brazil was demonstrated.
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high stocking densities on survival, growth and feed conversion rates of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, in final growout phase, in a Biofloc Technology (BFT) culture system, keeping the same water parameters for all treatments. Shrimps (11.96 ± 1.14 g) were stocked in microcosms (0.50/m2 tanks), connected to a BFT system raceway. The study was carried out for 45 days. The shrimp were stocked at densities of 150, 300, 450 and 600 shrimp/m2. Bioflocs were collected for analysis of proximate composition. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA, and differences were compared by Tukey test (α = 0.05). In T300 and T450, growth and survival were not affected by high stocking densities. The highest biomass reached (T450) was 5.1kg/m² and the best feed conversion rate was 1.54 in T150. The results of this study indicate that stocking densities in the proposed system can be high, but not exceeding 450 shrimp/m². Furthermore, even maintaining the same water parameters for all treatments, there was a negative effect between density and shrimp growth, confirming that this effect is behavioral.
Article
This study reports a nutrient demand model for the Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) based on a factorial approach of describing the growth potential, composition of growth, utilization and maintenance demands of nutrients, with an emphasis on protein and amino acids. Growth potential was defined using data from several farm-scale trials to determine the size-specific mass-gain of the animal across its production cycle. This was then matched with algorithms of the composition of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate and amino acids across the production size ranges for this species. Re-analysis of data from several publications allowed the derivation of the utilization efficiencies and maintenance demands for protein, energy and individual amino acids. These factors were then assembled into a model that allow the iterative estimation of macronutrient specifications of diets for shrimp, including the demands for individual essential amino acids, and how these demands change with animal size. The predicted essential amino acid demands compared well against existing empirical estimations (R² = .9169). Modelled estimations of essential amino acid demands were typically all slightly higher than most of the empirical data, with the model suggesting that a higher dietary inclusion level of several amino acids as potentially being beneficial.
Article
The von Bertalanffy growth model is extended to incorporate explanatory variables. The generalized model includes the switched growth model and the seasonal growth model as special cases, and can also be used to assess the tagging effect on growth. Distribution-free and consistent estimating functions are constructed for estimation of growth parameters from tag-recapture data in which age at release is unknown. This generalizes the work of James (1991, Biometrics 47 1519–1530) who considered the classical model and allowed for individual variability in growth. A real dataset from barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is analysed to estimate the growth parameters and possible effect of tagging on growth.
Article
Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate is one of the most valuable cultured shrimp species in China and outdoor earthen pond farming is the most common method of culturing this organism. The need to increase soil usage efficiency in aquaculture has been recognized and a great deal of research effort has been directed toward development of super-intensive farming systems. However, current research and development in this field is largely devoted to Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, while to M. japonicus Bate it has been neglected. In this study, a layered farming system was designed and a 66-day study was conducted in M. japonicus Bate culture. The system comprised bracket and sand layers that divided a shrimp tank filled to a depth of 1.2 m into four water layers. Conventional tank culture (unlayered) was used as a control. The results show that survival rate, feed conversion efficiency and production of M. japonicus Bate in the layered farming system were 68%, 18%, and 0.59 kg/m(2), respectively, all of which are significantly higher than in the unlayered farming system (P < 0.01). These findings confirmed the possibility of using a layered system to culture M. japonicus Bate.
Book
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Budidaya udang merupakan salah satu kegiatan budidaya yang sangat menguntungkan di wilayah pesisir. Udang merupakan salah satu penghasil devisa terbesar dari sektor perikanan. Introduksi udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) turut berperan besar dalam meningkatnya produksi udang di Indonesia, Selain pertumbuhan cepat, udang vaname memiliki survival rate yang tinggi, serta benih sudah bisa diperoleh yang SPF (specific pathogen free). Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan dalam upaya meningkatkan produksi tambak udang, salah satu yang potensial untuk diterapkan adalah budidaya udang berbasis salinitas rendah. Media dengan salinitas rendah mempunyai keuntungan dapat menekan pertumbuhan pathogen (bakteri, virus) yang merupakan penyebab utama kegagalan budidaya udang. Buku Teknologi Produksi Udang ini berisi tentang produksi udang di Indonesia, biologi udang, limbah budidaya udang, sistem budidaya udang, konstruksi tambak, persiapan tambak, penebaran benih, manajemen pakan, manajemen kualitas air, senyawa tokasik dan bahan-bahan kimia yang dapat digunakan dalam budidaya udang. Buku ini juga dilengkapi dengan budidaya udang vaname salinitas rendah yang dilengkapi dengan data penelitian laboratorium maupun tambak percobaan. Pada bagian akhir buku ini disajikan mengenai penerapan sistem biofloc dalam budidaya udang. Buku ini dapat dijadikan rujukan bagi akademisi dan praktisi budidaya udang yang ingin mendalami tentang teknologi budidaya udang
Article
While shrimp is the most important farmed seafood product worldwide, its production often induces negative externalities as discharge of nutrients to the aquatic environment. If farmers have an incentive to maintain good farm-level water quality, it may also positively affect the surrounding environment, reducing the risk of eutrophication in downstream river systems. If this is done, then the need for public intervention regulating the externalities may be reduced. This study analyzes the incentives for farmers to maintain good water quality by identifying whether technical efficiency increases with improved water quality. Based on interviews with 183 shrimp farmers producing Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, technical efficiency was estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA). A positive correlation between good water quality and technical efficiency was identified using a second stage DEA, but only found in L. vannamei. L. vannamei farmers thus have an incentive to improve farm-level water quality, potentially decreasing the need for public interventions. Moreover, the technical efficiency of farmers of P. monodon was significantly higher than for farmers of L. vannamei. The higher productivity and environmental robustness of P. monodon indicate a possibility for revitalizing the global supply of the species after two decades of stagnation.
Chapter
The concept of stock–flow diagram was introduced in Chap. 2, and this chapter presents concepts, methodology and techniques of constructing stock–flow diagrams. The basic building blocks of the system structure, stock and flow, are explained. Delays and graphical functions are highlighted. Function with and without integrations is presented. A good number of examples are included to demonstrate the techniques of constructing the system structures in terms of stock–flow diagrams and simulation using the software STELLA.
Book
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This volume documents the usefulness of multivariate methods – notably multiple regression, path analysis and canonical correlation – in the context of aquaculture, which has to date tended to neglect such methods, and hence to underutilize available data. All examples used here stem from experimental and/or commercial tilapia culture systems, and hence this book also represents an advance in the understanding of such systems.
Article
Computer simulations can help in understanding how a fish population responds to a series of decision variables and external factors, thus contributing to better control of the production system. This paper describes a model which has been expanded to deal more explicitly with the effects of water quality and stocking density. The purpose of this paper is to compare simulated model results with actual pond trial results to determine the accuracy of the simulation and to assess the need and ability to make adjustments to the model. Data from a pond experiment using satiation and restricted feeding regimes at 26, 32, and 38% feed protein level were used to validate and adjust the parameters of the simulation model. Actual feeding, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were incorporated into the simulation, and feed consumption and final weight were compared to simulated feed consumption and final weight. After adjustments for water quality, stocking density, and growth parameters, simulated results ranged from 0 to 9% of pond experiment results. Simulated results of restricted feeding treatments were within 5% of pond results.
Article
Quantitative descriptions of prawn growth are important for fisheries and aquaculture management. The Black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, has been cultured and studied for a long time (Anonymous, 1932). However, adequate quantitative descriptions of its complete growth are still not available. Such descriptions are particularly important for the culture of
Article
The rapid expansion of coastal aquaculture has serious environmental and socioeconomic consequences, which include large-scale removal of valuable coastal wetlands, land subsidence, acidification, salinization of groundwater and agricultural land, and subsequent loss of goods and services generated by natural resource systems. Practices that are environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable should therefore be promoted through integrated planning and management within the framework of coastal area management (CAM).
Article
The potential influence of drying, liming, tilling, bacterial augmentation, and nitrogen fertilization on respiration of pond bottom soil exposed to air between crops was evaluated in laboratory studies using soil respiration chambers. The optimum soil moisture concentration for respiration was 12–20%, and further drying decreased soil respiration. Soil respiration was greatest at pH 7.5–8.0, and both calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate were effective in enhancing respiration of acidic soil. Pulverization of soil to eliminate the hard surface crust formed on drying accelerated respiration, thus tilling of pond bottom soils would be expected to increase respiration. Nitrogen fertilization showed some benefit to soil respiration, but there was no value in bacterial augmentation. These laboratory findings provide background information useful to pond studies on bottom soil treatments.
Article
When juvenile Penaeus merguiensis were fed four times daily they increased in weight more rapidly and utilized their food more efficiently than when fed once per day. The maximum ration for prawns given a commercial dry pellet was approximately 12.0% of the wet body weight per day and changed very little as the prawns grew from 0.5 to 1.3 g in indoor culture. Food conversion efficiency declined with increasing weight and ration size but the relative loss in efficiency was least when rations were maintained near to the maximum. Evidence is presented for the existence of a negative K-line relationship in P. merguiensis.
Article
The paper gives results of two 63-day feeding experiments conducted with pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum duorarum, in 36 concrete tanks, each 2 m². Foods tested included a com mercial catfish food, wheat bran, wheat straw, hay and bagasse. Postlarval shrimp 25 days old were stocked at densities of 7.5 and 15 per nr. Marl substrate vs. no substrate was also tested, in most cases, as was the effect of feeding rate. Average yield (g/m²) of shrimp was higher in tanks to which catfish food was added than in those to which wheat bran was added, it was higher at the lower stocking density, and it increased with increase in feeding rate. Average final weight per shrimp did not differ signif icantly between these two foods, thus the difference in yield was represented by greater survival of shrimp in tanks to which catfish food was added. Average final weight per shrimp was higher at the lower stocking density. Marl substrate was associated with lowered mean dissolved oxygen concentration but also with higher yield of shrimp. Tanks to which wheat bran was added produced larger shrimp and higher yield than those to which wheat straw, hay, or bagasse were added.
Article
A couple of experiments were conducted to estimate the optimal temperature effect on growth of Chinese shrimp (Penaeus chinensis). The equation describing growth-temperature relationship derived from the first experiment with temperature ranging from 16° to 31°C was found linear as the following: G = -0.005667 + 0.001103 T,where G and T are daily growth rate and temperature, respectively.The second experiment indicated that the daily growth rate was a quadratic function of temperature at the limits of 27° and 35°C. The equation was G = -0.339587 + 0.023476 T − 0.000375 T2.The optimal temperature in terms of maximum growth was 31.26°C.
Article
A mass balance was constructed for nutrient flow through intensive marine shrimp ponds in which budgets for nitrogen and phosphorus were determined for a series of ponds in southern Thailand over two or three culture cycles. Ninety-five per cent of the nitrogen and 71% of the phosphorus applied to the ponds was in the form of feed and fertilizers. Of the feed input (at a food conversion ratio of 2) only 24% of the nitrogen and 13% of the phosphorus was incorporated into the shrimp harvested, whilst the remainder was retained in the pond and ultimately exported to the surrounding environment. The effluent water contained 35% of the nitrogen and 10% of the phosphorus discharged. Of the N and P exported in this effluent, 63–67% occurred during routine water exchange and the remainder during drainage on harvest. A major portion of the nitrogen (31%) and most of the phosphorus (84%) was retained in the sediments, emphasizing the importance of the correct removal and disposal of sediments between crops. Pond age (between two and six production cycles) did not markedly affect nutrient flows, whilst increasing stocking density increased the quantity of nutrients, but not their relative proportions. The results derived from the nutrient budget provide data which may help define effective management techniques for reducing potentially harmful nutrient levels within intensive shrimp ponds, and for reducing the discharge of nutrients to the local environment. The data may also assist in determining the carrying capacity of an area for shrimp farming, and the potential impact of its development on the environment.
Article
Growth in total length of juvenile Penaeus vannamei Boone was between 0·8 and 1·4 mm per day at water temperatures between 25 and 35 °C. Growth was density dependent at densities higher than 2·5 m−2. Substrate characteristics such as combustible organic content and rate of oxygen consumption, appeared to influence growth rate of shrimp. Mortality rate in enclosures at the lagoon edge was 41% per week. Population densities averaged about 0·3 individuals m−2 on the lagoon flats, but were higher in the canals and mangrove zones. Practical implications of the results for the commercial fishery are discussed.
Article
A stocking density experiment was conducted in 18 experimental enclosures within a single 0.11 ha pond. As stocking density increased in the range 6.1–21.2 prawns/m2, school prawn growth declined while survival rate was unaffected and total harvest (final biomass) increased. A simple economic analysis indicated that the optimum stocking density for juvenile school prawns was 19.1 prawns/m2. In a similar experiment the effects of feeding school prawns with a pelleted diet at a range of supplementary feed rates (0–12.5% of prawn biomass/day) were investigated. The optimum feed rate in terms of growth was approximately 5% of biomass/day. However the optimum feed rate, in terms of the economic return index used, varied depending on the estimated cost of the diet.
Article
The growth and survival of juvenile Penaeus merguiensis (mean carapace length of 4 to 12 mm) were examined in a factorial combination of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C) and five salinities (5, 20, 35, 45 and 55%). The prawns were kept individually and examined daily for exuviae. Temperature, salinity and prawn size all affected the rate of growth. Salinity and size effects were expressed mainly through changes in the moult increment, while temperature influenced both the moult increment and the intermoult period. The optimum temperature and salinity for growth in length were 31°C and 30%. However, the highest rate of survival, as well as greatest increases in wet and dry weight, protein, fat and energy value per mm carapace length, occurred at a much lower temperature and salinity combination (20 °C and 20%). Taking both survival and growth into account, this resulted in an optimum temperature and salinity for the greatest increase in biomass and production of 28°C and 25%. Deviations from the optimum temperature have a greater effect on productivity than deviations from the optimum salinity.
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FAO, Rome, Italy. 186 pp. Grey D.L., Dall W. & Baker A. (1983) A guide to the Australian penaeid prawns. Department of Primary Production, Northern Territory, Australia. 140 pp. Hirono Y. (1992) Current practises of water quality management in shrimp farming and their limitations.
Shrimp News International Water quality management and aeration in shrimp farming. Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Departmental Series No. 2. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Shrimp pond bottom soil and sediment management Modelling growth of Penaeus monodon
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Development of intensive pond culture of marine shrimp in South Carolina: from research to commercial reality. In: From Discovery to Commercialisation, p. 166 Nonlinear Regression Effect of ration size and feeding frequency on the growth and food conversion of juvenile Penaeus merguiensis de Man
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Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Sandifer P.A., Hopkins J.S., Stokes A.D. & Browdy C.L. (1993) Development of intensive pond culture of marine shrimp in South Carolina: from research to commercial reality. In: From Discovery to Commercialisation, p. 166. EAS Special Publication No. 19 EAS, Oostende, Belgium. Seber G.A.F. & Wild C.J. (1989) Nonlinear Regression. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. 743 pp. Sedgwick R.W. (1979) Effect of ration size and feeding frequency on the growth and food conversion of juvenile Penaeus merguiensis de Man. Aquaculture 16, 279–298.
Cause of cyclic variation in Honduran shrimp production
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Teichert-Coddington D.R., Rodriguez R. & Toyofuku W. (1994) Cause of cyclic variation in Honduran shrimp production. World Aquaculture 25, 57-61.
Field experiments on growth and mortality of Penaeus vannamei in a Mexican coastal lagoon system Aquaculture Production Statistics 1984-93. FA0 Fisheries Circular No. 815, Rev. 7. FAO A guide to the Australian penaeid prawns. Department of Primary Production
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Environmental management of coastal aquaculture development Biology of the Penaeidae
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Chua T.E. (1993) Environmental management of coastal aquaculture development. In: Environment and Aquaculture in Developing Countries (ed. by R.S.V. Pullin, H. Rosenthal & J.L Maclean). ICLARM Conference Proceedings 3 1, 199-2 12. ICLARM. Philipines. Dall W., Hill B.J., Rothlisberg P.C. & Staples D.J. (1990) Biology of the Penaeidae. In: Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 27 (ed. by J.H.S. Blaxter & A.J. Southward).
Development of intensive pond culture of marine shrimp in South Carolina: from research to commercial reality
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Sandifer P.A., Hopkins J.S., Stokes A.D. & Browdy C.L. (1993) Development of intensive pond culture of marine shrimp in South Carolina: from research to commercial reality. In: From Discovery to Commercialisation, p. 166. EAS Special Publication No. 19 EAS, Oostende, Belgium.
The environmental management of coastal aquaculture An assessment of shrimp culture in southern Thailand. Final report to the Office of Environmental Policy and Planning. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
NACA (1994) The environmental management of coastal aquaculture. An assessment of shrimp culture in southern Thailand. Final report to the Office of Environmental Policy and Planning. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Bangkok, January 1994.
Current practises of water quality management in shrimp farming and their limitations
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Hirono Y. (1992) Current practises of water quality management in shrimp farming and their limitations. In: Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming (ed. by J. Wyban), pp. 157-165. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Effects of temperature on growth, food consumption and food conversion for Penaeus monodon, Penaeus plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi
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Maguire G.B. & Allan G.L. (1992) Effects of temperature on growth, food consumption and food conversion for Penaeus monodon, Penaeus plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. In: Proceedings of the Aquaculture Nutrition Workshop, Salamander Bay, 15-17 April 1991 (ed. by G.L. Allan & W. Dall), pp. 97-99. NSW Fisheries, Brackish Water Fish Culture Research Station, Salamander Bay, Australia.
Two new approaches for examining multivariate aquaculture growth data: the 'extended Bayley plot' and path analysis
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Prein M. & Pauly D. (1993) Two new approaches for examining multivariate aquaculture growth data: the 'extended Bayley plot' and path analysis. In: Multivariate Methods in Aquaculture Research: Case Studies of Tilapias in Experimental and Commercial Systems (ed. by M. Prein, G. Hulata & D. Pauly), pp. 32-49. ICLARM Study Rev. 20, ICLARM, Philippines. 221 pp.
Aquaculture Production Statistics 1984–93
FAO (1995) Aquaculture Production Statistics 1984–93. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 815, Rev. 7. FAO, Rome, Italy. 186 pp.
Multiple regression analysis of aquaculture experiments based on the 'extended Gulland-and-Holt plot' model derivation, data requirements and recommended procedures
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Pauly D., Prein M. & Hopkins K.D. (1993) Multiple regression analysis of aquaculture experiments based on the 'extended Gulland-and-Holt plot' model derivation, data requirements and recommended procedures. In: Multivariate Methods in Aquaculture Research: Case Studies of Tilapias in Experimental and Commercial Systems (ed. by M. Prein, G. Hulata & D. Pauly), pp. 13-23. ICLARM Study Rev. 20, ICLARM, Philippines. 221 pp.
Shrimp pond bottom soil and sediment management
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Boyd C.E. (1992) Shrimp pond bottom soil and sediment management. In: Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming (ed. by J. Wyban), pp. 166-181. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Biology of the Penaeidae
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Dall W., Hill B.J., Rothlisberg P.C. & Staples D.J. (1990) Biology of the Penaeidae. In: Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 27 (ed. by J.H.S. Blaxter & A.J. Southward). Academic Press, London, UK.
Aquaculture Production Statistics 1984-93
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FAO (1995) Aquaculture Production Statistics 1984-93. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 815, Rev. 7. FAO, Rome, Italy. 186 pp.
A guide to the Australian penaeid prawns. Department of Primary Production
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Grey D.L., Dall W. & Baker A. (1983) A guide to the Australian penaeid prawns. Department of Primary Production, Northern Territory, Australia. 140 pp.
Cause of cyclic variation in Honduran shrimp production
  • Teichert-Coddington