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Abstract

Sleep has been considered crucial for recovery, but little is known about the specific associations between the work–family interface and sleep quality. Based on COR theory, the goal of this study is to examine the moderating role of sleep quality on the relationship between work–home interaction (i.e. negative work–home interaction, negative home–work interaction, positive work–home interaction, and positive home–work interaction) and psychological strain. A total of 273 ambulance workers from Spain participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that sleep quality moderated the relationship between negative and positive home–work interaction and psychological strain. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

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... Menurut Masclach & Jackson (dalam Hoogendoorn, Bongers, De Vet, Houtman, Ariëns, Van Mechelen, & Bouter, 2001) karakteristik pekerjaan sosial meningkatkan psychological strain, seperti kelelahan emosional, yang mungkin meningkatkan ketegangan otot atau ekskresi hormon Menurut Reggio (2009) stress dalam pekerjaan dapat disebabkan oleh dua faktor yaitu dari organisasi dan individu, dan salah satu dari sumber stress yang berasal dari organisasi adalah work-family conflict yang terjadi karena usaha untuk menyeimbangkan antara permintaan dari peranan pekerjaan dan keluarga atau kehidupan di luar pekerjaan. Istilah yang sering digunakan untuk work-home interaction disebut sebagai work-family conflict, yang menurut Greenhaus dan Beutell (dalam Sanz-Vergel, et al., 2011) adalah bentuk dari konflik peranan yang masingmasing memiliki tekanan dari pekerjaan dan keluarga. Stres atau konflik terjadi karena seseorang kehilangan, terancam, atau gagal untuk memberikan antisipasi dalam proses kehidupan keluarga dan rumah tangga (Grandey & Cropanzano, dalam Langballe, Innstrand, & Aasland, 2010). ...
... Salah satu faktor dari organisasi tersebut adalah faktor peranan, yaitu work-family conflict. Hasil penelitian juga juga sesuai dengan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Sanz-Vergel, et al. (2011) dengan hasilnya adalah pada preliminary analysis didapatkan bahwa strain secara signifikan berasosiasi dengan home-work interaction dan workhome interaction. Namun, kedua tipe dari interaksi positif tidak berhubungan dengan strain. ...
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Work-family conflict adalah konflik peranan yang terjadi karena benturan peranan yang harus dipenuhi seseorang dalam pekerjaan dan kehidupan pribadi Work-family conflict terbagi menjadi empat dimensi yaitu negative WHI, negative HWI, positive WHI dan positive HWI. Work-family conflict dapat menjadi hambatan terutama bagi wanita dewasa muda yang baru menjalani kehidupan keluarga sehingga stress dapat dialami dan psychological strain dapat dialami. Psychological strain adalah reaksi terhadap stress yang dapat memberikan pengaruh pada aspek psikologis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh work-family conflict terhadap psychological strain pada wanita dewasa muda di Jakarta dengan menggunakan teknik sampling convenience yang dilakukan sejak bulan Februari hingga Juni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa work-family conflict memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap psychological strain dengan nilai F = 45,675 dan p < 0,01. Negative WHI memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap work-family conflict dengan t = 5,118 dan p < 0,01 dan Negative HWI memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap work-family conflict dengan t = 5,999 dan p < 0,01. Sedangkan positive WHI tidak memiliki pengaruh terhadap psychological strain dengan t = -0,427 dan p > 0,05 dan positive HWI tidak memiliki pengaruh terhadap psychological strain dengan t = -1,320 dan p > 0,05. Work-family conflict occurs due to the conflict of roles that must be fulfilled by an individual in his/her work and personal life. Work-family conflict is divided into four dimensions, namely negative WHI, negative HWI, positive WHI and positive HWI. Work-family conflict can be a barrier especially for young adult women who are beginning to experience family life resulting in stress and psychological strain. Psychological strain is a reaction to stress that can affect psychological aspects. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of work-family conflict on psychological strain among young adult women in Jakarta using convenience sampling technique conducted from February to June. The result shows that work-family conflict has a significant effect on psychological strains with a value of F = 45.675 and p <0.01. Negative WHI has a significant effect on work-family conflict with t = 5,118 and p <0.01 and Negative HWI has a significant effect on work-family conflict with t = 5,999 and p <0.01. Whereas positive WHI has no influence on psychological strain with t = -0.427 and p> 0.05 and positive HWI has no effect on psychological strain with t = -1.320 and p> 0.05.
... It is also possible that a good night's sleep is sufficient to recover with no negative effects on burnout symptoms in the morning as a result. However, Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, and Moreno-Jimenez (2011) examined the moderating impact of sleep quality on the relation between WHI and psychological strain and did not find any evidence for a moderating effect. Therefore, it is important that future studies establish the temporal order of the model variables by assessing the variables at different points in time during the day. ...
... Indeed, the popular press is replete with examples and discussions of smartphones and mobile e-mail, tying employees to their jobs, leaving little room to disengage (e.g. Robinson, 2006;Zambrowicz, 1998). The results of our study show that intensive smartphone users, in particular, have the potential to decrease their work-family conflict by successfully engaging in activities that lead to psychological detachment and relaxation. ...
Article
This diary study examines the impact of daily recovery experiences on daily work–home interference (WHI) and daily burnout symptoms within a group of smartphone users. A total of 69 employees using smartphones on the initiative of their employer completed a diary questionnaire on five successive workdays (N = 293 data points). We hypothesised that particularly for intensive smartphone users it would be important to engage in activities fostering psychological detachment and relaxation in order to reduce the risk of WHI. We predicted that smartphone use would be positively related to WHI. Finally, we predicted that the positive relationship between WHI and state levels of burnout would be stronger for intensive smartphone users. Overall, the results of multi-level analyses supported these hypotheses. The findings emphasise the importance of a clear organisational policy regarding smartphone use during after-work hours.
... Since authors first defined the term¨workterm¨work-family conflict,¨most empirical evidence has revealed numerous negative effects of such conflict on employee well-being (i.e., JRE and emotional cost) both in the work and family domain (Amstad, Meier, Fasel, Elfering, & Semmer, 2011; Ford, Heinen, & Langkamer, 2007; Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, & Moreno-Jiménez, 2011). For example, women report more sleeping problems than men, even when performing the same job. ...
... Moreover, women's difficulties in balancing this relationship have an impact on workplace absenteeism (). Additionally, the growing need to find a balanced model of family to work dynamics has become a central issue that has been poorly explored (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo et al., 2011). Hence, we look at two aspects of family-work interaction: Family-Work facilitation (FWF), which refers to the positive interaction between family and work, and Family-Work Conflict (FWC), which refers to the negative interaction. ...
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El objetivo de la presente investigación fue proporcionar una visión integradora de las relaciones entre el bienestar diario emocional de los empleados (afecto positivo y negativo) y la interacción entre la familia y el trabajo, el agotamiento relacionado con el trabajo, el distanciamiento y el significado de la vida. Trabajadores del sector de servicios en España (N = 105) completaron un cuestionario general y cuestionarios diarias durante cinco días laborables. Los resultados mostraron que el conflicto familia-trabajo, el agotamiento relacionado con el trabajo y la búsqueda de sentido en la vida predecía a nivel diario el afecto negativo de los empleados por la noche. Por el contrario, el distanciamiento y la presencia de significado en la vida tenían una relación negativa con el afecto negativo por la noche. Por otra parte, la facilitación familia-trabajo, el distanciamiento y la presencia de sentido de la vida predecían el afecto positivo por la noche. Además, el distanciamiento moderaba la relación entre el conflicto familia-trabajo y el afecto negativo y entre la presencia de sentido de la vida y afecto positivo. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones prácticas para los individuos y las organizaciones y sugieren posibles vías de investigación futura.
... Psychological detachment act as a platform wherein employees can temporarily free themselves of the need in investing from their emotional resources into work related activities. This process of switching off from work during off-work periods have been found to reduce feelings of strain and boost recovery (Sonnentag et al., 2010;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2011). We therefore expect that detaching from work during off-work periods will result in the generation of resources that mitigate the pernicious effect of emotional distress on subsequent work engagement. ...
... Subsequently, prior research has consistently shown that there is a significant link between the two central outcomes examined here. Work-home interference has been shown to decrease sleep quality and quantity (Sanz-Vergel et al., 2011;Crain et al., 2014) and to increase sleep deprivation (Geurts et al., 1999) and sleep complaints (Van Hooff et al., 2006). According to the stressordetachment theory, a key reason why stressors impair individuals' well-being is because they hinder their recovery and detachment during non-work times. ...
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When founding and managing a new business, entrepreneurs are frequently confronted with stressors hampering their daily work. The present study examines how these entrepreneurial stressors affect two important interrelated indicators of entrepreneurs' recovery and well-being—that is, their ability to detach from work during non-work times (work-home interference) and their sleep (insomnia). We introduce prior entrepreneurial experience as an important moderator to these relationships, arguing that due to their different learning and coping experiences and their different interpretations of the entrepreneurial role, experienced versus novice entrepreneurs would react differently to entrepreneurial stressors. In an empirical study with 122 entrepreneurs, we found that among experienced entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial stressors primarily had a direct sleep-impairing effect. Among novice entrepreneurs, the same stressors primarily initiated an indirect effect by leading to increased work-home interference and consequently also increased insomnia. Overall, thus, our study shows that both novice and experienced entrepreneurs suffer from insomnia when encountering entrepreneurial stressors—however, the underlying mechanisms differ. Implications are discussed in terms of both theory and practice.
... Researchers have identified a range of factors that influence the turnover decision during times of work-life imbalance. Gender roles and responsibilities explain some different responses (Powell & Greenhaus, 2010), as does stage of life and career (Darcy, McCarthy, Hill, & Grady, 2012), individual differences (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, & Moreno-Jiménez, 2011) and levels of family support (Haar, Roche, & Taylor, 2012). Organisational culture, access to organisational support and managerial approval to use those supports (Allen, 2001;Sok, Blomme, & Tromp, 2014) also influence employee response. ...
Article
This paper examines whether on-the-job embeddedness moderates the impact of work and family conflict on leaving intention. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, the paper investigates the buffering effect of the three on-the-job embeddedness components (fit, links and sacrifice). Contrary to predictions, in this sample of white-collar manufacturing employees on-the-job fit embeddedness had no effect on the relationship between work and family conflict and leaving intention. As predicted, on-the-job link embeddedness weakened the effect and on-the-job sacrifice embeddedness strengthened the effect of work and life conflict on leaving intention. The results suggest that organisations can reduce turnover intention during times of work and life conflict by developing employee on-the-job link embeddedness.
... Second, our main focus is to examine whether sleep disturbance acts as moderator of the effect of CMCs on depressive symptoms. This aim is in line with studies which have shown a moderating impact of sleep on various risk factors in association with depression and psychological strain, and extends prior work which has looked at the main effects of CMCs and sleep disturbance on depression by considering potential moderation (Leggett, Burgard, & Zivin, 2016;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, & Moreno-Jiménez, 2011). Finally as a second aim we consider whether there is an interaction between age and an individual's variability in CMCs in association with depressive symptoms. ...
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Chronic medical conditions (CMC) and sleep disturbances are common among adults and associated with depression. We tested sleep disturbance as a moderator of the effect of CMC on depressive symptoms. The sample includes 3597 adults surveyed up to five times over 25 years (1986-2012) from the nationally representative American’s Changing Lives Study (ACL). A multi-level model was estimated to examine sleep disturbance as a moderator of the CMC and depressive symptom association, with a second interaction tested for age as a moderator of the within-person level variability in CMC and depressive symptom association. Sleep disturbance and CMC were associated with depressive symptoms at the between-person level, while only sleep disturbance was associated with depressive symptoms at the within-person level. Sleep disturbance significantly interacted with CMC such that more CMCs were associated with more depressive symptoms among individuals sleeping well, but poor sleep was associated with worse depression regardless of CMC. A second interaction between age and within-person variability in CMC was found significant, suggesting that younger adults had higher symptoms of depression at times of below average CMC relative to older adults. The effect of CMC on depressive symptoms may depend on sleep as well as age. Sleeping restfully may allow individuals with CMC the rejuvenation needed to cope with illness adaptively. © 2016, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, All rights reserved.
... For example, longer sleep duration was shown to enhance the beneficial effect of exercise on renewing personal resources and reducing emotional exhaustion (Nagel and Sonnentag, 2013). In another study, sleep quality was found to moderate the association between work-home interference and psychological strain (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, and Moreno-Jiménez, 2011). Sleep hygiene measures that workers might adopt to improve their sleep quality (and thus enjoy its beneficial effects) include going to bed at regular times, or not drinking alcohol or caffeinated beverages before going to sleep (see, e.g., Mastin, Bryson, and Corwyn, 2006). ...
Chapter
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Burnout is defined as a chronic affective state, comprising emotional exhaustion, chronic fatigue, and cognitive weariness symptoms. It is an outcome of depletion of energetic resources resulting from cumulative exposure to prolonged work and life stress. Burnout may have severe negative consequences for individuals’ functioning, sleep, health, and well-being. Its development has been shown to be precipitated by insufficient recovery (i.e. inability to replenish lost resources and gain new ones), manifested in recovery complaints and in physiological indicators including disturbed and nonrefreshing sleep. Long work hours, a lack of boundaries between work and nonwork time, and work-home interference have been found to impede recovery processes and to increase the risk of fatigue and burnout. Engagement in active leisure activities, short-term respite from work, and taking vacations have been shown to reduce strain symptoms and burnout, especially for those who are able to psychologically detach themselves from work. Interventions to promote recovery and thus to prevent or alleviate burnout are discussed.
... Studies that provide recommendations at the organizational level focus, first, on the design and implementation of training courses, whether aimed at developing skills to cope with daily stress factors and recover from them (e.g. relaxation, psychological detachment from work, emotional regulation) (Masuda, McNall, Allen, & Nicklin, 2012;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010) or training regarding time management (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, & Moreno-Jiménez, 2011). ...
Article
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The current global economic crisis has led us to ask how to generate competitive advantages that have an impact on organizational effectiveness without jeopardizing the employees’ quality of life. The importance of the development of health and safety policies (Montero, Araque, & Rey, 2009), and within these, family-friendly policies promoting the work-life balance (WLB) of employees (Leon & Chinchilla, 2010; Urcelay, 2005) has been pointed out by various authors in our country. This article reviews the main Spanish and Latin American contributions on work-life balance (WLB) published in the last eight years, and presents the research work of the ASH-PsicoSAO Group (University of Barcelona) related to this topic. The objective of our work is to contribute to both the scientific and the occupational fields, with particular attention to the role of supervisor.
... It is therefore not surprising that numerous studies have investigated methods that can be employed to reduce stress (e.g. Richardson & Rothstein, 2008;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, & Moreno-Jimenez, 2011). Among these are various meditation techniques which-although they may differ in their specific form-generally request the meditator to focus attention on one object or thought in a sustained fashion and to non-reactively monitor the content of experience from moment to moment (Cahn & Polich, 2006;Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, & Davidson, 2008;Winzelberg & Luskin, 1999). ...
Article
The effectiveness of meditation as a tool to recover from stress has already been widely established. However, less is known about the potential psychological mediating and moderating mechanisms affecting its effectiveness. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining the mediating role of the recovery experiences “relaxation”, “mastery”, and “detachment”, and by studying the moderating role of intrinsic motivation. To this purpose, after completion of a stress‐inducing speech preparation task, 100 participants were randomly assigned to either a 15‐minute guided imagery meditation exercise or to a 15‐minute radio interview on meditation. Subjectively experienced stress and serenity were included as measures of (recovery from) stress. These measures were completed after the speech preparation task and after the meditation exercise/radio interview. Results showed that participants who meditated reported a larger increase in serenity and decrease in subjectively experienced stress than those who listened to the radio fragment. Furthermore, it turned out that this superior effect of meditation could be partly explained by the mediating effects of “relaxation” and “mastery” (but not “detachment”). The recovery effects of meditation were also stronger for participants who were highly intrinsically motivated for this activity. Altogether, results of this study provide insight into the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms that explain the effectiveness of meditation as a recovery activity.
... It is notable that the observed mediating effect was primarily transmitted through sleep quality, providing further evidence of the importance of sleep quality for working parents. A small body of research has found initial evidence that greater sleep quality is associated with less work-family conflict and with greater work-family facilitation ( Lallukka, Rahkonen, Lahelma, & Arber, 2010;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Mayo, & Moreno-Jimenez, 2011;Williams, Franche, Ibrahim, Mustard, & Layton, 2006). We add to this research by finding that sleep quality also positively relates to work-family balance. ...
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The aim of this research is to analyse the mutual influence in the process of negotiating work-home boundaries and personal and social identity or, in other words, to study the method of adapting and managing domestic and professional conflicts which interfere with the harmony of evangelical pastors’ work and personal lives. We conducted a qualitative study in order to achieve the proposed aims, involving an interpretative approach with the pastors of a specific ecclesiastical institution: The Assemblies of God in Brazil. A total of 20 interviews were held, and, following coding procedures, boundary-work tactics, whose taxonomy falls within physical, behavioural, temporal and communicative dimensions, were found. The results revealed that the sharp distinction seen was that the subjects were more likely to mingle interactions in work-home boundaries. The boundary-negotiation tactics were shown to be multi-functional, as they have dual function techniques, used both to segment and integrate the work-home boundary.
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Over the past 30 years, conservation of resources (COR) theory has become one of the most widely cited theories in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. COR theory has been adopted across the many areas of the stress spectrum, from burnout to traumatic stress. Further attesting to the theory’s centrality, COR theory is largely the basis for the more work-specific leading theory of organizational stress, namely the job demands-resources model. One of the major advantages of COR theory is its ability to make a wide range of specific hypotheses that are much broader than those offered by theories that focus on a single central resource, such as control, or that speak about resources in general. In this article, we will revisit the principles and corollaries of COR theory that inform those more specific hypotheses and will review research in organizational behavior that has relied on the theory. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Volume 5 is January 21, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Sleep has tremendous importance to organizations because of its relationship with employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes. Moreover, sleep is a malleable behavior that may be improved by individual and organizational changes. Despite the consequential and modifiable nature of sleep, little consensus exists regarding its conceptualization, and how the choice of conceptualization may impact relationships with organizational antecedents and outcomes. To offer a stronger foundation for future theory and research about employee sleep, this study calculated meta-analytic correlations of sleep quality and sleep quantity from 152 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations. Analyses revealed that both sleep quality and sleep quantity associated negatively with workload and a number of health, attitudinal, and affective outcomes. Despite their conceptual similarity, notable differences existed in sleep quality and sleep quantity in terms of their relationships to many different correlates. Generally, the relationships between sleep quality and the examined correlates were stronger for variables that reflected perceptions. Moderator analyses showed that relationships between sleep quality and quantity may be affected by measurement method and the number of self-report items used, while there is little evidence of the effect of measurement time frame. Findings from this first meta-analytic investigation of the occupational sleep literature have implications for the development of theory about relationships between sleep and work, the measurement of sleep, the identification of organizational correlates of sleep, and the design of interventions intended to improve employee sleep.
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This article proposes and tests a model that highlights how organisational embeddedness relates to insomnia. It argues that support rendered by the organisation in general and by supervisors in particular decrease the likelihood that highly embedded employees will experience insomnia. Data collected from 192 managers at four points in time over a 12‐month period generally support the proposed model. The article concludes with implications for future research on the relationship between embeddedness and insomnia and the important roles which workplace support systems play in mediating that relationship.
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An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
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An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
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Provides and overview of the literature on work-family balance, including a discussion of the major causes and outcomes or work-family balance. Although work-family balance has generally focused on the negative aspects of work-family conflict, the author suggests there also can be work-to-family and family-to-work facilitation. The research that has been done, to date, on work-family facilitation suggests that the processes may be different from those operating under conditions of work-family conflict. The author ends the chapter with a discussion or personal and organizational initiatives to promote work-family balance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors examined the direct and indirect effects of organizational policies and practices that are supportive of family responsibilities on work–family conflict and psychological, physical, and behavioral measures of strain. Survey data were gathered at 45 acute-care facilities from 398 health professionals who had children aged 16 years or younger at home. Supportive practices, especially flexible scheduling and supportive supervisors, had direct positive effects on employee perceptions of control over work and family matters. Control perceptions, in turn, were associated with lower levels of work–family conflict, job dissatisfaction, depression, somatic complaints, and blood cholesterol. These results suggest that organizations can take steps that can increase employees' control over family responsibilities and that this control might help employees better manage conflicting demands of work and family life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Stress and fatigue caused by work require daily recovery periods to offset future deleterious consequences to mental and physical health. The aim, therefore, of the current study was to gain insight into recovery processes during a normal week. The main hypotheses were that more time spent on work and work-related activities will have a negative impact on recovery, while more time spent on specific leisure activities would have a beneficial impact on recovery. Using diaries, 46 respondents (average age of 35) provided daily measures of fatigue, sleep, and time spent on recovery activities over 7 days. Recovery activities included time spent on activities that were social, physical, and work-related. Results indicated that whilst low effort and social activities are nonbeneficial to recovery, physical activities significantly predict recovery (i.e., the former increase fatigue whilst the latter decrease fatigue). Sleep quality also emerges as a significant predictor of recovery. The weekend respite appears important to recovery; however, the effect seems already to wane on Sunday evening in anticipation of the Monday workload. The article provides insights into leisure activities and the experience of fatigue.
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Recovery seems to be one of the most important mechanisms explaining the relationship between acute stress reactions and chronic health complaints (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). Moreover, insufficient recovery may be the linking mechanism that turns daily stress experiences into chronic stress. Given this role recovery has in the stress process, it is important to ask in which contexts and under what circumstances recovery takes place.
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We define work-family enrichment as the extent to which experiences in one role improve the quality of life in the other role. In this article we propose a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and offer a series of research propositions that reflect two paths to enrichment: an instrumental path and an affective path. We then examine the implications of the model for future research on the work-family enrichment process.
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Researchers report on a 3-sample study that developed and validated short, self-report scales of work–family conflict (WFC) and family–work conflict (FWC). Using conceptualizations consistent with the current literature, the researchers offer content domains and definitions of the constructs. Advocated procedures were used to develop the scales and test dimensionality and internal consistency. Estimates of construct validity are presented by relating the scales to 16 other on- and off-job constructs. Mean-level difference tests between WFC and FWC also provide evidence of validity.
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Most research on the association between sleep disturbances and depression has looked at cross-sectional data. The authors used two waves of data from a panel study of community residents aged 50 years or more to investigate this issue prospectively. Data on symptoms of major depressive episodes and sleep problems were examined for a subgroup of the 1994 and 1995 surveys of the Alameda County (California) Study (N=2,370). The authors examined the effects of age, gender, education, marital status, social isolation, functional impairment, financial strain, and alcohol use. Depression was measured with 12 items that covered the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes, including insomnia and hypersomnia. The prevalences were 23. 1% for insomnia and 6.7% for hypersomnia in 1994. Sleep was a significant correlate of depression, as were being female, older age, social isolation, low education, financial strain, and functional impairment. When sleep problems and depression were examined prospectively, with controls for the effects of the other variables, sleep problems in 1994 predicted depression in 1995. However, other symptoms of major depressive episodes-anhedonia, feelings of worthlessness, psychomotor agitation/retardation, mood disturbance, thoughts of death-were much stronger predictors of future major depression. Sleep disturbance and other symptoms that are diagnostic for major depression are strongly associated with the risk of future depression. Sleep disturbance appears to be a less important predictor of depression. More epidemiologic research is needed on the relative contributions of the range of depressive symptoms to the risk of clinical depression.
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Based on the effort-recovery model, this study links work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) with the concept of recovery. The authors hypothesize that 2 recovery strategies-psychological detachment from work and verbal expression of emotions-moderate the relationship of these 2 types of conflict with 2 indicators of well-being, namely psychological strain and life satisfaction. For our sample of 128 emergency professionals from Spain, psychological detachment from work moderated the relationship between WFC and psychological strain, and between FWC and life satisfaction. Verbal expression of emotions moderated the relationship between both types of conflict and psychological strain.
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The authors examined the direct and indirect effects of organizational policies and practices that are supportive of family responsibilities on work-family conflict and psychological, physical, and behavioral measures of strain. Survey data were gathered at 45 acute-care facilities from 398 health professionals who had children aged 16 years or younger at home. Supportive practices, especially flexible scheduling and supportive supervisors, had direct positive effects on employee perceptions of control over work and family matters. Control perceptions, in turn, were associated with lower levels of work-family conflict, job dissatisfaction, depression, somatic complaints, and blood cholesterol. These results suggest that organizations can take steps that can increase employees' control over family responsibilities and that this control might help employees better manage conflicting demands of work and family life.
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Occupational stress among police officers is often viewed as an unfortunate, but inevitable part of police work. Although this view dominates much of the discussion about police stress in scientific, management, and other professional forums, there is no compelling evidence to support the view that police officers are any more or less stressed than other occupational groups (e.g. Hart, Wearing, and Headey, 1995; Kirkcaldy et al., 1995). To address this apparent discrepancy, we drew on the organisational health framework (Hart and Cooper, 2001) to investigate three questions that are central to the debate on the nature and extent of police stress. First, we examined whether the levels of occupational well-being among police officers differed from the levels that are found in other occupational groups. Second, we examined whether police officers’ levels of occupational well-being were determined by the work experiences that are peculiar to the nature of police work, or the experiences that are common to most occupational groups. Finally, we examined whether it was the personality characteristics of police officers, the nature of the police organization, police officers’ use of different coping strategies, or their positive and negative work experiences that contributed most to police officers’ levels of occupational well-being. By providing answers to these questions, we are able to establish interventions and strategies most are likely to improve occupational wellbeing in police organisations.
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Many organizations have implemented a variety of initiatives to address work-family conflict issues. This study investigates the impact of formal and informal work-family practices on both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict (WFC, FWC) and a broad set of job-related outcomes. We utilized structural equation modeling to analyze data from the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). Results showed that negative career consequences and lack of managerial support were significantly related to work-to-family conflict. These were significant predictors of conflict even when accounting for the effects of work schedule flexibility. Work-to-family conflict was linked to job dissatisfaction, turnover intentions and stress, while family-to-work conflict was linked to stress and absenteeism. There were no apparent differences between women and men in terms of the observed relationships.
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The present study addressed the associations among various indicators of effort expenditure at work and recovery opportunities (perceived job demands and job control, hours worked overtime, hours worked according to one's contract), work – home interference, and well-being (exhaustion and enjoyment) in a cross-sectional study among 117 male and 82 female managers. Drawing on effort-recovery theory, we expected that high job demands, low job control, a high number of hours worked overtime, and a full-time appointment would be associated with high levels of work – home interference, low levels of enjoyment, and high levels of exhaustion. Stepwise regression analysis largely supported the hypothesis that high job demands and low job control are associated with adverse work outcomes. However, the effects of the number of hours worked overtime and according to one's contract were usually weak and insignificant, suggesting that high effort expenditure does not necessarily have adverse health consequences.
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Although work–home interference (WHI) refers to a process of negative interaction between the work and home domains, little attention has been paid to the actual processes involved in the within-person, day-to-day management of work and home. Therefore, this study investigated if, and how, a global report for the individual, of WHI (i.e., a general indicator of experienced WHI) is reflected in daily reports of WHI, in employees’ daily activity patterns in the work and home domain, and in their daily health and well-being. Effort-Recovery theory (Meijman & Mulder, 199824. Meijman , T. F. and Mulder , G. 1998. “Psychological aspects of workload”. In Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed., Edited by: Drenth , P. J. D. , Thierry , H. and de Wolff , C. J. 5–33. Hove: Psychology Press. View all references) provided the theoretical basis for this study. Data were collected among 120 academic staff members (62% male) who completed a general questionnaire, addressing global WHI as well as demographical information, and who also participated in a 5-day daily diary study. WHI was measured using the 8-item WHI subscale of the Survey Work–home Interaction Nijmegen (SWING), with an adapted version being used for the diary studies. Results showed that global WHI: (1) was positively related to daily WHI; (2) was positively related to the time spent daily on overtime work in the evening; (3) was negatively related to the time spent daily on low-effort activities; and (4) was positively related to daily fatigue and sleep complaints. We conclude that Effort-Recovery theory seems promising for the study of WHI, and that diary studies are valuable, as these provide detailed insight into what global reports of WHI actually signify from day to day.
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The present study produced new knowledge about gender differences with respect to work-to-family conflict and its longitudinal relations with indicators of satisfaction and well-being. The study examined the longitudinal relations between work-to-family conflict and self-reported satisfaction and well-being in the domains of work (job satisfaction), family (marital satisfaction, parental distress) as well as overall (psychological and physical) symptoms. Data were obtained from a random sample of Finnish men (n=208) and women (n=218) who were employed and had either a partner or/and children. A survey was conducted at two points in time, in 1999 (Time 1), and one year later, in 2000 (Time 2). The results revealed that, among women, work-to-family conflict perceived at Time 1 significantly predicted job dissatisfaction, parental distress as well as psychological symptoms at Time 2. However, among men, a low level of satisfaction or well-being at Time 1 (marital dissatisfaction, parental distress, psychological and physical symptoms) functioned as a precursor of work-to-family conflict perceived at Time 2. In addition, the experience of work-to-family conflict turned out to be relatively stable for both genders over the time period of one year. It is likely that work-to-family conflict will continue to affect employees, and should be a central focus for organizations.
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Recent efforts to more fully understand the mechanisms through which work and family experiences and their cross-over effects influence well-being have stimulated the development of integrative models of the work-family interface. This line of research is represented by the model which Frone, Russell, and Cooper (1992) tested with a sample of U.S. employees. In the current study, we examine the cross-cultural generalizability of this model among married Hong Kong employees. Results of the analyses suggest that many of the relationships among work and family constructs are similar across the two cultures, but that the nature and effects of the cross-over between family and work domains on overall employee well-being may differ. That is, life satisfaction of Hong Kong employees is influenced primarily by work-family conflict, while that of American employees is influenced primarily by family-work conflict. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings for assisting employees integrate their work and family responsibilities as a source of competitive advantage are discussed.
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In this paper the relationship of various types of work-home interaction (i.e. negative and positive influence from work to home, and the other way around) with demographic, family, and (perceived) work characteristics as well as with experienced health was explored in a sample of 751 postal employees. By using cluster analysis, we tried to uncover whether specific combinations of the various dimensions of work-home interaction (WHI) were more prevalent than others. Our results showed that employees did not simply experience negative work-home interaction or not, but that participants should be classified in five distinct clusters: (1) 239 employees experienced no interaction at all; (2) 74 employees experienced primarily negative interaction between both domains; (3) 113 employees experienced primarily positive influence from work; (4) 195 employees experienced primarily positive influence from home; and (5) 122 employees experienced negative and positive interaction simultaneously. Results further showed that the emerging WHI-clusters appeared to have distinct profiles with respect to demographic and family characteristics, perceived working conditions, and reported health and well-being. It was convincingly shown that workers who experienced negative interaction between work and home, perceived their working conditions as least favourable and experienced most psychological health complaints, while those with primarily positive influence from work had the most favourable perceptions of their working conditions and experienced better health than the other clusters. Employees who experienced virtually no interaction between both domains did not seem to enjoy a better quality of life than the other clusters. Implications of this exploratory study are discussed.
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This chapter summarizes the knowledge on sleep and restitution. Sleep constitutes the recuperative process of the central nervous system. The use of the brain during wakefulness will lead to depletion of energy in the cortical areas locally responsible for activity. The level of depletion is monitored and sleep is initiated when critical levels are reached. The attempts to initiate sleep are perceived as sleepiness or fatigue. The ensuing sleep then actively restores brain physiology to normal levels. This also results in restored alertness, memory capacity, and mood. Also, peripheral anabolic processes (secretion of growth hormone and testosterone) are strongly enhanced and catabolic process (secretion of cortisol and catecholamines) are strongly suppressed. In the long run, reduced or impaired sleep leads to metabolic diseases, depression, burnout, and mortality. Stress and irregular hours are among the main causes of disturbed sleep.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study extended prior work in the work-family area in three ways. First, it expanded existing work-family frameworks to include a cross-cultural comparison. Participants included working people in the United Staes and in the People's Republic of China. This approach allowed one group or category of people to be distinguished from another, so that potential errors in confounding cultural differences with organizational or personal factors were reduced. Second, this study examined antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict with special attention to possible buffering effects of two opposite cultural orientations commonly called individualism and collectivism. Schein and Triandis posit that there are variations in the ways separate roles are integrated by individuals in different cultures. Compartmentalization between work and family roles may be most typical of individualistic cultures, whereas in collectivistic cultures, there is more integration of multiple roles played by an individual. Cultures also differ in allocating time and assigning priority between work and family. Following this line of argument, work and family role expectations, as embodied in cultural categories and social norms, are important factors moderating patterns of work-family adjustment and outcomes. Third, this study explored the bidirectional construct of work-family conflict in a cross-cultural context. The distinction between global work-family conflict (GWFC) and two direction-specific measures of work-family interferences (W→F vs. F→W) made it possible to compare how culture may influence the magnitude of work-family role pressures and employees' perceptions of conflict origins and consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Beginning with the assumption that caring for people who have experienced highly stressful events puts the caregiver at risk for developing similar stress-related symptoms, this book brings together some of the best thinkers in the trauma field to write about the prevention and treatment of Secondary Traumatic Stress. This . . . material not only reflects the current state of knowledge about secondary traumatization, but in a personal way explores our ethical obligations to each other, to our communities, and to future trauma research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We investigated the associations of the quantity and quality of part-time employment with the school performance (amount of class cutting, homework, and average grades) and personal functioning (self-esteem and time use) of high-school students. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) working long hours would be associated with detrimental effects, but (b) the quality of employment would moderate these effects, such that employment quantity would be associated with detrimental effects only for low quality jobs. Data from 563 high school students (n = 233 in part-time employment) provided support for the hypotheses. Conceptual, practical and policy ramifications of these findings are considered.
Article
SUMMARY The present study sought to investigate the meaning of subjectively good sleep, using a longitudinal and intraindividual design. Eight subjects slept in an isolation unit according to an irregular schedule of 6h sleeps and 1h naps, designed to give normal amounts of time in bed (1/3 of total), but variable sleep quality. Eight sleeps and eight naps were used for longitudinal simple and multiple regression analyses with standard polysomnographical sleep variables as predictors and subjective sleep quality as dependent variables. The results showed that subjective sleep quality (and related variables) was closely related to sleep efficiency, but not sleep stages. At least 87% efficiency was required for ratings of ‘rather good’ sleep. In addition, sleep quality ratings improved with closeness (of the awakening) to the circadian acrophase (17.00–21.00 hours) of the rectal temperature rhythm. The subjective ease of awakening differed from most other other variables in that it was related to low sleep efficiency. Objective and subjective homologues of sleep length and sleep latency showed high mean intraindividual correlations (r= 0.55 and 0.64, respectively). It was concluded that objective measures of sleep continuity were closely reflected in perceived sleep quality and that sleep quality essentially means sleep continuity.
Article
Conservation of Resources (COR) theory predicts that resource loss is the principal ingredient in the stress process. Resource gain, in turn, is depicted as of increasing importance in the context of loss. Because resources are also used to prevent resource loss, at each stage of the stress process people are increasingly vulnerable to negative stress sequelae, that if ongoing result in rapid and impactful loss spirals. COR theory is seen as an alternative to appraisal-based stress theories because it relies more centrally on the objective and culturally construed nature of the environment in determining the stress process, rather than the individual’s personal construel. COR theory has been successfully employed in predicting a range of stress outcomes in organisational settings, health contexts, following traumatic stress, and in the face of everyday stressors. Recent advances in understanding the biological, cognitive, and social bases of stress responding are seen as consistent with the original formulation of COR theory, but call for envisioning of COR theory and the stress process within a more collectivist backdrop than was first posited. The role of both resource losses and gains in predicting positive stress outcomes is also considered. Finally, the limitations and applications of COR theory are discussed.
Article
Although anecdotes suggest that emergency medical technicians often themselves have to cope with severe trauma as a result of their work, almost all empirical work has been concerned with the aftermath of disaster. Fourteen volunteer ambulance attendants were asked about resuscitation attempts in which they had been involved. It was found that many of these evidenced a persistent psychological aftermath. Some of these individuals experienced vivid, involuntary, and uncontrollable thoughts, feelings, and/or mental images concerning their attempt. Perceived control and coping responses were examined, and found to be related to the impact of the resuscitation attempt upon the ambulance personnel. Data from this preliminary investigation indicate the need for further work in the area, and with related populations, such as nonprofessionals who attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Article
This article uses a differential salience-comparable salience approach to examine the effects of work demands and resources on work-to-family conflict and facilitation. The analysis is based on data from 1,938 employed adults living with a family member who were interviewed for the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. The results support the differential salience approach by indicating that time- and strain-based work demands show relatively strong positive relationships to work-to-family conflict, whereas enabling resources and psychological rewards show relatively strong positive relationships to work-to-family facilitation. The availability of time-based family support policies and work-family organizational support is negatively related to conflict and positively related to facilitation, thereby supporting the comparable salience approach.
Article
Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) were used to compare different combinations of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family conflict on mental health. The results across these outcomes suggest that work-family conflict and facilitation must be considered separately, and that adult mental health is optimized when family to work facilitation is high and family to work and work to family conflict is low.
Article
This study examines the mechanisms through which experiences in the home domain influence work performance by bringing together the literature on recovery and the work–family interface. A longitudinal study among 123 employees from different organizations was conducted to investigate whether need for recovery and home–work interference (HWI) impeded concentration at work 1 month later, and whether concentration adversely affected in-role performance over time. Structural equation modeling analysis supported these hypotheses. Whereas need for recovery and HWI had negative, lagged effects on concentration, concentration had a positive lagged effect on in-role performance. Moreover, need for recovery and HWI were reciprocal and negatively related over time, suggesting that these two states may create a negative spiral in the home domain that could easily intrude into the work domain. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to reduced performance at work, and suggest that organizations should facilitate opportunities for recovery.