Article

Comparison of salty taste and time intensity of sea and land salts from around the world

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Abstract

U.S. dietary guidelines suggest a maximum intake of 2,300 mg of sodium per day (5.8 g of salt), while the average consumer intake is 9 g of salt (3,600 mg Na) per day. Sea salts can have lower sodium content and distinct mineral profiles that may also influence salty taste intensity and/or time intensity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory profiles of sea salts and to determine if other mineral content impacted the basic taste profile. Sea salts (n = 38) were collected and sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc concentration of each salt was determined. A trained descriptive sensory panel (n = 9 panelists) evaluated each salt in triplicate. Salt solutions were evaluated on an equivalent weight and on an equivalent sodium content basis. Time-intensity profiling of salty taste was also conducted. Salts differed (P < 0.05) in specific minerals. Some sea salts had volatile flavors (green/herbal, smoky, earthy) while three sea salts had 30% less sodium compared to a reference table salt. Salty taste intensity on an equivalent sodium basis was not different (P < 0.05), but time-intensity profiles for salty taste were distinct (P < 0.05). These results suggest that other minerals may play a role in salty taste perception. Food processors are very interested in reducing amounts of sodium present in food products. Some food products have been advertising the use of sea salt. There has been some controversy that sea salt may be healthier than table salts due to the presence of other minerals. This research demonstrates that sea salts harvested from different parts of the world have different mineral content and time-intensity profiles of salty taste. Due to the different time intensity profiles, it may be possible to use less of some sea salts to obtain the same salty taste as a food containing traditional salt but having a lower sodium content.

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... Major metallic elements in salt are magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K), contained up to a few wt.%. [4][5][6][7] Minor metallic elements are strontium (Sr), lithium (Li), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and iron (Fe). 4,6,8,9 Their concentrations are typically less than a few hundred parts-per-million (ppm). ...
... [4][5][6][7] Minor metallic elements are strontium (Sr), lithium (Li), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and iron (Fe). 4,6,8,9 Their concentrations are typically less than a few hundred parts-per-million (ppm). Sulfur (S), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and carbon (C) are major non-metallic elements in salts. ...
... 10 SO 2À 4 is typically the most abundant ion in sea salts excluding the matrix ions, Cland Na þ . O also may be included in forms of carbonates (CO 2À 3 ), bicarbonates (HCO À 3 ), other oxyanions, and water (H 2 O) that was absorbed by hygroscopic compounds in salts such as MgSO 4 and MgCl 2 . 7,11 Chemical analysis of edible salts is necessary for evaluating their quality, distinguishing their geographical origin or production method, and monitoring toxic chemical species. ...
Article
We evaluated the performance of laser ablation analysis techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser ablation inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), in comparison with that of ICP-OES using aqueous solutions for the quantification of sulfur (S) in edible salts from different geographical origins. We found that the laser ablation based sampling techniques were not influenced by loss of S, which was observed in ICP-OES with aqueous solutions for a certain salt upon their dissolution in aqueous solutions, originating from the formation of volatile species and precipitates upon their dilution in water. Although detection of S using direct laser sampling with LA-ICP-MS has well-known isobaric and polyatomic interferences, LIBS and LA-ICP-OES showed good accuracy in the detection of S for all salts. LIBS also provided the ability to identify the dominant chemical form in which S is present in salts. Correlation between S and oxygen, observed in LIBS spectra, provided chemical information about the presence of S2– or SO42-, which are associated with the origin and quality of edible salts.
... The time-intensity method has been used for the last 25 years as an important tool because it allows comparison of the perception of sensory characteristics in a dynamic manner and can be applied to several food products with different objectives (Giovanni and Guinard 2001;Guinard et al. 2007;Palazzo et al. 2011;Drake and Drake 2011). For example, Melo et al. (2007) applied time-intensity analysis in their research on the intensity and time of the perception of sweetness in the production of equi-sweet diabetic milk chocolates. ...
... This representation is mentioned in ASTM (2013) as a way to represent the application of different attributes at the same time because the conditions are exactly standardized to the fundamentals of research published by Dijksterhuis and Eiler (1997) and Overbosch (1986). Drake and Drake (2011) applied the same fundamentals to represent the time-intensity curves in studying salt. This representation was important to verify that equivalent sodium concentrations of different salts have distinct salty taste intensities and time-intensity profiles, thus demonstrating that it may be possible to substitute some sea salts for table salt in foods to help lower the sodium content. ...
Article
The objective of this research was to compare the dynamic sensory profile (multiple time-intensity analysis) of milk chocolate formulated with different sweeteners. Eight different milk chocolates were formulated as follows: four milk chocolates (sweetened with sucrose, sucralose, rebaudioside and neotame) and four soy-based chocolates, using soy extract as milk replacement. The multiple time-intensity analysis tested the following four attributes by evaluating them in separate instances with an intensity reference for each attribute: sweetness, bitterness, chocolate flavor and melting rate. Twelve assessors evaluated the samples with four repetitions according to the time required to evaluate each attribute. The collected curve parameters were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey's test and principal components analysis. The samples and attributes were evaluated individually, and their results were simultaneously represented graphically by an overlay of curves to visualize the results. The neotame formulation of milk chocolate and sucralose soy-based chocolate presented multiple time-intensity results with parameter curves that were not significantly different (P>0.05) from those of the sucrose control. The other sweeteners may also be interesting alternatives in product development, especially in chocolate formulation for dietetic purposes.
... Therefore, the average difference in sodium intake was 238 mg daily, a minor reduction that may explain the lack of significance. Drake et al. 17 also analyzed the composition of Himalayan and table salt and did not find significant difference in sodium concentration (3.68 x 10 5 and 3.81x 10 5 ppm, respectively). 17 Barros et al. 18 found significant differences in blood pressure values after the replacement of traditional salt with light salt. ...
... Drake et al. 17 also analyzed the composition of Himalayan and table salt and did not find significant difference in sodium concentration (3.68 x 10 5 and 3.81x 10 5 ppm, respectively). 17 Barros et al. 18 found significant differences in blood pressure values after the replacement of traditional salt with light salt. However, light salt has 260 mg less sodium per gram of salt, hence resulting in a greater reduction in sodium intake as compared to the HS. ...
Article
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Resumo Fundamento O sal do Himalaia (SH) tornou-se uma alternativa popular para o sal de mesa (SM) devido às suas alegações de benefícios à saúde, principalmente para indivíduos com hipertensão arterial. Porém, apesar do aumento do consumo de SH, ainda faltam evidências clínicas que sustentem a recomendação de seu consumo por profissionais de saúde. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar o impacto da ingestão de SH e SM sobre a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) e concentração de sódio urinário em indivíduos com PA. Métodos Este estudo recrutou 17 pacientes do sexo feminino com hipertensão arterial que comiam fora de casa no máximo uma vez por semana. Os participantes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, para receber e consumir SH ou SM. Antes e depois de cada intervenção, os participantes tiveram sua pressão arterial medida e urina coletada para análise mineral. Um valor de p
... However, many other mineral elements are contained in salts. In the case of sea salts, magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) are the major metallic mineral elements of which concentrations range from hundreds of parts per million to a few percent [1,2]. Their concentrations show variations from one sea salt to another according to the production methods. ...
... In this situation, a fast and reliable on-site chemical analysis methodology would be very helpful for this purpose. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) have been used for analysis of the major metallic mineral elements, Mg, Ca, and K, in salt [1][2][3][4][5]. However, AAS and ICP-OES are more suitable for laboratory analysis rather than fast on-site quality monitoring because their instrument size is relatively large and they need permanent installation. ...
Article
A compact laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument and a simple sample preparation method were developed for rapid on-site analysis of Mg, Ca, and K in edible sea salt products. The LIBS instrument was assembled using a small diode-pumped solid-state laser and a handheld spectrometer. Aqueous solutions of salts were prepared and sampled by using pieces of filter papers. The dried filter paper was attached on the flat surface of a silicon wafer and then analyzed by LIBS. Calibration curves were obtained using binary mixtures of NaCl􀀀MgSO4, NaCl􀀀CaCl2, and NaCl􀀀KCl and used to estimate the concentrations of Mg, Ca, and K in 13 edible sea salt products. Matrix effects on the results from LIBS were identified in comparison with those from inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. This indicates that the matrix of sea salt samples is significantly different from that of the binary mixture standards. The sea salts with known concentrations of Mg, Ca, andKwere employed to match the matrices of samples and standards. This improved analysis accuracy remarkably. Furthermore, an alternative indirect method for estimating the concentration of K was suggested on the basis of the strong positive correlations observed between the concentrations of Mg and K in the sea salt samples.
... It is often marketed for its alleged health benefits and is positioned to be nutritionally superior to white table salt [11][12][13][14]. Few studies have reported the mineral content of pink salts internationally [4,15,16], and found pink salt to contain a variety of essential nutrients including iron, zinc, and calcium, but found some samples also contained impurities or relatively large amounts of non-nutritive minerals such as arsenic, lead, and cadmium [15]. No study has evaluated the nutritional composition of pink salt available for purchase. ...
... No study has evaluated the nutritional composition of pink salt available for purchase. Non-nutritive minerals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, or mercury have no established health benefit and in relatively small doses, lead to multiple organ damage [16][17][18][19]. Given the increased consumer interest in pink salt and the potential risk of harmful non-nutritive mineral contamination, an investigation into the mineral composition of pink salt in Australia is warranted. ...
Article
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Little is known about the mineral composition of pink salt. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the mineral composition of pink salt available for purchase in Australia and its implications for public health. Pink salt samples were purchased from retail outlets in two metropolitan Australian cities and one regional town. Color intensity, salt form, and country of origin were coded. A mass spectrometry scan in solids was used to determine the amount of 25 nutrients and non-nutritive minerals in pink salt (n = 31) and an iodized white table salt control (n = 1). A wide variation in the type and range of nutrients and non-nutritive minerals across pink salt samples were observed. One pink salt sample contained a level of lead (>2 mg/kg) that exceeded the national maximum contaminant level set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Pink salt in flake form, pink salt originating from the Himalayas, and darker colored pink salt were generally found to contain higher levels of minerals (p < 0.05). Despite pink salt containing nutrients, >30 g per day (approximately 6 teaspoons) would be required to make any meaningful contribution to nutrient intake, a level that would provide excessive sodium and potential harmful effects. The risk to public health from potentially harmful non-nutritive minerals should be addressed by Australian food regulations. Pink salt consumption should not exceed the nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand guidelines of <5 g of salt per day.
... Gourmet salts have also been used in cookery as being healthier (Armenteros et al., 2012). Himalayan pink salt, for example, contains a number of natural minerals, including potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc, and has a salting power similar to NaCl, but with a lower sodium concentration (Drake & Drake, 2011). ...
... In general, cooking losses in all treatments were less than 10%, and the lowest value was presented by T2 (P = 0.03; Table 3). The lower cooking and thawing losses attributed to Himalayan salt could be related to the heterogeneity in its composition, with the presence of other components besides sodium, such as potassium, calcium, manganese, iron and zinc (Drake & Drake, 2011). ...
Article
Sodium is essential for the production of meat derivatives. However, the relationship between sodium and health problems has driven the meat industry to seek alternatives to reducing sodium in its products. Alternative salts with lower sodium contents have been used for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using four different types of salt (100% NaCl, T1; 100% Himalayan salt, T2; 50% NaCl + 50% KCl, T3 or 50% NaCl + 25% KCl + 20% MgCl2 + 5% CaCl2, T4) on physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory characteristics of frozen goat sausage. Sodium content was lower (17.6%) in T3 and T4 (P < 0.01). There was no treatment effect and no interaction between treatments and storage time (1, 30, 60 and 90 days) for instrumental color, pH and lipid oxidation (P > 0.05). Lower cooking loss (P < 0.05) was found in T2. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) on water activity, water holding capacity and sensory analysis. The reduction of sodium by replacing NaCl with chloride salts at the studied levels had no negative influence on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of frozen goat sausage.
... However, there is some contention on this aspect of flower of salt being a healthy alternative, as there is universal recognition that excess sodium is associated with numerous diseases [14]. Thus, its advantageous properties are still not well known, because it is relatively recently accepted in the daily life use [15]. The flower of salt has inspired several dishes and, in some countries, has even been used to name hotels and restaurants. ...
Article
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As mechanized processes developed, small producers of traditional sea salt ceased to be competitive. However, when the valuable salt flower (a.k.a. fleur de sel, flower of salt) market appeared, it gave new breath to the activity of traditional salt pan production. Salt flower sensitivity and delicateness became a part of modern food habits. Its crystals present some grain differentiation and these can fulfill diversified consumer tastes. In cooking art, a regular fine flower of salt can be used to finish dishes, whereas a longer and thin grain known as ‘scale’ (a.k.a. écaille de fleur de sel in French) can be used for a more gourmet-like palate. Here a suitable method is presented to sort and grade flower of salt to satisfy different palates. The method of salt flower selection is based on four main characteristics, which should be considered: cleansing, moisture, color, and size. It is the grain size that contributes most to demand allocation. The results show that what is produced (supply) and the demand from customers do not exactly match. The tiniest types of salt flower are usually completely absorbed by the market, whereas the largest types have no market at all.
... We previously demonstrated the feasibility of rapid classification of edible salts by using multivariate data analysis of LIBS emission spectra [14,15,32]. The edible sea salts, recognized for rich mineral elements, typically contain K, Mg, and Ca with concentrations of several thousand ppm to a few % [15,32,33]. K, Ca, and Mg play important roles in classification of salts, but these elements are not well detected by the ICP-MS due to overlap of abundant molecular species in ICP plasmas [36,37]. ...
Article
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), both based on laser ablation sampling, can be employed simultaneously to obtain different chemical fingerprints from a sample. We demonstrated that this analysis approach can provide complementary information for improved classification of edible salts. LIBS could detect several of the minor metallic elements along with Na and Cl, while LA-ICP-MS spectra were used to measure non-metallic and trace heavy metal elements. Principal component analysis using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS spectra showed that their major spectral variations classified the sample salts in different ways. Three classification models were developed by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis based on the LIBS, LA-ICP-MS, and their fused data. From the cross-validation performances and confusion matrices of these models, the minor metallic elements (Mg, Ca, and K) detected by LIBS and the non-metallic (I) and trace heavy metal (Ba, W, and Pb) elements detected by LA-ICP-MS provided complementary chemical information to distinguish particular salt samples.
... Ts is cubic with rounded edges, and the same morphology is described by(Aquilano, Pastero, Bruno, & Rubbo, 2009;Ferreira, Faria, Rocha, Feyo de Azevedo, & Lopes, 2005;Glusker, Lewis, & Rossi, 1994). Ss is characterized by its sharp edges.The morphology and size of sea salt crystal are clearly affected by the manufacturing method used in its production(Pszczola, 2007;Drake & Drake, 2011). Hs has characteristic round, hollow morphology, with relatively smooth surface. ...
Article
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This research aimed to evaluate the impact of different salts on dough rheology parameters and gas cell development during dough preparation. Three types of salts in four concentrations each were used in dough preparation and following analyses were conducted: sodium content, salt structure analysis, dough hardness, dough stickiness and dough image analysis. The research showed how significantly (p < 0.05) the measured properties of dough can be influenced by the used type of salt, salt concentrations and fermentation time. The emphasis is put on salt substitutes of hollow microsphere salt (Hs) substitutes due to its special physical characteristics. The uniqueness of Hs physical characteristics was confirmed by electron microscope photomicrographs. The gained results are indicating that even low changes in salt concentration (0.40; 0.30; 0.25; 0.15) make noticeable changes in dough characteristics. The usage of salt substitutes in food industry has been constantly growing and it makes the research a valuable source of information for further application of this salts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The distinct chemical compositions of salts may contribute to some taste differences. Mineral content of salts differs depending on the harvesting location and it may be possible to substitute some salts for others to help lower the sodium content in the diet [1]. ...
Article
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The link between salt consumption and hypertension has been the focus of many studies and clinical trials in the past few years. It is recommended that table salt intake does not exceed the maximum of 5 g per day and yet most people find almost impossible to comply with this recommendation. New types of salt have recently appeared in the market and they claim to be less harmful to health than current commercial salt. Besides being less salty to the taste these new types of salt contain less sodium and more trace minerals than commercial salt but there is a need of experiments and studies in order to establish their benefit to health.
... In the current results, the decrease in the flavor score values of chicken nuggets during refrigerated storage may be probably related to the decrease in the unpredictable flavor segments, given the fat oxidation that takes place. Drake and Drake [62] reported that refrigerated chicken patties had decreased taste score values. Similarly, Sarower et al. [63] reported that the taste and flavor of nuggets diminished essentially with the development of storage time intervals. ...
Article
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The current study evaluated the effect of pomegranate peel-based edible coating on chicken nuggets in order to develop a functional and safe product, high in nutritional value. For this purpose, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays were performed to check the potential antioxidant activity of chicken nuggets; microbial control, including total aerobic count and coliforms population, was performed for quality and safety purposes; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (POV) were performed to determine the oxidative stability of chicken nuggets. Different treatments were applied at different storage periods (0th, 7th, 14th and 21st day). The higher value of total aerobic count (5.09 ± 0.05 log CFU/g) and coliforms (3.91 ± 0.06 log CFU/g) were obtained for the uncoated samples, while the lower population was enumerated in the combination of sodium alginate (SA) and pomegranate peel powder (PPP). However, DPPH (64.65 ± 2.15%) and TPC (135.66 ± 3.07 GAE/100 g) values were higher in the coated chicken nuggets (SA (1.5%) and PPP (1.5%)) and lowest in the control samples. The higher value of TBARS (1.62 ± 0.03 MDA/kg) and POV (0.92 ± 0.03 meq peroxide/kg) were observed in the uncoated chicken nuggets. In the Hunter color system, L*, a*, and b* peak values were determined in the coated chicken nuggets with SA (1.5%) + PPP (1.5%) at the 21st day of storage. The uncoated chicken nuggets had different sensory characteristics (appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability) compared to the coated samples. Conclusively, coating based on the combination of SA (1.5%) and PPP (1.5%) increased the quality, safety, and nutritional properties of chicken nuggets
... Consumers in general, but also tourists with an interest in gastronomy and seekers of traditional food experiences, became eclectic and demanding, as they want to know where the food items they buy and consume come from (Hume, 2013). The flower of salt, and up to a certain extent coarse sea salt, is a type of product to which this applies, i.e., tourists are willing to visit its source of origin (Drake & Drake, 2011). Underlying the interest in this product is a search for multi-sensorial experiences, in which tastes, smells and tactile sensations combine in rich experience environments (Agapito, Valle and Mendes, 2014), and where particular attention to the supra-cited aspect is given by cultural or eco-tourists (Boniface, 2001). ...
Article
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Algarve (Portugal) is a well known region by its exclusive rocky beaches. A mild weather and the availability of over 3,000 sunny hours/year are important factors a tourist should consider when making travel decisions. The present study investigates when the tourist is challenged to discover not the beaches, but the region's less known protected areas in the tidal marsh and its traditional human activities. A case study research is presented based on creative tourism experiences in the traditional activity of salt production , where the visitor can go beyond a simple visit to the site. Key findings from this research show the involvement of all parties in the production of the creative experience, the enthusiasm and willingness to co-create it, despite awareness of the need to balance visitors' skills with the experiential proposal. In the whole, results provide insightful information useful to the diversified stakeholders involved in creative tourism and the sustainability of activities embedded in specific territories. O Algarve (Portugal) é uma região bem co-nhecida onde se podem encontrar praias rocho-sas ímpares. Um tempo ameno e a disponibili-dade de sol acima de 3000 horas/ano são fatores importantes a considerar quando um turista toma decisões de viagem. O presente estudo investiga quando o turista é desafiado a descobrir não as praias, mas as menos conhecidas áreas protegi-das no sapal de marés e as suas atividades huma-nas tradicionais. É apresentada uma investigação de caso de estudo baseada em experiências de tu-rismo criativo numa atividade tradicional de pro-dução de sal, onde o visitante pode ir além duma simples visita ao local. Os principais resultados evidenciam o envolvimento de todos os partici-pantes na produção da experiência turística cria-tiva, assim como o entusiasmo e a disponibili-dade na sua criação conjunta, todavia revelam também a perceção da necessidade de equilibrar as competências dos visitantes com os desafios inerentes à proposta da experiência. No seu todo, os resultados deste estudo proporcionam infor-mação útil para os diversos intervenientes dedi-cados ao turismo criativo e sustentabilidade de atividades em territórios específicos. Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Regionais, nº 51 42
... There has been a growing interest in sea salt in the last 10 years, as numerous varieties of gourmet salt (i.e. sea salts) have found a place in the kitchens of both everyday cooks and top chefs (Drake and Drake, 2011). Currently, there is a growing interest in protection and revitalisation of saltpans intrinsically associated with the quality of sea salt (Silva et al., 2010) and its sustainable production using renewable energies (solar and wind). ...
Article
Sainz-López, N.; Boski, T., and Sampath, D.M.R., 2019. Fleur de sel composition and production: Analysis and numerical simulation in an artisanal saltern. Journal of Coastal Research, 35(6), 1200–1214. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. This study is a first approach to modelling of fleur de sel production, aimed at increasing its efficiency and contributing to the scarce literature on the topic. Quantitative forecasting of daily production of fleur de sel was applied to an artisanal solar pond unit in the environmentally protected area of Castro Marim, SE Portugal. The numerical model was based on simulations of the evaporation process, taking into account the effect of reduced vapour pressure of the brine solution. The controlling variables chosen as input parameters to the forecast model were brine temperature, brine concentration, harvesting efficiency, albedo, incoming solar radiation, precipitation, air relative humidity, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, day of the year, wind direction, and wind speed. Production predicted by the model was tested against actual production in two crystallisers in the years 2015 and 2017. The statistically evaluated match between the estimated and actual production was highly significant with a mean R² of 0.8 and overall error of estimation was 14.5%. The chemical composition of nine samples of fleur de sel was analysed, showing the temporal evolution of several components during the harvesting period. A decrease of NaCl content from 96% to 87% and an increase by one order of magnitude of Mg, S, K, Br, and As were observed. The range of Ca, Si, Al, and Sr contents was 0.12–0.65%, 0.1–0.85%, 0.08–0.3%, and 0.009–0.013%, respectively. Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, and Sn contents had the following ranges: 0.051–0.145, 1.2–5.5, 0.44–1.66, 0.03–0.05, <0.05–0.55, and <0.05–0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The following elements were below the detection limit and below the limits of the Codex Alimentarius: Cd, Th, U, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, V, Bi, Zn, Rb, and Hg.
... Las sales no refinadas cosechadas a mano se han ido recuperando o incluso han surgido como un nuevo producto culinario (Drake & Drake, 2011). En algunos casos, gracias al apoyo de las administraciones públicas y a la financiación, la elaboración artesanal de la sal vuelve a estar en alza y las sales cosechadas a mano son cada vez más apreciadas. ...
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RESUMEN: Pese a que la sal se considera perniciosa para la vida, los paisajes de la sal y, más en concreto las salinas de evaporación solar, constituyen complejos sistemas biológicos de gran relevancia para la producción de sal de calidad. No se trata sólo de la biodiversidad de especies halófilas que pueda habitarla o de las estrategias fisiológicas que la biota de las salinas tenga para sobrevivir a la sal en el ambiente, sino del entramado de relaciones que entre ellos se producen. El delicado equilibrio entre la red trófica de las salinas con la actividad de producción artesanal de sal, hacen que sean paisajes vivos, que garantizan la conservación de sus valores naturales y culturales. La producción artesanal de sal se puede considerar así una actividad agrícola que resulta en un producto de alta calidad y respetuoso con el medionatural. ABSTRACT: Although salt is considered harmful to life, saltscapes and, more specifically, solar evaporation salinas, are complex biological systems of great relevance to the production of quality salt. It is not only a question of the biodiversity of halophilic species that may inhabit them or the physiological strategies that their biota have to survive the salt present in the environment, but also of the network of relationships between them. The delicate balance between the trophic network of the salinas and the artisanal salt production, make them living landscapes, which guarantee the conservation of their natural and cultural values. Artisanal salt production can thus be considered an agricultural activity that results in a high quality product that is respectful of the naturalenvironment.
... Previously, Running and Hayes highlighted the critical importance of reporting whether a sip and spit or sip and swallow protocol was used (Running & Hayes, 2017). However, in prior literature, very little has been noted about the importance of timing during whole mouth intensity ratings, despite numerous reports that illustrate temporal differences for multiple taste stimuli (Drake & Drake, 2011;DuBois & Lee, 1983;Guinard et al., 1995;Ott, Edwards, & Palmer, 1991). ...
Article
Prior data suggest humans can distinguish between isointense bitter stimuli (i.e., bitterness may not be unitary). Cues for such discrimination remain unclear but temporal and regional differences have both been implicated. Here, ten bitterants – caffeine, quinine, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, urea, naringin, SOA (sucrose octaacetate), and 3 hop extracts –were assessed in water using time-intensity scaling. Trained assessors (n=14) rated overall intensity of each bitterant continuously for 90 seconds in triplicate using line scales. During tasting, solutions were swished in the mouth for 10 seconds and then swallowed. Temporal curves using normalized intensity ratings for each bitterant and replicate were obtained for each assessor. From these curves, various parameters were extracted using a Python script (provided in Supplementary Materials). For each parameter, differences between bitterants were tested in repeated measures ANOVAs that accounted for sample and replicate (fixed) and panelist (random) effects. Relationships between bitterants and parameters were explored further via Principal Component and Cluster Analysis. Collectively, these analyses revealed two distinct groups. Group 1 (caffeine, quinine, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, urea) was characterized by its faster initial (in-mouth) rate of onset and faster rate of decay. Group 2 (naringin, SOA, hop extracts) was characterized by a slower initial rate of onset, an increase in intensity after swallowing, and a slower rate of decay. These data indicate bitter stimuli found in foods show substantial differences in their temporal profiles. Additional work is needed to determine causes of these temporal differences, and whether these properties may be systematically related to differential liking and/or intake of bitter food products.
... In the present study, therefore, we have investigated the hypothesis that viscosity will increase and saltiness intensity will decrease in viscous polymer solutions as the amount of added oils is increased. We verified this relationship by using a time intensity (TI) analysis-a sensory evaluation method that measures the temporal change in taste intensity for a single taste, which is widely applied to food evaluations (e.g., Drake and Drake, 2011;Hayakawa et al., 2014;Kurotobi et al., 2017). Table 1 summarizes the samples used for sensory evaluation. ...
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In this research, we hypothesized that the viscosity increased and the saltiness intensity decreased as the amount of oils added increased in the viscous polymer solutions. We verified this finding using two techniques, namely, a-time intensity technique and a short back extrusion method. This experimental procedure was executed using samples containing a salty taste with the addition of oils using xanthan gum as a thickener. The viscosity and saltiness intensity are directly proportional to the amount of oils, meaning that as the amount of oil increases, so do the viscosity and saltiness intensity. To illustrate the finding, at a shear rate of 20.0 s⁻¹, the coefficient of determination (R²) for saltiness intensity and apparent viscosity was 0.914 in the four viscous polymer solutions. Thus, we confirmed that there was a strong positive correlation between saltiness intensity and apparent viscosity; the results did not support the initial hypothesis presented.
... 16,18,19 Salty, together with sweet, sour, bitter and umami, is a specific sensation of taste and saltiness is a specific sensation associated with a sodium chloride solution. 5,6,8 Much research has been devoted to investigating and comparing the salty taste of different sea and land salts 20,21 in relation to their distinct chemical compositions, and the effect of the addition of spices on the taste properties of foods 19,22 and low-salt food products, 17,23 confirming the role of aromatic plants in food saltiness enhancement. However, few research has been conducted on the quantification of the degree of saltiness enhancement by aromatic herbs via human taste sensory evaluation. ...
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Background: Salt (sodium chloride) is an essential component of daily food, crucial for many physiological processes. Due to health risks related to salt over consumption, considerable interest is devoted to strategies to reduce dietary salt intake. In this work we evaluated the sensory dimensions of sea salts flavored with Mediterranean aromatic plants with the aim to confirm the role of herbs/spices in the enhancement of salty perception and to validate the use of flavored salts as a strategy to reduce salt intake. To this goal we compared taste dimensions (pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity) of solutions obtained with salt and sea salts flavored with Mediterranean herbs, spices, and fruits. Sensorial differences were analyzed using a 7-point hedonic Likert-type scale on 58 non-trained judges. Results: Main flavor compounds, identified by GC-FID/MS analysis, were α-pinene and 1,8-cineole in myrtle salt (FS 1), verbenone, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and rosifoliol in herbs/plants salt (FS 2), and limonene in orange fruits/saffron salt (SF 3). At the dose of 0.04 g mL-1 , saline solutions obtained with flavored salt (containing approximately 6-30% less of NaCl) were perceived as more intense, less familiar, but equally pleasant than pure salt solution. In particular, sea salt flavored with orange fruits/saffron emerged as the most interesting in potentiating saltiness perception. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the important role of Mediterranean aromatic plants in the enhancement of saltiness perception and qualified the use of flavored sea salt during food preparation/cooking instead of normal salt as a potential strategy to reduce the daily salt intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The salt deposits are not only made up of pure sodium chloride and that is why we observe such a large variation in the color of the salt as yellow, pink or blue. Drake and Drake [7], studying the composition of sea salts from different parts of the world, also found that sea salts appeared in various colors, such as white, gray, black, pink, peach and brown-red, and the color depended on mineral impurities absorbed from surroundings. For example, black salts got their color by adding activated carbon. ...
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... Different spatial structures of salt crystals can be obtained by controlling the conditions of evaporation process (Drake & Drake, 2011). Compared with the conventional drying and grinding method, spray drying is an effective technology to change the structure of solid salt particles and to produce hollow salt crystals (Aaltonen et al., 2009;Ameri & Maa, 2006). ...
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... Significant contributions to understanding how to approach salt reduction have been made over the last few years. Strategies for reducing the salt content of specific foods have yielded results that indicate the potential for relatively large sodium reductions with little apparent influence on palatability, e.g., addition of salt substitutes and use of salt-congruent aromas to replace up to 50% of salt (Charlton et al. 2007;Kremer et al. 2009;Hooge and Chambers 2010;Batenburg and van der Velden 2011;Goh et al. 2011;Lawrence et al. 2011), inhomogeneous spatial distribution of salt to create sensory contrast and increased perceived saltiness (Noort et al. 2010), and utilization of salts with different time intensity profiles and mineral contents to counterbalance the potential loss of salty taste (Drake and Drake 2011). In terms of community-based interventions, both the United Kingdom and Finland have demonstrated the effectiveness of national education programs, labeling and public health campaigns in helping to reduce population dietary salt intake upwards of 30% (He and Macgregor 2009). ...
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Excess sodium as salt (NaCl) added to foods may be harmful to humans. Most salt intake comes from processed foods, therefore salt reduction strategies should be developed by the food industry. One strategy seeks to optimize the delivery of salt ions inside the mouth. To accomplish this purpose, the dissolution characteristics of salt crystals in saliva must be understood. However, relatively scarce information is available on this topic. This study compares the dissolution of five commercial salts in deionized water and two formulations of artificial saliva, at four temperatures and in the absence of agitation. Salt dissolution was quantified in vitro by analysis of video-microscopy images taken at different times. Higher dissolution rates of salt crystals were found in water than in artificial saliva, and at higher temperatures. Video-microscopy was instrumental to reveal that some crystals were fragmented during dissolution while others remained as a unit of decreasing size until complete solubilization. Increased surface area after fragmentation led to pyramid-shape crystals having the highest dissolution rates. Hence, significant changes can be achieved in the dissolution of salt depending on the crystal structure and its dissolution pattern.
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Salt has always been exploited in living memory. It has known its heyday at several occasions throughout history, particularly during the period of the French Gabelle, and therefore came to be seen as a precious white metal both sought after and expensive. Yet, nowadays, although it has been considered as an essential mineral, it has also turned up to be unhealthy when taken in excessive amounts. Consequently, salt workers of our day and age have to highlight the genuine nature of their product as well as their ancestral skills, for they both stand out as tokens of quality for our contemporaries. Meeting the expectations of the consumer is the only way for them to keep up with their work and maintain their share on the market. Thus, this study aimed to define ways for salt workers to have their work preserved, for instance throughout a Protected Designation of Origin. Therefore, a partnership with Atlantic French salt workers (from Ré Island, Noirmoutier, Guérande and Saint-Armel) has been established, allowing us to collect samples of salt marsh water and salts.First, an overview of microorganism population and 16S-rDNA in each water or salt sample permitted to define what kinds of microorganism populations were to be found in salt marshes. Secondly, a search for volatile components was led so as to determine whether the environment might affect the olfactory footprint of salt marshes and of salt itself during its formation and its harvest. A process of extraction and analysis has been developed, shedding light on a link between the origin and the olfactory footprint of salt. As an example, the halophilous microorganisms which are extremely rich in carotenoid (hence the red-orange colour of some marshes) are partly responsible for the presence of norisoprenoids in the volatile components which have been identified: 21 compounds were identified in Ré Island (including 8 norisoprenoids), 13 in Noirmoutier (including 7 norisoprenoids), 54 in Saint-Armel (including 25 norisoprenoids),19 in Guérande (including 10 norisoprenoids).For each area, DNA traces and volatile profiles were identified. Therefore, a strong link can be established between salt marshes and the salt they produce. It appears that the differences between salt flats regarding either their smell or their microbiota is always noteworthy, even when marshes are only a few miles apart. Thus, the specific pool of the identified microorganisms which leave prints on the salt would allow saltworkers to define their product so as to ensure a form of protection based on specific markers which are proper to each marsh.
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The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate competitiveness of Estonian spice-cured sprat products in Estonia and Thailand. Sample A was saltiest, Sample B had lowest overall spiciness, and Sample C had highest pepper flavor and sour taste intensity. The main drivers of consumer acceptance for the spice-cured sprat products were different: flavor and appearance in Estonia and appearance and odor in Thailand. In Estonia, one cluster of consumers liked the traditional (Sample A) and lightly spiced (Sample B) sprat products, while the other cluster liked the traditional (Sample A) and the marinated (Sample C) sprat products. In Thailand, all samples scored low, but manual clustering indicated that marinated (Sample C) sprat products are most acceptable. The current study showed that spice-cured sprat products in general can be accepted by Thai consumers, especially as part of meals, if further flavor development is carried out with the products.
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The aim of this study was to explore the use of soy sauce to reduce salt intake in daily food preparation by replacing all or some added salt with naturally brewed soy sauce without change in consumer acceptance. Three types of foods were investigated: salad dressing, tomato soup and stir-fried pork. A two-alternative forced choice test between a salt standard and a variety of soy sauce samples was used to establish the exchange rate, giving the amount of soy sauce needed to replace added salt with the same taste intensity. In a separate session, consumers were asked to evaluate the pleasantness and several sensory attributes of another five varieties of the food samples based on the proportion of salt and soy sauce added. The results showed that it is possible to reduce added salt by 33–50% in the foods studied when soy sauce is used to replace added salt during food preparation. The relationship between the high salt consumption and hypertension has led to dietary recommendations to reduce salt in foods. However salt reduction is often difficult to achieve due to the reduction in acceptability of the reduced-salt foods. This article shows that it is possible to reduce salt in foods without compromising the taste intensity and pleasantness of the food by replacing salt with naturally-brewed soy sauce. Percentage of salt reduction achievable may be higher in a population with prior exposure to soy sauce in their diet. The method can be used by food industries to produce reduced salt products or by consumers at home.
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We investigated feasibility of a compact, low-cost, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) device made up of a Q-switched, diode-pumped, solid-state laser and a nongateable miniature spectrometer for the classification of edible salts. LIBS spectra of edible salts from 12 different geographic origins were obtained by this compact LIBS device. The detection limits of the compact LIBS device for potassium, magnesium, and calcium with effective discrimination power were sufficient to classify the edible salts. The classification model was developed by the multivariate analysis of the LIBS spectra. The comparison of the LIBS results with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis indicates that the clustering of principal component scores was well dominated by chemical compositions of the salts. The cross- and external validations of the classification model showed reasonable performance (98.3 and 87.5% correctness, respectively). Our results indicate that rapid classification of edible salts can be realized by a compact, low-cost LIBS device. © 2015 Korean Chemical Society, Seoul & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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It is well known that sodium chloride overuse has a positive association with blood pressure and hypertension, and it has been related directly to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing the sodium chloride particle size on the salting power and time-intensity profile in shoestring potatoes. We found that the amounts of sodium chloride with reduced particle sizes required to yield an equivalent salting power to 1.6% unmilled (common) sodium chloride on shoestring potatoes were 0.97, 0.862, 0.795 and 0.785% for salt particles with mean diameters of about 97, 37, 30 and 26 μm, respectively. Based on these salting potencies, it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride used in shoestring potatoes by about 39, 46, 50 and 51% with the mentioned salt particles, respectively. The reduction in the size of salt particles also resulted in a more rapid perception of the maximum saltiness in shoestring potatoes.Practical ApplicationsThe reduction of the salt content in processed food means a great challenge because of limitations of sensory characteristics, functional properties and microbiological safety of products. Reducing the size of sodium chloride particles is an important alternative for reducing the sodium content of foods, thereby making them healthier but not by altering their sensory characteristics, unlike some sodium chloride substitutes.
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Unlabelled: Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ≤ 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ≤ 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ≤ 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. Practical application: It is challenging for the food industry to reduce sodium in foods without fully understanding the impact of sodium reduction on sensory properties of foods. Herbs are recommended to use in reducing sodium; however, little has been reported regarding the effect of herbs on sodium reduction and how herbs influence consumers’ acceptance of foods. This study provides findings that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups. It was also found that high levels of herbs may decrease consumers’ overall liking of soups.
Chapter
The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are allowed; then, other salts associated with sodium chloride are also maintained. Two quality types of salt can be commercially considered: ‘flower of salt’ and salt, which have distinctive physico-chemical characteristics. The application of analytical methodologies such as atomic spectroscopy, molecular spectroscopy, separation techniques and flow injection systems coupled with chemometric tools can provide significant evidence of sea salt uniqueness, give precise and concise information and promote fair competition in the market, bringing benefits for the producers and consumers.
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Seven varieties of sea salt and a Kosher control were characterized by composition, various physical properties and rates of dissolution in artificial saliva. These measures were compared to sensory time–intensity data in which the temporal profile of salt taste of the sea salt crystals was measured by a trained panel (n = 12). Salts contained either the same or less sodium than the Kosher salt. Three salts contained similar sodium contents as the Kosher control while True Kona contained the lowest sodium content with 16.75% less sodium than Kosher salt. Significant differences were observed among salts for their rates of dissolution, temporal perception of salt taste as well as composition. From a sensory perspective, there were few differences in maximum salt taste intensity. There were, however, some differences in the salts' time–intensity profiles. Red Aelea exhibited the lowest maximum intensity but also exhibited the longest duration of salt taste intensity in comparison to all other salts. Rates of dissolution were found to be negatively correlated with time to maximum salt taste intensity and overall duration of salt taste. Significant differences were found between the size of the salt particles and size was strongly correlated with rates of in-vitro dissolution as well as with a variety of time–intensity sensory measures Based on the fact that salts did not show large differences is taste intensity and many of the salts did not contain less sodium than the Kosher control, using the studied sea salts as a sodium reduction strategy is not viable.
Chapter
Twenty-one consumer salts or salt substitutes purchased from local stores and three standard reference materials (SRMs) obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were analyzed using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer. Three of the commercial salts contained different colored grains, and these were further analyzed after separating the different colored particles. The XRF method allowed for the analysis of the elemental composition of a number of samples in under one hour. The results from the analysis of the SRMs with the handheld XRF were within 10.3% or less of the reported values for iron and strontium. Based on characteristic Kα and Kβ lines from the XRF spectral analysis of the salts, the salts contained potassium, iron, bromine, and strontium. A calibration curve for bromine was prepared by mixing known amounts of sodium bromide into known amounts of sodium chloride. The calibration curve was then used to determine the mass percent of bromine in the salts.
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The availability of different types of salt has greatly increased in recent years. Salt has become a fashionable condiment and this may encourage people to ignore recommendations about using less. In this context, we decided to investigate whether the weight of a pinch depends on the type cif salt. After a market research, three groups of "normal" consumers and a group of professional cooks were requested to dose with pinches of three typical types of salt. These were of different degrees of fineness. For all groups of subjects, a pinch of freely flowing fine rock salt weighed significantly less than the coarser sorts, which flowed less well. For the "normal" consumers, a pinch of fine rock salt weighed about 0.3 g; with the coarser salts, it weighed about 0.4 g. In consumer tips on sparing salt, it might be helpful to point out that fine and freely flowing salt can be dosed more precisely.
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Here is reported the determination of mineral nutrients and toxic elements of sea, rock, and roasted bamboo salt from China, India, France, Australia, Nepal, Argentina, and South Korea. Mineral nutrients including macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na and S), micro (B, Cu, Fe, Sr, Mn and V), trace (Ba, Be, Co, Cr, Ga, Li, Ni, Rb, Se and Zn), and toxic (Al, Cd, Cs, In, Pb and Tl) elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and ICP – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The detection limits were from 7.032 (Mg) to 13.915 (S) and 0.023 (Sr) to 0.228 (Ba) ng/g for ICP-OES and ICP-MS, respectively. The recoveries for fortified samples were from 91.3 to 107.6%. The concentrations of B, Ba, Be, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Tl, and V were reported for the first time. In terms of mineral nutrients, the order was roasted salt>sea salt>rock salt. In addition, the only toxic element in roasted bamboo salt was aluminum. The concentrations of the elements were comparable to literature values and met regulatory guidelines. Roasted bamboo salt was shown to be a rich source of nutrients and provided the lowest concentrations of toxic elements. All salt types were shown to be safe for human consumption.
Chapter
This chapter provides a general introduction to the measurement of time-dependent perception. It focuses on physiological and psychological aspects influencing time-dependent perception, also provides important background understanding to the design of time-dependent investigations and interpretation of temporal data. Time-dependent methods are a distinctive subset of descriptive analysis techniques that allow the changes in the temporal sensory profile of a product to be monitored. In most time-dependent techniques, assessors who have good sensory abilities for the attributes under evaluation are selected and trained in the sensory properties of interest and the protocols involved. The emergence of continuous time-intensity (CTI) and, subsequently, other time-dependent methods, provided researchers with an additional tool with which to investigate fundamental aspects of sensory perception, including the development of theoretical and mechanistic perceptual models. The initial focus was on taste, but further work has progressed to investigating temporal aspects of trigeminal, aroma, flavour and texture perception and, indeed, the interrelationships between them.
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Time-intensity (TI) assessment was applied for sweetness, sourness and strawberry flavor of commercial strawberry jams. Ten strawberry jams were selected out of 51 products available in Japan. The selected jams covered a wide range of soluble solids concentrations, colors and sensory characteristics. Eleven trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of each sample for 90 or 120 seconds using a sliding TI switch. The obtained average TI curves and the TI parameters demonstrated the characteristics of the dynamic flavor intensity of each sample when consumed. In general, the intensity of sweetness was higher in jams with higher concentrations of sugar. However, several jams, which varied widely in the range of soluble solids, had similar average TI curves for sweetness. Thus, sweetness was not decided by only the soluble solids. The data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis, and PC 1 and PC 2 were interpreted as axes related to the intensities of sourness and sweetness, respectively. In contrast, time-related sensory parameters (i.e. total time and time to maximum intensity) of each attribute contributed to PC 3, indicating time-course assessment of sensory attributes could function in developing precise flavor profiling of strawberry jam.
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The contents of Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na were studied in 23 common and gourmet salt samples by atomic spectrometry after an acid dissolution procedure using diluted nitric acid. Under optimized conditions, no matrix effects were observed when aqueous calibration was compared to standard addition methods. The method’s accuracy was evaluated by analyte recovery experiments (recoveries ranging from 94 to 109%) and the limits of detection and quantification varied from 1.0 to 22 mg kg-1 and from 3.3 to 76 mg kg-1, respectively, adequate for the determination of essential mineral elements in these kinds of samples. To interpret the results, principal component analysis was used and showed that some Himalayan salts had similar Ca and Mg contents among different samples. On the other hand, blue Persian salts and low-sodium salts had the highest K concentration levels. In addition, the Hawaiian black salt samples had similar Na and Fe concentrations among different samples. In relation to the concentration of analytes, the results suggest these types of salts cannot be considered to be a source of these minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg), contrary to widespread statements in the popular media. With respect to the Himalayan samples’ authenticity, both UV-VIS spectrophotometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the presence of ordinary colorants E122 and E124 in commercial samples, and no evidence of adulteration or fraud was observed.
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Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most important seasoning in every table around the world. Despite refined table salt is the most popular type of salt, the pinkish salt known as Himalayan salt is gaining importance worldwide. The aim of the present work is to measure the elemental content of different salts sold in the Brazilian market and compare them with Himalayan salt. To that end, PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) was used to characterize salt samples. The experiments employed 2 MeV protons with typical currents of 0.5 nA at the target. X-rays were detected by a Si(Li) detector placed at 135° with respect to the beam direction. The results indicate that besides Na and Cl, Brazilian salts have trace elements like S, Ca, Br and Sr in different proportions. The pink salt appears to be characterized by relatively large amounts of Mg, Si, K, Ti and Fe. The differences observed are discussed in terms of origin of the product.
Article
Feasibility of a simple laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) device has been investigated for the analysis of Mg and Ca in edible salts. The LIBS spectrometer was assembled with a compact low-power diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) and a non-gated low-resolution handheld spectrometer. A simple sampling process was employed for on-site application. A piece of filter paper was dipped in the aqueous solution of a sample salt and dried for analysis using LIBS. Maintaining the sample surface height at the optimum position was critical to generate plasmas persistently due to the low pulse energy of the DPSSL. The varying height of the filter paper surface was monitored and compensated, while the sample stage was translated to collect spectra from different positions. The variation of line intensities of Mg and Ca could be attributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of dry residues. To correct this, the peak that consists of the Na(I) and C(II) lines at 568 nm was employed as a reference signal for intensity normalization of the analyte Mg(II) and Ca(II) lines. For edible salt products, the normalized Mg(II) and Ca(II) line intensities could be well correlated with the concentrations of Mg and Ca determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Our results indicate that a simple LIBS device in combination with the simple sampling method is promising as an on-site salt quality assessment methodology.
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The concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and manganese (Mn) in salts from four salt winning communities (Ada, Nyanyano, Saltpond, and Elmina) and two commonly consumed refined salts brands (coded A and B) in Ghana were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Co, and Mn in the samples ranged 0.24–0.68, 0.08–0.27, 1.67–1.72, and <0.08–0.27 µg/g, respectively. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the metals were below the tolerable daily limits. In addition, the health risk assessment indicated that the consumption of these salts poses no potential health risk and are therefore safe for humans.
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Salt contents and compositions are crucial parameters to enzyme activity and might even affect the proteolysis and quality of dry-cured meat. However, the metal ions significantly vary with geographic origin, which would be a determinant in the dry-cured meat manufacture. Therefore, the main salt compositions of KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and ZnCl2 were therefore used to partially substitute NaCl while additionally assessing and regulating their function during the dry-cured pork butts processing. Physiochemical properties, cathepsins activity, proteolysis and sensory evaluation were investigated. The results indicated that partial substitution of sodium prevented the dehydration, and accelerated the pH reduction. CaCl2 and MgCl2 partial substitution moreover exerted some promoting effect on cathepsin activity whereas ZnCl2 was a subtle inhibitor. The proteolysis index of CaCl2 and MgCl2 substitution were superior to the rest. The metal ions partial substitution reduced saltness, while the presence of KCl and MgCl2 enhanced bitterness. Further correlation analysis was performed to better understand the interactions between those parameters.
Article
The aging of Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (doenjang) is an important step in obtaining flavorful and tasty products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the salt contents (8, 12, 16, and 20%) on doenjang production during the early stage of the aging (zero to two months) on sensory profiles and consumer acceptability. Generally, the salt content and aging of doenjang significantly influenced the physicochemical and sensory qualities of the samples. The moisture, amino nitrogen, titratable acidity and browning index were lower and the salt, Na, and Mg were higher as salt increased in doenjang production. The amino nitrogen, titratable acidity and browning index were increased as aging progressed. The 8% salt samples showed a different change pattern in sensory characteristics during the early stage of aging. Since the 8% salt samples had different sensory profiles, they were less acceptable to consumers during the aging period unlike the 12 and 16% salt samples. These different sensory characteristics and lower consumer acceptance ratings may be a hurdle in bringing low salt doenjang to market.
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Diets with a high sodium chloride (NaCl) intake are indicated by doctors to be a factor responsible for causing cardiovascular disease. This has led to the search for NaCl substitutes used to prepare meals and process industrialized products, resulting in the food industry using new compounds. In this context, flavor enhancers appear to be able to maintain the sensory characteristics of food and reduce the amount of NaCl used. Substituting NaCl with other light commercial salts may also represent an alternative to reducing its consumption. Thus, it is of great importance to have a sensitive, portable, reliable, and cost-effective sensors for monitoring salt and flavor enhancers. For that reason, developing methodologies and devices able to chemically analyze salts and capable of establishing a relationship with human taste perception has become relevant for quality control and product development. In this context, this study proposes developing and applying an e-tongue system that can analyze aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of flavor enhancers (monosodium glutamate, disodium guanylate and disodium inosinate), light commercial salts and NaCl. The e-tongue comprised four gold interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) modified with layer-by-layer films of copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuTsPc), polyaniline (PANI), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different architectures. Data were statistically analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The e-tongue system proved to be efficient for identifying and discriminating flavor enhancers and commercial salts at different concentrations and is a possible alternative for quality control analysis and product development in the food industry.
Article
Strontium (Sr) is an element of toxicological concern due to its close chemical proximity to Ca. In this work, Sr in sea salts collected from China and South Korea was analyzed by laser‐induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The precision could be improved by using multiple filter‐paper sampling and intensity normalization using a weak Na I line as a reference signal. The analyte signal variation between filter‐paper pieces as well as that within a single filter‐paper piece could be corrected by the suggested method. The limit of detection of ~2 ppm and the precision of ~5% could be obtained. As a measure of accuracy, the root‐mean‐square error was estimated to be 9 ppm. The multiple filter‐paper sampling can be performed easily on the salt production sites and improves the LIBS analysis precision resulting to sufficient quantification capability for minor metallic elements in edible sea salt products. The multiple filter‐paper sampling method was devised for LIBS analysis of Sr in edible salts. Intensity normalization using the Na I emission line as a reference signal was effective in correcting the measurements from different pieces of filter paper used for sampling. Analytical performances of ~2 ppm LOD and ~5% precision could be obtained with the increased number of well‐corrected measurements from multiple filter papers.
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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been widely applied to material classification in various fields, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is one of the frequently used classical multivariate statistics to construct classification models based on the LIBS spectra. However, classification accuracy of the PLS-DA model is sensitive to the number of classes and their similarities. Considering this characteristic of PLS-DA, we suggest a two-step PLS-DA modeling approach to improve the classification accuracy. This strategy was demonstrated for a 6-class problem in which six commercial edible sea salts produced in Japan, South Korea, and France are classified using their LIBS spectra. At the first step, test spectra were sorted into four classes and one extended class, composed of the two other most confusing classes, and then the test spectra in the extended class were further classified into each of the two constituent classes which were modeled separately from the other four classes. This two-step classification has been found to remarkably improve the PLS-DA classification accuracy by maximizing the difference between the confusing classes in the second-step modeling.
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The present study investigated the tastes of 15 halide salts (LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, RbBr, RbI, CsCl, CsBr, CsI) as a function of concentration. Taste quality and intensity judgments were made by 10 subjects following both a distilled water rinse and a 0.5 M sodium chloride rinse. For each of the 15 salts, taste quality differences were observed as a function of concentration. In addition, the non-salty tastes of the compounds exhibited complex mixture interactions with each other and with perceived saltiness. Cross-adaptation by NaCl released the mixture suppression produced by saltiness. Both cation and anion contributed to the taste of halide salts. Heavier cations and anions produced more bitter-tasting salts. While the weight of the cation had no consistent effect on perceived saltiness, lighter anions produced saltier-tasting salts.
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Many divalent salts (e.g., calcium, iron, zinc), have important nutritional value and are used to fortify food or as dietary supplements. Sensory characterization of some divalent salts in aqueous solutions by untrained judges has been reported in the psychophysical literature, but formal sensory evaluation by trained panels is lacking. To provide this information, a trained descriptive panel evaluated the sensory characteristics of 10 divalent salts including ferrous sulfate, chloride and gluconate; calcium chloride, lactate and glycerophosphate; zinc sulfate and chloride; and magnesium sulfate and chloride. Among the compounds tested, iron compounds were highest in metallic taste; zinc compounds had higher astringency and a glutamate-like sensation; and bitterness was pronounced for magnesium and calcium salts. Bitterness was affected by the anion in ferrous and calcium salts. Results from the trained panelists were largely consistent with the psychophysical literature using untrained judges, but provided a more comprehensive set of oral sensory attributes.
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Certain things have not changed since my colleague and I last reviewed the role of dietary salt in hypertension [Haddy, F.J., Pamnani, M.B., 1995. Role of dietary salt in hypertension. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 14, 428-438]. Over half of hypertensives are still salt sensitive, i.e., they respond to a high NaCl intake with a rise in blood pressure. This can be ameliorated by restricting NaCl intake, supplementing potassium intake, and consuming diuretics. Some things have changed. We now have more insight into mechanism; we suspected that volume expansion and endogenous Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitors were the connection between excessive salt intake and the hypertension, but we were not certain as to the nature of the inhibitors. Now it appears that the inhibitors are steroids released from the adrenal gland and are members of the cardenolide family, e.g., ouabain, and the bufadienolide family, e.g., marinobufagenin. This presents new possibilities in therapy, including antibodies to these agents and competitive inhibitors to their binding to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.
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The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation.
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Evaluating a randomized controlled trial involving a tailored behavioral intervention conducted to improve blood pressure control. Adults with hypertension from two outpatient primary care clinics were randomly allocated to receive a nurse-administered behavioral intervention or usual care. In this ongoing study, patients receive the tailored behavioral intervention bi-monthly for 2 years via telephone; the goal of the intervention is to promote medication adherence and improve hypertension-related health behaviors. Patient factors targeted in the tailored behavioral intervention include perceived risk of hypertension and knowledge, memory, medical and social support, patients' relationship with their health care provider, adverse effects of medication therapy, weight management, exercise, diet, stress, smoking, and alcohol use. The sample randomized to the behavioral intervention consisted of 319 adults with hypertension (average age=60.5 years; 47% African-American). A comparable sample of adults was assigned to usual care (n=317). We had a 96% retention rate for the overall sample for the first 6 months of the study (93% at 12 months). The average phone call has lasted 18min (range 2-51min). From baseline to 6 months, self-reported medication adherence increased by 9% in the behavioral group vs. 1% in the non-behavioral group. The intervention is easily implemented and is designed to enhance adherence with prescribed hypertension regimen. The study includes both general and patient-tailored information based upon need assessment. The study design ensures internal validity as well as the ability to generalize study findings to the clinic settings. Despite knowledge of the risks and acceptable evidence, a large number of hypertensive adults still do not have their blood pressure under effective control. This study will be an important step in evaluating a tailored multibehavioral intervention focusing on improving blood pressure control.
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