Article

The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

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Abstract

Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15–17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20–21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent dating experiences predicted romantic relationship qualities in young adulthood. Adolescents who dated fewer partners in mid-adolescence and who experienced a better quality dating relationship at age 16 demonstrated romantic partner interactions characterized by smoother relationship process in young adulthood (e.g., negotiating conflict to mutual satisfaction, effective and timely caregiving/seeking); adolescents who dated more partners in mid-adolescence displayed greater negative affect in romantic partner interactions in young adulthood.

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... Furthermore, recent longitudinal studies show linkages between relationships with parents and friends in earlier development stages and those with romantic partners in adolescence (for an overview see Collins, Raby, & Causadias, 2012). Likewise, experiences within romantic relationships in adolescence have been associated with further individual development, relationship expectations and relationship quality in young adulthood (Furman & Shaffer, 2003;Madsen & Collins, 2011). ...
... Many researchers agree that building, exploring, and maintaining intimate relationships are key developmental tasks in adolescence. For example, recent studies show that adolescents' romantic relationships are important for mental and physical well-being, future relationship expectations and couple-related behaviors of both partners (Furman & Shaffer, 2003;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Though research on late adolescent students shows that at this age they start developing serious, intimate, and long-term relationships , we still know little about intra-dyadic processes, interdependence and mutual influence in adolescent couples. ...
... One of the most important development tasks in adolescence is to build up and explore romantic relationships . Furthermore, it is supposed that these first romantic experiences influence future relationship assumptions and behavior in adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). In this context, late adolescence and emerging adulthood (age of 16-25) are supposed to be the most important period in romantic development Furman & Shaffer, 2003). ...
... Earlier relationship involvement and functioning also appears influential for the quality of lateadolescent romantic relationships. Having fewer dating partners in mid-adolescence is predictive of higher quality romantic relationships during late adolescence (Madsen & Collins, 2011). ...
... However, romantic involvement in earlier adolescence does not appear to be exclusively detrimental. Rather, higher quality relationships earlier in adolescence are predictive of more stable transitions and romantic behaviors, such as better conflict negotiation and more responsive and effective caregiving, in late adolescence and early adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). ...
... Previous involvement and experience with romantic partners is also influential for relationship conflict. Adolescents who have a greater number of dating partners in midadolescence tend to experience more negative interactions with partners in late adolescence and early adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). It is possible that this may reflect an overall pattern of relationship conflict, break-up, and opportunities for more relationships over time. ...
Article
Rejection sensitive (RS) individuals are at greater risk for emotional maladjustment across the lifespan, with consistent links identified with depression and social anxiety. Yet little is known about interpersonal factors that may affect this association for late adolescents, especially with their romantic partners and close friends. The present study examined relationship qualities of support and negative interactions with romantic partners and friends as moderators of the link between RS and internalizing symptoms. Given the differences between male and female social relationships and experiences, these associations were expected to be further moderated by gender, with RS females in poorer quality relationships being at particular risk for internalizing symptoms. This short-term longitudinal investigation evaluated these associations concurrently and longitudinally to assess for changes in symptoms over time. A college sample of 384 late adolescents (217 females,167 males, mean age 18.78 years) completed self-report measures of rejection sensitivity, relationship quality (i.e., support and negative interactions with friends and romantic partners), social anxiety, and depression. A portion of this sample (n = 197, 130 females, 67 males, 51.3% retention) completed these same measures approximately eight weeks later. Results indicate that negative, rather than positive, relationship qualities appear to be most influential for RS and associated internalizing symptoms. Friendships also seem to be the interpersonal context most relevant for RS adolescents. Specifically, highly rejection sensitive (HRS) individuals with more negative friendship interactions had greater increases in depressive symptoms over time. When close friendships had few negative interactions, RS was not associated with increases in depression. Therefore, negative relational experiences with close friends appear to function as a risk factor for further development of depressive symptoms among HRS youth. Conversely, preliminary results for social anxiety suggest that HRS individuals experience greater increases in social anxiety symptoms in friendships with low negative interactions. Adolescents with friendships characterized by high levels of negative interactions may be likely to experience social anxiety regardless of RS. Additional preliminary results suggest that HRS females with highly negative friendship interactions are at greatest risk for depressive symptoms, whereas HRS males are at greatest risk for social anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Further research is needed to replicate and confirm these preliminary findings. Clinical implications for RS individuals may include reducing negative friendship interactions as a primary intervention target to decrease current symptoms or prevent further risk for increases in internalizing symptoms.
... Theory and research has suggested that adolescents' experiences with their romantic partners are important forerunners of the qualities of romantic relationships in emerging adulthood (Collins et al. 2009;Donnellan et al. 2005;Seiffge-Krenke 2003). Studies have shown impressive associations between the nature and quality of interactions with a romantic partner during adolescence and the quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood (Furman and Winkles 2012;Madsen and Collins 2011). Notwithstanding these impressive longitudinal associations, there are two gaps that need to be addressed. ...
... Within their romantic experiences, adolescents are supposed to learn how to interact with partners, to experience emotional and sexual intimacy and above all to navigate a range of emotionally charged interactions, from conflicts with partners to the provision and receipt of emotional support. Patterns of interactions learned during adolescence are likely to be carried forward and to be enacted in future relationships with a romantic partner during emerging adulthood (Furman and Winkles 2012;Madsen and Collins;Seiffge-Krenke 2003). Adolescent romantic experiences are thus the initial steps on a journey toward a mature relationship that is expected to characterize the adult years (Connolly and McIsaac 2009). ...
... More important is the need to understand the mechanisms that explain the carryover of earlier sexual behavior. Conceptually, it seems that our findings align previous studies suggesting that patterns of interactions learned during adolescence are likely to be carried forward and enacted in future relationships with a romantic partner during emerging adulthood (Furman and Winkles 2012;Madsen and Collins;Seiffge-Krenke 2003). Previous theory and research conceptualized within the framework of attachment theory claimed that patterns of behavior are internalized and the internalized model is carried forward and enacted in future relationships (Shulman and Collins 1995;Sroufe and Fleeson 1986). ...
Article
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Past research has consistently shown that romantic experiences during adolescence affect the nature and quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, less is known about the role of adolescent sexual experiences in future sexual and romantic relationships. The current study examined the impact of different forms of sexual activity at age 16 (within a romantic relationship or casual encounters) on the nature and quality of sexual experiences in romantic relationships at age 23. One hundred and forty four (59.7% females) 16 year olds reported on their sexual activity within a romantic relationship or sexual encounters. In addition they reported on the quality of relationships they were involved in and their tendency to suppress emotions (included as an aspect of personality). At age 23 they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences during the past 2 years (number of short lived relationships, numbers of friends with benefits, casual sex encounters) and the quality of their romantic relationships (the duration of their longest relationship, partner support and feelings of certainty in the relationships). Findings showed that the tendency to suppress emotions was associated with lower likelihood to engage in casual sex at age 23. However, greater sexual experience in casual encounters during adolescence was consistently longitudinally associated with different forms of casual sexual encounters and short romantic involvements above and beyond the contribution of personality. In contrast, sexual activity within a romantic relationship predicted only a few indices of the quality of romantic involvement at age 23. The distinctive role of casual sexual activity and sexual activity within a romantic relationship for future sexual and romantic activities is discussed.
... Further, adolescents' relationship development and experiences can be unique from other developmental periods, including young adulthood and adulthood, due to the wide range of developmental and relationship changes occurring during this period (Collins et al. 2009). For example, the relationship dynamics and dating experiences in adolescence (i.e., often group-based or short-term) are often considered distinct from those in young adulthood (i.e., more dyadic, long-term relationships ;Collins 2003;Madsen and Collins 2011). These early intimate relationships are thought to be important as they have been found to shape and contribute to later relationship experiences (Madsen and Collins 2011). ...
... For example, the relationship dynamics and dating experiences in adolescence (i.e., often group-based or short-term) are often considered distinct from those in young adulthood (i.e., more dyadic, long-term relationships ;Collins 2003;Madsen and Collins 2011). These early intimate relationships are thought to be important as they have been found to shape and contribute to later relationship experiences (Madsen and Collins 2011). ...
... It was found that the strongest risk markers for physical teen dating violence victimization were in the microsystem level and were related to other various forms of dating and interpersonal violence. These findings support research showing how adolescent relationships are shaped and defined by earlier dating and/or relationship experiences, and adolescents will carry over both healthy and unhealthy expectations and beliefs across relationships (e.g., Madsen and Collins 2011). In particular, it is apparent that both previous experiences of perpetration and victimization are important influences on physical victimization, as physical dating violence perpetration, sexual dating violence victimization, and emotional dating violence victimization were the three strongest risk markers for physical teen dating violence victimization. ...
Article
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Teen dating violence is a serious health concern in the United States. The goal of this study was to synthesize the current knowledge of risk markers for physical teen dating violence victimization through the use of a meta-analysis. A total of 50 studies, yielding 221 unique effect sizes, met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. Using Dutton’s nested ecological model as a framework, a total of 29 risk markers for physical teen dating violence victimization were examined. There were enough effect sizes found to be able to examine 18 risk markers in the ontogenetic system, nine risk markers in the microsystem, and two risk markers in the exosystem. The results indicated that the strongest risk markers located in the ontogenetic system were substance use, risky sexual behaviors, having carried a weapon, suicide attempts, and disordered eating. The strongest risk markers found in the adolescents’ microsystem were related to other forms of teen dating violence perpetration and victimization (i.e., physical dating violence perpetration, sexual dating violence victimization, emotional dating violence victimization). The two risk markers found in the exosystem (neighborhood disorganization and low socioeconomic status) were significant but small in magnitude. This study also compared the strength of 10 risk markers for teen dating violence victimization between male and female adolescents and did not find any significant differences related to gender. Examining which risk markers for physical teen dating violence are the strongest in magnitude can highlight various markers that might help identify adolescents who are being victimized in their romantic relationships and need additional resources.
... H. Li, Connolly, Jiang, Pepler, & Craig, 2010). Given its links to adolescent sexual behaviors and sexual and psychological health (Collins, 2003;Madsen & Collins, 2011), understanding romantic experience in Chinese adolescents is an important first step to inform education and intervention programs. Although intimacy with parents decreases during adolescence, parents play a role in influencing adolescent sexuality (Turnbull, Werscha, & van Schaik, 2011). ...
... In the Western view, romantic development is conceptualized as part of the process of adolescent growing up and discovering oneself and one's sexuality (Royer, Keller, & Heidrich, 2009). Depending on the quality and extent of involvement, adolescent romantic experience is accompanied by both positive and negative outcomes (Collins, 2003;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Healthy romantic experiences assist individuals in refining their sense of identity by affecting one's self-conception and self-esteem and providing a source of emotional support (Furman & Collins, 2010). ...
Article
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This qualitative research article explored the convergences and divergences of perceptions of adolescent romantic experience between a group of adolescents and parents in China. One-to-one, in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 adolescents (aged 15-18 years; 26 girls, 12 boys) and 27 parents (aged 40-52 years; 16 mothers, 11 fathers) from the urban areas of a northern Chinese city. Data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis and interpreted using a socio-ecological approach. Four major themes were identified: opportunities and risks, acceptable versus unacceptable sexual intimacy, generational difference, and girls’ vulnerability and “self-respect.” In these themes, congruity and divergence of perceptions were found between the groups of adolescents and parents. These perceptions were largely influenced by traditional cultural beliefs of education, sexuality, gender, and family as well as the current socio-cultural context of modernization and globalization in China. The findings provide implications regarding how to support both adolescents and parents in managing adolescent romantic experience for adolescent health-promoting romantic and sexual behaviors.
... This illustrates that the labeling and/or the actual character of sexual partnerships contains a developmental component, and also adds to previous argumentation that casual sex is a normative part of the developmental stage of young adulthood (Claxton & Van Dulmen, 2013). Compared to adolescence, where most youth begin with a normative exploring of intimate relationships and experiences (DeLamater & Friedrich, 2002;Tolman & McClelland, 2011), young adulthood is typically the stage where intimate relationships become longer in duration and more serious in content and importance (Furman & Winkles, 2011;Giordano et al., 2012;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Thus, while it is plausible that young adults have accumulated more lifetime casual sexual partners, they are also more likely to be engaged in a romantic sexual partnership at any given point in time, as their partnerships last longer (Giordano et al., 2012). ...
... This may be explained by a developmental perspective at two different levels. At an individual-level, it may be assumed that withinperson socio-sexual competencesand especially intimate partner communication skillsare accumulated over time, through practice, experience, and increasing confidence across partnerships (e.g., Giordano et al., 2012;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Previous empirical findings have illustrated that selfperceived general communication awkwardness in (romantic) dating relationships tends to decrease across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood (Giordano et al., 2012). ...
Article
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We investigated youth’s self-reported socio-sexual competences (esteem, assertiveness, control, communication) within their most recent sexual partnerships, and explored disparities in these competences between romantic versus casual sexual partnerships, including age and gender differences therein. Data were used from 6,098 Dutch adolescents and young adults (12.1–26.1 years), who participated in a national study on sexual health. Results indicated that being in love and sexual activity frequency were significant confounders for the associations between sexual partnership typology and youth’s socio-sexual competence levels. After controlling for confounding relationship characteristics and sociodemographics, no differences were found between sexual partnership types in youth’s sexual esteem, assertiveness, and control. However, romantic sexual partnerships were characterized by more frequent sexual communication than casual sexual partnerships. This pattern was gender-consistent, but for young adults, this difference in sexual communication across sexual partnership types was larger than for adolescents. Our findings emphasize that considering the relationship context (e.g., romantic, casual) for the development, utilization, and evaluation of young people’s socio-sexual competences – particularly sexual communication – is a vital task for parents, educators, clinicians, and researchers. Individual (person-centered) versus relational (dyad-centered) differences in youth’s socio-sexual competences require further exploration, as does the link between socio-sexual competences and sexual health and satisfaction.
... Within the general population, a number of factors have been suggested to affect the relationship between romantic experiences and psychosocial adjustment. These include adolescents' reports of having had (or not had) a romantic relationship (Madsen & Collins, 2011;Yu, Branje, Keijsers, & Meeus, 2014), self-perceptions of romantic appeal (Bouchey, 2007), self-perceptions of social experiences and close friendships (Bouchey, 2007;Cash, Thériault, & Annis, 2004;Furman & Collins, 2011;Furman, Low, & Ho, 2009), perceptions of relational and global self-worth (Harter, Waters, & Whitesell, 1998), and self-perceived attractiveness and body image (Ambwani & Strauss, 2007;Bale & Archer, 2013). In parallel, depressive symptoms are known to increase during adolescence, particularly in females (Twenge & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2002;Wichstrom, 1999), and have also been shown to be associated with experiences of dating during adolescence (Natsuaki, Biehl, & Ge, 2009). ...
... Yet in the current study, depressive symptoms and global self-worth were not found to vary significantly between those who had, or those who had never experienced a romantic relationship. Previous and current findings therefore indicate that while having had a previous relationship may strengthen self-perceptions of romantic appeal (Furman & Winkles, 2010;Madsen & Collins, 2011), not having had a romantic relationship may not have a large enough impact on its own to cause distress at the age of 16. ...
Article
During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate (CLIP), and to investigate how these experiences could be related to depressive symptoms and global self-worth. The study included 661 Norwegian adolescents with CL/P, who were compared to a large national sample. The prevalence of romantic relationships was lower among adolescents with CL/P compared to the reference group, although the overall impact on depressive symptoms and global self-worth appeared to be low. This study is one of few to explore the impact of a congenital visible condition on experiences of romantic relationships and provides preliminary insight into a significant, yet complex topic.
... Youth-focused relationship education (YRE) interventions are designed to reduce risk factors such as endorsement of faulty relationship beliefs and dating aggression while increasing protective factors such as conflict management skills. Relationship interaction patterns formed during adolescence can influence relational outcomes later in life (Madsen & Collins, 2011); therefore, implementation of YRE programs during adolescence may inhibit the stabilization of maladaptive relationship interaction patterns that may present in adult relationships. An important stage in prevention research is to conduct ongoing evaluation of programs targeting certain populations and issues. ...
... Romantic relationships in adolescence can affect individual outcomes in many ways and can have lasting effects on adolescents' health and relationship experiences (Ashley & Foshee, 2005;Ha et al., 2016;Ha, Dishion, Overbeek, Burk, & Engels, 2014;Kerpelman, Pittman, Adler-Baeder, Eryigit, & Paulk, 2009). These relationships can influence the quality of adult romantic relationships by forming internal working models, establishing patterns of interaction, and triggering health issues that can persist into adulthood (Collins & Van Dulmen, 2006;Madsen & Collins, 2011;Roisman, Collins, Sroufe, & Egeland, 2005;Welsh et al., 2003). Within a prevention approach, thwarting the stabilization of maladaptive relationship habits is essential for later functioning in committed adult relationships. ...
Article
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Recent focus on the developmental importance of adolescent romantic relationships led to the formation and implementation of curricula and programs that educate high school-aged youth about healthy romantic relationships. This meta-analytic study examines the efficacy of youth-focused relationship education (YRE) on multiple outcomes: conflict management, faulty relationship beliefs, and healthy relationship attitudes. Searches revealed 33 studies of YRE, however, meta-analytic procedures only included 15 studies which provided sufficient data on the outcomes of focus. Hedge's g effect sizes were significant for two of the three outcomes and are comparable with effects of other prevention programs. Overall, YRE programs are effective in changing conflict management and faulty relationship beliefs.
... Within their romantic experiences adolescents are supposed to learn how to interact with partners, to experience emotional and sexual intimacy and, above all, to navigate a range of emotionally charged interactions-from conflicts with partners to the provision and receipt of emotional support. Patterns of interactions learned during adolescence are likely to be carried forward and enacted in future relationships with romantic partners during emerging adulthood (Furman and Winkles 2012;Madsen and Collins;2011;Seiffge-Krenke 2003). In contrast, when disagreements lead to tension and adolescents have difficulties negotiating their differences, it is likely that a negative model of relationship will be carried forward. ...
... Lower tension in romantic interactions during adolescence, combined with a higher tendency for self-silencing, associated with the Sporadic Encounters in Response to a Romantic Stressful Experience pathway. Within their romantic experiences, adolescents are supposed to learn how to navigate a range of emotionally charged interactions, from conflicts with partners to the provision and receipt of emotional support (Madsen and Collins 2011;Seiffge-Krenke 2003). When partners prefer to downplay their disagreements and silence their voice, a relationship might last longer, but the adolescent has not learned how to cope with romantic stressors (Shulman et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Observation of the romantic lives of the majority of young people shows that they might move between transitory and inconsistent states, being in and out of a relationship. The present study aims to better understand the meaning of these fluctuations. For this purpose, and employing a multi-method design, 144 Israeli adolescents (59.7% females) were followed from age 16 to 23. At age 23 in-depth interviews were conducted with the participants, focusing on their romantic histories. Analyses of interviews at age 23 yielded four distinctive romantic pathways differing in stability and the ability to progress toward intimacy: Sporadic and Casual Encounters, Sporadic Encounters in Response to a Stressful Romantic Experience, Steady Non-Intimate Involvements, and Progression toward Steady Intimate Involvements. The findings showed that more than half of participants belonged to the Progression toward Steady Intimate Involvements pathway, suggesting that romantic fluctuations served as means to progress toward intimate involvements. Progression toward steady intimate involvement was explained by greater secure attachment, greater capacity to face tension and to express one’s views, and greater parental support measured seven years earlier. In contrast, lower earlier intra- and interpersonal assets during adolescence were more likely to associate with a variety of romantic experiences during emerging adulthood that are characterized by romantic instabilities and difficulty to progress toward intimacy. The findings are discussed within the framework of the Developmental Systems Theory.
... Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Valle and Tillman (2014) found adolescent romantic relationship experiences continued to have long-term effects on relationship trajectories. In a high-risk sample from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, adolescent dating experience remained a significant predictor of couple relationship quality in young adulthood after accounting for earlier relational experiences with parents and peers (Madsen & Collins, 2011). As such, the progression of couple relationship experiences in the approach to parenthood may be relevant to understanding the contemporaneous impacts of couple relationship quality. ...
... A dearth of longitudinal studies is a clear gap in the literature, given established evidence for intergenerational and longitudinal transmission of couple relationship experiences, encompassing both constructive and destructive aspects of relationship functioning (e.g. Amato & Booth, 2001;Ehrensaft, Knous-Westfall, & Cohen, 2011;Kouros, Cummings, & Davies, 2010;Madigan et al., 2016;Madsen & Collins, 2011;Meier & Allen, 2009;Valle & Tillman, 2014). The accumulation of couple relationship experiences over the life course, including the influence of the previous generation, may provide another productive avenue for the study of transmission of risk to offspring, particularly attachment security. ...
Article
This paper provides a meta-analytic examination of strength and direction of association between parents' couple relationship quality and early childhood attachment security (5 years and under). A comprehensive search of four EBSCOhost databases, Informit, Web of Science, and grey literature yielded 24 studies meeting eligibility criteria. Heterogeneity of the couple quality construct and measurement was marked. To disaggregate potentially differentially acting factors, we grouped homogeneous studies, creating two predictor variables defined as "positive dyadic adjustment" and "inter-parental conflict". Associations of each construct with offspring attachment security were examined in two separate meta-analyses. Inter-parental conflict was inversely associated (8 studies, k = 17, r = -0.28, CI = [-0.39 to -0.18]), and dyadic adjustment was not associated with offspring attachment security (5 studies, k = 12, r = 0.14, CI = [-0.03 to 0.32]). The study supports finer distinctions of couple relationship constructs and measurement in developmental research, assessment, and intervention.
... College students; conflict resolution strategies; persistence; psychological abuse; relationship dynamics; re-perpetration; re-victimization; teen dating violence Romantic experiences in adolescence may influence the nature and quality of subsequent intimate relationships (Fernet, Hebert, & Paradis, 2016). Madsen and Collins (2011), for instance, found that adolescents who had experienced a better quality dating relationship in mid-adolescence showed more constructive negotiating than those who had experienced a worst quality dating relationship. Teen dating violence (TDV) is a problem that has proven to have high prevalence in these early relationships, as well as negative developmental and well-being consequences (Exner-Cortens, Eckenrode, & Rothman, 2013;Nahapetyan, Orpinas, Song, & Holland, 2014;Vagi, Olsen, Basile, & Vivolo-Kantor, 2015). ...
Article
Although strengthening skills is recommended to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent dating violence, Little research has analyzed how conflict resolution strategies relate to victimization/perpetration trajectories. This study explores 10 retrospectively self-reported conflict resolution strategies (positive problem-solving, engagement, and withdrawal) across 2 romantic relationships, paying special attention to posible changes. Participants were 309 college students who had been involved in 1, 2, or no abusive relationships. Based on these 15 experiences, they were first classified into 4 groups according to their psychological victimization (non-victimized, pre-victimized, newly-victimized, and re-victimized) in each of their 2 relationships. Subsequently, they were also classified into 4 different groups according to their perpetration (non-perpetrators, pre- 20 perpetrators, new perpetrators, and re-perpetrators). Changes in conflict resolution strategies were self-reported by both the victims and the perpetrators with a single abusive relationship, whereas persistence was detected in those involved in either 2 abusive relationships (re-victimized and re-perpetrators) or none 25 at all. The results can help prevent dating violence across relationships and its negative consequences for health.
... W USA około 25% spośród 12-latków deklaruje posiadanie "sympatii" w okresie ostatnich 18 miesięcy, między 15-16-latkami wskaźnik ten wynosi ok. 30%, wśród 17-18-latków sięga już 70% (Connolly, Craig, Goldberg, & Pepler, 2004;Madsen & Collins, 2011). ...
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Abstrakt Artykuł poświęcony jest relacjom między dwoma procesami zachodzącymi wśród uczniów kończących drugi etap nauki w szkole podstawowej: (1) włącza-niem osób innej płci w sieci koleżeńskie oraz (2) zmianami poczucia integracji rówieśniczej. Analiza przeprowadzona została w modelach latentnej krzywej rozwojowej (dynamika heterofilii) oraz latentnej różnicy wyników (zmiany poczucia integracji rówieśniczej) i wykorzystywała dane z ogólnopolskiego wzdłużnego badania SUEK (N = 5748). Stwierdzono: na początku klasy 5 szko-5 szko-5 szko-ły podstawowej zjawisko heterofilii jest stosunkowo rzadkie, zdecydowana większość (54,6%) uczniów/uczennic jako osoby przez siebie lubiane wskazuje wyłącznie rówieśników tej samej płci; w badanym okresie odnotowano wzrost preferencji heterofilnych; między początkiem klasy 5 a końcem klasy 6 odno-towano pogorszenie oceny jakości relacji rówieśniczych wśród uczennic, lecz nie wśród uczniów; wykazano wreszcie, że wzrost natężenia heterofilii pod koniec drugiego etapu dodatnio koreluje ze zmianami zachodzącymi w za-kresie poczucia integracji rówieśniczej: im większy wzrost heterofilii między klasą 5 a klasą 6, tym większa poprawa (mniejszy spadek) poczucia integracji z rówieśnikami klasowymi. Artykuł dyskutuje znaczenie uzyskanych wyników. 1 Praca powstała w wyniku realizacji projektu badawczego o numerze 2017/27/B/HS6/00850 finansowane-go ze środków Narodowego Centrum Nauki.
... This distinction calls for further understanding of how previous experiences or schemas affect future outcomes. A vast majority of studies have shown, for example, that previous experiences during adolescence affect relationship outcomes in young adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011;Seiffge-Krenke, 2003;Smith et al., 2010). However, findings of the current study as well as a growing body of research in personality development (Roberts & Davis, 2016) suggest that personality attributes and schemas are likely to change during the transition to adulthood. ...
Article
Using a sample of 110 Israeli youth (72% female), the present study investigates associations between initial levels of rejection sensitivity as well as changes in rejection sensitivity from age 16 to age 23 and relationship involvement, quality, and (growth following) coping with relationship stress. Results showed that rejection sensitivity generally decreased over time into the transition to adulthood. Furthermore, levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 predicted whether young people were romantically involved by age 23, as well as the quality of their relationships. Yet, the change in level of rejection sensitivity over time explained far more the quality of later romantic relationships and competence in coping with relationship stress than the initial level of rejection sensitivity. These findings have important implications for examining the role of changes in personality attributes such as rejection sensitivity in the transition from adolescence to adulthood.
... Relationship dynamics may characterize a relationship at single or multiple points in time. Research design has progressed from describing dating relationships in terms of involvement based on frequency of contact and overall duration to assessing relationship quality in terms of disclosure, enjoyment, conflict resolution, intimacy, and security (Collins, 2003;Madsen & Collins, 2011;Roisman, Masten, Coatsworth, & Tellegen, 2004). Both theory and research emphasize the centrality of passion and intimacy in dating relationships (Connolly et al., 1999;Sternberg, 1986). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal association between adolescent dating relationship dynamics (measures of intimacy and problem dynamics), mental health, and physical and/or sexual victimization by a dating partner. Gender‐stratified analyses were conducted in a sample of 261 adolescents, ages 10–18 at baseline, interviewed in three annual waves (2013–2015) of the nationally representative Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV). Among male daters, better mental health at baseline was negatively associated with problem dynamics at follow‐up, and aspects of problem dynamics at baseline predicted worse mental health at follow‐up. However, unexpectedly, aspects of relationship intimacy at baseline were also negatively associated with mental health at follow‐up. Male daters’ victimization did not mediate longitudinal measures of mental health or of relationship dynamics, but did predict worse mental health at follow‐up. Among female daters, we found no longitudinal associations between mental health and intimacy or problem relationship dynamics, in either direction. However, victimization mediated aspects of female daters’ reported relationship dynamics. Dating violence prevention efforts should reflect that adolescent females reporting controlling behaviors and feelings of passionate love may be at increased risk for victimization. Positive youth development efforts should attend to the bidirectional associations of mental health and dating relationship dynamics over time, particularly for male adolescents.
... Partner mit einem niedrigen Alter bei Beziehungsbeginn zeichnen sich oft durch eine geringe persönliche Reife aus. Jugendliche sind noch unsicher im partnerschaftlichen Mitei-nander und im Umgang mit ihren Emotionen (Madsen/Collins 2011). Zudem verfügen sie nur über mangelnde Kommunikations-und Konfliktlösungskompetenzen (Kopp u.a. ...
... For instance, high school youth with less romantic attachment avoidance (e.g., comfort trusting a relationship partner) are more likely to exhibit interpersonal competence (Paulk, Pittman, Kerpelman, & Adler-Beader, 2011). Those who experience healthy romantic relationships in adolescence are also more likely to report better quality relationships as young adults (Madsen & Collins, 2011). However, dating relationships present some notable risks, including dating violence (Maas, Fleming, Herrenkohl, & Catalano, 2010) and risky sexual behaviors (Manlove, Ryan, & Franzetta, 2004). ...
Article
Objective To explore how youths' perceived relationship self‐efficacy following relationship education may vary on the basis of program and youth characteristics. Background Youth‐focused relationship education has been shown to promote attitudes and behaviors that foster healthy romantic relationships. Yet little is known about the factors associated with variations in these program outcomes. Method Using data collected from a convenience sample of 1,076 youth who participated in the Love U2: Relationship Smarts Plus program, structural equation models and multiple group analysis using chi‐square difference tests were examined to assess whether and how various program and youth characteristics are associated with relationship self‐efficacy. Results Youths' romantic relationship self‐efficacy was greater when programming was offered within a week or weekly versus monthly, after school rather than in‐school, and whether participants were female and had previous dating experiences. Several demographic factors (e.g., race, sex) moderated the influence of programmatic and individual characteristics on self‐efficacy. Conclusion Variability exists in how relationship and marriage education programs are implemented in uncontrolled real‐world settings. Our findings suggest that program outcomes may also vary on the basis of certain youth and program characteristics. Implications Practitioners should carefully consider how the tailoring of program content and delivery to meet the needs of diverse audiences maintains program fidelity and can potentially influence program outcomes.
... The skills that young people learn from significant others can translate into positive behaviors and qualities for later relationships (Madsen & Collins, 2011;Meier & Allen, 2009). This is important, as youth are more likely than not to have a relationship when they enter later adolescence (Lenhart et al., 2015). ...
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Exploring romantic relationships is a hallmark of adolescence. As dating relationships are often new during this development trajectory, learning how to be in a relationship (e.g., learning healthy communication skills, etc.) is necessary to facilitate positive partnerships during the transition to adulthood. However, foster youth are a group routinely overlooked within the literature on developing positive and healthy relationships. This formative, exploratory study utilizes focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand foster youth perceptions of healthy and unhealthy dating relationships through a social learning theory lens. Findings explore foster youth perceptions of ideal relationships, the realities of their lived relational experiences, as well as the lessons learned that they would like to impart on future generations of foster youth. Implications for research, practice, and policy (e.g., the need for communication skill building, comprehensive sex and relationship education, as well as screenings for dating violence) are also explored.
... They may also have fewer positive social experiences that limit opportunities to correct negative internal working models. Abused and neglected individuals may also be less likely to have high-quality peer or romantic relationships in adolescence, which are important stepping stones from which adult romantic functioning often develops (e.g., Madsen & Collins, 2011;Simpson, Collins, Tran, & Haydon, 2007). Lower social competence in child and adolescent peer relationships and in adolescent romantic relationships offers relevant pathways for future study. ...
Article
The present study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) to investigate how multiple dimensions of childhood abuse and neglect predict romantic relationship functioning in adulthood. Several dimensions of abuse and neglect (any experience, type, chronicity, co-occurrence, and perpetrator) were rated prospectively from birth through age 17.5 years. Multimethod assessments of relational competence and violence in romantic relationships were conducted repeatedly from ages 20 to 32 years. As expected, experiencing childhood abuse and neglect was associated with lower romantic competence and more relational violence in adulthood. Follow-up analyses indicated that lower romantic competence was specifically associated with physical abuse, maternal perpetration, chronicity, and co-occurrence, whereas more relational violence was uniquely associated with nonparental perpetration. We discuss these novel prospective findings in the context of theory and research on antecedents of romantic relationship functioning.
... Nonetheless, this study makes an important contribution by documenting the long-term implications of adolescent knowledge and attitudes for adult reproductive behavior. Our findings that adolescent views and experiences set the stage for long-term patterns is consistent with other work; for instance, a growing body of research finds that behaviors and dynamics in romantic relationships in adolescence affect the formation and character of adult intimate relationships (Cui et al. 2013;Madsen and Collins 2011;Johnson et al. 2015) Our analysis shows that early contraceptive attitudes may have a similarly long reach. We provide an initial assessment of the robustness and magnitude of these linkages. ...
Article
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Objectives Ineffective and inconsistent contraceptive use is common among adults, perhaps due to limited knowledge about reproduction and unfavorable attitudes toward contraception. Knowledge and attitudes are first developed in adolescence. We test whether adolescent knowledge and attitudes have long-term implications for adult contraceptive behavior. Methods Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health, our analytical sample (n = 6662) consists of those asked sex and contraception questions at Wave I (1995; students aged 15 and older) and who were sexually active and not pregnant at the time of the Wave IV (2007–2008) survey. We examined whether adolescent attitudes toward contraception, knowledge of condoms and reproduction, and confidence in contraceptive knowledge were predictive of adult contraceptive efficacy and consistency using logistic regression. Results In models adjusted for a range of socioeconomic, demographic, and life course factors, favorable attitudes toward contraception in adolescence increased the odds (aOR 1.21, CI 1.08–1.36) of using more effective methods rather than a less effective or no method of contraception in adulthood, as did more accurate condom knowledge (aOR 1.07, CI 1.00-1.14) and more accurate reproductive knowledge (aOR 1.07, CI 1.00-1.13). Adolescents with more favorable attitudes toward contraception also used contraception more consistently as adults (aOR 1.27, CI 1.14–1.43), as did those with more accurate condom knowledge (aOR 1.10, CI 1.03–1.18). Conclusions Attitudes towards contraception and knowledge about condoms and reproduction acquired during adolescence are predictive of adult contraceptive behavior. Results suggest that comprehensive sex education during adolescence could improve effective contraceptive behavior throughout the life course.
... A few studies have assessed the characteristics of romantic relationship at two points, examining continuity and change in the quality of relationships and in youth's involvement with others (e.g., Madsen & Collins, 2011;Meier & Allen, 2009). Others have examined change by assessing whether some variable predicts changes in romantic relationships from Time N to Time N + 1, using cross-lagged panel models (Furman, Low, & Ho, 2009;Nesi, Widman, Choukas, & Prinstein, 2017;Rosenfield, Jouriles, Mueller, & McDonald, 2013). ...
Article
Change is a ubiquitous aspect of adolescents' and young adults' romantic relationships, yet most research has not fully captured such change. Many studies examine romantic relationships at only one or two points in time. In this article, we illustrate the importance and benefits of examining change in adolescents' and young adults' romantic relationships using more than two time points. We discuss four kinds of changes: changes with age, within‐relationship changes, within‐person changes, and changes after specific events occur. We use examples from our research to illustrate various understudied types of change. We discuss how the analysis of many types of change requires more than two data points. Multiple time points can also be used to assess both the short‐ and long‐term effects of romantic relationships and to examine changes in trajectories. Such research can move us beyond static snapshots of romantic relationships to an understanding of their dynamic, changing nature.
... The life-course perspective, however, emphasizes the timing and sequencing of transitions rather than a single transition (Elder, 1998). Individuals' romantic relationship experiences are interdependent and linked across the age span (Madsen & Collins, 2011;Sassler, 2010); serial relationships construct sequences of life events that give structure to an individual's life course (Lichter, Turner, & Sassler, 2010). For instance, Lichter and Qian (2008) argued that the very experience of ending a romantic relationship could make it easier to terminate the next relationship, including marriage. ...
Article
Although studies on romantic relationships are abundant, cumulative experiences in intimate relationship dissolution (i.e., dissolution of cohabitation and marriage) during young adulthood is not yet completely understood. Using a nationally representative sample of 9,275 young adults, we investigated heterogeneity in timing and frequency of relationship dissolution during young adulthood, as well as its developmental precursors to dissolution. Results indicated four distinct relationship-dissolution classes that ranged from those who maintained stable romantic relationships to those who experienced multiple cohabitation dissolutions and divorces from ages 18 to 30 years. Early socioeconomic adversity predicted relationship-dissolution trajectories directly and indirectly through psychosociodemographic mechanisms in adolescence, including disrupted transitions to adulthood, conflict in dating relationships, and low levels of future orientation. Our findings highlight the heterogeneous romantic relationship trajectories of young adults and support the importance of the person-centered approach in elucidating developmental pathways underlying the longitudinal transitions in romantic relationships.
... Many studies have analyzed cyberbullying in young couples (Durán-Segura & Martínez-Pecino, 2015) in relation to offline violence (Sánchez et al., 2014), but we know of no study that analyzed how online couple quality contributes to relationship satisfaction in a college population. In this study, we understand relationship satisfaction as an indicator of relationship quality, and as characterized by intimacy, communication, and a desire to stay in the relationship (Madsen & Collins, 2011). With that in mind, this study's first objective is to analyze online relationship quality in young adult, Spanish couples, taking into account the effects of sex, age, and relationship duration. ...
Article
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Recent studies suggest that the online and offline behaviors young people display in romantic relationships are closely related. However, the differential effects of the dimensions of couple quality in the online context have not yet been explored in depth. The aim of this study was to explore online couple quality in young-adult relationships, and its association with romantic relationship satisfaction, also looking at effects of gender, age, and length of the relationship. 431 university students currently in a romantic relationship (68.2% females; mean age = 21.57) participated in this study. They completed different self-report measures to tap the online quality of their romantic relationships (online intimacy, control, jealousy, intrusiveness, cyberdating practices, and communication strategies) and level of satisfaction with those relationships. Results showed that participants more often reported online intimacy ( Mmen = 2.49; Mwomen = 2.38) than the negative scales of online quality (mean ranged from .43 to 1.50), and all the online quality scales decreased with age (correlations ranged from –.12 to –.30) and relationship length (correlations ranged from –.02 to –.20). Linear regression analyses indicated that online intimacy ( b = .32, p = .001) and intrusiveness ( b = .11, p = .035) were positively related to relationship satisfaction, while cyberdating practices ( b = –.20, p = .001) and communication strategies ( b = –.34, p = .001) were negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Moreover, gender and relationship length moderated some of these associations. Results indicate that while online quality and relationship satisfaction are related, the impact of different online quality dimensions on relationship satisfaction differs depending on a participant’s sex, age, and relationship length.
... Similarly, knowledge, attitudes, and experiences in one's youth may shape sexual health and well-being in adulthood. Several studies have found that adolescent romantic relationships can influence the development and dynamics of adult intimate relationships (Cui, Koji Ueno, & Frank, 2013;Johnson, Peggy, Manning, & Longmore, 2015;Madsen & Collins, 2011). A more recent study found that accurate knowledge about and attitudes toward contraception in adolescence is associated with effective and consistent use of contraceptive methods in adulthood (Guzzo & Hayford, 2018). ...
Article
Research shows that gender norms play a notable role in pregnancy prevention, often placing responsibility on females and allowing some males to pursue sexual encounters without considering the consequences of unprotected sex. This paper examines gender differences in attitudes and behaviors related to condom use and birth control among adolescents using survey, focus group, and interview data gathered from the evaluation of Chicago Healthy Adolescents and Teens (CHAT), a comprehensive sexual health education program implemented with adolescents in Chicago Public High Schools. Results indicate that safe sex attitudes and behaviors differ between male and female adolescents, specifically those related to condoms and birth control. Our findings suggest that (i) females have higher knowledge and presumed responsibility for pregnancy prevention, (ii) infrequent condom use among adolescents prioritizes male pleasure over female health needs, and (iii) social norms discourage females, but not males, from accessing and using birth control. We use the Theory of Gender and Power to show how our findings reflect gender dynamics within the United States and explain the potential health implications for adolescent sexual health.
... Perceived commitment to a romantic relationship appears to fulfill the basic need for attachment, which could also foster longer lasting relationships (Maner & Miller, 2011). Moreover, the quality of romantic relationships tends to be maintained from one partner to another (Beyers & Seiffge-Krenke, 2010;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Thus, young people who have experienced a romantic pathway characterized by longer term relationships might be more inclined to feel committed to their current romantic relationship and to perceive this relationship to be of higher quality. ...
Article
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This study examines how romantic relationship patterns (i.e., based on the number of different partners and the number of years in a relationship) from adolescence to emerging adulthood (1) are associated with independence at age 25 and (2) are related to the characteristics of one’s romantic relationship and parental status at age 25. A sample of 274 youth (61.3% girls) identified their romantic partners each year between the ages of 16 and 24 and completed a series of questionnaires at age 25 concerning their level of independence and the characteristics of their current romantic relationship and parental status. Results show that patterns were associated with the pace at which youth accomplished tasks associated with emerging adulthood, in particular, gaining independence and becoming parents themselves. However, characteristics of the youth’s romantic relationships at age 25 did not vary as a function of these patterns.
... Youth relationship distress is associated with individual well-being (e.g., Kansky & Allen, 2018) and has a cascading impact on prospective intimate relationship functioning and stability (Collins et al., 2009;Shulman et al., 2019). For example, while accounting for other social interactions with peers and family, the quality of youths' romantic relationships was found to be associated with how young adults interacted with a romantic partner (Madsen & Collins, 2011). These findings underscore the importance of promoting high-quality romantic relationships during adolescence, especially among lower income individuals who disproportionally experience relationship distress across the life-course (Karney, 2020). ...
Article
Although therapy, relationship education, and online relationship resources may help alleviate relational distress, many adolescents and adults eschew help. Deciding to seek help for relationship concerns involves mental processes that reflect behavioral intentions and information-seeking behaviors. The present paper examines the prevalence of adolescents' (N = 183) intentions and behaviors to seek relationship help, and investigates determinants of such decisions. Results indicate that only readiness to change was consistently associated with help-seeking decisions. In contrast, other factors varied, with relationship status associated only with future intentions, and family difficulties associated only with behaviors to seek relational assistance. Programs may benefit from considering methods of disseminating information and encouraging adolescents to reflect upon reasons for considering making changes.
... These intense feelings can then be linked to their sexual desires, which, in turn, encourages youth to form loving and committed dating relationships that mirror those of adults (Connolly & McIsaac, 2009). Importantly, romantic relationship experiences in adolescence have been shown to guide the quality of subsequent romantic relationships in young adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). ...
Thesis
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The association between experiencing parent-to-child aggression and later dating abuse (DA) in adolescence is well-supported by previous empirical findings and theoretical frameworks, including the intergenerational transmission of violence theory, social learning theory, and relationship continuity theory. Less is known about what underlies this association. Among a sample of high school students, this study tested the hypothesis that rejection sensitivity would mediate between parent-to-child aggression and adolescent DA. Additionally, this study hypothesized that greater self-regulation would buffer the association between rejection sensitivity and adolescent DA. Although rejection sensitivity did not independently mediate between parent-to-child aggression and DA, self-regulation interacted with rejection sensitivity in predicting DA. I found that among respondents with low levels of rejection sensitivity, self-regulatory deficits significantly predicted greater DA, whereas high rejection sensitivity scores were related to higher DA regardless of one's self-regulation scores. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity and self-regulation are closely related in their association with DA.
... In addition, the number of romantic partner dyads available for analysis at both waves was relatively small. Although the number of dyads (70 at age 18 and 81 at age 24) is typical for observational studies of romantic partners (Ha, Dishion, Overbeek, Burk, & Engels, 2014;Madsen & Collins, 2011), it may contribute to the lack of consistency in effects. Future research can examine whether and how early adolescent negative expectations influence other facets of adult romantic relationships beyond observed hostility. ...
Article
Adolescents’ negative expectations of their peers were examined as predictors of their future selection of hostile partners, in a community sample of 184 adolescents followed from ages 13 to 24. Utilizing observational data, close friend- and self-reports, adolescents with more negative expectations at age 13 were found to be more likely to form relationships with observably hostile romantic partners and friends with hostile attitudes by age 18 even after accounting for baseline levels of friend hostile attitudes at age 13 and adolescents’ own hostile behavior and attitudes. Furthermore, the presence of friends with hostile attitudes at age 18 in turn predicted higher levels of adult friend hostile attitudes at age 24. Results suggest the presence of a considerable degree of continuity from negative expectations to hostile partnerships from adolescence well into adulthood.
... For example, less romantic competence among early adolescent girls is associated with girls making stronger predictions that they will be unlikely to marry and also with greater engagement in potentially risky sexual activity (Davila, Steinberg, et al., 2009). Higher quality romantic relationships in middle adolescence are associated with positive relationships and commitment in early adult relationships (Seiffge-Krenke & Lang 2002) as well as with more adaptive relationship processes (e.g., better conflict resolution and caregiving) in young adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). Overall, adolescent romantic relationships can provide support, enhance self-esteem, and serve important socialization functions that prepare adolescents for adult relationships, and also may have positive long-term effects (Collins, 2003;Collins et al., 2009;Connolly & Goldberg, 1999). ...
Chapter
Navigating romantic relationships in adolescence/young adulthood is a normative developmental task that can be both pleasurable and challenging for youth. The success with which one does so is both predicted by and subsequently affects psychological well-being. This chapter reviews the literature on the associations between psychopathology and youth romantic relationships and experiences. We focus particularly on internalizing and externalizing disorders, for which the bulk of the literature exists. We also cover eating disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as other disorders and issues of comorbidity. Following the reviews of specific disorders and symptoms, we review the emerging literature on psychopathology and same-sex relationships among youth. We then address key peer and family contexts in which psychopathology and skills for romantic relationships are developing, and we discuss the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology and romantic dysfunction. The chapter closes with discussions of methodological issues and implications for prevention and intervention, emphasizing the need for ongoing basic research that can translate into novel approaches that can treat or prevent youth romantic dysfunction and psychopathology.
... Adolescents' processes, experiences and conceptualizations of navigating romantic relationships are developmentally significant because they inform and shape their current and future romantic relationships (Connolly & McIsaac, 2011;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Moreover, personal and interpersonal resilience and thriving depend on the degree to which romantic relationships are either enriching or disruptive (Dmytro, Luft, Jenkins, Hoard, & Cameron, 2013;Friedlander, Connolly, Pepler, & Craig 2013;Johnson, Giordano, Longmore, & Manning, 2014). ...
Article
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In this study we examined the negotiation of romantic relationships by urban youth, as discussed in focus groups, in a multicultural community. We compared these urban-student findings for an emergent fit with previously reported findings from more homogeneous groups of rural students. The unifying category, wrestling with gender expectations , which was identified in the rural studies, also emerged in the present study. A new unifying category represented urban participants’ balancing cultural expectations in the contexts of their families and social groups. Three categories from the former rural studies emerged in the present urban study: making sacrifices , showing respect , and standing up for oneself ; and a new category emerged: communicating . While the rural students identified media as critical contextual conditions for romantic relationships, the current urban teens identified digital and social media as crucial contextual conditions in dating relationships. Together, these findings suggest the importance of considering cultural and contextual aspects of youths’ dating processes for developing a grounded theory that reflects aspects of teens’ relational lives. Implications of this emergent theory are explored, and directions for future research are suggested.
... Again, participants provided contact information for their partner so that we contacted the romantic partners directly to obtain consent. A similar duration criterion has been used in prior research (Collins, Welsh, & Furman, 2009;Connolly & Johnson, 1996;Hand & Furman, 2009;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Therefore, participants and their romantic partner completed assessments only once during ages 20 It is important to note that of the 160 participants, 146 reported experiencing a recent breakup and only 22 participants (16%) had the same romantic partner at both waves of data collection and were included in the analyses, which highlight the romantic exploration typical during emerging adulthood. ...
Article
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This study assessed the key aspects of romantic relationship dissolution in emerging adulthood as predictors of future mental health and romantic qualities. It utilized a longitudinal, multiinformant, multimethod study of 160 participants with their romantic partners and close friends followed from ages 20–25, with a breakup assessed at age 22. Having control over initiating a breakup at age 22 predicted relative increases in peer-rated internalizing symptoms and autonomy-undermining interactions with a new partner at ages 23–25. Having a greater understanding of the reasons for a breakup predicted lower self-reported internalizing symptoms and relative decreases in partner-reported romantic conflict as well as relative increases in self-reported relationship satisfaction and peer-rated intimate relationship competence at ages 23–25. Predictions remained after accounting for numerous potential confounds including age 20–22 baseline relationship quality, social competence, internalizing symptoms, and gender. Implications for understanding links between breakup characteristics on emerging adult psychological and relationship functioning are discussed.
... Romantic relationships in emerging adulthood period are developmentally affected by the relationships in the teenage years and here with, they shape adulthood relationships (Madsen & Collins, 2011). Apart from the autonomy brought by emerging adulthood and the culture that determines how to experience this autonomy (Mayseless & Keren, 2014), the relationships that an individual develops in his/her early developmental periods; that is, childhood (Shulman et al., 2013) are effective in this shaping process as well. ...
Article
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The current study aims to understand the romantic experiences of Turkish emerging adults from a cultural perspective. Culture and society play an important role in the lives and romantic experiences of emerging adults. More specifically, the present study addressed the criteria for partner selection and the initiating, maintaining and terminating the romantic relationships among Turkish emerging adults. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) was used as the research method. Participants of the study were selected via purposive sampling. The participants of the study were 25 emerging adults (12 female and 13 male) whose ages range between 19 and 26 years. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted in order to collect data. Data analysis revealed several categories within four domains of romantic experiences. The first domain, namely partner choice involved eight categories. Second domain, namely initiating a romantic relationship involved four categories. The third domain, namely maintaining a romantic relationship involved five categories. Final domain, namely termination of a romantic relationship involved three categories. The results of this study suggest that emerging adults consider various personal, relational and cultural factors in each stage of their romantic relationships.
... In addition to being crucial for the development of one's identity, sexuality and self-esteem (Furman and Shaffer 2003), early romantic experiences forecast subsequent ones (Furman 2018). For instance, having a satisfying relationship in adolescence is one of the most important predictors of future satisfying intimate relationships (Seiffge-Krenke 2003;Madsen and Collins 2011), which in turn confer numerous benefits (e.g., better mental health, more romantic commitment, and higher quality of life; Neto and da Conceição Pinto 2015). Relationship satisfaction (also referred to as relationship quality; Graham et al. 2011) is one of the main empirical concepts in the field of adult intimate relationships because of its strong prediction of relationship dissolution (Fincham et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Being in a satisfying romantic relationship in adolescence is associated to many short- and long-term benefits. However, more research is needed to better understand what promotes relationship satisfaction in adolescence. To address this gap, this study used a diary approach to examine the relation between disagreements and daily variations in adolescent romantic relationship satisfaction. A sample of 186 adolescents was recruited (Mage = 17.08 years, SD = 1.48; 56% female). Multilevel modeling was used to evaluate how disagreement occurrences, resolution, and resolution strategies were related to daily perceived relationship satisfaction at both the between- and within-subjects levels. At the within-subjects level, satisfaction was lower on days when a disagreement occurred, especially for girls. Adolescents also reported lower relationship satisfaction on days when they used more destructive strategies than usual, and higher relationship satisfaction on days when they successfully resolved disagreements. This study demonstrates that adolescents’ evaluations of their daily relationship satisfaction vary as function of disagreement processes.
... Finally, psychosocial adjustment may be affected by factors related to romantic involvement such as relationship quality (Madsen and Collins 2011) and sexual experiences (Williams et al. 2008), which were not included in the present study. Future research may benefit from exploring how relationship quality and sexual behavior are associated with level and change of adjustment from adolescence through young adulthood while controlling for age of initiation, number of partners, and total time spent in relationships. ...
Article
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Engaging in a romantic relationship is a key developmental task of adolescence and adolescents differ greatly in both the age at which they start dating and in how romantically active they are. These differences in romantic relationship experiences could be relevant for adolescents' short-and long-term psychosocial adjustment. The present study describes the diversity of relationship experiences during adolescence and examines their connection to psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. N = 2457 adolescents (49.3% female) from a German representative longitudinal study provided information on their relationship experiences between the ages 10 and 20, as well as on their psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected via annual assessments starting in 2008 at age M = 16.50 years (SD = 0.88) through young adulthood (M = 25.46, SD = 0.87). Latent profile analysis identified three romantic involvement groups: late starters, moderate daters, and frequent changers, which were further compared to adolescents without any romantic experiences (continuous singles). Growth curve analyses indicated that continuous singles reported lower life satisfaction and higher loneliness than the moderate daters in adolescence and young adulthood. The continuous singles were also less satisfied with their life in young adulthood and felt more lonely in both adolescence and young adulthood compared to the late starters. The findings of the study suggest great variability in adolescents' romantic relationship experiences and point toward the developmental significance of these experiences for short-and long-term well-being.
... Just as romantic attachment insecurity has far reaching effects on adolescents' lives, beliefs about romantic relationships that take shape during early adolescence set a foundation for future relationship trajectories that continue to influence relationship experiences across the lifespan. For instance, research has demonstrated a compelling link between characteristics of relationship quality during adolescence and subsequent relationship quality in young adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). Few studies, however, have addressed adolescents' beliefs about relationships and their relative influence on adolescents' sexual activity and romantic relationships (e.g., Gebhardt et al., 2003;Ott et al., 2006). ...
Article
Introduction: Although sexual exploration during adolescence may be perceived as normative, many adolescents who are sexually active are likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors detrimental to their well-being. The present study examined the influence of insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant dimensions), healthy sex attitudes, and constraining relationship beliefs on the following sexual risk indicators: age at first sex, number of sexual partners, condom use, length of time knowing sexual partners, seriousness of relationship, and frequency of sex. Methods: Cross-sectional data from two cohorts recruited one year apart for a five-year project were analyzed. Adolescents were public high school students from a Southern state in the USA (cohort 1: N = 878, 51.1% females, M = 16.50 years old; cohort 2: N = 759, 46.9% females, M = 15.78 years old). Results: Across both cohorts, healthy sex attitudes were related to having sex for the first time at an older age, having less sexual partners in a lifetime, and knowing one's sexual partner longer. High scores on the avoidant attachment dimension were related to less commitment to the relationship. This dimension also was related to holding lower scores on healthy sex attitudes, which in turn was related to having more sexual partners and knowing one's sexual partner for a shorter time. Although not replicated, higher endorsement of constraining relationship beliefs was associated with inconsistent condom use and greater sex frequency. Conclusion: Findings suggests that attachment insecurity, healthy sex attitudes, and constraining relationship beliefs work together to influence adolescent sexual risks.
... Some evidence suggests that peer support has a stronger effect on resilience in adolescence and early adulthood compared to family support (van Harmelen et al., 2017;van Hoorn et al., 2014). By mid-to-late adolescence, romantic relationships feature more prominently in the lives of young people (Furman & Winkles, 2012), ultimately reconfiguring adolescents' social landscape in ways that endure into adulthood (Madsen & Collins, 2011). These changes tend to differ based on sex; past research has found that males and females differ in terms of levels and types of protective resources throughout their adolescence (Hartman, Turner, Daigle, Exum, & Cullen, 2008;Sun & Stewart, 2007). ...
Article
Measuring key components of resilience is vital for understanding cross-cultural dynamics among youth and the environment. The Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) was developed as a cross-cultural measure of resilience and has been used globally. To examine the cross-cultural utility of the CYRM-28, we conducted a systematic review of the literature reporting on the psychometric properties of the measure. Using data representing six countries (N = 6,232) that were supplied from authors of the studies reviewed, a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted to estimate the variability of the measurement properties among communities, ages, and sex. Results indicate that the literature generally did not include reliability and validity information for the instrument. From the multi-level confirmatory factor analysis, the measure was invariant between adolescent age-groups and sexes but not across communities.
... The skills that young people learn from significant others can translate into positive behaviors and qualities for later relationships (Madsen & Collins, 2011;Meier & Allen, 2009). This is important, as youth are more likely than not to have a relationship when they enter later adolescence (Lenhart et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Individuals living with serious mental illness are at high risk of chronic homelessness, victimization, and intimate partner violence. In recent years, supportive housing programs have emerged as one way to prevent homelessness and victimization for this population, while also expanding social interactions and social networks. In concert with a focal supportive housing program, this research conducted two focus groups with 18 individuals who have a serious mental illness diagnosis. The authors sought to answer the research question, "What are perceptions of healthy and unhealthy relationships among formerly homeless people with serious mental illness?" To this end, the eight-item questionnaire was created around dimensions of power and control, as well as relationship equality. Findings from an inductive thematic analysis reveal three broad families of themes (relationship ideals, lived experiences, and risk/resources in supportive housing), around which smaller themes and subthemes are organized. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are also discussed.
... Adolescent romantic relationships provide key normative experiences for the development of skills and expectations for relationships throughout the life course (Carver, Joyner, & Udry, 2003;Collins, Welsh, & Furman, 2009;Furman & Shaffer, 2003;Seiffge-Krenke, 2003). Adolescent relationships have developmental continuity with young adult relationships (Madsen & Collins, 2011;Meier & Allen, 2009;Raley, Crissey, & Muller, 2007), and adolescents experience many of the same modern relationship challenges as young adults: relationship choice and complexity are increasing, as are demands for more sophisticated relationship skills (Larson et al., 2002). ...
Article
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“Defining the relationship” (DTR) conversations are a topic of interest among lay people, yet have been the focus of little empirical research, leaving a gap in the psychological literature on romantic relationship development. This article presents descriptive data from two studies about the characteristics and correlates of DTR talks in adolescents’ and emerging adults’ romantic relationships. In Study 1, DTR talks were found to occur in over half of the young adult participants’ ( N = 341) most recent relationships, often involved discussion about aspects of commitment and sexual decisions, and occurred more often in relationships that were more serious, involved sex, delayed sex, and involved infidelity. Study 2 extended these findings to an online sample of 15- to 17-year-old adolescents ( N = 248) and found similar results. Further, Study 2 showed that DTR talks were associated with more frequent condom and birth control use. Qualitative data from Study 2 indicated that planning for the future and resolving ambiguity were common motivations for DTR talks, though many teens also reported more spontaneous motivations; further, DTR talks often, but not always, resulted in positive changes in the relationship, including increased clarity, intimacy, and commitment. These findings suggest that DTR talks are an important topic for future research and may have implications for young people’s relationship quality and sexual health.
Poster
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Background: Attachment security in the early years plays an important role in a range of psychosocial outcomes in later life and continues to be an important focus of prevention and intervention research. Couple relationship quality has long been argued to play a seminal role in offspring attachment (Davies & Cummings, 1994), and in itself, is affected by relationship experiences earlier in life (e.g. in the preconception years including adolescent dating experiences and parental marital conflict (Amato & Booth, 2001; Madsen & Collins, 2011)). This systematic review provides a synthesis of the evidence on the role of couple relationship quality in the development of offspring attachment security. Methods: Search terms encompassing three major concepts (intimate partner relationship, intergenerational, attachment) were used in five EBSCOHost databases, and key article cross-checking in Web of Science. Results: Twenty-two studies met all inclusion criteria. Two meta-analyses were conducted on studies examining the association of offspring attachment security with two couple relationship quality variables: dyadic adjustment and inter-parental conflict. Conclusion: Findings regarding the negative association of inter-parental conflict and attachment security are unequivocal, however the relationship between other aspects of couple relationship quality and offspring attachment security are less clear. Future access to data emerging from mature cohort studies that are now following offspring will advance understanding of effects of couple relationship quality on attachment in the next generation.
Chapter
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Cornerstones of Attachment Research re-examines the work of key laboratories that have contributed to the study of attachment. In doing so, the book traces the development in a single scientific paradigm through parallel but separate lines of inquiry. Chapters address the work of Bowlby, Ainsworth, Main and Hesse, Sroufe and Egeland, and Shaver and Mikulincer. Cornerstones of Attachment Research utilises attention to these five research groups as a lens on wider themes and challenges faced by attachment research over the decades. The chapters draw on a complete analysis of published scholarly and popular works by each research group, as well as much unpublished material.
Article
Stemming intimate partner violence among adults demands earlier education and skill-building supportive of healthy youth and young adult dating relationships. The current U.S.-based study examines a spectrum of youth and young adult relationship dynamics (RDs), inclusive of abusive interactions. In a nationally representative cohort of youth aged 10–18 at baseline and one parent or caregiver, survey responses regarding RDs from 618 participants ages 15–23 at wave 5 follow-up were analyzed. Latent class analysis of four positive dynamics, six problematic dynamics, and three scales of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) were estimated, yielding four latent profiles of dating RDs. Relationships characterized by Unhealthy and Intense RDs both exhibited high probability of ARA but differed from each other in terms of other positive and problematic dynamics. Relationships characterized by Disengaged RDs had lower probability of ARA but elevated probability of awkward communications, negative feelings, social liability, and other challenging dynamics. Several baseline covariates were significantly associated with profiles of dating RDs approximately 5 years later. Younger participants were more likely to subsequently fall in an Intense or Disengaged RDs profile, as were participants with baseline emotional health problems. Further, classification in the Unhealthy RDs profile was less likely for participants reporting a better baseline relationship with their parents and more likely for those exposed to violence in childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to developmental maturity, youth and young adults would benefit from closer investigation and processing of past emotional and relational issues and traumas to foster healthier dating relationships.
Article
This study assessed early adolescent positive and negative affect as long-term predictors of romantic conflict, anxious and avoidant attachment, romantic and social competence, and relationship satisfaction in adulthood utilizing a longitudinal, multi-informant study of 166 participants assessed annually at ages 14–17, and again at ages 23–25. Positive affect in adolescence predicted greater self-rated social competence during late adolescence and greater self-rated romantic competence and less partner-reported hostile conflict almost a decade later. Negative affect predicted lower social and romantic competence. Results generally remained significant after controlling for personality traits, providing greater support for the hypothesis that affect has a robust, direct relation to romantic development over time.
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that relationship efficacy beliefs mediate the well-documented association between attachment style and relationship satisfaction in a sample of emerging adult women in dating relationships. Further, it explored whether efficacy beliefs vary as a function of romantic experience. Participants ( N = 216, Mage = 19.2 years) completed measures of attachment style, efficacy beliefs (mutuality, differentiation, emotional control, and social), and relationship satisfaction. Mutuality beliefs mediated the association between attachment avoidance and anxiety and satisfaction; however, other patterns of mediation were also found. Social, but not relationship, efficacy beliefs differed as a function of number of previous romantic relationships. Results suggest that insecurely attached individuals experience lower relationship satisfaction, in part because they hold less efficacious beliefs about their ability to engage in caregiving and careseeking behaviours. Future longitudinal research might examine how newly forming attachment representations and relationship-relevant efficacy beliefs shape each other.
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Dehumanization has the potential to account for different abusive behaviors because it involves making negative judgments of others that make it easier to harm them. However, research has not resorted to this mechanism to analyze teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, nor has it examined its association with the broader representations of others linked to attachment. The first objective of this study was to analyze whether dehumanization of one’s partner (lesser perceived agency and experience) and attribution of evilness were associated with a higher level of TDV perpetration and specific attachment styles. The second objective was to develop a structural equation model (SEM) that allowed integration of the links between all these factors. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 1799 adolescents who completed a survey in high schools. The results showed that those who were classified as high in TDV perpetration did perceive lower agency, lower experience, and higher evilness in their partners. The dehumanized perception of one’s partner was found to vary according to the attachment styles, with those highest in avoidance (dismissive and fearful) dehumanizing their partners the most. The SEM showed that dehumanization is related to avoidant and not to anxious attachment. It also pointed to the relevance of attribution of evilness in predicting TDV perpetration. The invariance of the model was tested across gender subsamples. These findings allow better understanding of how violence may arise in early relationships and where to focus intervention with adolescents.
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Engagement in dating relationships plays an important role in the health trajectories of young people, particularly during the early adolescent period between ages 10–14. Yet little is known about such relationships among youth in low resource contexts. This study sought to contribute to the literature on this topic by exploring reasons why school-going young people aged 12–14 years engage in dating relationships in Blantyre, Malawi. A thematic analysis was used to code and analyse in-depth interview data from 23 young people and 19 caregivers. Against the backdrop of growing sexual desires and feelings of attraction, participants stressed harassment from boys and coercion from older men, peer pressure, social status attainment, financial deprivation and encouragement during initiation ceremonies as reasons for engaging in dating relationships. Girls were found to be subject to multiple power dynamics—including gender power relations, as well as power dynamics within same-gender peer groups—that influenced their sex and relationship involvement. These findings carry implications for the design and timing of sexual and reproductive health youth programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa and emphasise the need for multi-level interventions to address the multiple influences in young people’s dating lives.
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A large and diverse literature has shown that parent-child relationship quality shapes development to affect later romantic relationship functioning. Guided by the developmental psychopathology framework, the current systematic review aimed to characterize the links between two major subtypes of parent-child relationship quality (parent-child attachment security and interaction quality) and several romantic relationship outcomes (i.e., adjustment, attachment security, aggression, and observed interaction quality), as well as to identify mechanisms accounting for these associations. We focused on studies that included both members of a couple/partnership for dyadic assessment of romantic relationship functioning, to more accurately and fully capture both partners' perspectives. A total of 40 articles met inclusion criteria, most of which sampled early/emerging adult couples between the ages of 18 and 26 years. Findings suggest that parent-child attachment security and interaction quality have similar associations with dyadic romantic relationship functioning, with the strongest evidence of effects on romantic relationship adjustment and observed interactions between romantic partners. Many studies found gender differences in effects, as well as cascading effects across development and over the course of a relationship. We argue that it is important for future studies to explore effects of one partner's parent-child relationship quality history on the other partner's romantic relationship adjustment and behavior, and to evaluate the extent to which parent-child attachment security mediates associations between parent-child interaction quality and romantic relationship functioning.
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Intensity in adolescent romantic relationships was examined as a long-term predictor of higher adult blood pressure in a community sample followed from age 17 to 31 years. Romantic intensity in adolescence – measured via the amount of time spent alone with a partner and the duration of the relationship – was predicted by parents’ psychologically controlling behavior and was in turn found to predict higher resting adult systolic and diastolic blood pressure even after accounting for relevant covariates. The prediction to adult blood pressure was partially mediated via conflict in nonromantic adult friendships and intensity in adult romantic relationships. Even after accounting for these mediators, however, a direct path from adolescent romantic intensity to higher adult blood pressure remained. Neither family income in adolescence nor trait measures of personality assessed in adulthood accounted for these findings. The results of this study are interpreted both as providing further support for the view that adolescent social relationship qualities have substantial long-term implications for adult health, as well as suggesting a potential physiological mechanism by which adolescent relationships may be linked to adult health outcomes.
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The main aim of the study was to assess whether and how the gender composition of classrooms affect learning outcomes as reported by youth participants in youth relationship education (YRE) classes. Although gender has been explored as a moderator of relationship education outcomes, the influences of the gender composition of the YRE setting on outcomes has not been tested. Youth in sex education settings frequently cite embarrassment and anxiety about discussing sensitive topics among other genders. Despite reporting anxiety, youth in several studies report benefits of participating in sex education in mixed‐gender settings. Although sex education differs in purpose from YRE, similar dynamics may influence the learning outcomes of YRE. Thus, it is important for YRE researchers to replicate the study of gender composition that has been carried out in other educational settings. Repeated‐measure analyses of variance were conducted on data from a community‐based sample of 4,597 YRE participants to test for interaction effects of time by classroom gender balance ratio on each of the outcome variables. Results suggest that for the majority of learning outcomes, young women benefit from YRE regardless of the gender composition of the classroom. Young men, however, appear to report greater changes in skills at posttest when they are in balanced or predominantly young women (>55% identifying as female) classrooms, with one exception for young men 15 years of age and younger. These results, taken in concert with results from other studies of gender composition, suggest that young men benefit from the enhanced opportunity for dialogue with young women in the YRE educational setting.
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Children who grow up with exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience disproportionately greater cognitive, psychological, and emotional impairments when compared to their peers. Increasingly, research has provided evidence of the long-lasting effects of IPV exposure throughout the life course. This study uses data from four waves (baseline and Years 1, 3, and 15) of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine how IPV exposure affects adolescents’ dating behavior and relationship quality at Year 15. Results indicate that those adolescents with exposure to physical violence at Years 1 and 3 were more likely to be in dating relationships at Year 15 than those without (effect size = 0.40), and for adolescents who were in a dating relationship at Year 15, IPV exposure, particularly exposure to physical violence, significantly reduced relationship quality (effect size = −0.24). These findings call for early screening of IPV exposure among mothers, children, and adolescents, as well as interventions to support victimized mothers and promote healthy adolescent relationships.
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Adolescents acquire important intimacy and communication skills in their relationships that contribute to relationship longevity. Yet we know relatively little about which factors help relationships endure. Objective: This study tracked adolescent women’s ( N = 387; 14–17 years) relationships from onset to dissolution to assess factors that contribute to relationship length. Prior relationship experience, relationship characteristics, and current relationship behaviors were assessed as contributors. Method A sample of 387 female adolescents (89% African American) were recruited from three primary care adolescent health clinics serving lower- to middle-income families in a large Midwestern city. All were interviewed every 3 months about ongoing relationships. The main outcome measure was time to dissolution. Results The average relationship lasted 5.87 months ( SD = 11.76). Greater numbers and more time spent in prior relationships were associated with longer duration of the current relationship. Being older, having more status changes during the relationship (promotions and demotions), and reporting greater relationship quality, sexual communication, and sexual autonomy were associated with significantly longer time to breakup. Conclusions Research to date has not tracked specific relationship timelines. In line with a developmental tasks perspective, this study provides new insights into the value of adolescent women’s past relationship experiences, measures of aging and accrued experience, as well as current relationship characteristics and behaviors to the development of relationship maintenance skills. These findings have educational and clinical implications as they inform programming initiatives designed to help young people establish healthy, consensual intimate relationships.
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Adolescence is a period of tremendous socioemotional change, when youth develop important relationship skills that they carry with them into adulthood. The mental health of individuals during this period might act as resources or impediments that impact their ability to cultivate such skills as well as outcomes in their later romantic relationships. The current study examines how multiple dimensions of adolescent mental health (depressive symptomology, self-esteem, mastery, and impulsivity) are associated with outcomes in romantic relationships across the transition to adulthood, such as relationship conflict, relationship happiness, and number of dating partners. Youth with higher mastery, self-esteem, and impulsivity during adolescence had more romantic dating partners across the transition to adulthood. High levels of depressive symptomology and low mastery during adolescence were also associated with greater conflict within dating relationships in young adulthood.
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Attachment theory suggests, first, that patterns of dyadic behavior cohere across salient relationships and, second, that such linkages are mediated by working models, defined as cognitive/emotional representations of relationships abstracted from dyadic experience. In this longitudinal study, adolescents' (age 19) Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coherence ratings and classifications (e.g. working model proxies) were related prospectively to their observed dyadic behaviors with romantic partners in young adulthood (age 20-21). Results demonstrated significant associations between adolescents' representations of their relationships with parents and the later quality of their interactions with romantic partners. Next, a model was tested whereby participants' working models, as inferred from the AAI, mediate the across-time correlation between a subset of observationally assessed parent-child dyadic behaviors (age 13) and the romantic relationship behaviors of these participants eight years later in young adulthood (age 20-21). Results of mediational analyses were consistent with the fundamental tenet of the organizational-developmental model that salient parent-child experiences are internalized and carried forward into adult relationships.
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In this volume, Romance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Risks and Opportunities, top scholars in the field of family research examine the nature and origin of adolescents’ contemporary patterns of sexual and romantic relationships, spanning such diverse topics as the evolutionary roots of these behaviors, as well as policies and programs that represent best practices for addressing these issues in schools and communities. The text offers interdisciplinary expertise from scholars of psychology, social work, sociology, demography, economics, human development and family studies, and public policy. Adolescents and young adults today face very different choices about family formation than did their parents’ generation, given such societal changes as the rise in cohabitation, the increase in divorce rates, and families having fewer children. These demographic trends are linked in important ways and provide a backdrop against which adolescents and emerging adults form and maintain romantic and sexual relationships. Editors Crouter and Booth address such questions as: *What are the ways in which early family and peer relationships give rise to romantic relationships in the late adolescent and early adult years? *How do early romantic and sexual relationships influence individuals’ subsequent development and life choices, including family formation? *To what extent are current trends in romantic and sexual relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood problematic for individuals, families, and communities, and what are the most effective ways to address these issues at the level of practice, program, and policy? Romance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Risks and Opportunities is an enlightening compilation of essays for academicians and upper-lever undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of human development and family studies, sociology, and psychology, as well as for practitioners in those fields who work with families and adolescents. The chapters are accessible to a wide variety of audiences.
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Studied interrelationships between dating patterns and trajectories of psychosocial functioning over a year in middle adolescents. Found that increasing casual dating was associated with rising problem behaviors and improved close friendship quality; pathways culminating in steady relationships were accompanied by increasing friendship discord, declining problem behaviors, and emotional distress; psychosocial functioning differences were evident prior to diverging dating transitions. (Author/KB)
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focus . . . on heterosexual relationships, but we believe that most of the ideas are applicable to gay and lesbian relationships as well (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although developmental theorists such as Sullivan (1953) and Havighurst (1972) have suggested that the formation of romantic relationships in adolescence is an important developmental task, researchers of the adolescent “problem behavior syndrome” have documented that early sexual intercourse is related to problems with conduct, academics, and chemical use. In this study multiple measures of competence and romantic relationship involvement were obtained from a normative community sample of children and adolescents. These were used in path analyses to document the concurrent and longitudinal predictions of romantic involvement and competence to examine the concurrent and longitudinal linkages of romantic interest and involvement to four other domains of adaptive behavior. Results suggest that although success in romantic relationships has roots in general peer competence, there may be both deviant and prosocial pathways of initial romantic involvement. Early romantic involvement in late childhood and early to middle adolescence may have negative consequences for academic, job, and conduct domains of competence. Later in adolescence, romantic relationship involvement loses its negative significance, perhaps as it becomes a normative developmental task. Results highlight the need for developmental research on the origins and meaning of romantic relationships, one of the most neglected aspects of peer relationships.
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2 strategies were used to investigate the continued impact of early experience and adaptation given subsequent experience and/or developmental change in a poverty sample (N = 190). Groups were defined whose adaptation was similar during the preschool years but consistently different earlier; then these 2 groups were compared in elementary school. In addition, a series of regression analyses was performed in which variance accounted for by near-in or contemporary predictors of adaptation in middle childhood was removed before adding earlier adaptation in subsequent steps. Children showing positive adaptation in the infant/toddler period showed greater rebound in the elementary school years, despite poor functioning in the preschool period. Regression analyses revealed some incremental power of early predictors with intermediate predictors removed. The results were interpreted as supporting Bowlby's thesis that adaptation is always a product of both developmental history and current circumstances. While this research cannot resolve such a complicated issue, it does point to the need for complex formulations to guide research on individual development.
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Romantic relationship involvement has repeatedly been associated with the incidence of externalizing behavior problems, but little is known about the nature and developmental significance of this relation. The current study extends previous research by investigating whether and through what processes romantic relationships distinctively predict externalizing behavior problems during adolescence compared to emerging adulthood. Data came from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. As predicted, higher levels of romantic relationship security at 16years were associated with lower levels of externalizing behavior problems during both adolescence and emerging adulthood, but this inverse relation was stronger for emerging adults than for adolescents. This relation was not attributable either to earlier quality of family and peer relationships or emerging adulthood competence. Thus, security of romantic relationships may become increasingly predictive of individual differences in externalizing behavior problems as individuals move from adolescence to emerging adulthood.
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Prior research has documented general associations between dating and delinquency, but little is known about the specific ways in which heterosexual experiences influence levels of delinquency involvement and substance use. In the current study, we hypothesize that an adolescent's level of effort and involvement in heterosexual relationships play a significant role in forming the types of friendship networks and views of self that influence the likelihood of delinquency involvement and substance use. Analyses based on a longitudinal sample of adolescent youth (n=1,090) show that high levels of dating effort and involvement with multiple partners significantly increases unstructured and delinquent peer contacts, and influences self-views as troublemaker. These broader peer contexts and related self-views, in turn, mediate the path between dating relationships, self-reported delinquency, and substance use. Findings also document moderation effects: among those youths who have developed a troublemaker identity and who associate with delinquent peers, dating heightens the risk for delinquent involvement. In contrast, among those individuals who have largely rejected the troublemaker identity and who do not associate with delinquent friends, dating relationships may confer a neutral or even protective benefit. The analyses further explore the role of gender and the delinquency of the romantic partner.
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From a longitudinal sample (n = 957; 49.9% male; 77.3% White/non-Hispanic) of participants studied from infancy through age 15, adolescents' depth of engagement in, and quality of romantic relationships were predicted from early and contemporaneous parent-child interactive quality and peer social competence. High quality maternal parenting and peer experiences prior to and during adolescence tended to be negatively associated with the depth of engagement in this domain for the full sample, yet positively associated with the quality of adolescents' romantic relationships for the sub-set of individuals currently dating at age 15. Results reconcile contrasting views of the origins of romantic relationship engagement and quality and the positive versus negative developmental salience of romantic relationships in adolescence.
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The romantic preoccupations of adolescent youth – meeting potential partners, negotiating new situations, and learning the norms and nuances of love relationships – are central to the social activities of North American youth. In this new venture, adolescents find that it is their peers who are most willing to share in their desire to sort through the subtleties that characterize dating, love, and romance. Not only do friends act as a major conduit for romantic relationships, they typically are the romantic partners! In view of this overlap, the goal of this chapter is to explore the linkages between adolescents' romantic relationships and those with their peers. We focus particularly on development in early adolescence since the emergence of romantic relationships is characteristic of this time. In adolescence, peer relationships undergo substantial differentiation, as the distinction between dyads and groups becomes increasingly important. Adolescents' peer relationships include small cliques of close friends and larger peer networks, as well as one-on-one friendships (Blyth, Hill, & Thiel, 1982). Whether peer relationships are dyadic or group-based likely shapes their links with romantic relationships, and we will attend to these differences in this chapter. We also recognize that children can be more or less successful in their peer relationships (Parker & Asher, 1987).
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Romantic emotions can grip adolescents' lives. A 14-year-old reports feeling so in love that he can think of nothing else. A 15-year-old is distressed that “everyone has a boyfriend but me” and broods for hours in her room. Another girl finds herself in a passionate lesbian relationship and feels elated, affirmed, and “chosen.” And a boy reports feeling so enraged by the betrayal of his girlfriend that he is obsessed with thinking up ways to hurt her. Western thought has long been ambivalent about the role of emotion in human behavior. On the one hand, we have praised and idealized deep feeling. It is the motif for much of our entertainment in novels, television, and film. On the other hand, we have been suspicious about emotions and the disruptive effects they are believed to inflict upon rational thought and action; Kant (1798/1978), for example, referred to emotions as “diseases of the mind.” This same ambivalence is manifest in our society's attitudes toward adolescent romance and the emotions that surround it. We sentimentalize young love and the joys and pains that accompany it, yet we also view it with suspicion as a set of affairs that can play havoc with young people's lives. What is indisputable is that emotions related to romantic relationships constitute a substantial part of adolescents' day-to-day emotional lives, at least in the United States.
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For most American adolescents, romantic relationships begin as a remarkable mystery. What's this weird feeling deep in the pit of my stomach? How do I get someone to like me? How do I know if someone I like likes me back? What should we do together? What can we talk about? How can I tell if someone really loves me or is just trying to take advantage of me? If we start having sex, will it change the relationship? Why don't my parents understand that my boyfriend/girlfriend and I need to spend lots of time together? These are mysteries that nearly all American adolescents must confront; they are a part of growing up. For help with such issues, adolescents may turn to friends or family members or even television shows. But at present there is little reason for them to turn to social scientists for insights because research on this topic has been surprisingly sparse. Investigators have not ignored the topic entirely. Descriptive information on dating has been gathered periodically (e.g., Gordon & Miller, 1984; Hansen, 1977; Roscoe, Cavanaugh, & Kennedy, 1988), and some ethnographers have studied peer group processes and romantic relationships (Dunphy, 1969; Eder, 1985).
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The Study of Personal Relationships During Adolescence - Raymond Montemayor Relationships During Adolescence - W Andrew Collins and Daniel J Repinski Continuity and Change in Interpersonal Perspective Relationships with Parents in Adolescence - Patricia Noller Process and Outcome Cultural Perspectives on Continuity and Change Across the Contexts of Adolescents' Relationships - Catherine R Cooper 'We're Popular, But We're Not Snobs' - James Youniss, Jeffrey A McLellan and Darcy Strouse Adolescents Describe Their Crowds Casting Adolescent Crowds in a Relational Perspective - B Bradford Brown, Margaret S Mory and David A Kinney Caricature, Channel, and Context Romantic Views - Wyndol Furman and Elizabeth A Wehner Toward a Theory of Adolescent Romantic Relationships Dating Those You Can't Love and Loving Those You Can't Date - Ritch C Savin-Williams Adolescents' Relations with Adults Outside the Family - Nancy Darling, Stephen F Hamilton and Starr Niego Current Theory and Research on Personal Relationships During Adolescence - Raymond Montemayor and Virginia R Gregg
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In a six-year longitudinal study, the early contributors to romantic relationships in young adults were analyzed. Seventy-two adolescents participated annually in a survey assessing their relationships with parents and close friends at the ages of 14, 15, and 17 years. In addition, developmental progression in establishing a separate identity and developing a mature body concept was assessed. At the age of 20, the sample was again investigated with a focus on its current quality of romantic relations, assessed by the Love Experience Questionnaire (LEQ). Factor analysis of the LEQ revealed three distinctive components of romantic love in young adults: connectedness, attraction, and painful love. A series of multiple regression analyses explored the different contributions of predictors from the adolescent years for explaining variance in romantic relations at young adulthood. Results showed age-specific predictors for two different components of romantic relations, connectedness and attraction, including marital status of the parents, the quality of relationships with parents, and a sense of body competence at different stages of adolescence. Regarding painful love, only body competence at age 14 contributed significantly to this component of romantic love at age 20. The pressure to establish a separate identity was only predictive of the attraction component of romantic love, whereas the quality of relationships with friends did not contribute to connectedness or to attraction or painful love in romantic relations.
Article
In an 8-year prospective study conducted on 103 subjects, the developmental sequence of and the factors contributing to a bonded romantic outcome in young adulthood were investigated. The subjects’ self-concepts and their relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends were assessed at the ages of 13, 15, and 17 years. Having a romantic partner and the quality of relationships with romantic partners were assessed at ages 13, 15, 17, and 21 years. Evidence was found for a developmental sequence in romance with respect to differences in the quality and duration of romantic relationships over time. Factor analysis revealed that at age 21, bonded romantic love emerged as a romantic outcome. Two models of romantic relationship development, varying in complexity, were tested. The results revealed that support from parents, friends, and romantic partners as well as self-concept contributed differently to the prediction of bonded love at age 21. Regression analyses revealed that at age of 13, during the initiation phase, the self-concept contributed significantly to the prediction of bonded love in young adulthood. Similarly, during the affection phase, at age 17, the quality of the relationship with the romantic partner was predictive of bonded love in early adulthood. The results were less clear at age 15, during the status phase. In addition, it was found that the importance of the romantic partner as support provider increased as the relationship developed. Contrary to expectations, peer support was found to be important only during later stages of romantic development.
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Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
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An enduring hypothesis in the history of psychology is the notion that early caregiving experiences provide the prototype for later significant relationships. Although this hypothesis often has been extended to adult love relationships, compelling models of developmental processes that would account for continuity in relationship characteristics over so long a period are still needed. We propose a developmental view of the development of a capacity for intimacy in which distinct relational experiences are linked across time. Drawing on experi- ences and findings from a twenty-year longitudinal study of relationships and development, we illustrate evi- dence for intervening links during childhood and adolescence that eventually may predict the quality and sig- nificance of romantic relationships among young adults. We give particular attention to the importance of intervening links between early caregiving relationships and developing friendship capacities throughout mid- dle childhood and adolescence. We then speculate about the links between the implications of different pat- terns of childhood closeness for adolescents' orientations to dating, romantic relationships, and transitory sex- ual liaisons. Finally, we propose criteria for future research that would advance understanding of the develop- ment of capacities for intimate relationships.
Article
"A developmental task is a task which arises at or about a certain period of life of the individual, successful achievement of which leads to his happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individual, disapproval by the society, and difficulty with later tasks." Developmental tasks may arise from physical maturation, from pressures of cultural processes, or from the emerging personality, usually from the interaction of these factors. Understanding of these tasks is useful in defining educational objectives and timing educational efforts. The developmental tasks of infancy and early childhood, of middle childhood, of adolescence, early adulthood, of middle age, and of later maturity are discussed in terms of their nature, their biological, psychological, and cultural basis, and their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter provides national estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of adolescent romantic relationships using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study addresses a number of questions critical to models of adolescent development. The authors review studies concerning the romantic relationships of adolescents, and additionally review studies that consider romantic relationships among adults and friendship among adolescents. Based on this review, they posit expectations for how relationship qualities vary by the sex, age, and race of adolescents. They note, however, that because studies typically focus on Whites, expectations about racial differences are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The goal of this chapter is to understand the role of conflict in adolescent romantic relationships. The basic premise is that partners express and use their resentment and anger both to dissolve a relationship and as a way to change the nature and course of a relationship in order to meet one's needs within the relationship. Thus, the need for commitment and exclusivity with a romantic partner should not be disconnected from the impetus for individuality and separate views. Conceptually, the central premise of this chapter is that emotional closeness and individuality are two central axes of a close relationship in general and a romantic relationship in particular, and that the balance between the two will determine the nature and quality of the romantic relationship and how disagreements or conflicts will be perceived and resolved. Moreover, disagreements and conflicts are inevitable and integral to the balance of a relationship and its evolvement over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Suggests approaching adolescent romantic relationships from a developmental-contextual perspective. The author presents a heuristic model of a prototypic, four-phase sequence through which adolescents pass in their development of romantic interests, skills, and relationship experiences. In each phase the author discusses the character of romantic activity and key features of the peer context. Finally, some applications of this model to future research on the role of peers in adolescent romantic relationships are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed 41 adolescent children (13 yrs old) and their parents using a set of family relationship scales externally validated against personality outcomes. The 12 scales were organized into 4 groups designed to assess affective-tonal properties, process characteristics, structural disturbances, and dynamic properties of relationship systems. Ego-resiliency was related positively and significantly to (1) molar judgments of positive family functioning based on all scales, (2) a combination of scales selected a priori, and (3) a number of individual scales focused on affective qualities, conflict resolution, and support of individuals by relationships. Family relationship systems described as unengaged, unsafe, and threatening had adolescent children who tended toward high ego overcontrol, which was related to 2 family interaction patterns, one unrestrained and provocative but nonthreatening, the other characterized by differential closeness between child and opposite sex parent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Limited research exists on romantic relationships in adolescence. The chapters in this volume call attention to several conceptual issues that must be addressed to advance understanding of processes and development in adolescent romantic relationships.
Article
Theories of romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Results confirm recent theories of relationship progression and the findings of smaller-scale empirical studies. Moreover, the findings add depth to debates on racial differences in relationship formation and demonstrate the developmental currency of adolescent relationship experience for young-adult relationship formation. Rather than being trivial or fleeting, adolescent romantic relationships are an integral part of the social scaffolding on which young-adult romantic relationships rest.
Article
A Q-sort, based on Grotevant and Cooper's (1986) model of individuation, was developed to assess individuality and connectedness in dyadic relationships. A criterion sort for each construct was developed on the basis of ratings from eight experts. The mean intercorrelation among the eight raters was .85 for individuality and .89 for connectedness. This Q-sort was then used to rate 46 middle-class Caucasian parents who were previously assessed on similar constructs using a micro-coding method, the Family Discourse Code (Condon, Cooper, & Grotevant, 1984). Correlations between similar constructs were significant. This Q-sort has five improvements over the Family Discourse Code: Behaviors representing the absence as well as the presence of a construct are coded; salience as well as frequency of behavior determines item placement; coders do not require knowledge of the theoretical underpinnings of items; there is less chance of response bias; and it provides a means of standardizing the assessment of individuality and connectedness across samples.
Article
Adolescents' peer structures and the quality of their friendships were explored as antecedents of romantic relationships. Longitudinal data were gathered in a sample of 180 high school students over a 3-year period from grade 9 to grade 11. Consistent with Dunphy (1963), small groups of close friends were predictive of other-sex peer networks which were, in turn predictive of the emergence of future romantic relationships. Indirect effects were found for same-sex groups of close friends and same-sex networks. Consistent with Furman and Wehner (1994), the qualitative features of relationships with both friends and romantic partners were predictive of the qualitative features of subsequent romantic experiences. These linkages suggest ways in which peer relationships may support romantic development at this stage of the life cycle.
Article
Adolescents' romantic relationships have attracted popular interest, but, until recently, little scientific curiosity. Research has been impeded by erroneous assumptions that adolescent relationships are trivial and transitory, that they provide little information beyond measures of the influence of parent-child and peer relationships, and that their impact is primarily associated with problems of behavior and adjustment. This article proposes that distinguishing five features of romantic relationships (involvement, partner selection, relationship content, quality, and cognitive and emotional processes) is essential to describing adolescents' relationships and their developmental significance. These distinctions also help to clarify the role of context, age-related variations, and individual differences in the impact of romantic experiences. Research is needed to illuminate questions of how and under what conditions romantic relationships affect individual development and how romantic and other close relationships jointly influence developmental trajectories during adolescence.