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ABSTRACT Evidence has accrued to suggest that there are 2 distinct dimensions of narcissism, which are often labeled grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Although individuals high on either of these dimensions interact with others in an antagonistic manner, they differ on other central constructs (e.g., Neuroticism, Extraversion). In the current study, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis of 3 prominent self-report measures of narcissism (N=858) to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the resultant factors. A 2-factor structure was found, which supported the notion that these scales include content consistent with 2 relatively distinct constructs: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. We then compared the similarity of the nomological networks of these dimensions in relation to indices of personality, interpersonal behavior, and psychopathology in a sample of undergraduates (n=238). Overall, the nomological networks of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism were unrelated. The current results support the need for a more explicit parsing of the narcissism construct at the level of conceptualization and assessment.

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... The two theoretically and empirically distinct forms of narcissism, grandiose and vulnerable, both have strong and potentially opposing theoretical connections to compliance and engaging in protective policies. Combined they capture competing and often contradictory elements of human behavior surrounding the well-being of others versus self-interest, selfpromotion and insecurity against social sanction (Campbell et al., 2005;Miller et al., 2011). Both forms of narcissism are continuously distributed unimodal traits, where everyone has some degree of narcissism to greater or lesser extents, akin to other temperament traits. ...
... The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Raskin & Hall, 1981) remains the most commonly used measure to capture grandiose narcissism in the general public. Decades of refinement resulted in a consensus that both a single overall grandiose narcissism score and the different components of grandiose narcissism be explored independently because they often have divergent influences on traits of interest (Campbell et al., 2002;Miller et al., 2011Miller et al., , 2017. The original 40 items have been effectively reduced to a 25-item scale to produce a general grandiose narcissism score and subdimensions of Leadership/Authority Seeking (self-perceived leadership ability, desire for authority, and social potency), Grandiose Exhibitionism (self-absorption, vanity, and exhibitionism), and Entitlement/Exploitativeness (entitled beliefs/behaviors and manipulativeness) (Ackerman et al., 2011). ...
... However, this is dependent on the dimension, the presence of social pressure, and the ability to avoid accountability for one's actions (Kaufman et al., 2020). The self-centered/ egocentrism component is rooted in the ability to express entitlement without risk, while the rejection sensitivity factor is explicitly concerned about negative social evaluation and internalization of others views of self (Miller et al., 2011). Vulnerable narcissism is related to less empathy, but when anonymity is not possible, for example, that is, when one cannot hide, such as not wearing a mask in public, then social pressures overcome selfishness and entitlement and can result in prosocial outcomes such as wearing a mask. ...
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In a large nationally representative study in the United States, we explored the role of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism on adhering to protective measures against COVID-19. Controlling for one's politics, perception of risk, state policies, and important demographics, we find higher grandiose narcissism predicts less vaccination and less mask-wearing, but more telling other people to wear a mask, if one wears a mask. The individual facets of higher entitlement/exploitativeness predicted less mask-wearing and less vaccination while higher authority/leadership-seeking predicted telling others to wear a mask, but not getting vaccinated. Regarding vulnerable narcissism, higher self-centered/egocentrism predicted less mask-wearing or vaccination, while higher oversensitivity-to-judgement predicted more mask-wearing and vaccination. Our results are consistent with expectations that reflect narcissism's multidimensionality, and present a nuanced picture of narcissism's role in adhering to protective policies. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03080-4.
... On the other hand, vulnerable narcissism includes a contingent sense of self, a submissive interpersonal style, and self-dysregulation (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;Pincus et al., 2009). In support of this conceptual distinction, these two constructs exhibit unique patterns of correlation with the Big Five traits and self-esteem (Cain et al., 2008;Miller et al., 2011). Both are negatively correlated with agreeableness. ...
... Grandiose narcissism, however, correlates positively with extraversion and self-esteem, but negatively or non-significantly with neuroticism. On the other hand, vulnerable narcissism correlates positively with neuroti cism and self-esteem, and negatively with extraversion (Bresin & Gordon, 2011;Miller et al., 2011). ...
... Although Krizan and Herlache (2018) and Miller et al. (2017) agree on the two sub types, they disagree on what forms the "shared core", with Krizan and Herlache implicat ing entitlement and self-importance, and Miller et al. (2017) interpersonal antagonism as the core. Nomological network analyses allude to disagreeableness as the shared core (Miller et al., 2011). Antagonism, however, is a feature of anti-social personalities and not a unique feature of narcissism, as it is the central node that connects narcissism to psychopathy and Machiavellianism within the Dark Triad. ...
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Narcissism as a psychological construct has had a contentious past both in its conceptualization and measurement. There is an emerging consensus that narcissism consists of grandiose and vulnerable subtypes, which share a common core. In the present research (N = 1002), we constructed a new measure of unified narcissism that reflects these contemporary understandings using items from the most widely used measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.890), and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009, https://doi-org/10.1037/a0016530). We used classical test theory and item response theory approaches to devise a 29-item Unified Narcissism Scale. The scale showed good internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity, and showed evidence of measurement invariance between men and women. This research gave strong support for the structure, reliability, and validity of the unified measure, which offers a promising avenue for further enhancing our knowledge of narcissism.
... The grandiose narcissism essentially involves a functional approach strategy. It reflects traits such as grandiose-self, aggressiveness, and dominance (Miller et al., 2011). It is a strong disposition guided by the motivation to seek targets of self-glorification and self-satisfaction. ...
... While, in the five-factor personality inventory, grandiose narcissism has a positive correlation with extraversion, it has a negative correlation with agreeableness and neuroticism (Paulhus & Williams, 2002). Vulnerable narcissism, on the other hand, involves avoidance that tends towards emotional stress and which is also guided by the motive to define the threats for self-image and to combat these threats (Miller et al., 2011). Unsatisfied narcissistic needs give rise to shame, fury, and anxiety. ...
... Grandiose narcissism predicts the number of selfies, especially those revealing more body parts and showing just the self (Barry et al., 2017). On the other hand, it is not easy to detect vulnerable narcissism on social media (Miller et al., 2011, McCain & Campbell, 2018. Alternatingly, it is suggested that constant presence in social media and virtual positive relationships could increase narcissism (Gentile, Twenge, Freeman & Campbell, 2012). ...
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Narcissism in social media reveals itself differently than in daily social interactions. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a Scale of Narcissism in Social Media through the lens of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Model and to investigate its psychometric characteristics. The total sample of the study consisted of 740 participants between 18 and 65 years of age for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 16 item and two-factor structure. The structure of the scale was in accordance with the theoretical framework and therefore factors are named Narcissistic Admiration and Narcissistic Rivalry. The results of the confirmative analysis showed that the fit indices were acceptable. Correlations of the scale with other narcissism scales demonstrated concurrent validity and reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistency. The results of the study show that the Scale of Narcissism in Social Media is a valid and reliable tool for measurement and data collection.
... However, whereas grandiose narcissism is further characterized by an egocentric brand of extraversion, vulnerable narcissism is characterized by subjective distress stemming from perceived lack of respect. In terms of the Five Factor Model or Big Five Model of personality (Anglim & O'Connor, 2019;Widiger, 2015), grandiose and vulnerable narcissism share low levels of agreeableness and, whereas grandiose narcissism is also associated with high levels of extraversion, vulnerable narcissism is also associated with high levels of neuroticism (Miller et al., 2011). ...
... As noted earlier, both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism are antagonistic traits at their core (Crowe et al., in press;Vize et al. 2020). Consistent with this view, grandiose narcissism (and vulnerable narcissism) involves disagreeableness (Miller et al., 2011;Paulhus & Williams, 2002;Vazire et al., 2008). Neighboring research has shown that narcissism-particularly the grandiose variant-is strongly positively correlated with extraversion (Lee & Ashton, 2004;Paulhus & Williams, 2002), which is indeed evident across different measures of the Big Five (r = .46 ...
... Grandiose narcissists are approach-oriented and sensitive to rewards (Foster & Brennan, 2012;Pincus et al., 2009). They tend to be in an energetic, upbeat, and optimistic mood (Sedikides et al., 2004) and rarely experience sadness, loneliness, anxiety, and other negative Narcissism and NPD 20 states (e.g., Miller et al., 2011;Sedikides et al., 2004). Grandiose narcissists have therefore been described as "successful narcissists" and their high emotional well-being has been attributed to their high self-esteem (Sedikides et al., 2004). ...
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The three goals of this chapter are to introduce readers to construct of narcissism, to review the literature on the evolutionary origins of narcissism, and to review the literature on narcissism and emotions. Narcissism will be discussed as both a personality trait that is comprised by grandiose and vulnerable expressions, as well as a personality disorder characterized by extreme levels of narcissistic personality combined with impairment. Some discussion throughout will be devoted to whether grandiose and vulnerable expressions of narcissism should be conceptualized as relatively stable and separable traits versus oscillating narcissistic states. Evolutionary topics discussed will include the heritability of narcissism, the genetic foundations (or lack thereof) of narcissism, evolutionarily grounded strategies, including mating and survival strategies, that may have facilitated sexual and natural selection of narcissistic traits, as well as critiques of existing theory in this literature. The emotion section will focus on the emotional experiences of narcissists, paying particular attention to how these experiences contrast depending on whether narcissism is more grandiose or vulnerable. Attempts will be made throughout the chapter to identify connections between the conceptual, evolutionary, and emotion literatures.
... Vulnerable narcissism is characterized by a fragile grandiose self, which might be easily (compared to other aspects of narcissism) undermined by others. Thus, it is associated with self-protection and avoidant/preventing strategies, expressed in hypersensitivity and anxiety (Miller et al., 2011). Characteristics of SNSs may prevent feelings of such distress from occurring or alleviate them. ...
... Nevertheless, studies show robust associations between the two, and self-esteem is often used as a criterion for separating different aspects of narcissism. Specifically, it is related negatively to vulnerable (Miller et al., 2011) and rivalrous (Back et al., 2013;Miller et al., 2015) narcissism, and positively to admirative (Back et al., 2013) and communal narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012). Moreover, the relationship between SNS addiction and vulnerable narcissism is often explained similarly to its link with self-esteem. ...
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Narcissism was found to be one of the essential personality-related risk factor of Social Networking Sites (SNS) addiction. However, most of the research neglected its heterogeneous nature. In this study, we focus on four aspects of narcissism (i.e., admirative narcissism, communal narcissism, rivalrous narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism), acknowledging that they might be associated with different underlying narcissistic motives (i.e., self-enhancement or self-protection) and realized in different domains (i.e., agency or communion). We tested whether four aspects of narcissism separately and additively contribute to SNS addiction using self-report measures of narcissism and SNS addiction in three cross-sectional studies (N = 1659; one students' sample and two general Polish samples). The results indicate that all four aspects of narcissism were positively related to SNS addiction. However, only rivalrous, communal, and vulnerable narcissism aspects were independent predictors of SNS addiction. We also conclude that SNSs might not be the optimal platform for gaining gratifications via solely agentic self-enhancement. Furthermore, SNS addiction may develop not only as a compensatory mechanism of interpersonal sensitivity and poor social relations in the relatively controllable SNS' environment (as indicated by vulnerable narcissism) but also maladaptive self-regulation via antagonism and hostility towards others (as indicated by rivalrous narcissism).
... To understand narcissism more comprehensively, recent literature has distinguished grandiose narcissism-an overt personality of entitled self-importance associated with grandiosity, arrogance, and dominance-from vulnerable narcissism, a more covert and pathological aspect of narcissism associated with hypersensitivity, self-doubt, and shame (Back, 2018;Miller et al., 2011). Moreover, grandiose narcissism has been further recognized as encompassing two dimensions-narcissistic rivalry and narcissistic admiration-that respectively correspond with two separate approaches to regulating and attaining an inflated self: antagonistic self-protection and assertive self-enhancement (Back et al., 2013;Crowe et al., 2019). ...
... This paradox can only be partially resolved by recognizing the differences between grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism (Cain et al., 2008). Grandiose narcissism entails grandiosity, aggressiveness, and dominance, whereas vulnerable narcissism entails insecure grandiosity that obscures feelings of incapability and incompetence (Miller et al., 2011). Vulnerable narcissism is considered more as of personality disorder whereas grandiose narcissism is normally distributed in the population (Cain et al., 2008;Foster & Campbell, 2007). ...
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Narcissism is considered a generally undesirable trait in the workplace, but is this the whole story? In grandiose narcissism, two dimensions (narcissistic rivalry and narcissistic admiration) are recognized corresponding to self-protecting and self-enhancing regulatory processes separately. Applying the self-regulation theory and the conservation of resources theory, we investigated the distinct outcomes and influencing mechanisms of the two dimensions in an organizational context using multilevel structural equation modeling. Whereas previous literature has found narcissism to be mainly related to negative outcomes in the workplace, our dimensional framework indicates that grandiose narcissism may have a Janus face—i.e., a dark side of unethical behaviors and a light side of prosocial behaviors. From a sample of 646 frontline employees in a Chinese call center, we found that while employee narcissistic rivalry was positively related to customer-directed sabotage through the mediation of emotional exhaustion, narcissistic admiration was positively related to organizational citizenship behavior toward customers (OCB-C) through the mediation of self-perceived status. In addition to the internal self-regulation of these two narcissism dimensions, political skill provides an external self-regulation that moderates the mediating effect of self-perceived status at the first stage—that is, the positive relationship between narcissistic admiration and self-perceived status is stronger when political skill is high rather than low. Our post hoc analyses further reveal that narcissistic rivalry is negatively related to OCB-C through the mediation of self-perceived status. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
... In the present research, we propose that employee's perceptions of self-esteem will mediate the relationships between narcissism and workplace incivility. The wide body of prior research into narcissism shows that low self-esteem is an associated trait of covert narcissism (Brookes, 2015;Miller et al., 2011;Pincus & Roche, 2011;Rhodewalt & Eddings, 2002;Rohmann et al., 2012;Rose, 2002). This has led us to believe that there will be a negative relationship between covert narcissism and self-esteem. ...
... The income and SES were treated as covariates. ***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05 As expected, a significant relationship between high covert narcissism and low self-esteem was observed, which supports the previous research on this topic showing low self-esteem can be one of the main identifying traits of covert narcissism (Brookes, 2015;Miller et al., 2011;Pincus & Roche, 2011;Rhodewalt & Eddings, 2002;Rohmann et al., 2012). Consistent with previous research (Meier & Semmer, 2013), we also found that experience of workplace incivility was greater when self-esteem was low. ...
Article
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There has been an abundance of research on narcissism in the workplace. However, most research has focused on the overt (grandiosity) form of narcissism, as well as the effect of narcissism on uncivil behaviors of employees; research focusing directly on the effect of covert (vulnerability) narcissism on the employees’ experience of workplace incivility is lacking. The present research examined whether the personality trait (covert narcissism) of employees affects their experience of incivility considering two potential explanatory variables: self-esteem and perceived norms for respect. A total of 150 participants completed an online questionnaire, which consisted of four well-known measures: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Perceived Norms for Respect, and the Workplace Incivility Scale. The results showed that employees with higher levels of covert narcissism are likely to have greater experiences of workplace incivility through the mediating role of perceived norms for respect. Although the relationship was not explained through the mediating role of self-esteem, it was instead observed that self-esteem and perceived norms for respect jointly affect employees’ experience of incivility at work. These findings broaden our understanding of workplace incivility by simultaneously considering the influences of personality traits, self-esteem, and workplace norms.
... Pathological narcissism relates to some pathological conditions like depression (Dawood & Pincus, 2018), anxiety (Barry et al., 2015) and suicidality (Ansell et al., 2015). The contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism includes two distinct phenotypes: narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability (Miller et al., 2011). So, it is useful to obtain a more specific picture of relationships between different facets of narcissism including pathological narcissism and other personality traits (Miller et al., 2014) including the five-factor model (FFM) (Hyatt et al., 2018). ...
... Similar to grandiosity, individuals with greater vulnerability are defensive, avoidant and vigilant for criticism (Miller et al., 2011). Edershile et al. (2018) found that vulnerable narcissism was positively correlated with neuroticism and negatively correlated with agreeableness, extraversion and conscientiousness. ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between pathological narcissism, narcissistic grandiosity, narcissistic vulnerability and the five-factor model of personality. Participants consisted of 290 undergraduate students from four universities in three different cities in Iran, recruited by available sampling, Instruments, including, Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were also completed for the participants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that narcissistic grandiosity was positively associated with extraversion and openness, while narcissistic vulnerability and overall pathological narcissism were positively associated with neuroticism and negatively related to agreeableness and openness (only for narcissistic vulnerability). The results are consistent with prior research in Western cultures (e.g., United States, Germany) and revealed that neuroticism is a common factor in narcissistic vulnerability and pathological narcissism which suggested pathological narcissism may be a distinct dimension from normal narcissism. Also, there were various contributors of personality traits for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability which can be considered as a support for the distinction of two phenotypes of pathological narcissism.
... This myth can be seen to reflect two main themes which are evident across a wide range of psychological literature on narcissism, namely grandiosity and vulnerability (Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010). The grandiose aspects of narcissism are related to egotistical but largelythough by no means exclusively-adaptive functioning in the general population, whereas the vulnerable aspects go along with a variety of intrapersonal and interpersonal problems Miller et al., 2011). Still, viewed from an interindividual differences perspective, the broad themes of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, translated into personality traits, remain fuzzy to some extent, as each of them contains a mixture of different aspects which have different relations to relevant aspects of experience and behavior (e.g., Back et al., 2013). ...
... 592). Individuals scoring high on the HSNS are characterized by neuroticism, disagreeableness, and introversion in the FFM (Jauk et al., 2017;Miller et al., 2011). Although the HSNS is a widely used measure of vulnerable narcissism and is valid with respect to expert ratings (Miller et al., 2014), a shortcoming is that-as to the NPI-it intermingles discernible aspects of vulnerable narcissism which have substantially different nomological networks, in this case, antagonistic and neurotic aspects . ...
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Narcissism is a multifaceted construct commonly conceptualized as comprising grandiose and vulnerable aspects in a two-factor model. While the manifold correlates of these aspects imposed a challenge for research on the structure of narcissism, recent models converge in a three-factor structure of agentic-extraverted, antagonistic, and neurotic aspects, capturing variance in different conceptualizations and correlates of narcissism. We construct and validate a German adaptation of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI), a measure assessing these aspects based on the Five-Factor Model. In eight samples ( N = 2,921), we found the German FFNI to align with both, two- and three-factor models. The factors display good criterion validity with other narcissism measures, (non-)clinical personality dimensions, interpersonal styles, and (mal-)adaptive adjustment. Neurotic and antagonistic narcissism discriminated between individuals with/without mental disorder diagnoses, and displayed a characteristic profile in incarcerated offenders. Since the FFNI is comprehensive but long, we constructed a 30-item brief form (FFNI-BF) optimizing the internal structure and external validity using ant colony optimization. The FFNI-BF displayed good psychometric characteristics and similar, in certain aspects even advantageous criterion validity. We conclude that the German FFNI validly measures key aspects of narcissism, and the FFNI-BF captures these in a concise manner.
... Narcissists' positive or negative characteristics might, however, depend on the specific type. According to a widely accepted distinction, narcissism has two major forms: grandiose and vulnerable (Wink, 1991;Miller et al., 2011;Krizan and Herlache, 2018). Their common core is self-centeredness and a sense of entitlement, but they differ in many respects (Krizan and Herlache, 2018). ...
... Although both narcissistic admiration and rivalry are considered subdimensions of grandiose narcissism (Back et al., 2013), there is evidence that they might be differently located in the narcissism spectrum that distinguishes grandiosity and vulnerability (Krizan and Herlache, 2018). Narcissistic grandiosity is typically linked to positive emotions (Sedikides et al., 2004), while vulnerability is associated with negative emotionality such as anxiety, depression, tension, and anger (Wink, 1991;Miller et al., 2011). Narcissistic rivalry shares certain characteristics with both narcissistic admiration and vulnerable narcissism, and is located between grandiosity and vulnerability (Rogoza et al., 2018). ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between grandiose narcissism and the feeling of distress. We referred to the narcissistic admiration and rivalry model. We hypothesized that people with high narcissistic admiration would experience less distress and fear and that intellectual self-confidence would account for this relationship. We examined two dimensions of grandiose narcissism using Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, self-assessed intelligence, and various aspects of distress in two studies. In Study 1 ( N = 170), we assessed distress (with the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire), related to performance in an intelligence test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices), and in Study 2 ( N = 258) we measured fear related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In both studies, narcissistic admiration was inversely related to distress/fear, and this relationship was fully mediated by self-assessed intelligence. Narcissistic rivalry was unrelated to both distress and self-assessed intelligence. These findings emphasize the importance of self-views related to intelligence for those with high narcissistic admiration. In particular, intellectual self- confidence plays an important role in reducing distress among narcissists.
... Yet, a metaanalytic review of Miao et al. (2019) showed that narcissism and TEI are unrelated, since some studies showed positive correlations between narcissism and the different facets of TEI (Petrides et al., 2011;Szabó and Bereczkei, 2017), including assertiveness (Watson et al., 1988), optimism (Farwell and Wohlwend-Lloyd, 1998), positive social relationships (Foster and Campbell, 2005), whereas others showed negative relationships, as narcissists showed lower levels of empathic concern (Watson and Biderman, 1994). These contradictory results can be in part due to the double facet of narcissism, involving grandiosity (high self-esteem, interpersonal dominance, and tendency to overestimate one's capabilities), or vulnerability (defensive, avoidant, insecure, hypersensitive, and vigilant for criticism) (Miller et al., 2011). Thus, grandiosity would be positively related to TEI, whereas vulnerability would be negatively related (Zajenkowski et al., 2018). ...
... This scenario revealed that the relationship between the dark triad and the different facets of prosociality is rather complex. Machiavellianism was confirmed as a dark trait fully oriented toward antisocial behaviors (Vernon et al., 2008;Muris et al., 2013); psychopathy as a disposition oriented specifically toward selfishness, affective callousness, and lack of empathy (Miller et al., 2011;White, 2014), and narcissism (presumably grandiose) as a trait negatively oriented toward equity. ...
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Adolescence involves a profound number of changes in all domains of development. Among others, adolescence yields an enhanced awareness and responsibility toward the community, representing a critical age to develop prosocial behaviors. In this study, the mediation role of Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI) was detected for the relationship between the dark triad and prosocial behavior based on altruism and equity. A total of 129 healthy late adolescents filled in the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, measuring Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; the Altruistic Action Scale, evaluating behaviors directed at helping others; the Equity Scale, assessing behaviors directed at equity in different forms; and the TEI Questionnaire-Short Form. Results showed that TEI mediated the negative effects of the three dark triad traits on both altruism and equity. This finding suggests that TEI, which relies on a set of dispositions (e.g., emotional management of others, social competence, and empathy), might reduce the malevolent effects of the dark triad on altruism and equitable behavior in late adolescence. This led to assume that intervention programs focused on improving emotional skills, also in late adolescence, can promote prosociality.
... In this, collective narcissism resembles individual narcissism, which tends to predict engagement in short-term self-aggrandizing strategies, which harm social relationships in the long term Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001;Vazire & Funder, 2006). Indeed, our findings have parallels with interpersonal outcomes of grandiose (as compared with vulnerable) narcissism, such as entitlement, grandiose fantasies, exploitativeness, and a disregard of how these behaviors affect others (Miller et al., 2011). ...
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Collective narcissism is a belief in one’s in-group greatness that is underappreciated by others. Across three studies conducted in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we found that collective narcissism, measured with respect to the national group, was related to support of policies that protect the national image at the expense of in-group members’ health. In Study 1, British national narcissism was related to opposing cooperation with the European Union (EU) on medical equipment. In Study 2, American national narcissism predicted opposition to COVID-19 testing to downplay the number of cases. In Study 3, American national narcissism was related to support for releasing an untested COVID-19 vaccine, to beat other countries to the punch. These relationships were mediated by concern about the country’s reputation. Our studies shed light on collective narcissism as a group-based ego-enhancement strategy in which a strong image of the group is prioritized over members’ well-being.
... According to the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), BPD is characterised by the instability of identity, life-goals, and interpersonal relationships; inability to recognize affective states of self and others; intensive hypersensitivity, accompanied by separation anxiety, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility. In contrast to the emotionally stable and extraverted nature of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissists are characterised by high neuroticism and low extraversion (Miller et al., 2011). Vulnerable narcissism is further characterised by grandiose fantasies, shifts between superior and inferior self-representation, and fragile self-confidence (Wink, 1991). ...
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Currently our understanding of environmental factors that influence the development of dark personality traits (DT) is limited. Therefore, we conducted three studies using online questionnaires, each examining a different aspect of the relation between dark personality traits and family environment. In Study 1, 117 adults (mean age: 30.36 years, SD = 10.19) filled out questionnaires regarding their childhood relationship with siblings and their own DT traits. We found that the amount of conflicts with siblings during adolescence correlated positively with Machiavellianism and psychopathy. The feeling of closeness towards the siblings showed negative correlation with Machiavellianism. Parental partiality towards the other sibling was positively correlated with narcissism. In Study 2, 111 adolescents (mean age: 15.92, SD = 1.24) reported their perceptions of the rearing style of their parents, in addition to their sibling relationships and DT traits. Perceived parental emotional warmth was negatively associated, whereas both rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with psychopathy. Parental warmth was positively, while rejection negatively associated with narcissism. Machiavellianism was positively associated with the amount of conflicts with siblings, but negatively with closeness to siblings. In Study 3, 110 adults (mean age: 32.62 years, SD = 12.25) reported their levels of the Vulnerable Dark Triad that included measures of primary and secondary psychopathy, maladaptive covert narcissism, and borderline personality organization. Results indicated that sibling relation quality had a significant effect on primary psychopathy and borderline traits. Parental rejection and overprotection correlated with borderline traits and vulnerable narcissism. The results of these studies shed some light on how environmental impulses, particularly the quality of relationships between family members, affect the development of personality.
... Stoeber et al. (2015) suggested that there are two forms of narcissism, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and that they show distinct relationships with different types of perfectionism and outcomes. Whereas narcissistic grandiosity is positively related to other-oriented perfectionism and higher sense of self-worth, narcissistic vulnerability is positively associated with socially prescribed perfectionism and lower sense of self-worth (Miller et al., 2011;Pincus & Roche, 2011). Domain-general perfectionism measures capture only grandiose narcissism, overlooking vulnerable narcissism. ...
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Maladaptive perfectionism has a documented association with mental health problems, yet the context of maladaptive perfectionism (i.e., the domain where individuals exhibit such a trait) is rarely considered. This study aimed to develop a measure for academic perfectionism among college students and assess its psychometric properties. Five hundred and thirty-two college students were recruited from introductory-level psychology courses and completed questionnaires online. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined the factor structure and model fit of the scale, and bivariate correlation and multiple regression analyses assessed the validity of the scale. The results suggested that the College Academic Perfectionism Scale consists of two higher order factors, rigid academic perfectionism and self-critical academic perfectionism, and self-critical academic perfectionism consists of three sub-factors, academic self-criticism, doubts about actions, and socially prescribed academic perfectionism. The scale has an adequate confirmatory model fit, excellent reliability, and high construct validity. Incremental validity over general perfectionism was established.
... Jauk and Kanske's (2021) review shows an emerging consensus, that is, two forms of narcissism -grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism -have common cores of self-importance and entitlement. With grandiose narcissism, individuals have inflated self-views, crave for affirming recognition and engage in bold, attention-getting behaviours; meanwhile vulnerable narcissism manifests in anxiety, emotional instability and fragile self-esteem, but has a hidden feeling of grandiosity (Miller et al., 2011;Rohmann, Brailovskaia and Bierhoff, 2019). Although the grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic features are generally unrelated in the general population, research shows that those high in grandiosity can fluctuate between grandiose and vulnerable states, thus grandiose narcissism can be accompanied by vulnerable aspects (Hyatt et al., 2018;Jauk et al., 2017;Rogoza et al., 2018). ...
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This study examines key mechanisms through which CEO narcissism influences global performance variance in the context of Asian emerging market multinational enterprises (AEMNEs). Building on the contextual reinforcement model of narcissism and the cushion hypothesis, we focus on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) risk-taking and business group affiliation (BGA). We test our moderated mediation model on data from 149 South Korean MNEs from 2006 to 2016. The results show that CEO narcissism is positively associated with FDI risk-taking. The effect of CEO narcissism on global performance variance is mediated by FDI risk-taking. Furthermore, BGA moderates the above-mentioned relationships. Our findings offer important contributions to the international business and CEO narcissism literatures.
... The four-item narcissism subscale used in the Dirty Dozen measure (Jonason & Webster, 2010) is based on the longer Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), which conceptualizes narcissism as grandiosity and inflated attitudes of one's selfworth. Importantly, recent studies have delineated distinct dimensions of narcissism, such as vulnerable narcissism which refers to defensiveness and an easily threatened self-worth (see Miller et al., 2011) or communal narcissism which refers to pursuing self-motives in communal, rather than individual contexts (Gebauer et al., 2012). Future studies which explore the relations between fraudulent behavior and additional, nuanced measures which better parse out multifaceted constructs of narcissism, such as grandiose versus vulnerable narcissism or agentic versus communal narcissism, may be worthwhile (Sedikides, 2021). ...
Article
Customers may abuse the refund policies of online food delivery services. Given restrictions on returning online food orders and high levels of consumer power, customers who falsely claim an order was missing, damaged, or incorrect may receive both their original food order and a full refund. In an online study, we surveyed 197 food-delivery service customers regarding their refund fraud behavior and Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy). The Dark Triad predicted fraudulent refund claims, the frequency of previously placed false refund claims, its perceived acceptability, and the likeliness of placing one in the future. Moreover, we also found evidence that individuals with high Dark Triad traits were more likely to engage in refund fraud when the perceived cost to the food delivery company was high.
... Developmental experiences, negative in nature, being rejected as a child, and a fragile ego during early childhood may have been linked to the occurrence of NPD in adulthood [6,7]. Evidence has suggested that the two distinct dimensions of narcissism, are often referred to as grandiose and vulnerable narcissism [8][9][10]. ...
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Background: Being older could be stressful, especially among people with narcissistic personality disorders. Nevertheless, the tool is yet to be available among older Thai individuals. The study aimed to develop a tool to detect symptoms of narcissistic personality, and to validate its psychometric properties among older Thai adults. Methods: The Narcissistic Personality Scale (NPS) was developed based on nine domain symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), consisting of 80 items. The original scale was field-tested using Rasch analysis for item reduction, rendering a final 43 items. NPS was further investigated among 296 seniors aged 60 years old. Rasch analysis was used to assess its construct validity. Result: Of 43 items, 17 were further removed as infit or outfit mean square >1.5. The final 26-item NPS met all necessary criteria of unidimensionality and local independence without differential item functioning due to age and sex, and good targeting with subjects. Person and item reliability were 0.88 and 0.95, respectively. No disordered threshold or category was found. Conclusions: The NPS is a promising tool with a proven construct validity based on the Rasch measurement model among Thai seniors. This new questionnaire can be used as outcome measures in clinical practice.
... The Dark Triad is a tripartite model of distinct but overlapping socially aversive subclinical personality dimensions including narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy (Paulhus & Williams, 2002). Narcissism describes a proclivity toward egocentrism, grandiosity, entitlement, and exhibitionism (Miller et al., 2011;Raskin & Terry, 1988). Machiavellianism denotes a tendency toward cynicism, manipulation, and the "bi-strategic" use of coercive and prosocial strategies in a context-specific manner (Christie & Geis, 1970;Hawley, 2003). ...
Article
Few have studied the longitudinal associations between the Dark Triad and bullying in youth and none have examined these relations using analytic techniques that permit separating between- from within-person variability. Random intercept cross-lagged panel modeling was used with three waves of data from a randomly selected sample of 514 Canadian adolescents aged 15–18 to assess the Dark Triad and bullying over time. Controlling for sex and parental education, at the between-person level, random intercepts for Machiavellianism and psychopathy correlated positively with bullying. At the within-person level, moment-to-moment stability was found for narcissism and Machiavellianism. Residual within-time correlations mirrored bivariate associations, indicating that Machiavellianism and psychopathy shared consistent links with bullying. Cross-lagged effects were found for both disposition- and perpetration-driven pathways.
... of grandiose desires (e.g., see Cain et al., 2008;Miller et al., 2011;Wink, 1991). Twenty-three empirical studies examined links between stand-alone self-report measures of narcissism and SDR. ...
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Are personality traits related to symptom overreporting and/or symptom underreporting? With this question in mind, we evaluated studies from 1979 to 2020 ( k = 55), in which personality traits were linked to scores on stand-alone validity tests, including symptom validity tests (SVTs) and measures of socially desirable responding (SDR) and/or supernormality. As to symptom overreporting ( k = 14), associations with depression, alexithymia, apathy, dissociation, and fantasy proneness varied widely from weak to strong ( r s .27 to .79). For underreporting ( k = 41), inconsistent links ( r s − .43 to .63) were found with narcissism, whereas alexithymia and dissociation were often associated with lower SDR tendencies, although effect sizes were small. Taken together, the extant literature mainly consists of cross-sectional studies on single traits and contexts, mostly offering weak correlations that do not necessarily reflect causation. What this field lacks is an overarching theory relating traits to symptom reporting. Longitudinal studies involving a broad range of traits, samples, and incentives would be informative. Until such studies have been done, traits are best viewed as modest concomitants of symptom distortion.
... Most experts agree that grandiose narcissism is more a characteristic of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, Section II (DSM-5; [9]), than vulnerable narcissism is [3,5,10]. In contrast, vulnerable narcissism entails pronounced self-absorbedness, low self-esteem, hypervigilance, shyness, social withdrawal and emotional hypersensitivity [11,12]. Recent studies have shown that grandiose narcissism is less harmful to mental health, while vulnerable narcissism is associated with psychological problems and the use of rather inappropriate emotion regulation strategies, such as aggression and repression [13]. ...
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Background Although systematic research on narcissism has been conducted for over 100 years, researchers have only recently started to distinguish between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism in relation to criminal behavior. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that identity integration and self-control may underlie this association. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a theory-driven hypothetical model that investigates the complex associations between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, identity integration, self-control, and criminal behavior using structural equation modeling (SEM). Methods The total sample ( N = 222) included 65 (29.3%) individuals convicted of criminal behavior and 157 (70.7%) participants from the community, with a mean age of 37.71 years ( SD = 13.25). Criminal behavior was a grouping variable used as a categorical outcome, whereas self-report questionnaires were used to assess grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, self-control, and identity integration. Results The overall SEM model yielded good fit indices. Grandiose narcissism negatively predicted criminal behavior above and beyond the influence of identity integration and self-control. In contrast, vulnerable narcissism did not have a direct significant effect on criminal behavior, but it was indirectly and positively associated with criminal behavior via identity integration and self-control. Moreover, grandiose narcissism was positively, whereas vulnerable narcissism was negatively associated with identity integration. However, identity integration did not have a direct significant effect on criminal behavior, but it was indirectly and negatively associated with criminal behavior via self-control. Finally, self-control was, in turn, negatively related to criminal behavior. Conclusions We propose that both subtypes of narcissism should be carefully considered in clinical assessment and current intervention practices.
... First, although this study focused on general narcissism, the concept of narcissism can be further divided into different types (e.g., grandiose and vulnerable narcissism), and these types can be further subdivided and researched in-depth (Fang et al., 2021b). Although different narcissistic subtypes may have some commonalities in interpersonal relationships, they also involve different cognitive or behavior patterns (Miller et al., 2011). Therefore, future research can choose different types or dimensions of narcissism to improve the depth of research and further understand the cognitive performance and internal mechanism of narcissistic employees in the organizational context. ...
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Narcissism has an important influence on employees’ attitudes and behavior. However, research on the mechanism of this process is still relatively scarce. Based on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study constructed a conceptual model of the relationship between narcissism and organizational commitment and explored the role of perceived supervisor support and abusive supervision in this process. Data were collected in three waves from 288 participants through an online data collection platform in China. The results indicated that employee narcissism negatively predicts organizational commitment, and this process is mediated by perceived supervisor support. We also discuss the moderating role of abusive supervisors on perceived supervisor support, confirming that external self-value threat affects perceived support of narcissistic individuals. These results contribute to our understanding of the role of narcissism in organizations.
... Prior to conducting the interviews, the researcher decided not to provide explicit guidance regarding the definition of narcissism as to avoid influencing participants' understanding of narcissism. This strategy was used on the basis that it would potentially offer a more accurate glimpse into how others conceive of the construct of narcissism (also suggested by other research; Miller et al., 2011). Once interviews were conducted, it was possible to predict what type of narcissist the participant's partner was through the use of the first interview question, for example, "How would you describe a narcissistic person?" ...
... People with vulnerable narcissism traits are shy, hypersensitive and low tolerance with reference to attention from others which make them socially passive (J. D. Miller et al., 2011). Review of the literature also suggests that researchers and scholars has been unable to make a clear distinction between vulnerable and grandiose narcissism. ...
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The digital age and new technologies have defined the way young adults are leading their lives and the multipurpose use of SNS has become the cornerstone of young adult's lives, especially students studying at undergraduate level. Present study devolves in to two important social media networking applications (Instagram and Snapchat) their addictive use and effect of level of narcissism among undergraduate students (N=659). SNS frequency and its interactive effect were measured on level of undergraduate students. Results indicated addictive use of social media for a longer period has significant impact on levels of narcissism among undergraduate students. Results showed a significant relationship between application of beauty
... Individuals with traits of vulnerable narcissism are often defensive, more socially passive, experience feelings of incompetence, inadequacy and insecurity, are hypervigilant for criticism and fear to be disappointed by others. They generally do report feelings of distress (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;Miller et al., 2011) and vulnerable narcissism correlates with BPD, as they both display a certain degree of emotional lability (Miller et al., 2010). Patients with vulnerable narcissism might be more willing to report vulnerable child and internalized parent modes. ...
... They are skilled at initiating relationships, popular in zero-acquaintance situations, and seen as natural leaders (Back et al., 2010;Campbell et al., 2011;Leckelt et al., 2020;Weber et al., 2021). Yet, on the other hand, grandiosely narcissistic individuals are arrogant, entitled, and aggressive (Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller et al., 2011;Vazire & Funder, 2006). Their popularity with others tends to decline over time, with their relationships being riddled with conflict and exploitative behaviors (Grijalva & Newman, 2015;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2020;Paulhus, 1998). ...
Article
Little is known about how individuals high in grandiose narcissism think about what could have been. Across four studies (three online surveys and one online experiment; N = 801), we addressed this gap by examining the relationship between grandiose narcissism, its admiration and rivalry dimensions, and counterfactual thinking and regret. Unlike anticipated, high rivalry was associated with more rather than fewer upward counterfactuals in Study 1. Yet, high rivalry predicted an increased likelihood of generating a downward (vs. upward) counterfactual in a feedback situation (Study 3). Moreover, grandiose narcissism (preliminary study) and admiration (Study 2) negatively correlated with regret. Collectively, our findings stress the importance of considering grandiose narcissism’s dimensions separately and highlight a novel dispositional moderator of counterfactual thinking.
... In recent years, researchers tried to explore narcissism with positive domains, such as intrapersonal adjustment, satisfaction with life, and happiness (Egan et al., 2014;Dufner et al., 2019). Narcissists are usually distinguished into two major types; grandiose and vulnerable (Wink, 1991;Miller et al., 2011). Grandiose narcissism has been linked to positive outcomes, such as social confidence, high levels of motivation, positive self-esteem, need for admiration, selfconfidence, and control ; therefore this type of personality is widely correlated with psychological adjustment, relationship satisfaction, positive affect, mental toughness which further reduce the levels of depression, anxiety, loneliness, sadness and perceived stress (Sedikides et al., 2004;Ng et al., 2014;Sabouri et al., 2016;Papageorgiou et al., 2019). ...
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The transition from adolescence to adulthood is fraught with challenges that might have impacts on later life and personality development. Earlier research investigated Dark Triad traits in connection to emotional problems. The current study, on the other hand, focused on investigating the mediating role of psychological maladjustment in the relation of Dark Triad traits, psychological distress, and subjective happiness in emerging adults. A sample of 546 participants aged 18-25 years (M = 21.2 years) from Pakistan have participated to complete an online survey. Standardized assessment tools were used to measure the targeted variables. Results indicated that Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively associated with psychological distress, whereas narcissism appeared to be a non-significant predictor. Subjective happiness was positively associated with Machiavellianism and negatively associated with psychopathy. In addition, mediation analysis through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism and psychopathology), psychological distress, and subjective wellbeing were explained by psychological maladjustment. Implications and limitations are discussed.
... Narcissistic individuals are in a constant need for admiration and attention from others (Morf, 2006), and may perceive others as a means for confirming their self-worth (Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001). Empirical literature supports the idea of two predominant manifestations of narcissism: grandiose (GN) and vulnerable (VN) (Gabbard, 2009;Levy, 2012;Miller et al., 2011;Pincus et al., 2014), which share some core features like grandiosity (either overt or covert; Pincus, 2013) and entitlement (Wright, 2016). However, these two manifestations differ in their self-presentation and coping strategies, especially in face of potential assessment or criticism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Besser & Zeigler-Hill, 2010). ...
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Although vulnerable narcissism (VN) and avoidant personality (AP) share many characteristics, almost no research has been done to examine their differences. In this study, we examined the notion of VN and AP having similar overt presentations that stem from different underlying mechanisms. VN’s and AP’s relationships with explicit and implicit self-appraisals (i.e., interpretation biases, IB) were examined, under control/social acceptance conditions. Under the control condition, higher AP predicted negative explicit IB and no implicit IB, and higher VN showed the same trend. Following social acceptance, higher AP predicted negative explicit IB and positive implicit IB, whereas higher VN did not predict explicit IB, but predicted negative implicit IB. Results partly supported the hypotheses, and suggested that under neutral conditions, individuals tending towards AP or VN may present similarly. However, they differ in their response to positive social feedback, with AP benefiting from it, and VN having an increased negative implicit view of oneself. These results suggest that VN is a pathology of a more deeply disordered, unstable self-esteem, that may negatively respond to help efforts of positive affirmations made by others.
... Individuals with high vulnerable narcissism are characterized as avoidant, defensive, insecure, and possessing low self-esteem and a passive attitude in interpersonal relations (Miller et al., 2012;Wink, 1991). Grandiose narcissism is associated with high self-esteem, aggressive behaviors, interpersonal dominance, and overestimating one's capabilities (Jauk et al., 2017;Miller et al., 2011;Wink, 1991). Future research that examines the extent of the conceptual overlap between psychological vulnerability and vulnerable narcissism could provide interesting insights into the dark triad's influence on consumption behaviors such as panic buying. ...
Article
This study investigated possible connections between Paulus and Williams's (2002) dark triad traits and panic buying during the pandemic. The studies coincided with the Phase 2 lockdown enforced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. In the first study, consumers scoring higher on a narcissism measure reported less panic buying, whereas people scoring higher on measures of Machiavellianism and psychopathy reported more panic buying under pandemic-induced scarcity conditions. Study two explored the potential mediating influence of psychological vulnerability to account for the disparate relationships between the dark triad traits and pandemic-fueled panic buying. Study 2 found support for the role of psychological vulnerability in mediating this set of relations.
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Narcissist personalities tend to be more authoritative and desire to be powerful. The present study was conducted to find out the mediating role of superiority competitiveness between the Supervisor's Narcissism and abusiveness. Data was collected from four organizations and the total sample size was N=185. Data collection was done with supervisors and their subordinates, who perceive their abusiveness. Abusive Supervision scale (Tepper, 2000) was used measure the perceived abused supervision. Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Ames, Daniel, Rose & Anderson, 2006) was used to measure uni-dimensional grandiose narcissism. Furthermore, superiority competitiveness was assessed through the Hyper competitiveness Attitude Scale (HAS; Ryckman et al., 1990). Results indicate the partial mediating role of superiority competitiveness between supervisor's narcissism and abusiveness. The present study has its implication for improving the hiring and selection criteria of supervisors and their subordinates which ultimately help the organization for better output.
Article
Objective Three studies tested a novel model of the narcissism-paranoia link, whereby narcissism (primarily its socially maladaptive facets) is associated with paranoia via over-use of defensive self-protection and/or under-use of self-affirmation. Methods In Study 1, 245 online volunteers (87% female; MAGE=20.92; 44% White-British) completed trait measures of narcissism, self-enhancement/protection strategies and paranoia. In Study 2, 116 students (82% female; MAGE=20.23; 70% White-British) completed baseline measures, then reported state reactions and paranoia following two difficult and two pleasant interpersonal events after 3-10 days. In Study 3, 517 online volunteers (64% female; MAGE=22.76; 77% White/Caucasian) completed baseline measures, experienced a standardised social exclusion (vs. neutral) manipulation (Cyberball), then reported state reactions and paranoia. Results In Study 1, narcissism was associated with higher paranoia via defensiveness. In Study 2, this was replicated in difficult but not pleasant events, and was driven by the Entitlement/Exploitativeness facet of narcissism. In Study 3, narcissistic rivalry and vulnerable narcissism, but not admiration, were associated with Cyberball-related paranoia via general defensiveness and denigration of others. Conclusions Individuals high in narcissism—especially its socially maladaptive facets—who over-rely on defensive self-protection strategies in response to threat, are particularly vulnerable to paranoia. Findings help to understand individual differences in paranoia.
Article
Narcissism is as an important predictor of aggression, and grandiose narcissists are generally more aggressive than vulnerable narcissists after being ostracized. Online environments have become increasingly important, so although it is essential to consider the impact of ostracism on narcissists' aggression online as well as offline, the former has yet to be considered in the literature. We recruited 240 students from two Chinese universities and conducted two experiments exploring the relationship between traditional and cyberaggression among narcissists. Study 1 explored the face-to-face aggression of grandiose and vulnerable narcissists after in-person peer ostracism. Study 2 explored the cyberaggression of grandiose and vulnerable narcissists after cyberostracism. We used an online game to construct cyberostracism and cyberinclusion conditions, and an adapted project employee evaluation to estimate cyberaggression and determine how it is impacted by online anonymity. The results showed that ostracized vulnerable narcissists were less aggressive than grandiose narcissists in face-to-face conditions, but showed increased indirect anonymous cyberaggression, at a similar level to grandiose narcissists. These results confirm the results of previous studies and help us gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of aggression in narcissists.
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Honorary blood donation is a specific type of assistance to people suffering from accidents or requiring surgery, involving the deliberate donation of 450 ml of whole blood or 600 ml of plasma or other blood components such as platelets or red cells, using methods dedicated to that type of donation. Honorary blood donation can, therefore, be considered as a sign of pro-social behaviour (as indicated by numerous studies), resulting from empathic motives – understanding the suffering and condition of others. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social support and the characteristics of the dark triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), understood as internal and external resources in the sense of Stevan E. Hobfoll’s theory of conservation of resources, and the empathy quotient in the group of honorary blood donors. The study included a group of 111 individuals (72 women, 39 men). Variables were measured using the Social Support Scale (SWS), Short Dark Triad Questionnaire (SD3) and Short Scale of Empathy Quotient (SSIE). The results of the presented study showed a positive association of narcissism with empathy quotient and social support with empathy quotient, and a high level of explanation of empathy by social support and dark triad traits.
Article
To evaluate how selected cognitive styles (i.e., ideas of reference and fantasy proneness), dispositional aggression and social deviance, and personality traits could help understanding similarities and differences among vulnerable narcissism (VN), grandiose narcissism (GN), Machiavellianism, and psychopathy in women, 986 Italian community-dwelling participants were administered the Italian translations of the Revised Green et al., Paranoid Thoughts Scale Part A (R-GPTS-A), Creative Experience Questionnaire (CEQ), Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Self-Report Delinquency Scale (SRDS), and Big Five Inventory (BFI). Participants received also the Five Factor Narcissism Inventory-Short Form (FFNI-SF), MACH-IV, and Expanded-Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (E-LSRP) to assess VN and GN, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, respectively. Multiple regression analyses showed that R-GPTS-A, CEQ, AQ, SRDS, and BFI trait scale scores explained a substantial amount of variance in the FFNI-SF VN (R² = 0.62) and GN (R² = 0.49) scale scores, MACH-IV scores (R² = 0.29), and E-LSRP scores (R² = 0.51). Dispositional aggression (i.e., AQ total score) represented a feature common to VN, GN, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, whereas ideas of reference, fantasy proneness, social deviance, and personality traits yielded differential relationships with the dependent variables.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the literature on personality and deviant behavior. The chapter begins with a review of the literature on the relations of deviant behavior to psychopathy (PSY), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and narcissistic personality disorder/narcissism (NAR)—the personality-related constructs most frequently studied in forensic settings. Next, we illustrate how a model of general personality derived from basic personality science, the Five Factor Model (FFM) can be used to conceptualize PSY, ASPD, and NAR. Finally, we review the advantages that accrue with viewing personality pathology in this way, including accounting for and explaining the comorbidity among PSY, ASPD, and NAR, elucidating sex differences, clarifying relations to antisocial behavior and aggression, and leverage basic personality research. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of the Antagonism—Agreeableness dimension—the core feature of PSY, ASPD, and NAR and the main contributor to all forms of externalizing behaviors.
Article
The personality constructs psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, collectively described as the Dark Triad (DT), all reference socially aversive behavioral tendencies. Each construct is theorized to have features that differentiate it from others. Unfortunately, existing measures of the DT suffer from several problems. The present study compared newly developed measures of psychopathy (Super-Short Form of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment), narcissism (Super-Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory), and Machiavellianism (Super-Short Form of the Five-Factor Machiavellianism Inventory [FFMI-SSF] based on the Five-Factor Model of personality)—collectively referred to as the Five-Factor Model Antagonistic Triad Measure—to existing DT inventories using a sample of undergraduate students ( N = 516). As predicted, FFMI-SSF showed better divergence from measures of psychopathy and better convergence with the expert Five-Factor Model (FFM) Machiavellianism profile than did existing Machiavellianism measures. Results also demonstrated that the factors within each FFM assessment manifested differentiated correlational profiles, underscoring the utility of the multifaceted assessment of these three constructs. In addition, the use of the FFM as the basis for the new DT measures provides a pathway for the integration of DT research into the larger field of basic and clinical personality science.
Thesis
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A presente tese objetivou explorar o lado sombrio da personalidade, verificando o ajuste de medidas que o operacionalizam e checando suas relações com fenômenos diversos (e.g., manipulação emocional, impulsividade, valores, infidelidade e táticas para atração de parceiros). Para tanto, foram desenvolvidos quatro artigos: um teórico e três empíricos. O primeiro artigo versa sobre a Tríade Sombria da personalidade, apresentando este modelo que enfoca traços de natureza aversiva que fazem parte de uma faixa normal de funcionamento da personalidade. Foram apresentadas formas de mensurar estes traços de personalidade, ressaltando, a partir de uma perspectiva evolucionista, o papel adaptativo que estes podem cumprir. O segundo artigo (N = 243) teve como escopo adaptar as duas medidas concisas mais utilizadas para avaliação conjunta da Tríade Sombria (Dirty Dozen e Short Dark Triad), reunindo evidências em torno da validade (fatorial e convergente) e consistência interna destas medidas. Ademais, análises a partir da Teoria de Resposta ao Item possibilitaram conhecer os parâmetros individuais dos itens, especificamente a dificuldade e discriminação. O conjunto de evidências psicométricas foi favorável à Dirty Dozen, utilizada nos artigos subsequentes. O terceiro artigo (N = 397) avaliou o papel da Tríade Sombria, em conjunto com os Cinco Grandes Fatores e valores humanos, para a predição de atitudes e intenções de ser infiel, sendo que estes dois últimos explicaram o engajamento em relações extra-diádicas. De modo geral, os resultados apontaram que maquiavelismo, psicopatia e narcisismo são diferenças individuais que podem predispor à infidelidade. O quarto artigo (N = 225) verificou que pessoas com traços sombrios de personalidade desempenham táticas efetivas de autopromoção para atrair parceiros casuais, mesmo controlando pelos Cinco Grandes Fatores e orientação sociossexual, sendo psicopatia e narcisismo preditores do uso de tais táticas para os homens, enquanto que apenas narcisismo o fez para as mulheres. As evidências reunidas apontam para o importante papel da Tríade Sombria da personalidade, sendo que estes traços facilitam o sucesso reprodutivo dos indivíduos, descrevendo um perfil impulsivo, buscador de sensações e hábil para manipular os demais, sendo direcionados para relações casuais, traindo seus parceiros quando encontram-se em relacionamentos compromissados. Apesar de quinze anos do surgimento deste modelo de personalidade, ele tem sido pouco discutido no Brasil. Portanto, a presente tese contribui para a literatura brasileira fornecendo evidências psicométricas em torno de medidas que avaliam este agrupamento de traços, verificando os correlatos deste conjunto de fatores que formam o lado sombrio da personalidade.
Article
On the basis of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept and recent theories on narcissistic pursuit of status, we provide a differentiated analysis of individual differences in the within-person dynamics of grandiose narcissism. In two daily diary studies (Sample 1: 56 days; Sample 2: 82 days; total participants: N = 198; total observations: N = 12,404), we investigated the degree, stability, and trait correlates of individual differences in average narcissism-relevant states (perceived status success, perceived admiration and rejection, positive and negative affect, and assertive and hostile behavior) as well as individual differences in within-person contingencies between these states. The results indicated substantial and stable between-person differences in averaged states that were related to their corresponding narcissism trait self-reports. State contingencies showed substantial strength, significant interindividual differences, and stability across the 56 and 82 days, respectively. We only found weak support for associations between state contingencies and trait narcissism self-reports. These findings support a differentiated approach to the conceptualization and assessment of grandiose state narcissism and call for even more comprehensive and fine-grained investigations.
Article
Despite its extensive use and profound impact, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) has been continuously criticized on its forced-choice format, questionable contents and unstable structure. This research mainly aimed to (a) untangle main issues of the NPI and develop a revised version (NPI-r; NPI-rb as its brief variant), (b) offer insights into psychometric properties of the Likert-style NPI and the nuanced structure of grandiose narcissism, and (c) provide a closer look at grandiose narcissists by comparing their self- versus informant-report profiles. Bi-factor exploratory structural equation modelling and comparison of nomological networks of the NPI versions were performed with two Chinese samples (N1 = 317 adults, age M = 26.9, SD = 6.1, 48% male; N2 = 269 adolescents, age M = 16.8, SD = 0.7, 49% male, with 142 informants). Results recommended the NPI-r and NPI-rb as better versions with improved psychometric properties and content validity. This research also underscored the unique roles of specific narcissistic traits, and found nomological networks of NPI versions in China consistent with previous evidence using Caucasian samples. Notably, the discrepancy between narcissists' self-report and informant-perceived profiles suggested some caution about the credibility of self-report data in narcissism studies.
Article
One structural claim of narcissism states that antagonism is a common correlate of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. However, relations between antagonism and narcissism constructs may depend on other dispositional features within people. For example, some theorizing suggests that antagonism might relate more positively to grandiose narcissism with increments in “boldness” constructs and more positively to vulnerable narcissism with increments in (emotional) “reactivity” constructs. In two studies, Mturk and college-student participants (total N = 989) completed self-report measures of antagonism constructs (e.g., agreeableness/antagonism), grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, boldness constructs (e.g., extraversion), and reactivity constructs (e.g., neuroticism). We found no evidence that antagonism related more positively to grandiose narcissism with elevations in boldness constructs or related more positively to vulnerable narcissism with elevations in reactivity constructs. However, we did find that antagonism related more positively to vulnerable narcissism at higher extraversion or lower detachment. The findings supported the idea that relations between antagonism and narcissism may depend on some other dispositional features within people; broadly, this highlights the potential value of considering contingency statements in structural claims about narcissism.
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Prior research has established the key impact of customers' Big Five personality traits (e.g., agreeableness/conscientiousness) on their brand engagement, suggesting that individuals exhibiting differing personality traits engage differently with brands. In parallel, extending influential customer engagement research, stakeholder engagement, which covers any stakeholder's (e.g., a customer's, supplier's, employee's, or competitor's) engagement in his/her role‐related interactions, activities, and relationships, is rapidly gaining momentum. However, despite existing acumen in both areas, little remains known regarding the effect of stakeholders' antisocial or maladaptive dark triad‐based personality traits, including machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, on the focal antisocial stakeholder's, and his/her interactee', role‐related engagement, as therefore explored in this paper. To address these issues, we develop a conceptual model and an associated set of propositions that outline the nature of a stakeholder's machiavellian, narcissistic, and psychopathic role‐related engagement and its effect on his/her interactee's engagement. We conclude by outlining pertinent theoretical and managerial implications that arise from our analyses.
Article
Positive emotion regulation, that is, upregulating, maintaining, and savoring positive emotions, also bears the potential to counteract and thus mitigate negative affect. In this narrative review, we report on the social emotion of compassion as a particularly efficient form of positive emotion regulation. Compassion emerges as an affiliative response to the suffering of others. It is characterized by feelings of warmth and kindness and an initiation of prosocial caring behavior towards others. The inherent positivity of compassion is also in line with the related neural correlates. Compassion is associated with activity in the ventral striatum, the (subgenual) anterior cingulate cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions related to strong positive emotions, such as romantic and maternal love. In addition to its long tradition in Eastern philosophy, the practice of compassion has in recent years found its way into interventions in Western psychology, for example, within compassion-focused therapy. Recent findings confirm that affect-related mental training promoting compassion is also linked to functional and structural changes in neural networks associated with positive emotions and emotion regulation. This compassion-related plasticity in the neural systems of positive emotion regulation suggests that incorporating compassion into psychological interventions could prove to be a particularly effective way to support positive emotion regulation.
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Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and narcissism, including its possible moderators. Design/methodology/approach A meta-analytic investigation of 32 studies was conducted to check hypotheses. Both uncorrected sample-size-weighted and corrected sample-size-weighted mean correlation coefficients were calculated. Meta-regression was used to assess moderation from EI and narcissism measures. Findings The results indicated that the relationship between EI and narcissism varied, depending on how EI and narcissism were constructed and measured. Specifically, EI was positively related to grandiose narcissism (GN) and negatively related to vulnerable narcissism (VN). EI was also positively correlated with “composite measures” of narcissism when the measures focused on GN, and negatively correlated when the measures focused on VN. Furthermore, some EI and narcissism measures moderated the correlation between EI and narcissism. Originality/value The current study enriches theory by synthesizing the literature to examine whether, and under which conditions, EI fosters or inhibits narcissism. By using the self-regulatory process of narcissism, carefully considering the multifaceted nature of narcissism and updating more data in the meta-analysis, this study contributes to explaining the inconsistency in the relationship between EI and narcissism.
Conference Paper
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With a dramatic shift in the American workforce in the post-Covid-19 world, workers' emotions present very negatively, causing people to overtly display the dark aspects of their personality while at work. Additionally, organizations must use new technologies to fill the gaps in outcomes and changes in market demand. Sadly, an intense conflict exists between the current environment of workers' negative emotions and the need to implement new technology. Most people would perceive having learned a new technology to do their job as 'one more thing,' thus resulting in adverse work outcomes. We hypothesized that dark personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) individually would have a direct relationship with elements in the technology acceptance model. We tested our hypotheses using a sample of general workers from multiple industries. We found that narcissism alone was significant in technology acceptance among the tested variables. We conclude with a summary of our findings' theoretical and practical implications and managerial implications.
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Extraverts are often characterized as highly social individuals who are highly invested in their interpersonal interactions. We propose that extraverts' interaction partners hold a different view-that extraverts are highly social, but not highly invested. Across six studies (five preregistered; N = 2,456), we find that interaction partners consistently judge more extraverted individuals to be worse listeners than less extraverted individuals. Furthermore, interaction partners assume that extraversion is positively associated with a greater ability to modify one's self-presentation. This behavioral malleability (i.e., the "acting" component of self-monitoring) may account for the unfavorable lay belief that extraverts are not listening.
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Narcissism can be conceived hierarchically at three levels: as a global construct (Level 1), as two dimensions (Level 2; grandiosity and vulnerability), and as a trifurcated model with three underlying dimensions: interpersonal antagonism, narcissistic neuroticism, and agentic extraversion (Level 3). The aim of the study was to examine how narcissism dimensions across the three levels differ in their associations with various forms of interpersonal functioning. The authors assessed multiple domains of interpersonal functioning using data collected from 447 MTurk workers, 606 students, and 365 informants. Each narcissism dimension showed unique interpersonal profiles. The profile of interpersonal antagonism largely resembles grandiose and total narcissism in its interpersonal characteristics, narcissistic neuroticism largely resembles vulnerable narcissism, and agentic extraversion does not differ much from the traditional conceptualization of extraversion in its interpersonal qualities (e.g., high communion). Future studies may benefit from studying narcissism and how it relates to other psychological constructs using the trifurcated model.
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The contributing factors of aggressive driving have been studying in the last decades. Both impulsivity and narcissism are associated with aggressive driver behaviors. Although the role of these two factors were examined in the same studies, the combined role of these two factors hasn't been studied yet. To understand the combined effect of them, in the present study, the moderated mediation model for examining the relationships of narcissism, impulsivity, and aggressive driver behavior was developed and tested. Three hundred and four participants completed an online survey battery comprised of Demographic Information Form, Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory-Short Form, Barrat Impulsiveness Scale-Short Form, and Driving Anger Expression Inventory. The moderated mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS macro developed by Hayes and Preacher (2013). The results revealed that only the relationship between vulnerable narcissism and the use of vehicle to express anger is mediated by attentional impulsiveness. Also, this relationship is moderated by grandiose narcissism. In detail, grandiose narcissism moderates the direct effect of vulnerable narcissism on attentional impulsivity and also the direct effect of atten-tional impulsivity on the use of vehicle to express anger. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
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The study of aversive or ‘dark’ personality traits (e.g., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) is afflicted by three types of issues. Measures of aversive traits that are meant to assess the same traits often capture different content—an issue of jingle. Measures that are meant to assess different traits often capture near‐identical content—an issue of jangle. Finally, disagreement over what unites aversive personality traits leads to different conclusions about what is and is not an aversive personality trait—an issue of conceptual centrality. This study outlines how decomposing personality traits into smaller elements can address these three issues. It also provides a primer on the history and assessment of these traits and sets an agenda for future research.
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Reactions to trait self-enhancers were investigated in 2 longitudinal studies of person.perception in discussion groups. Groups of 4-6 participants met 7 times for 20 rain. After Meetings 1 and 7, group members rated their perceptions of one another. In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions: They were seen as agreeable, well adjusted, and competent. After 7 weeks, however, they were rated negatively and gave self-evaluations discrepant with peer evaluations they received. In Study 2, an independent sample of observers (close acquaintances) enabled a pretest index of discrepancy self-enhancement: It predicted the same deteriorating pattern of interpersonal perceptions as the other three trait measures. Nonetheless, all self-enhancement measures correlated positively with self-esteem.
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The current study gathered internal structural validity and external criterion validity evidence for the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire (ECR-R) scores. Specifically, confirmatory factor analysis of the data provided general support for the hypothesized two-factor model, and hypothesized relationships with external criteria were substantiated. However, minor model misfit and low communalities (R 2) suggested that some items may represent extraneous constructs. Further avenues of study regarding the functioning of the instrument are provided.
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A new measure of hypersensitive narcissism was derived by correlating the items of H. A. Murray's (1938) Narcism Scale with an MMPI-based composite measure of covert narcissism. In three samples of college students (total N 403), 10 items formed a reliable measure: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). The new HSNS and the MMPI-based composite showed similar patterns of correlations with the Big Five Inventory, and both measures correlated near zero with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, which assesses overt narcissism. Results support P. Wink's (1991) distinction between covert and overt narcissistic tendencies in the normal range of individual differences and suggest that it would be beneficial for personality researchers to measure both types of narcissism in future studies. (Hendin, H.M., & Cheek, J.M. (1997). Assessing Hypersensitive Narcissism: A Reexamination of Murray's Narcism Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 588-599.)
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Adolescent boys (N = 128) from a maximum security prison for juvenile offenders were administered a task to assess hostile attributional biases. As hypothesized, these biases were positively correlated with undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder (as indicated by high scores on standardized scales and by psychiatric diagnoses), with reactive-aggressive behavior, and with the number of interpersonally violent crimes committed. Hostile attributional biases were found not to relate to nonviolent crimes or to socialized aggressive behavior disorder. These findings held even when race and estimates of intelligence and socioeconomic status were controlled. These findings suggest that within a population of juvenile offenders, attributional biases are implicated specifically in interpersonal reactive aggression that involves anger and not in socialized delinquency. Language: en
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We address 3 issues relevant to narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and the DSM-V. First, we argue that excluding NPD while retaining other traditional personality disorder constructs (e.g., avoidant) makes little sense given the research literature on NPD and trait narcissism and their association with clinically relevant consequences such as aggression, self-enhancement, distorted self-presentation, failed relationships, cognitive biases, and internalizing and externalizing dysregulation. Second, we argue that the DSM-V must include content (in diagnostic form or within a dimensional trait model) that allows for the assessment of both grandiose and vulnerable variants of narcissism. Finally, we suggest that any dimensional classification of personality disorder should recover all of the important component traits of narcissism and be provided with official recognition in the coding system.
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Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report correlates. The measures were moderately inter-correlated, but certainly were not equivalent. Their only common Big Five correlate was disagreeableness. Subclinical psychopaths were distinguished by low neuroticism; Machiavellians, and psychopaths were low in conscientiousness; narcissism showed small positive associations with cognitive ability. Narcissists and, to a lesser extent, psychopaths exhibited self-enhancement on two objectively scored indexes. We conclude that the Dark Triad of personalities, as currently measured, are overlapping but distinct constructs.
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The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of the construct of narcissism. Four- and seven-factor solutions have been reported for the instrument. In the present study, 338 undergraduates completed the NPI along with a battery of personality questionnaires that include the NEO-FFI. Exploratory principal components analysis indicated that the NPI had a two- or three-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken for one-, two- and three-factor models of the instrument. Fit indices were poor, typical of models with many item–level variables. The fits can be improved by allowing plausible correlated error terms in instances where items have very similar content. As a whole, the NPI is measuring a general narcissism construct, with two or three separable, correlated factors relating to ‘power’, ‘exhibitionism’, and being a ‘special person’. A psychometrically improved version of the NPI could be developed based on these factors. In the present study confirmatory factor analysis provided some insights not available from exploratory factor analysis, but was still largely exploratory in nature. NEO correlations with the overall factor were 0.36 for both extraversion and low agreeableness, with additional highly significant correlations for low neuroticism and high openness to experience. NEO correlations for the lower-order factors were similar.
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The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a higher order factor structure that conforms to the theoretical structure of pathological narcissism with one factor representing narcissistic grandiosity and the other capturing narcissistic vulnerability. These results uniquely place the PNI as the only measure to broadly assess the two phenotypic themes of pathological narcissism. In the second study, results from tests of measurement invariance indicate that the PNI performs similarly in large samples of men (n = 488) and women (n = 495). These results further establish the psychometric properties of the PNI and suggest that it is well suited for the assessment of pathological narcissism.
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We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.
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The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal narcissism and (b) insufficient scope of existing narcissism measures. Four studies are presented documenting the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). The PNI is a 52-item self-report measure assessing 7 dimensions of pathological narcissism spanning problems with narcissistic grandiosity (Entitlement Rage, Exploitativeness, Grandiose Fantasy, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement) and narcissistic vulnerability (Contingent Self-esteem, Hiding the Self, Devaluing). The PNI structure was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The PNI correlated negatively with self-esteem and empathy, and positively with shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and borderline personality organization. Grandiose PNI scales were associated with vindictive, domineering, intrusive, and overly-nurturant interpersonal problems, and vulnerable PNI scales were associated with cold, socially avoidant, and exploitable interpersonal problems. In a small clinical sample, PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization.
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A common problem for both principal component analysis and image component analysis is determining how many components to retain. A number of solutions have been proposed, none of which is totally satisfactory. An alternative solution which employs a matrix of partial correlations is considered. No components are extracted after the average squared partial correlation reaches a minimum. This approach gives an exact stopping point, has a direct operational interpretation, and can be applied to any type of component analysis. The method is most appropriate when component analysis is employed as an alternative to, or a first-stage solution for, factor analysis.
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Narcissistic personality disorder has received relatively little empirical attention. This study was designed to provide an empirically valid and clinically rich portrait of narcissistic personality disorder and to identify subtypes of the disorder. A random national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N=1,201) described a randomly selected current patient with personality pathology. Clinicians provided detailed psychological descriptions of the patients using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II (SWAP-II), completed a checklist of axis II diagnostic criteria, and provided construct ratings for each axis II personality disorder. Descriptions of narcissistic patients based on both raw and standardized SWAP-II item scores were aggregated to identify, respectively, the most characteristic and the most distinctive features of narcissistic personality disorder. A total of 255 patients met DSM-IV criteria for narcissistic personality disorder based on the checklist and 122 based on the construct ratings; 101 patients met criteria by both methods. Q-factor analysis identified three subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder, which the authors labeled grandiose/malignant, fragile, and high-functioning/exhibitionistic. Core features of the disorder included interpersonal vulnerability and underlying emotional distress, along with anger, difficulty in regulating affect, and interpersonal competitiveness, features that are absent from the DSM-IV description of narcissistic personality disorder. These findings suggest that DSM-IV criteria for narcissistic personality disorder are too narrow, underemphasizing aspects of personality and inner experience that are empirically central to the disorder. The richer and more differentiated view of narcissistic personality disorder suggested by this study may have treatment implications and may help bridge the gap between empirically and clinically derived concepts of the disorder.
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Adolescent boys (N = 128) from a maximum security prison for juvenile offenders were administered a task to assess hostile attributional biases. As hypothesized, these biases were positively correlated with undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder (as indicated by high scores on standardized scales and by psychiatric diagnoses), with reactive-aggressive behavior, and with the number of interpersonally violent crimes committed. Hostile attributional biases were found not to relate to nonviolent crimes or to socialized aggressive behavior disorder. These findings held even when race and estimates of intelligence and socioeconomic status were controlled. These findings suggest that within a population of juvenile offenders, attributional biases are implicated specifically in interpersonal reactive aggression that involves anger and not in socialized delinquency.
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Reactions to trait self-enhancers were investigated in 2 longitudinal studies of person perception in discussion groups. Groups of 4-6 participants met 7 times for 20 min. After Meetings 1 and 7, group members rated their perceptions of one another. In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions. They were seen as agreeable, well adjusted, and competent. After 7 weeks, however, they were rated negatively and gave self-evaluations discrepant with peer evaluations they received. In Study 2, an independent sample of observers (close acquaintances) enabled a pretest index of discrepancy self-enhancement: It predicted the same deteriorating pattern of interpersonal perceptions as the other three trait measures. Nonetheless, all self-enhancement measures correlated positively with self-esteem.
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Previous research on subtypes of batterers has revealed at least two distinct types of batterers. One group (Type 1) demonstrates suppressed physiological responding during conflicts with their wives, tends to use violence in nonintimate relationships and manifests Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) scale elevations on the Antisocial and Aggressive-Sadistic scales. The second group (Type 2) manifests violence in the intimate relationship only and reports dysphoria. The current study extends our knowledge of these two groups by using a cluster analysis to assess personality disorder and relating the results to each group's attachment style, anger, trauma scores, and scores on a self-report of Borderline Personality Organization (BPO). An instrumental group (Type 1) showed an Antisocial-Narcissistic-Aggressive profile on the MCMI-II and reported more severe physical violence. An impulsive group (Type 2) showed a mixed profile on the MCMI-II with Passive-Aggressive, Borderline, and Avoidant elevations, high scores on a self-report of BPO, higher chronic anger, and Fearful attachment. Both types of abusive men reported a Preoccupied attachment style, but only the Impulsive men reported an accompanying Fearful attachment style.
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Self-report measures of adult attachment are typically scored in ways (e.g., averaging or summing items) that can lead to erroneous inferences about important theoretical issues, such as the degree of continuity in attachment security and the differential stability of insecure attachment patterns. To determine whether existing attachment scales suffer from scaling problems, the authors conducted an item response theory (IRT) analysis of 4 commonly used self-report inventories: Experiences in Close Relationships scales (K. A. Brennan, C. L. Clark, & P. R. Shaver, 1998), Adult Attachment Scales (N. L. Collins & S. J. Read, 1990), Relationship Styles Questionnaire (D. W. Griffin & K. Bartholomew, 1994) and J. Simpson's (1990) attachment scales. Data from 1,085 individuals were analyzed using F. Samejima's (1969) graded response model. The authors' findings indicate that commonly used attachment scales can be improved in a number of important ways. Accordingly, the authors show how IRT techniques can be used to develop new attachment scales with desirable psychometric properties.
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Two studies examined the effect of Extrinsic Value Orientation (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996) upon harvesting strategies and personal profit within commons dilemmas, in which individual and group interests can be at odds. At an individual or within-group level of analysis, extrinsically oriented persons (who value money, fame, and popularity) harvested more than intrinsically oriented persons (who value self-acceptance, intimacy, and community). However, a counteracting group-level effect was found such that groups with a greater number of extrinsic members harvested less on average than did groups with more intrinsic members, because their commons did not last as long. As a result, even excessive harvesters within extrinsic groups did no better than did self-restrained harvesters within intrinsic groups. Supplementary analyses indicate that extrinsic values are associated with acquisitiveness regarding resources, more so than apprehension regarding others' acquisitiveness.
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This study sought to extend previous work on the five-factor dimensional model (FFM) of personality disorder (PD) by developing more comprehensive FFM descriptions of prototypic cases. Specifically, the authors asked experts in each of the 10 DSM-IV PDs to rate the prototypic case by using all 30 facets of the FFM. Aggregating across raters of the given disorder generated a prototype for each disorder. In general, there was good agreement among experts and with previous theoretical and empirical FFM translations of DSM diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, the ability of the FFM explanation to reproduce the high comorbidity rates among PDs was demonstrated. The authors concluded that, with the possible exception of schizotypal PD, the DSM PDs can be understood from the dimensional perspective of the FFM. Future directions for research, including the use of the present prototypes to "diagnose" personality disorder, are discussed.
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Bartholomew's (1990) four-category typology of adult attachment styles was compared with Hazan & Shaver's (1987) three-category typology in terms of three substantive issues. First, the same two dimensions were found to underlie both typologies, and the Bartholomew and Hazan & Shaver measures corresponded as predicted. Second, there were no gender differences on Hazan & Shaver's measure, in line with previous studies, but there were gender differences on Bartholomew's measure, especially in her two avoidant categories. More males than females were dismissing avoidants; more females than males were fearful avoidants. Third, a hypothesis advanced by Latty-Mann & Davis (1988) was confirmed. Adult children of alcoholics scored high on both avoidant and anxious-ambivalent scales of Hazan & Shaver's measure, and fell predominantly into Bartholomew's fearful-avoidant category, suggesting that at least some fearful adults are grown-up versions of the `disorganized, disoriented' children identified by Crittenden (1988) and by Main & Solomon (1990). These children are more common in families troubled by parental alcoholism, depression or abuse.
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The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Revised] (SCID) is a semistructured interview for making the major Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. It is administered by a clinician or trained mental health professional who is familiar with the DSM-III-R classification and diagnostic criteria (1). The subjects may be either psychiatric or general medical patients or individuals who do not identify themselves as patients, such as subjects in a community survey of mental illness or family members of psychiatric patients. The language and diagnostic coverage make the SCID most appropriate for use with adults (age 18 or over), but with slight modification, it may be used with adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The current study attempts to provide greater precision in understanding how personality is related to antisocial behavior. Specifically, we examined the relations between the facets (subordinate traits) from three domains (superordinate dimensions): Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, of the Five Factor Model and five outcome variables: stability of conduct problems, variety of conduct problems, onset of conduct problems, aggression, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These relations were examined in a community sample of 481 individuals. These three personality dimensions were chosen for exploration due to their consistent relations, at the domain level, with antisocial behaviors. The results from this study suggest that the facets from the dimension of Agreeableness are the most consistently related to all five outcomes. However, the facets from all three domains made significant contributions. Overall, three personality traits stood out as being the strongest and most consistent predictors: low straightforwardness, low compliance, and low deliberation. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:497–514, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-situational consistency of trait aggression in provoking situations where an instigator (1) clearly intended to provoke, (2) clearly intended not to provoke, or (3) where presence of intention was ambiguous. It was hypothesized that cross-situational consistency would be substantial, and that trait aggression would have the greatest impact on aggressive behavior in ambiguous situations. Participants were 80 female and 38 male undergraduate students. They completed the Aggression Questionnaire [Buss and Perry, J Pers Soc Psychol, 1992, pp. 452], read a set of 24 vignettes depicting conflict situations and rated their perceived likelihood of becoming angry and aggressive in those situations. An overall cross-situational consistency correlation coefficient of r=.47 was found. It was also found that trait aggression had a significantly greater effect on the likelihood of aggressive responses in the ambiguous and intentional situations than it did in the unintentional situations. These results are discussed in relation to trait activation and hostile attribution bias. Aggr. Behav. 30:409–424, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Neuroticism is widely documented to reflect an exaggerated reporting of physical symptoms, due to an over-sensitive focus on internal stimuli in individuals high in this trait. This study scrutinized the responses to 409 retrospective health reports to see if negative affect (NA), indicating neuroticism, was differentially related to different types of physical complaints. The role of other personality risk factors, related to neuroticism and coping style were also examined. The findings show that high NA was uniquely related only to diseases of tension type, such as high blood pressure, migraine, or neck pain. Of the other factors, which all correlated with NA, hostility, self-critical attitude, and coping were uniquely related to these same complaints. It is concluded that neuroticism has a more genuine vulnerability potential to disease.
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This study builds on previous work investigating reactions to people with pathological personality traits based on thin slices of behavior (Oltmanns, Friedman, Fiedler, & Turkheimer, 2004). Verbal and nonverbal aspects of the signal were separated and examined in a new sample of 150 target individuals (military recruits). Ratings were made after viewing or listening to a 30 s excerpt from an interview that had been conducted with each target person. Undergraduate students (408 total) served as raters in one of the following conditions: transcript, sound only, picture only, or full channel (sound and picture). In all conditions, people with higher scores on histrionic and narcissistic personality traits were rated in a more positive manner, and those with higher scores on schizoid and avoidant personality traits were rated more negatively. The consistency of ratings based on different sources indicates that important and somewhat redundant cues are available in both verbal and nonverbal channels. Initial reactions to people with pathological personality traits are influenced by both verbal and nonverbal cues.
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Strangers made reliable judgments about personality traits after viewing one 30-s excerpt from interviews with anonymous target persons. Ratings were generated for 229 military recruits participating in a study of personality disorders. Approximately 28% of the recruits met DSM-IV criteria for a definite or probable personality disorder (PD). Several untrained undergraduate students rated each video clip with regard to the Big Five personality traits, physical attractiveness, and likeability. The students accurately rated people who exhibited features of paranoid, schizotypal, dependent, and avoidant PDs as being lower in extraversion. The raters also considered these people less likeable. Students accurately rated people who exhibited features of histrionic PD as being higher in extraversion and found them to be more likeable. Laypersons can make accurate judgments regarding some personality characteristics associated with personality disorders, even on the basis of minimal information. These perceptions may influence ways in which people respond to others with PDs.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
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Paulhus and Williams (2002) identified a "Dark Triad" comprising the following related personality styles: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. The heterogeneity found in narcissism and psychopathy raises the possibility of a second triad made up of emotional vulnerability and dark traits (i.e., the vulnerable dark triad; VDT). Along with vulnerable narcissism and Factor 2 psychopathy, the third member of the hypothesized VDT is borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a sample of 361 undergraduates, we examine the relations between these constructs and their relations with criterion variables, including personality, environmental etiological factors (e.g., abuse), and current functioning (e.g., psychopathology, affect). The results suggest that the VDT constructs are significantly related to one another and manifest similar nomological networks, particularly vulnerable narcissism and BPD. Although the VDT members are related to negative emotionality and antagonistic interpersonal styles, they are also related to introversion and disinhibition. Ultimately, it seems there is a "dark continuum" of pathological personality traits that differ primarily in relation to negative and positive emotionality and disinhibition.