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Impact of Group Settings and Gender on Meals Purchased by College Students

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Abstract

This study examines the impact of social context and perception of weight on calories purchased by college students in a natural setting. Not only did women in mixed-gender groups purchase fewer calories than did women in same-gender groups, but significant interaction effects exist among the gender composition of groups, perception of being overweight, and gender of respondents. Men modified calories purchased across mixed-gender and same-gender groups, purchasing more when in mixed-gender groups. The study helps address theoretical and methodological gaps in prior research and frames the findings in terms of variation of gender salience across social relational contexts.

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... In total, 78 participants (see Table 1 for characteristics of participants) were recruited to ten focus groups (five held at a location in NI, five held at a location in ROI). Given the subject matter and the fact that the presence of the opposite sex can influence eating behaviours [20,21], groups were single sex (five exclusively male groups and five exclusively female groups), consisting of between six and nine participants and either younger (18-35 years old) or older (36-64 years old) with an overall mean age of 36.6 (SD = 13.2) years. 1 Socioeconomic status based on occupation status of the highest income earner in the household. Higher (ABC1) = higher and intermediate managerial or professional occupations, lower (C2DE) = unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled occupations and those unemployed. ...
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Nutrition and Health Claims (NHCs) have been found to influence perceptions of food and consumption behaviour. While previous quantitative research has identified factors that may explain these effects, the current study aimed to address the dearth of in-depth exploration as to the underlying reasons why and how claims may impact upon perceptions and behaviour and the relationships between key factors. Seventy-eight participants took part in 10 focus groups. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and Nvivo 11 was used for thematic analysis. Six themes were developed from the data: 1. Target populations for NHCs; 2. Influence of NHCs on purchasing behaviour; 3. Characteristics/perceptions of products displaying NHCs; 4. Believability of NHCs; 5. Superior yet superficial knowledge; 6. Consumption of products displaying NHCs. Knowledge was a key factor influencing how much individuals believe claims (Believability of NHCs) and their perceptions (Characteristics/perceptions of products displaying NHCs). These perceptions and the characteristics of products displaying claims also impacted believability, as well as purchasing behaviour and consumption. Future research should be cognisant of the role of knowledge and characteristics or perceptions of products in the relationship between NHCs and consumer behaviour, and modelling of these relationships would allow their relative strength to be identified.
... There were 2 articles (15, 16) that each reported 2 separate studies that met the eligibility criteria, and so 42 studies were included from 40 publications (Figure 1). Some studies did not meet the inclusion criteria in the systematic review/metaanalysis, but nonetheless provided insight into the moderators and mechanisms involved in social facilitation of eating (12,(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22). We therefore included these in our wider discussion of the literature. ...
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Background: Research suggests that people tend to eat more when eating with other people, compared with when they eat alone, and this is known as the social facilitation of eating. However, little is known about when and why this phenomenon occurs. Objectives: This review aimed to quantify the evidence for social facilitation of eating and identify moderating factors and underlying mechanisms. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies that used experimental and nonexperimental approaches to examine food intake/food choice as a function of the number of co-eaters. The following databases were searched during April 2019: PsychInfo, Embase, Medline, and Social Sciences Citation Index. Studies that used naturalistic techniques were narratively synthesized, and meta-analyses were conducted to synthesize results from experimental studies. Results: We reviewed 42 studies. We found strong evidence that people select and eat more when eating with friends, compared with when they eat alone [Z = 5.32; P < 0.001; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.03]. The meta-analysis revealed no evidence for social facilitation across studies that had examined food intake when participants ate alone or with strangers/acquaintances (Z = 1.32; P = 0.19; SMD = 0.21, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.51). There was some evidence that the social facilitation of eating is moderated by gender, weight status, and food type. However, this evidence was limited by a lack of experimental research examining the moderating effect of these factors on the social facilitation of eating among friends. In 2 studies, there was evidence that the effect of the social context on eating may be partly mediated by longer meal durations and the perceived appropriateness of eating. Conclusions: Findings suggest that eating with others increases food intake relative to eating alone, and this is moderated by the familiarity of co-eaters. The review identifies potential mechanisms for the social facilitation of eating and highlights the need for further research to establish mediating factors. Finally, we propose a new theoretical framework in which we suggest that the social facilitation of eating has evolved as an efficient evolutionary adaptation.
... As has been shown in many other contexts (Andreoni and Bernheim, 2009;Dimant, 2015;Pedersen et al., 1986), the presence of others and their behaviors conditions the actions we take. In particular, men's behavior has been documented to al- ter in the presence of women (Allen-O'Donnell, Cottingham, Nowak, and Snyder, 2011;Pawlowski, Atwal, and Dunbar, 2008;Van Vugt and Iredale, 2013). For example, it has recently been shown (Cronqvist and Yu, 2017) that for those companies where the CEO has a daughter the corporate social responsibility rating is significantly higher that for other companies. ...
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Gender equality and the spillover effects of women on boards The paper presents evidence that increased gender equality on boards can result in effects that extend beyond the actual boards where women are added. When working on the same board as women, those male directors who also have experience of working alongside women on a board elsewhere within their directorship network: (i) exhibit greater personal responsibility (board attendance); (ii) deliver an improved CEO accountability; and (iii) are associated with a lower risk taking. Our findings suggest that female directors exert an influence on the actions of their fellow male directors that extends beyond the focal board to other boards through a spillover effect. Failure to allow for these effects threatens to underestimate the benefits of increased gender equality in the boardroom. JEL classification: G10, G34 Keywords: Gender equality, Regulatory reform, Women on boards, Personal responsibility, Monitoring, Absenteeism, CEO turnover, Risk
... A third assumption underlying the cause of obesity is referred to as the social assumption. Research studies have found that the characteristics of persons we choose to dine with, such as physical size (McFerran et al., 2010) or gender (Allen-O'Donnell et al., 2011) impact how much food we eat. The mechanisms affecting these decisions to eat are social in nature because they suggest that our perception of how others judge our eating habits have an effect on our relationship with food. ...
... Consumers who are susceptible to the influence of others are more likely to consume foods they perceive will make others evaluate them positively, and avoid consuming foods they believe will make others evaluate them negatively ( Burnkrant & Cousineau, 1975). In addition, the mere presence of others in a dining experience, including their size ( McFerran et al., 2010) and gender ( Allen-O'Donnell, Cottingham, Nowak, & Snyder, 2011), influences the quantity of food consumed. Consideration of how others evaluate our food choices and the subsequent emotions of feeling accepted rather than rejected or judged demonstrate how external factors prompt emotional influences on food choices. ...
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... Consumers also strive to express their identity through eating by demonstrating self-control ( Roth, Herman, Polivy, & Pliner, 2001). For example, consumers eat different amounts when dining with members of the opposite sex as a way to project their masculinity or femininity ( Allen-O'Donnell, Cottingham, Nowak, & Snyder, 2011). Using food to achieve and display aspects of identity may influence movement along the FWB continuum. ...
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Chapter
People form impressions of others based on how much those others eat—we refer to these judgments as “consumptions stereotypes”. For example, people who eat large amounts of food are often viewed as more masculine and less feminine than are people who eat small amounts of food. Given the existence of these consumption stereotypes, people can use their food intake as a means of conveying a particular impression to others. For example, if you want to appear more feminine, then you could eat a smaller meal. In this chapter, we review the research on consumption stereotypes related to how much food a person eats, as well as evidence that amount of food that people eat is influenced by their motivation to convey particular impressions to others.
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How does what a woman eats affect others' impressions of her? One hundred and thirteen male and female college students, mainly White and middle class, watched a videotape of a female student eating one of four meals that varied in size and gender connotations. Results showed that meal size significantly affected ratings of the woman's social appeal. Thus, eating lightly appears to be socially advantageous for a woman, a phenomenon that may contribute to women's high rates of eating disorders.
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A longitudinal data set is employed to explore the sources of stability and change in young adults' health beliefs and behavior concerning drinking, diet, exercise, and wearing seat belts. There is substantial change in the performance of health behaviors during the first three years of college, and peers have a strong impact on the magnitude of that change. In total, however, parents are much more important than peers as sources of influence over these beliefs and behaviors. Of the various social influence processes considered, the direct modeling of behavior appears to be the most important avenue of influence for both parents and peers. These data, along with previous papers in our research program, suggest a pattern of gradually increasing parental influence on their children's health beliefs and behavior while the children are living at home, and the persistence of that influence at least through the college years.
Article
Both male and female undergraduates ate more ice cream when eating occurred in groups of three or four than when they ate alone. These subjects also ate more ice cream when offered three different flavors than when offered only one flavor of their own choosing. For women, both variety and eating in a group combined to enhance eating more than either variable did alone. For men, variety or eating in a group caused about the same enhancement of consumption but the combination of the two variables did not lead to further increases in intake. This latter result probably reflects a ceiling effect, but it could represent a true gender difference.
Article
Four hundred and sixteen male and 233 female subjects were observed in a university cafeteria at lunch time. They were categorized according to five perceived weight groups with category one being underweight and category five being overweight. The number of calories in the food bought for lunch by each subject was calculated and recorded. Males bought food containing more calories than females but for males the amount of calories did not differ by perceived weight category. Females purchased food with fewer calories than males but the heavier females bought food with higher caloric content.
Article
Schachter's externality hypothesis suggests that overweight individuals are more likely to be induced to eat by salient external cues than normal weight individuals. While a range of studies have demonstrated the plausibility of this hypothesis in the case of sensory stimuli (e.g., taste cues), there is little evidence that the hypothesis applies to social stimuli. The current study examines this latter proposition by exposing male and female, overweight and normal weight subjects to a same-sex or opposite-sex peer model. Under the guise of engaging in a taste experiment, the subjects were either exposed to a model who tasted no crackers (no eat), one cracker (low eat), or twenty crackers (high eat). In addition, control model-absent conditions were also run for purposes of establishing baseline eating rates. If the externality hypotheses were to prevail in social domains, one would expect overweight subjects to be more prone to model the cracker-eating behavior of the peer than normal weight individuals. However, the findings indicate that all subject groups regardless of weight evidence a rather clear modeling effect and all subjects evidence social inhibition effects on their eating behavior as well. Several intriguing interactions among subject sex, model sex, subject weight, and social condition were also found. The discussion explores the relevance of an externality model of overweight eating in social domains, and focuses upon the interesting and somewhat distinct pattern of socially mediated eating exhibited by overweight females.
Article
Research suggests that meals eaten with other people are larger than meals eaten alone. The effect of group size and acquaintance on consumption was investigated by serving dinner to female subjects alone, in pairs or in groups of four. Subjects dined alone, with friends or with strangers. Subjects in both pairs and groups of four ate more than did subjects alone, suggesting that the mere presence of others is more important in enhancing intake than the specific number of people present. Subjects with friends ate more dessert than subjects with strangers, indicating that the relationship of dining companions is an important factor contributing to social facilitation.
Article
To understand the developmental psychopathology of eating disorders, it is crucial to explain the large gender discrepancy in the rates of these disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In this paper, meta-analysis was used to examine the relationship between gender role adherence and the existence of eating problems. Of the 69 studies examined, 22 contained data deemed valid for the analyses. Measures of difference (d) and homogeneity were calculated. These studies used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) or the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) to measure gender role adherence. Findings indicated a small, heterogeneous positive relationship between femininity and eating problems and a small, heterogeneous negative relationship between masculinity and eating problems. Studies that used a clinical sample showed a larger discrepancy in masculinity scores between the eating-disordered and the control groups than did studies using surveys to identify eating problems. Six studies measured gender role traditionalism. The eating-disordered groups did not differ significantly on these measures compared to the control groups. Despite construct validity problems with the use of the PAQ and the BSRI in this area of study, data suggest that gender role is related to eating problems. Crucial aspects of femininity likely to be related to eating problems need to be operationalized and their link to eating disorders examined.
Article
The "weekly food diary" was translated and adapted for use by French subjects. This validated method requires subjects to record every food and drink intake over 1 week, with several descriptors of the physical, psychological and social circumstances. Ten male [age 23. 6+/-2.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.7+/-0.6] and 16 female (age 23.3+/-0.6 years, BMI 20+/-0.6) students completed four weekly diaries over 1 year, one per season. Data were processed using a specially designed software. Breakfast was important, (about 400 kcalories). Lunch and dinner were almost equal in energy content but alcohol was consumed mainly with dinner. Meal size correlated positively with premeal hunger, number of people present, duration of premeal interval and time of day. Postmeal satiety correlated positively with meal size, aftermeal stomach content, and negatively with time of day, postmeal hunger and duration of sleep the preceding night. These observations allow hypotheses to be developed about mechanisms of intake in a French population and cross-cultural comparisons to be made.
Article
The study aims at appraising gender differences in health-related practices, and health behaviour among university students of the Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, using a self-administered questionnaire. Of 539 university students, there were 155 males, 384 females, with mean ages 19.7 (+/- 1.2) and 19.6 (+/- 1.1) years, respectively. Persistent health problems were not significantly different between male and female students (12.9% vs. 15.4%). An average body mass index (BMI) was significantly different between male and female students (20.2 +/- 2.1 vs. 19.8 +/- 2.1). Female students reported positive health habits, in terms of drinking, smoking, sun protection, tooth brushing, fruit consumption, conscious efforts to avoid fat and cholesterol, over men, while regular exercise and safety belt use were more likely practised among male students. Using ANOVA and pairwise multiple comparisons, female students demonstrated better health eating habits than men (p = 0.0001). Coronary heart disease preventive habits between the medical and nonmedical faculty was greater for female students than for male students (p = 0.0006 for gender; p = 0.0001 for faculty). Health behaviour (combination of health eating habits, deliberate nutritional practices and coronary heart diseases preventive behaviour) was found to be better practised among women than men (p = 0.0001). These findings, therefore, should focus attention on university students as a target group for health education.
Article
We sought to assess whether cultural ideals of the male body, as illustrated by magazine models, have changed over the past 25 years. We examined 115 male centerfold models in Playgirl magazine from 1973 to 1997. Using the models' heights and weights quoted by the magazine, together with visual estimates of body fat, we calculated the body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) of each model. The Playgirl centerfold models became increasingly "dense" and more muscular over time, as indicated by the significant correlations between BMI, FFMI, and year of publication. These observations, in combination with previous studies, suggest that cultural norms of the ideal male body are growing increasingly muscular.
Article
This study explored the degree to which people adhere to norms for "appropriate" eating behavior in social situations. Of particular interest was how people determine what is appropriate behavior when they are faced with conflicting norms within a given situation. Participants tasted cookies while alone or while observed by the experimenter. Furthermore, participants were assigned to either a "no norm" condition in which they were given no indication of how much other people in the study had eaten, an "inhibition norm" condition in which they were led to believe that others had eaten minimally, or an "augmentation norm" condition in which they were led to believe that others in the study had eaten a lot. When they were alone, participants were influenced by the norms; but when they were observed, they ate minimally, regardless of the norms to which they were exposed. It seems that a norm for minimal eating superseded a matching norm which prescribes that people should use the intake of their peers as a guide for appropriate behavior. Implications of these findings and limitations of the study were discussed.
Article
Cognitive restraint, a stable disposition to limit food intake, can be assessed by questionnaires, but there is no quantitative, objective measure of its effect. The goal was to provide an objective measure of the intake-limiting effects of cognitive restraint by testing meal intake under conditions intended to minimize or accentuate restraint. Healthy women (n = 41; aged 35 +/- 9 y; body mass index, in kg/m2: 21.3 +/- 1.9) participated in once-weekly laboratory lunch tests under 4 conditions: condition 1, subjects ate alone (baseline); condition 2, subjects ate alone while listening to recorded instructions focusing on the sensory characteristics of the foods (attention); condition 3, subjects ate alone while listening to a recorded detective story (distraction); and condition 4, a group of 4 subjects had lunch together. On all occasions, the same foods were presented and ingested ad libitum. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was filled out after the series of 4 meals was completed. Meal size was significantly higher in the distraction condition than at baseline (by 301 +/- 26 kJ; P < 0.001). The difference in energy intake between the baseline and distraction conditions significantly correlated with factor 1 (cognitive restraint) of the TFEQ (r = 0.51, P < 0.01) and with total score (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) but not with disinhibition or hunger. For each additional point on factor 1, meal size increased by 50 kJ under the distraction condition compared with baseline. The group eating condition induced no increase in meal size. Cognitive restraint exerts a quantifiable limiting effect on intake at meal times and this effect can be offset by cognitive distraction.
Article
Fruits and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet, but intakes in most Western countries are well below the recommended five servings a day. Men in particular are eating too little. The aim of this study is to understand the processes underlying this gender difference. Fruit and vegetable intake, nutrition knowledge, taste preferences, attitudes to fruit and vegetable intake, and dieting status, were assessed in a simple questionnaire in 1,024 older adults attending population-based cancer screening across the UK. The results confirmed the pattern of men consuming fewer servings of fruit and vegetables daily than women (2.52 vs 3.47; p<0.01). Fewer men than women knew the current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake, and fewer were aware of the links between fruit and vegetable consumption and disease prevention. Women rated their liking for vegetables but not fruit higher, and there were no differences in attitudes. Men were less likely to be dieting to lose weight. Multivariate analysis showed that the gender difference in intake was substantially attenuated by controlling for nutrition knowledge. There were no significant attenuating effects of preferences, attitudes or dieting status. These results indicate that men's poorer nutrition knowledge explains a significant part of their lower intake of fruit and vegetables.
Article
In two parallel studies, we examined the effect of social influence and palatability on amount consumed and on food choice. In Experiment 1, which looked at amount consumed, participants were provided with either palatable or unpalatable food; they were also given information about how much previous participants had eaten (large or small amounts) or were given no information. In the case of palatable food, participants ate more when led to believe that prior participants had eaten a great deal than when led to believe that prior participants had eaten small amounts or when provided with no information. This social-influence effect was not present when participants received unpalatable food. In Experiment 2, which looked at food choice, some participants learned that prior participants had chosen the palatable food, others learned that prior participants had chosen the unpalatable food, while still others received no information about prior participants' choices. The social-influence manipulation had no effect on participants' food choices; nearly all of them chose the palatable food. The results were discussed in the context of Churchfield's (1995) distinction between judgments about matters of fact and judgments about preferences. The results were also used to illustrate the importance of palatability as a determinant of eating behavior.
Article
Male and female participants provided impression ratings for either a normal-weight or overweight male or female target, who was portrayed as eating either small or large meals. Males rated normal-weight targets as more physically attractive than overweight targets, whereas ratings of physical attractiveness were unaffected by the body size manipulation among female participants. In addition, among male targets, the overweight large eater was rated the least socially attractive. For female targets, males rated the normal-weight large eater as the most socially attractive, whereas females rated the normal-weight small eater as the most socially attractive. Results are discussed in terms of how body and meal sizes interact to affect impressions of others.
Article
To assess the stigmatization of obesity relative to the stigmatization of various disabilities among young men and women. Attitudes across ethnic groups were compared. In addition, these findings were compared with data showing severe stigmatization of obesity among children. Participants included 356 university students (56% women; mean age, 20.6 years; mean BMI, 23.3 kg/m2; range, 14.4 to 45.0 kg/m2) who ranked six drawings of same-sex peers in order of how well they liked each person. The drawings showed adults with obesity, various disabilities, or no disability. These rankings were compared with those obtained through a similar procedure with 458 fifth- and sixth-grade children. Obesity was highly stigmatized relative to physical disabilities. African-American women liked obese peers more than did African-American men, white men, or white women [F(1,216) = 4.02, p < 0.05]. Overweight and obese participants were no less stigmatizing of obesity than normal weight participants. Adults were more accepting than children of their obese peers [t(761) = 9.16, p < 0.001]. Although the stigmatization of obesity was high among participants overall, African-American women seemed to have more positive attitudes toward obesity than did white women, white men, or African-American men. Participants' weight did not affect their stigmatization of obesity: obese and overweight adults were as highly stigmatizing of obesity as non-overweight adults. Such internalized stigmatization could help to explain the low self-esteem and poor body image among obese young adults. However, adults seemed to have more positive attitudes about obesity than children. An understanding of the factors that limit the stigma of obesity among African-American women could help efforts to reduce stigma.
Article
This experiment examined the 'time extension' explanation for the social facilitation effect, which is that people eat more as the number of co-eaters increases. Seventy male and 62 female participants ate a lunch consisting of pizza, cookies, and bottled water, alone or in (same-gender) groups of two or four and were given either 12 or 36 min in which to do so. The independent variables were gender, group size, and meal duration. The main dependent variable was amount consumed in the meal. The results showed that male participants ate more than did females, and participants eating the longer meal ate more than did those eating the shorter meal. However, the effect of group size was not significant. It was also the case that the amounts consumed by participants eating in two-person groups resembled one another to a greater extent than did of pairs of participants who ate alone or by participants in four-person groups. It was concluded that the results of the present paper provide strong support for the idea that the effect of group size on intake seen in previous studies is mediated by meal duration.
Article
Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers.
Article
Consumption stereotypes refer to judgments about others based on their food intake. We review the empirical research on stereotypes based on what and how much people eat. The characteristics stereotypically associated with food intake pertain to domains ranging from gender roles and social appeal to health and weight. For example, people who eat "healthy" foods and smaller meals are seen as more feminine; conversely, those who eat "unhealthy" foods and larger meals are seen as more masculine. We further discuss how these stereotypes can be exploited by the eater to convey a particular impression (e.g., femininity, social appeal). Finally, we discuss the ways in which using food intake as an impression-management tactic can lead to chronic food restriction and unhealthy eating habits.
Article
Previous research indicates that both males and females eat less in the presence of a stranger of the opposite sex than in the presence of a same sex. Another literature shows that people tend to model or matching the amount eaten by others. The extent to which people are eager to inhibit their food consumption or match other's intake is likely to vary as a function of the characteristics of the co-eater. The present study examines how males and females adjust their level of eating as a function of their familiarity with and the gender of their eating companion, using a free-eating paradigm. Findings indicated that both the familiarity between co-eaters and the participants' gender predicted food consumption. Although unfamiliarity suppressed both men's and women's food intakes, the matching effect operated only when a female co-eater was involved. We conclude that the overarching motive (i.e., producing a positive impression) does not necessarily vary substantially across the various gender-familiarity combinations, but that the means or strategies (eating lightly and or matching of intake) by which the person accomplishes it and the strength of the motive vary as a function of the audience. In other words, in some social contexts self-enhancing motives can be served by restricting intake as well as through ingratiatory strategies such as attitudinal or behavioral conformity.
Dating, dieting, and denial: Whose body is it? Paper presented at the meeting of the American College Health Association Social facilitation of eating among friends and strangers
  • L Brand
  • L Hong
  • C P Herman
  • J Polivy
Brand, L., & Hong, L. (1997, May). Dating, dieting, and denial: Whose body is it? Paper presented at the meeting of the American College Health Association, New Orleans, LA. Clendenen, V., Herman, C. P., & Polivy, J. (1994). Social facilitation of eating among friends and strangers. Appetite, 23, 1–13.