Article

The existence of two species of Euceraphis (Homoptera: Aphididae) on birch in Western Europe, and a key to European and North American species of the genus

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Abstract

Aphids formerly regarded as Euceraphis punctipennis (Zetterstedt) are distinguished as two species, E.punctipennis and E.betulae (Koch), on the basis of cytological and morphological differences. E.punctipennis is primarily associated with Betula pubescens Ehrh., and E. betulae with B.pendula Roth. Seasonal variations in morphometrics, pigmentation and development of wax glands in the two species are described and compared. A key to European and North American species of Euceraphis is provided.

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... In eastern areas, type 3 is found only on B. pendula, type 2 on both species and type 1 only on B. pubescens. The immature stages of Euceraphis punctipennis (Hemiptera) are found on shoot tips and under the leaves of B. pubescens (Blackman 1977;Robinson 1981). Euceraphis betulae is recorded only on B. pendula (Blackman 1977;Stroyan 1977Stroyan , 1979 and is found principally in southern England. ...
... The immature stages of Euceraphis punctipennis (Hemiptera) are found on shoot tips and under the leaves of B. pubescens (Blackman 1977;Robinson 1981). Euceraphis betulae is recorded only on B. pendula (Blackman 1977;Stroyan 1977Stroyan , 1979 and is found principally in southern England. Both Psylla betulae and P. hartigi (Hemiptera) are generally distributed in Britain and Ireland and are restricted to birch, but the former is found only on B. pendula whereas the latter is found on both (Hodkinson & White 1979). ...
... Nomenclature according to Kloet & Hincks (1964, except Lepidoptera (Eriocraniidae to Pyralidae) according to Emmet (1979); Semudobia (Diptera) according to Roskam (1977) References: 1. Agassiz (1977); 2. Allan (1949); 3. Allen (1982); 4. Askew & Ruse (1974); 5. Baker (1984); 6. Barnes, Gall Midges; 7. Benson (1951); 8. Benson (1952); 9. Benson (1958); 10. Bevan (1987); 11. Blackman (1977); 12. Borner, Aphides; 13. British Museum (Natural History) record; 14. ...
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Reviews these two widely distributed birch species, which are at the NW edge of their range in Britain. The trees' morphology, including leaves, fruits, etc. are described before reviewing: geographical and altitudinal distribution (with distribution maps); habitat; communities; response to biotic factors; response to environment; structure and physiology; phenology; floral and seed characters; herbivory and disease (including a table of associated insects); and Holocene expansion of range. -J.W.Cooper
... Shaw (1984) recently reviewed the insect fauna of birches in Britain and emphasized the same point, but he noted four species of Lepidoptera which appear to differentiate between the two trees and to prefer either one or the other. However, the best example of specific feeding on these two species of Betula is provided by Blackman (1977) in his study of aphids of the genus Euceraphis. He showed that the previously recognized E. punctipennis (Zett.) ...
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The closely related species of leafhoppers, Oncopsis flavicollis (L.) and 0. subangulata (Sahl.), are restricted to birches, Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh., as host plants. Morphometric discriminant analyses of adult insects from S Wales showed O. flavicollis populations from the two Betula species to be significantly different. The best discrimination was provided by characters of the male dorsal abdominal apodemes. Analyses of such apodeme morphology in populations more widely from S Britain showed three distinct types: in western localities type 1 dominantly on B. pubescens, type 2 dominantly on B. pendula and type 3 absent; in eastern localities type 3 only on B. pendula, type 2 on both species of Betula and type 1 only on B. pubescens. Acoustic calling and courtship signals of males showed clear differences between the three apodeme types of 0. flavicollis. It is concluded that the three 0. flavicollis types, together with 0. subangulata, are distinct but very closely related biological species. Contrary to earlier suggestions, this example provides no evidence for host plant utilization polymorphisms.
... In the work reported here, a potential indirect interaction between the birch aphid Euceraphis betulae Koch and winter moth Operophtera brumata L. was investigated. Euceraphis betulae is a specialist found predominantly on silver birch Betula pendula (Blackman, 1977). Almost all Euceraphis spp. ...
Article
Abstract 1. A potential host-mediated interaction between the birch-feeding aphid Euceraphis betulae Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Operophtera brumata L. (Geometridae: Lepidoptera) was investigated, by measuring survival and feeding preference responses of E. betulae to leaves damaged recently by O. brumata larvae. 2. Euceraphis betulae survival was considerably lower on damaged foliage than on undamaged foliage, both in field experiments using cages and on potted saplings in laboratory tests. 3. Euceraphis betulae did not avoid damaged foliage in field experiments although they did avoid damaged foliage in laboratory preference tests using individual leaves. A link between aphid preference and performance on damaged foliage could therefore be demonstrated in the greenhouse/laboratory but not in the field. Multiple factors may influence feeding preference in the more complex field environment. 4. These results suggest that host-mediated competition may occur between O. brumata and E. betulae, especially in outbreak years when winter moth populations are very high.
... The abundance of aphids and fungi on leaves of B. pendula was surveyed in July-August 1999, and manipulative experiments were conducted in summer 2000. The dominant aphid species was identified as Euceraphis betulae Koch (Homoptera: Drepanosiphinae) on morphological criteria (Blackman 1977;Blackman and Eastop 1994), which lives and feeds entirely on birch, reproducing asexually from spring until autumn, whereupon a sexual generation produces eggs that over- winter until the following spring. In addition to adult aphids, first and second instar larvae (referred to as 'young larvae') were collected from foliage at the site for manipulation experiments. ...
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The role of indirect interactions in structuring communities is becoming increasingly recognised. Plant fungi can bring about changes in plant chemistry which may affect insect herbivores that share the same plant, and hence the two may interact indirectly. This study investigated the indirect effects of a fungal pathogen ( Marssonina betulae) of silver birch ( Betula pendula) on an aphid ( Euceraphis betulae), and the processes underpinning the interaction. There was a strong positive association between natural populations of the aphid and leaves bearing high fungal infection. In choice tests, significantly more aphids settled on leaves inoculated with the fungus than on asymptomatic leaves. Individual aphids reared on inoculated leaves were heavier, possessed longer hind tibiae and displayed enhanced embryo development compared with aphids reared on asymptomatic leaves; population growth rate was also positively correlated with fungal infection when groups of aphids were reared on inoculated branches. Changes in leaf chemistry were associated with fungal infection with inoculated leaves containing higher concentrations of free-amino acids. This may reflect a plant-initiated response to fungal attack in which free amino acids from the degradation of mesophyll cells are translocated out of infected leaves via the phloem. These changes in plant chemistry are similar to those occurring during leaf senescence, and are proposed as the mechanistic basis for the positive interaction between the fungus and aphid.
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Dr Roger Laurence Blackman (Fig. 1) passed away on 17 March 2022, after more than 50 years dedicated to advances in aphid science. There can be very few scientists studying any aspect of aphids whose papers have not cited the works of Roger Blackman. To his name, we add that of Victor Eastop (1924–2012), for the two of them formed an inspirational, complementary and indefatigable pair at London’s Natural History Museum. Together they were responsible for, amongst many other seminal works, the three testaments of the aphidologists’ bible: Aphids on the World’s Crops, Aphids on the World’s Trees and Aphids on the World’s Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, now brought together and regularly updated by Roger until very recently in the online version, Aphids on the World’s Plants (www.aphidsonworldsplants.info). Victor was an out-and-out taxonomist, absolutely amongst the best the world has known, whilst being very familiar with most aspects of aphidology. Roger’s contributions were broader, as we shall see.
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Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system.
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1. Data are presented on the species richness and faunal composition of herbivorous insects on birch seedlings, saplings and trees at one site in Northern England. 2. Species richness of insect herbivores in equal-sized samples from birch seedlings and trees was similar through most of the season. 3. Effects of plant architecture were confined to the first sampling date, when seedling faunas were species poor compared with trees – possibly due to safe overwintering sites on the extensive bark, twigs and buds of trees. 4. The faunal composition of birch seedlings, saplings and trees was also similar. Out of a total of 112 recorded species of herbivores, only one aphid species was confined to seedlings. 5. Similarly, no evidence for clear-cut vertical stratification of insects within trees was found. 6. Species turnover as host plants mature (‘horizontal’ stratification) and vertical stratification within trees add little to the high overall species richness of birch-feeding insects in Britain, contrary to the predictions of Lawton (1983).
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Twelve aphid species not previously recorded are added to the aphid fauna of Madeira Island, with 8 of them new to Macaronesia. These new records include the [Pemphigidae]: Aphneura lentisci (Passerini); [Drepanosiphidae]: Atheroides serrulatus Haliday, Drepanosiphum oregonensis Granovsky and Eueeraphis punctipennis (Zeterstedt); [Aphididae]: Holcaphis hold Hille Ris Lambers, lllinoia lambersi (MacGillivray), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Boyer de Fonscolombe), Nasonovia (Kakimia) dasyphylli Stroyan, Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Fabricius); [Lachnidae]: Essigella californica (Essig). This raises the number of known species from Madeira proper to 154. A significant proportion of the species involved was collected in Moericke water traps. General faunistic considerations are presented for each one of the species treated, including their geographical distribution.
Article
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Somatic cell divisions, spermatogenesis, and the prophase stages of primary oocytes, are described for two species of birch aphid, Euceraphis betulae (Koch) and E. punctipennis (Zettersted). Females of E. betulae have two autosome pairs, two pairs of X-chromosomes of different lengths, and two B-chromosomes. Females of E. punctipennis have the same number of X-chromosomes. The sex determination system is X1X2O. E. punctipennis males sometimes have only one B-chromosome. In the spermatogenesis of E. Betulae, pairing of homologous autosomes occurs in early prophase I, but no evidence was found of chiasmata or end-to-end alignment of homologues. Instead, homologues remain closely aligned in parallel as they condense into metaphase, and anaphase I separates the products of pairing in a strictly reductional manner. The two unpaired X-chromosomes and both B-chromosomes are stretched on the anaphase I spindle and all four pass into the larger secondary spermatocyte. The second division is equational. The B-chromosomes thus show accumulation in spermatogenesis, which must be compensated in some way by an elimination mechanism in oogenesis. Meiosis of E. punctipennis is highly anomalous. The two autosomes pair but separate again in early prophase I, then one homologue becomes heterchromatic and is apparently rejected from the late prophase nucleus. A single, equational maturation division follows. In female neiosis I, both species show highly characteristic diplotene figures with multiple chiasmata, the B-chromosomes remaining unpaired. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on aphid cytogenetics.
Die Pflanzenlause Aphiden, getreu nach Leben abgebildet und beschrieben
  • C L Koch
  • Baker A.C.