Differential biochemical response of rat kidney towards low and high doses of NiCl2 as revealed by NMR spectroscopy

Department of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, India
Journal of Applied Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 02/2013; 33(2). DOI: 10.1002/jat.1730


Heavy metals are known for their associated nephrotoxicity and nickel is no exception. An integrated metabonomic approach, based on high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy, was applied to determine the acute biochemical effects of NiCl2 on the renal tissues of rats. Kidney homogenates from rats treated with NiCl2 at two dose levels (4 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w., i.p.) and those from controls were analysed using 1H NMR spectroscopy and also assessed for antioxidant parameters at days 1, 3 and 5 post-dose. The major metabolite changes corresponding to nickel exposure were related to amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. Differential responses were observed in 1H NMR spectra with exposure to low and high doses of NiCl2. For high doses, 1H NMR spectral analysis revealed alterations in renal tissues, along with damage to the cortical and papillary region and depletion of renal osmolytes such as betaine, trimethyl amine oxide, myo-inositol and taurine, which persisted until day 5 post-dose. The metabolite profile of 1H NMR spectra obtained from animals treated with lower dose of NiCl2 initially increased as an immediate stress response and then showed signs of recovery with the passage of time. NMR spectral analysis was well corroborated with histopathological and oxidative stress results. Nickel-induced oxidative stress was observed in both groups of animals with increased levels of antioxidant parameters at initial time points, but continued to increase in the high-dose group. The present study shows a huge potential of metabonomics for mapping organ-based metabolic response during heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    • "A large body of literature is available that has shown an association between changes in urine metabolite patterns and drug toxicity as confirmed by histological changes. Changes in urine metabolite patterns as assessed by NMR spectroscopy have extensively been used for the evaluation of kidney region specific toxins [72], [73]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The kidney serves as a major organ of nickel (Ni) excretion and is a target organ for acute Ni toxicity due to Ni accumulation. There are no studies on the Ni or Ni compound-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in animals and human beings at present. This study was conducted to investigate the pathway of nickel chloride (NiCl2)-caused renal oxidative damage by the methods of biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Dietary NiCl2 elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents, and reduced the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical in the NiCl2-treated groups. Also, the renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and mRNA expression levels were increased. The total antioxidant (T-AOC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased, and the glutathione (GSH) contents as well were decreased in the kidney. Concurrently, the renal CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST, and GR mRNA expression levels were decreased. The above-mentioned results showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused renal oxidative damage by reducing mRNA expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, and then enhancing free radicals generation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation.
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