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Donald School Textbook of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology

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... These rhythmical pumping movements of the limbs have been extensively studied in rat fetuses and have been shown to result from a coordinated pumping action of the limbs onto the elastic cavity of the uterus , in order for the fetus to move in the cavity ( Brumley and Robinson , 2013 ) . Interest - ingly , arm movements are sometimes observed in coordination with leg stepping movements in humans , as if the fetus is swim - ming or crawling in the mother ' s womb ( Kurjak and Chervenak , 2011 ) . However , most studies of fetal movements attribute arm movements only to the function of reaching and leg movements to the function of displacement , despite the difficulty associ - ated with ascertaining the goal directedness of fetal movements . ...
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Sensori-motor synchronization (SMS) is the coordination of rhythmic movement with an external rhythm. It plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and social behavior. SMS is commonly studied in adults and in children from four years of age onward. Prior to this age, the ability has rarely been investigated due to a lack of available methods. The present paper reviews what is known about SMS in young children, infants, newborns, and fetuses. The review highlights fetal and infant perception of rhythm and cross modal perception of rhythm, fetal, and infant production of rhythm and cross modal production of rhythm, and the contexts in which production of rhythm can be observed in infants. A primary question is whether infants, even newborns, can modify their spontaneous rhythmical motor behavior in response to external rhythmical stimulation. Spontaneous sucking, crying, and leg movements have been studied in the presence or absence of rhythmical auditory stimulation. Findings suggest that the interaction between movement and sound is present at birth and that SMS can be observed in special conditions and within a narrow range of tempi, particularly near the infant's own spontaneous motor tempo. The discussion centers on the fundamental role of SMS in interaction and communication at the beginning of life.
... Particularly, mechanical properties of tissues and organs have been important clues to indicate their physical condition in science study and medical applications. A tumor or a suspicious cancerous growth is normally 5 ∼ 28 times stiffer than the background of normal soft tissue [31]. However, the measurement of mechanical properties on animal tissues and organs often exhibited a challenging task mainly due to insufficient resolution and sensitivity of the sensors [32]–[35]. ...
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A taxel device on flexible substrates based on the electrical contact resistance (ECR) variation mechanism is developed. The proposed taxel device consists of one top and one bottom substrates, which are coated with conductive polymer then face-to-face assembled. The device is tested with different substrate materials to show the viability of the ECR variation mechanism. It is found that when paper is used as the substrate material, because of its exclusive features of surface roughness and material compressibility, the ECR variation mechanism is greatly enhanced and the device exhibits higher sensitivity and larger working pressure range. Practical applications are investigated in elasticity measurement on phantom samples and biological tissues. The results are promising with our taxel device made on flexible substrates being capable of integration onto surgical tools and the potential to realize the psychical property of biological tissues.
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The introduction of three-dimensional (3D)/four-dimensional (4D) sonography with high-frequency transvaginal transducer has resulted in remarkable progress in ultrasonographic visualization of early embryos and fetuses and development of new fields of 3D sonoembryology. With the proper use of this new diagnostic modality and with experienced examiner, both structural and functional development in the first trimester of gestation can be assessed more objectively and reliable. Indeed, new technology moved embryology from postmortem studies to the in vivo environment. Furthermore, there are good reasons to believe that 3D/4D sonography moved prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities from the second to the first trimester of pregnancy. We will try to illustrate it with the number of convincing figures. How to cite this article Pooh RK, Kurjak A. Three-dimensional/ Four-dimensional Sonography moved Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Anomalies from the Second to the First Trimester of Pregnancy. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;6(4):376-390.
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Ultrasonography is the most frequently used imaging investigation in the assessment of the female genital tract. Most often the uterus and ovaries are evaluated with the help 2D transabdominal or endovaginal ultrasonography. The interpretation of the ultrasonographic data in order to establish the diagnosis of the main uterine and ovarian pathologies requires information about the examination technique and proper knowledge of the female genital tract ultrasound anatomy.
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