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Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research

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Abstract

Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time. The purpose of this synthesis of empirical literature is to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioural outcomes for primary through secondary high school students with a range of characteristics. Eight studies that investigated at least two of three common arrangements (i.e., rows, groups or semi-circles) were considered. Results indicate that teachers should let the nature of the task dictate seating arrangements. Evidence supports the idea that students display higher levels of appropriate behaviour during individual tasks when they are seated in rows, with disruptive students benefiting the most.

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... Evidence from the field of Environmental Psychology has "shown that the physical environment of schools and classrooms has an important influence on students' comfort, on their behavior, and on social interactions among peers and between teachers and their students" (Byers, Mahat, Liu, Knock, & Imms, 2018;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008) as stated in Tobias, V., et al., (2020). In this paper, three classroom sitting and furniture placement designs are considered. ...
... Also, the interpersonal contact between students due to a low physical distance can positively influence their social perceptions on each other. Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008) believed was "in line with the intergroup contact theory and the contact hypothesis, which state that contact can effectively reduce negative peer perceptions and can increase liking among peers (Allport 1954; Pettigrew 1998). ...
... 3. Discipline and orderliness: Seating arrangements are important classroom setting and supporting physical resource, because of the potential to help prevent problem of behaviors that decrease student attention and waste available instructional time. Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008) synthesized empirical literature to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioral outcomes for primary through secondary high school students with a range of characteristics. The evidence seems to support "the idea that students display higher levels of appropriate behavior during individual tasks when they are seated in rows, with disruptive students benefiting the most." ...
Research
It is increasingly common to end up with overdispersed (often right or positively skewed data) and zero inflated count datasets in Public Health, Insurance, Social Behavior, Psychological, and Medical trials related researches. Zero inflated models can be cenceptualized as "having zeros from an at-risk population", Rose et al., (2006) and from counts and true-zero processes. Classic models based on Poisson or negative binomial distributions had shown poor fits, and many alternatives have already proposed in recent years, including exploration of various distribution for dispersion types (and extremely unbalanced data) such as compound poission - gama and tweedie distribution . We seek to develop an alternative modelling approach, a best fit and robust Zero-inflated Data Analysis Model, [RZDAM] and using stepwise analysis. We would like to account for both random zeros(false zeros) and structural zeros(true zeros) in a typical Longitudinal and Cross Sectional Designs. Note: Sampling Technique, the sample size , type of dataset; empirical or simulated data were to be taken into consideration.
... There are studies to theorize the relation between the classroom arrangement, environment, and education (Downer et al., 2007;Martin, 2006), performance (Kalinowski & Taper, 2007), and behavioral patterns (Van den Berg & Cillessen, 2015;Wilkerson et al., 2015). The studies have addressed the horizontal and vertical, raw-column, and raw long-table arrangement to support different purposes (Hue & Shing, 2008) with adaptation to the tests-exam (Bonus & Riordan, 1998), to reduce inappropriate behaviors (Fernandes et al., 2011;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). ...
... The study theorized that seating arrangement is an essential part of facilitating the educational objectives than just furniture (Cinar, 2010). The seating arrangements support specific purposes in the classroom, for instance, the raw-column for the formal education system (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008) and top-down authority (Salkind, 2008). The joined table addressed increasing the level of peer to peer learning (Callahan, 2004) and positive influence of peers on the personality of the students (Burke & Sass, 2013) to reduce the aggressive behaviors (Van den Berg & Cillessen, 2015) with a background in mid of 20 th century (Gump, 1987;Steinzor, 1950). ...
... The behavioral aspects were discussed widely including the sitting on the front than the rear (Ayikwei, 2016), interaction between students (Dunn & Dunn, 1979), more asking questions (Marx et al., 2000), high interaction between students and peer group in the semi-circular (Fernandes et al., 2011), increasing of relationship in the cluster form (Van den Berg & Cillessen, 2015), and the personality and the seating position (Hemyari et al., 2013). Another group studied the influences of the disruptive behavioral patterns in the classroom (Salend & Sylvestre, 2005), positive behavior in the classrooms (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008), changing environment of the classroom through rearrangement of seats (Guardino & Fullerton, 2010), and supporting process of leaning (Gest & Rodkin, 2011). ...
... There are several explanations for the choice of desk arrangement. Desks arranged in rows especially encourage individual work (Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008), while U-shaped or cluster arrangements encourage social interaction and cooperation (Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008;Farmer et al., 2011;Gest and Rodkin, 2011). However, desk arrangement is rarely changed during the year, and classrooms are not routinely rearranged for a particular teaching activity. ...
... There are several explanations for the choice of desk arrangement. Desks arranged in rows especially encourage individual work (Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008), while U-shaped or cluster arrangements encourage social interaction and cooperation (Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008;Farmer et al., 2011;Gest and Rodkin, 2011). However, desk arrangement is rarely changed during the year, and classrooms are not routinely rearranged for a particular teaching activity. ...
... Flexible furniture is also designed so that classrooms can be modified easily. Teachers can therefore rearrange their classroom to suit the teaching activity and the type of behavior expected (Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008;Havig, 2017;Carignan, 2018;Erz, 2018;Keymeulen et al., 2020), including group work, pair work, or individual work. From this perspective, this type of classroom arrangement allows for implementing teaching practices that can be described as "flexible, " that is, studentcentered, differentiated, and collaborative (Barrett et al., 2015(Barrett et al., , 2017Delzer, 2015;Dornfeld, 2016;Havig, 2017;Erz, 2018;Keymeulen et al., 2020). ...
Article
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While traditional seating (also known as fixed seating or fixed classroom ) remains the preferred classroom seating arrangement for teachers, a new type of seating arrangement is becoming more common in schools: the flexible classroom (also known as flexible seating ). The purpose of this type of arrangement is to meet the needs of students by providing a wide variety of furniture and workspaces, to put students at the center of learning, and to allow them to make choices based on their preferences and the objectives of the task at hand. This study aimed to examine the influence of flexible seating on the wellbeing and mental health of elementary school students. This article presents the results of exploratory research conducted in Quebec among Grade 5 and 6 students comparing the wellbeing and mental health of students in fixed and flexible classrooms. The study was conducted with 107 students in three Grade 5 and 6 flexible classrooms ( n = 51) and three Grade 5 and 6 fixed classrooms ( n = 56). It is based on a quasi-experimental, quantitative design with post-test only and a control group. The groups were matched based on natural conditions (i.e., from a convenience sample). Furthermore, the study included a gender-differentiated analysis for each group. The results showed that flexible classroom seating had a positive influence on the girls’ wellbeing and mental health. In contrast, for the boys, fixed classroom seating was most conducive to their wellbeing and mental health. However, our study has some limitations that are discussed in the article.
... Some studies have investigated student behavior and attainment based on seating arrangement and how seating arrangement affects the extent and nature of student interactions (Haghighi & Jusan, 2012;van den Berg & Cillessen, 2015). This branch of research has shown that behaviors connected to school tasks, such as hand-raising, asking questions, or being out of seat without permission, are associated with the arrangement of desks in the classroom (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Importantly, Wannarka and Ruhl's (2008) synthesis suggests that two elements should play a role in the decision of desk arrangement: the nature of the task administered and children's individual characteristics. ...
... This branch of research has shown that behaviors connected to school tasks, such as hand-raising, asking questions, or being out of seat without permission, are associated with the arrangement of desks in the classroom (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Importantly, Wannarka and Ruhl's (2008) synthesis suggests that two elements should play a role in the decision of desk arrangement: the nature of the task administered and children's individual characteristics. Being seated in rows makes interactions among peers inconvenient and apparent to teachers; thus, this organization is superior to minimize disruptive behavior and maximize on-task behavior during individual activities (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). ...
... Importantly, Wannarka and Ruhl's (2008) synthesis suggests that two elements should play a role in the decision of desk arrangement: the nature of the task administered and children's individual characteristics. Being seated in rows makes interactions among peers inconvenient and apparent to teachers; thus, this organization is superior to minimize disruptive behavior and maximize on-task behavior during individual activities (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Considering individual characteristics, it was found that disruptive students and children with poor attention-characteristics associated with low popularity among classmates (Newcomb, Bukowski, & Pattee, 1993)-seem to benefit the most from the seating arrangement involving rows and columns of single desks (Hastings & Schwieso, 1995). ...
Article
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To date, despite the great debate regarding the best seating arrangement for learning in classrooms, no empirical studies have examined the direct effects of different seating arrangements on children’s cognitive processes. This is particularly important nowadays that the COVID-19 measures include maintaining distance in the classroom. Aim of this study was experimentally investigating the effect of changing the seating arrangement (clusters vs. single desks), on logical reasoning, creativity and theory of mind, in children attending primary school. Furthermore, some individual characteristics (e.g., gender, loneliness, popularity) were analysed as potential moderators. Results on 77 participants showed that, when children were seated in single desks, their score in logical reasoning was globally higher. Furthermore, when seated in single desks, girls showed a better performance in the theory of mind, and lonelier children performed better in theory ofmind and creativity. This on field experimental study suggests the importance of considering both the nature of the task and children’s individual characteristics when deciding on a seating arrangement in the classroom.
... A branch of research within environmental psychology focuses on the impact of learning environments, namely, school-related structural and spatial dimensions, on students' outcomes in levels of achievement, engagement, affective state, attendance and well-being (Higgins, Hall, Wall, Woolner and McCaughey 2005). Evidence from this eld has shown that the physical environment of schools and classrooms has an important in uence on students' comfort, on their behavior, and on social interactions among peers and between teachers and their students (Byers, Mahat, Liu, Knock and Imms 2018;Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). Several studies have revealed that students' learning skills are also in uenced by various environmental factors, such as school building design, noise, temperature, and lighting, as well as the presence of green spaces (Manca, Cerina, Tobia, Sacchi and Fornara 2020). ...
... Some studies have investigated student behavior and attainment based on seating arrangement and how seating arrangement affects the extent and nature of student interactions (Haghighi and Jusan 2012;van den Berg and Cillessen 2015). This branch of research has shown that behaviors connected to school tasks, such as hand-raising, asking questions, or being out of seat without permission, are associated with the arrangement of desks in the classroom (Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). Importantly, Wannarka and Ruhl's (2008) synthesis suggests that two elements should play a role in the decision of desk arrangement: the nature of the task administered and children's individual characteristics. ...
... This branch of research has shown that behaviors connected to school tasks, such as hand-raising, asking questions, or being out of seat without permission, are associated with the arrangement of desks in the classroom (Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). Importantly, Wannarka and Ruhl's (2008) synthesis suggests that two elements should play a role in the decision of desk arrangement: the nature of the task administered and children's individual characteristics. Being seated in rows makes interactions among peers inconvenient and apparent to teachers; thus, this organization is superior to minimize disruptive behavior and maximize on-task behavior during individual activities (Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
To date, despite the great debate regarding the best seating arrangement for learning in classrooms, no empirical studies have examined the direct effects of different seating arrangements on children’s cognitive processes. This is particularly important nowadays that the COVID-19 measures include maintaining distance in the classroom. Aim of this study was experimentally investigating the effect of changing the seating arrangement (clusters vs. rows and columns), on logical reasoning, creativity and theory of mind, in children attending primary school. Furthermore, some individual characteristics (e.g., gender, loneliness, popularity) were analysed as potential moderators. Results on 77 participants showed that, when children were seated in rows and columns, their score in logical reasoning was globally higher. Furthermore, when seated in rows and columns, girls showed a better performance in the theory of mind, and lonelier children performed better in theory of mind and creativity. This on field experimental study suggests the importance of considering both the nature of the task and children’s individual characteristics when deciding on a seating arrangement in the classroom.
... It can be influenced by many factors, such as lecture content, working memory resources, tiredness, boredom (Hlas et al., 2019), physical classroom environment (e.g., seating arrangements and visual displays) is regarded as one of the most important ingredients (Fisher et al., 2014). It has been reported that orderly rows can enhance students' attention to a lesson (Budge, 2000), encourage on-task behaviors (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008), and reduce inappropriate behaviors during individual or independent work (Robichaux, 2016;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). However, students sitting at the back or sides of the classroom who are physically distant from the teacher will perceive a psychological distance from the teacher and display unfavorable off-task behaviors. ...
... It can be influenced by many factors, such as lecture content, working memory resources, tiredness, boredom (Hlas et al., 2019), physical classroom environment (e.g., seating arrangements and visual displays) is regarded as one of the most important ingredients (Fisher et al., 2014). It has been reported that orderly rows can enhance students' attention to a lesson (Budge, 2000), encourage on-task behaviors (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008), and reduce inappropriate behaviors during individual or independent work (Robichaux, 2016;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). However, students sitting at the back or sides of the classroom who are physically distant from the teacher will perceive a psychological distance from the teacher and display unfavorable off-task behaviors. ...
... However, students sitting at the back or sides of the classroom who are physically distant from the teacher will perceive a psychological distance from the teacher and display unfavorable off-task behaviors. In contrast, in a semicircular arrangement or similar configurations, teachers can ensure that all the students are at the same distance from the teacher; in addition, students can concentrate more when engaged in group activities than in orderly rows (Lotfy, 2012;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). However, in semicircular arrangements, students need to move their chairs to face the teacher when important information or explanations are being given, and teachers may struggle to hold students' attention when they are teaching (Mercier et al., 2014;Robichaux, 2016) or trying to conclude a class activity (Harmer, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has documented that seating arrangements have great impact on student's active engagement within classrooms. However, insufficient attention has been given to students’ preferences for classroom seating arrangements and their engagement in college English language blended learning classrooms in higher education. Employing questionnaire surveys and a case study method with a sample of 94 first-year college students, the present research examined how students’ preferences for seating arrangements affected their engagement in cooperative learning (CL) activities in English as a foreign language (EFL) blended learning classrooms in higher education. The analysis through a two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) indicated that a semicircular seating arrangement was better for integrating students into the CL activities than a rows-and-columns seating arrangement in terms of communication affordance, concentration maintenance, and classroom environment. An analysis with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that students’ preference for the former seating type remained the same; that is, they preferred semicircular seating both before and after they had experienced both kinds of seating types because it promoted a better classroom experience. Implications for how to utilize seating arrangements to enhance student engagement in EFL blended learning classrooms in higher education are discussed.
... The seating arrangement discussed in terms of the supportive context to facilitate progress of students in different levels (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008), which plays a role as a hidden curriculum in the academia (Taylor & Vlastos, 2009). In detail studies, the seating arrangement listed the row-column, joined, cluster or grouped, the circular, and free form (Yang, Becerik-Gerber, & Mino, 2013;Gremmen, VandenBerg, Segers, & Cillessen, 2016) although current studies criticized that his classification less adapted with higher education targets (Xi, Yuan, YunQui, & Chiang, 2017). ...
... This form normally is not stable and the students changed the form many times based on the activities (Tanner, 2009;Vander Schee, 2011;Bicard, Ervin, Bicard, & Baylot, 2012) in the studio such as study, model making, or presentation. However, the competition for the occupying the better space such as size, accessibility, and facility exist (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Therefore, it was supposed that with putting the students in this from of the seating arrangement, the students support each other not only based on the same topic and task for the study but also to share the common space, equipment, and furniture in the studio. ...
... The studies on the seating arrangement and the effect on the students' behaviour were included a rich background, particularly in educational psychology area in recent years (Wheldoll & Brodd, 2010). Despite the long list of the studies on the raw-column seating arrangement (Gifford, 2002;Atherton, 2005;Bonus & Riordan, 1998;Fernandes, Huang, & Rinaldo, 2011;Kaya & Burgess, 2007;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008;Haghighi & Jusan, 2012), the studies on grouping form of the seating arrangement such as grouped-table and joined-table was started with some critiques on the classical pattern of classroom in the mid of the twenty century (Steinzor, 1950;Gump, 1987) to evaluate the peer-to-peer effects on the learning process and outcomes through a new form of seating arrangement concept (Callahan, 2004;Burke & Sass, 2013). Seemingly, the theory of the seating arrangement has been evolved from the raw-column to the joined form, and then grouped from (Gremmen, VandenBerg, Segers, & Cillessen, 2016) to facilitate the performance of the students efficiently (Gillies, 2003;Serpell, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the learning outcome of students' Group-Table method when employed in an Architectural Thesis Studio and their communication, collaboration and social interaction levels after all. The group-table method has been applied for a period of time in the studio to discover the effects of the seating arrangement on the educational and behavioural pattern of students in their learning activities. The methodology was designed qualitative methods specifically the open-ended questionnaire, observation, and in particular, the photography techniques were applied to measure the behaviour of the students. The finding of the research indicates that the students' change of seating arrangement and grouping, constantly introduce healthy learning competition and access to more space, more facility and equipment. Accordingly, some aggressive behaviours to grab more space is constantly observed, hence, the results strongly contradict the purpose for which group tables was introduced as a learning method. In conclusion, despite the fact that the grouped table provided advantages to share data, information, and idea on the tables, the application of this seating arrangement requires a certain level of maturity and privacy for the students to concentrate on the study and research in a common room.
... It was hypothesized that students who are seated in proximal seat in their class near to the technicians (teachers) would benefit more and learn better from the wire-bending skill training compared to those located in further seats. Classroom physical setting such as arrangement of the seats and learners seating position in class are believed to have important roles in optimizing the class management [18,19]. Many studies support the fact that learning is maximized when students are seated near the teacher/instructor even though this was not all the time statistically significant [20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... Therefore, it can be concluded that students learn better when they are seated nearer to their teachers, even though not many research supports that. Wannarka & Ruhl (2008) highlighted that classroom seat position may have an impact on the management of the class [19]. In a study done by Halstead (1974), it was concluded that "A student in the classroom is properly seated if he has a clear view of the instructor. . ...
... Therefore, it can be concluded that students learn better when they are seated nearer to their teachers, even though not many research supports that. Wannarka & Ruhl (2008) highlighted that classroom seat position may have an impact on the management of the class [19]. In a study done by Halstead (1974), it was concluded that "A student in the classroom is properly seated if he has a clear view of the instructor. . ...
Article
Full-text available
Flipped classroom may overcome weaknesses of live demonstration in teaching orthodontic wire-bending. This study aims to compare the effectiveness between flipped classroom and live demonstration in transferring skills for fabricating Adams clasp. Forty third-year undergraduate dental students were assigned to two groups. The students in group LD (n = 20) attended a live demonstration while students in group FC (n = 20) attended a flipped classroom. Both groups were taught on skills to fabricate Adams clasp in a standardised way. Each student from both groups were asked to submit an Adams clasp for a blinded quality assessment by two trained and calibrated assessors using a 18-item rubric, followed by validated students' satisfaction questionnaires to evaluate their perceived satisfaction on the teaching method received. A crossover study was then conducted three weeks later where LD attended a flipped classroom while FC attended a live demonstration. Students' satisfaction questionnaires were again collected from each student for blinded analysis. Mean scores for the quality of Adams clasp were 9.775 and 9.125 for LD and FC, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the two groups. Statistically significant association was found for one statement on the questionnaire, "I found the classroom arrangements conducive for the wire-bending activity" (p = 0.010). No significant differences were found between the two groups for other statements (p > 0.05). In conclusion, within the limitations of the study, flipped classroom is equally effective as conventional live demonstration in transferring orthodontic wire-bending skills for fabrication of Adams clasp. However, students perceived the classroom arrangements during the flipped classroom significantly more conducive for teaching orthodontic wire-bending.
... Evidence from the field of Environmental Psychology has "shown that the physical environment of schools and classrooms has an important influence on students' comfort, on their behavior, and on social interactions among peers and between teachers and their students" (Byers, Mahat, Liu, Knock, & Imms, 2018;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008) as stated in Tobias, V., et al., (2020). In this paper, three classroom sitting and furniture placement designs are considered. ...
... Also, the interpersonal contact between students due to a low physical distance can positively influence their social perceptions on each other. Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008) believed was "in line with the intergroup contact theory and the contact hypothesis, which state that contact can effectively reduce negative peer perceptions and can increase liking among peers (Allport 1954; Pettigrew 1998). ...
... 3. Discipline and orderliness: Seating arrangements are important classroom setting and supporting physical resource, because of the potential to help prevent problem of behaviors that decrease student attention and waste available instructional time. Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008) synthesized empirical literature to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioral outcomes for primary through secondary high school students with a range of characteristics. The evidence seems to support "the idea that students display higher levels of appropriate behavior during individual tasks when they are seated in rows, with disruptive students benefiting the most." ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Teachers are often challenged on classroom design and space optimization that could bring the best out of learning environment given the available resources. Mostly not serious researches have been published on effects of seats arrangement on cognition, lesson delivery and classroom control. These are part of the contribution made by this article as it reviews and offers practical perspectives on three popular student seats arrangements: the traditional long rows (with variants including stadium or lecture theatre design , paired seat rows by columns arrangement, etc.), the U-shape or horseshoe design and the pod-community sitting design. This include principles that educators can consider in choosing arrangements most appropriate for learning and realizing the content and Instructional objectives. Literatures were explored, and from teaching experience, a balance between instructional objectives, class characteristics and diversity, and cost affordable to the school is suggested. Teacher’s innovation and improvisation are informed by their exposure and classroom experience. The arrangement of pair desk modules was shown to be the best in all situation, easy to readjust into pod-community design and into u-shape when appropriate for 21st century flipped learning, interactive and collaborative leaning shifts , giving its flexibility, advantage in time before lesson, and with the optimum results.
... However, other studies demonstrate some off-tasks behaviours in U-shaped in terms of disruptive behaviours (Fernandes, Huang, & Rinaldo, 2011;Simmons et al., 2015), which negatively affected the students' collaboration and learning outcomes. Although a wide range of studies take the place on the effects of the circular seating position on the learning outcomes of students such as the advantage (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008;Simmons et al., 2015) and disadvantage (Wasnock, 2010;Yang, Becerik-Gerber, & Mino, 2013), there are a few studies took the place in the design studios. ...
... The U-shaped form of the seating arrangement was presented as an effective form with results in more asking question (Marx, Fuhrer, & Hartig, 2000), effective on the learning process (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008), more interaction between the students (Fernandes, Huang, & Rinaldo, 2011), and Asian Journal of Assessment in Teaching and Learning Vol 11, Issue 1, 2021 (85-97) ISSN2232-1926/eISSN 2600 increasing the relationships (Van den Berg & Cillessen, 2015). In addition, studies discovered that this seating form creates a better view for students and instructor (Vander Schee, 2011), a free space for activities and interaction (Eugene & Melaine, 2013), direct eyes contact (Simmons et al., 2015), and an adapted form with the student-oriented learning objectives (Gremmen et al., 2016). ...
... For example, the report about the disruptive behaviours in schools exposed bullying, intimidation, and incivility in the USA (Salkind, 2008) as three common misbehaviours. However, the on-off tasks behaviours of the students were represented by competition in higher education (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008;Burke & Sass, 2013). ...
Article
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The results of the exercise on the Wall-Faced seating arrangement in an architecture thesis design studio reveal the positive effects on the progress, concentration, and design of the students. The seating arrangement encouraged the students for more design products and development through increase the sense of competition. The seating arrangement changed the concentration of the students from the central part of the studio as a location for social interaction toward the drawing board as the learning target of the studio with more concentration on the drawing boards. The seating arrangement changes the concentration from the people in the studio as subject to the drawing board and design development as the object. In the new seating from the level of the collaboration between the students enhanced and the students communicated consistency to enhance the level of the design project in the studio. The research findings reveal that the students present five behavioural patterns in the design studio in the seating arrangement including collaborative, individual, separated, isolated, and disruptive. The level of collaboration, sharing of design ideas, and design development in collaborative behaviour are sufficient and effective although the level fades out in the other behavioural patterns.
... The effect of seating arrangement on the behavior and interaction of students in a group has been a traditional theme in education research (Bonus & Riordan, 1998;Marx et al.,1999;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Results of contemporary research suggest that, if the goal of a lesson is interaction between students and teachers, it is better to arrange the session in a U-shape or in a circle (Hastings & Schwieso, 1995;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). ...
... The effect of seating arrangement on the behavior and interaction of students in a group has been a traditional theme in education research (Bonus & Riordan, 1998;Marx et al.,1999;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Results of contemporary research suggest that, if the goal of a lesson is interaction between students and teachers, it is better to arrange the session in a U-shape or in a circle (Hastings & Schwieso, 1995;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). However, despite the fact that the paradigm of reflective practice has been an integral part of the education of future teachers for more than 30 years (cf. ...
... Group interaction, seating arrangement and field of study Brown and Pruis (1958) consider seating arrangement as one of the important factors influencing group participation at university. The traditional arrangement in columns and rows allows for less participation of students compared to the u-shaped/circular/semicircular arrangement (Fassinger, 1995;Fritschner, 2000;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Gump (1987) presents the hypothesis that students sitting around a table can establish communication much more easily than in rows. ...
Article
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In the conducted field experiment, we explore the intensity of university students' interaction related to the seating arrangement (circle or rows) in pre-service teachers' groups during the reflective practice. We also probe the differences across the various fields of study and evaluate the facilitator's influence on the interaction. We use wearable electronic Sociometric badges 2.0 to measure the interaction intensity (assessed by speech rate and average speaking segment length). We performed a total of 153 repeated measurements on 58 students in 4 different fields of study (Mathematics, Physics, Music, and Civic Education) using a counterbalanced design with a total of four measurements (two in circle and two in rows) in each group. Results of the multilevel modeling analysis indicate more intensive interaction in rows than in circles. However, the findings also indicate significant moderation by the field of study and partially by the extent of facilitator involvement.
... 785). Conscientious and professional teachers organise and manage the spatial structure of their classrooms for students with SEBD such that it becomes a predictable and comfortable environment which facilitates positive relationships with peers and adults (Schloss & Smith, 1998;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). ...
... Given the emergent sub-themes, we came to an understanding of the importance of teacher strategies in minimising problematic behaviours. We also understood, as emphasised by Schloss and Smith (1998), and Wannarka and Ruhl (2008) that conducive classroom environments need clear rules, routines and positive relationships if they are to minimise children's unacceptable behaviours. Furthermore, as advocated by Devecchi and Rouse (2010), we recognised that close teacher-LSE collaboration benefits children. ...
Chapter
In this sixth volume, a committed set of authors explore the Psychology field, therefore contributing to reach the frontiers of knowledge. Success depends on the participation of those who wish to find creative solutions and believe in their potential to change the world, altogether, to increase public engagement and cooperation from communities. Part of our mission is to serve society with these initiatives and promote knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary the strengthening of research efforts in all fields and cooperation between the most assorted studies and backgrounds. In particular, this book explores five major areas (divided into five sections) within the broad context of Psychology: Social Psychology, Cognitive and Experimental Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Legal Psychology and Educational Psychology. Each section comprises chapters that have emerged from extended and peer reviewed selected papers originally published in the proceedings of the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT 2020) conference series (http://www.inpact-psychologyconference.org/). This conference occurs annually with successful outcomes. Original papers have been selected and its authors were invited to extend them significantly to once again undergo an evaluation process, afterwards the authors of the accepted chapters were requested to make corrections and improve the final submitted chapters. This process has resulted in the final publication of 33 high quality chapters.
... This further reinforces the point made by Wannarka and Ruhl (2008) on the importance classroom arrangements have in promoting inclusion in classrooms with multicultural populations. According to Foucault (1979), spatial arrangements in the classroom have served as basis for the institutions of ranks and norms. ...
... Setting the class in the right way can be a proactive way of getting the best out of students other than waiting to only react when things go wrong. The way some teachers used seating arrangements in managing migrant students with linguistic challenges confirms previous research by Wannarka and Ruhl (2008) on structural conditions in classrooms impacting the academic performance of students. ...
Article
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This article focuses on deepening the understanding of the factors affecting migrant students’ integration in Ghana’s educational system. Research on migrant education has primarily centred on northern destination countries. Using the case of West African migrant children in a multiethnic and multilingual Ghanaian setting, the article examines the complex and interplaying factors affecting migrant students’ integration into Ghanaian schools. Analysis from 40 semi-structured interviews with teachers and principals drawn from 30 schools offers insights into the challenges faced by schools in trying to help migrant students succeed. The study offers practical insights into the advantages of having teachers with a migrant background, especially the extent to which they use their intercultural competencies in helping migrant students overcome school-related challenges. While the fieldwork was carried out in Ghana, the implications are also of interest to other jurisdictions where schools are faced with migration-related diversity.
... Classrooms with adequate space to reconfigure seating arrangements are conducive to experimenting with various types of teaching techniques (Perks et al., 2016). Comfort in the physical classroom has become a much-studied subject, with studies taking note of how a rigid seating arrangement adversely impacts student performance and, on the other hand, a more flexible arrangement increases comfort and enables the teachers to follow modern pedagogical practices (Haghighi and Jusan, 2012;Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008;Wells and Daunt, 2016). ...
... The study finds that multiple classroom environmental factors (comfort, temperature and humidity, cleanliness, design and functionality, audio and visual features) significantly influence students' emotions, cognitions and behaviours. Several studies have made similar observations, i.e. positive classroom environmental factors stimulate a positive emotional state of activation or that the pleasantness and the emotionality of pleasantness improve students' academic involvement (Banks, 2014;Cheng, 1994;Clements-Croome et al., 2008;Greenwald et al., 1996) and their behavioural approach (Han et al., 2018;Haverinen-Shaughnessy et al., 2011;McCorskey and McVetta, 1978;O'Neill and Palmer, 2004;Ryu et al., 2012;Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008). Overall, all the proposed hypotheses are supported, demonstrating the role of classroom environmental factors in the formation of students' emotional state, which further influences their behavioural approach and academic involvement (ASIYAI, 2014;Taylor et al., 2009;Wells and Daunt, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to use the servicescape model of higher education environments to measure the students’ perceptions of the learning environment (classroom) and the effect this has on students’ learning ability. Design/methodology/approach The present study follows the stimulus-organism-response paradigm framework. A self-administered and well-structured survey questionnaire is used to collect data. The snowball sampling technique is used to collect samples of 403 students belonging to Maldivian higher education institutions. Findings Findings show that the physical appearances of these higher education institutions greatly influenced the pleasure dimension. Furthermore, pleasure is found to have a significant and positive relationship with the approach behaviour and engagement/involvement of the students. Originality/value The main contribution of the study is that it successfully tests the “Eduscape” model adopted from the servicescape model, and thus helps to extend existing knowledge on the critical elements in the Maldivian higher education learning environments and student’s behaviour within them. The findings have implications for higher education institutions to improve their learning environments and better engage with their students.
... An important feature of children's school experience throughout the world is the frequent reshuffling of their classroom seating. In the literature pertaining to education and schooling, seating arrangements are recognised as a basic feature of the classroom setting (Amedeo and Dyck 2003;Douglas and Gifford 2001;Weinstein 1979) and the assignment of seating order is considered to be an important pedagogical tool to support and enhance teaching and learning activities (Dreikurs, Grunwald, and Pepper 2013;Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). ...
... Much of the literature on classroom seatings has focused on its impact on children's classroom performance. Numerous studies have compared different seating layouts and developed models to promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes in classrooms (Bennett and Blundell 1983;Hastings and Schwieso 1995;Marx, Fuhrer, and Hartig 1999;Rosenfield, Lambert, and Black 1985;Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). Other researchers have further examined the link between specific seating locations and children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks (Holliman and Anderson 1986;Moore 1984;Totusek and Staton-Spicer 1982;Weaver and Qi 2005). ...
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This study explores the multilayered meanings of classroom seating order – a crucial spatial element of school life – and its influences on children’s experiences. Drawing on fieldwork in a secondary school in northwest China, I ethnographically examine how school educators impose a hierarchy of seats in moral terms. My study shows that classroom seating arrangements in China’s underprivileged public schools are perceived as a hierarchy. Teachers motivate students to take learning seriously by strategically assigning the students to hierarchical seating locations and manipulating the proximity of their seats. I contend that classroom seating order has been transformed into a symbolic hierarchy to cultivate students’ attitude, a moral attribute considered crucial for achieving educational success. This study contributes to the emerging literature on the space in relation to educational processes. By situating the classroom seating into broader social-cultural-economic processes, it also demonstrates the methodological value of ethnographical examination of classroom.
... Baines et al. (2003) reports that, unfortunately, this aspect of classroom management is hardly addressed in teacher trainings, even though the physical design of the classroom has shown to be important for both the academic and social development of students. Therefore, according to Wannarka and Ruhl (2008) seating arrangements can increase on-task behavior and decrease off-task behavior. Classroom management is an important task for teachers and part of this task is their responsibility for the physical design of the classroom. ...
... There are also many ways to arrange a classroom. According to Wannarka and Ruhl (2008) "arrangement in small groups, U-shaped seatings, or a classroom with undivided, flexible arrangements. Some of these arrangements are more common than others, such as an arrangement in rows or small groups" (pp. ...
Article
Classroom management (CM) is one of the most pressing problems faced by Libyan Secondary School teachers in Misurata City. This study used mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative ) to find out the classroom management problems and coping strategies. The participants of the study were10 female Libyan teachers from Asma secondary school in Misurata. All of them were chosen randomly and they were asked to fill in the questionnaire. Also, two main teachers were observed in their class time. The analyses of data obtained from the questionnaire and observation indicated that there are two kinds of classroom problems faced by English Foreign Language Teachers (EFLT) mainly students' misbehavior in the class and academic problems of teaching large class sizes with mixed abilities, and seating arrangement. The findings showed that 100% of teachers were in agreement that the behavior problems can disrupt teaching and learning processes. On the other hand, all of teachers agree that large class size affects the quality of their teaching and impacts on monitoring / evaluation of lessons. Various coping strategies were also elicited to deal with each problem mentioned.
... As to the second question, on classroom characteristics, it has been shown that when plants are present in the environment, student performance improves [38][39][40] and that the arrangement of furniture in classrooms influences teachers' behaviors [41], in-class teaching methodologies [42,43], and how students interact [43][44][45]. However, the central theme has been the influence of the built space on student learning. ...
... As to the second question, on classroom characteristics, it has been shown that when plants are present in the environment, student performance improves [38][39][40] and that the arrangement of furniture in classrooms influences teachers' behaviors [41], in-class teaching methodologies [42,43], and how students interact [43][44][45]. However, the central theme has been the influence of the built space on student learning. ...
Article
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A fundamental problem in the design of a classroom is to identify what characteristics it should have in order to optimize learning. This is a complex problem because learning is a construct related to several cognitive processes. The aim of this study is to maximize learning, represented by the processes of attention, memory, and preference, depending on six classroom parameters: height, width, color hue, color saturation, color temperature, and illuminance. Multi-objective integer linear programming with three objective functions and 56 binary variables was used to solve this optimization problem. Virtual reality tools were used to gather the data; novel software was used to create variations of virtual classrooms for a sample of 112 students. Using an interactive method, more than 4700 integer linear programming problems were optimally solved to obtain 13 efficient solutions to the multi-objective problem, which allowed the decision maker to analyze all the information and make a final choice. The results showed that achieving the best cognitive processing performance involves using different classroom configurations. The use of a multi-objective interactive approach is interesting because in human behavioral studies, it is important to consider the judgement of an expert in order to make decisions.
... The latter measure is more subtle than the former. Classroom seating arrangements are considered to be essential management tools, and research shows that these arrangements impact learning outcomes (Wannarka and Ruhl (2008)). In our setting, host students, students who are popular (with higher in-degree centrality), and those who are reported to be teacher's favorites are less likely to be seated at the back, where it is harder to get teacher's attention. ...
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Using uniquely detailed data on primary school children, we show that teachers who hold prejudicial attitudes towards an ethnic group create socially segregated classrooms. We identify this relationship by exploiting a natural experiment where newly arrived refugee children are randomly assigned to teachers. We elicit children's social networks to construct multiple measures of social exclusion and ethnic segregation in classrooms. We find that teachers' ethnic prejudice, measured by an Implicit Association Test, significantly lowers the prevalence of social ties between host and refugee children, increases homophily amongst host children, and puts refugee children at a higher risk of bullying victimization. Our results suggest that teachers' ethnic prejudice may be a significant barrier against building cohesive schools in ethnically diverse communities. JEL Codes: I24, J15
... Vibrant learning environment with modern technological gadgets grasps students' cognitive abilities, grants extra knowledge acquisition and strengthens technological skills (Lombardozzi, 2015). Literature reported that vibrant learning environment provides jam packed atmosphere for students in diversity of ways; supports and fosters healthy relationship between learners and instructors (Pianta et al., 2002), assists prospect for students' frequent performance and self-motivated learning (Niemi, 2002), sustains students' activity based and problem based learning (David, 2008), supports students' autonomous learning (Zimmerman, 1990), promotes students' knowledge spot (Tinto, 1997), provokes learners' appealing access towards goal attainment (Caroline et al., 2010) and strengthens students' active involvement and engagement (Edwards, 2012;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). ...
Article
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Technology plants concrete effects on the supremacy of humans' technological success that have been remaining awe-inspiring aspects for stakeholders; teachers and students since last eras. Teachers make students technologically literate, reshape their hidden potential, skill them through modern gadgets, help in understanding and evaluating their functions applying technological and engineering standards for goal achievements. Present research was conducted to explore the effect of teachers' technological literacy on students' academic success occurs in vibrant environment on conveniently selected sample of 200 teachers working in public and private universities of district Lahore. Researchers administered a self-developed survey to collect data from teachers. Content validity of questionnaire was ensured from experts and reliability was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's Alpha Scores .821. Normality of the data was assured by calculating Shapiro-Wilk's test, n < 2000, p > .05. Students' academic success was measured through acquiring achievement scores, obtained from concerned university offices ensuring ethical considerations, as in data collections. Results of independent samples t-test and regression analysis ascertained no significant difference between usage of technological literacy by teachers' gender and university type; male teachers working in public and private universities have same usage of technological literacy as compared to female teachers. Moreover, teachers' technological literacy affect 43% on students' academic success occurs in vibrant learning environment. On the basis of results, research recommends that universities may established digital lab ensuring vibrant environment and hire technologically literate staff providing fringe benefits to meet 21st century technological literacy demands for students' success.
... The next model is orderly row seating model found in Denton (1992), Harmer (1998), McLeod et al. (2003, Ruhl and Wannarka (2008), and Simmons et al. (2015). In this model, teachers sit a desk placed before the blackboard or projector screen. ...
Article
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Classroom management is an essential element of the teaching and learning process which determines the quality of instruction. This research aims to investigate the elements of classroom management which can be effectively applied in EFL classrooms. This study is a review research study, where the data were collected from 43 previously published materials, restricted to books, dissertations, and articles published in academic journal. The data were analysed using data condensation, data display and conclusion drawing. The results of this study show that there are three elements of classroom management, i.e. seating arrangements, engagement, and participation. The seating arrangement has three effective components including u-shaped, sitting in a group, and orderly row. Further, student engagement consists of cognitive, behavioural, academic, emotional, social, intellectual, physiological, affective and relational engagement approaches. Meanwhile, participation includes classroom talk, teacher talk, collaborative talk, exploratory talk, disputational talk, and learner-managed talk. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers utilize effective classroom management components based on the results of this study to improve the quality of instruction.
... In classes that have short periods, it may be preferable to limit the number of discussion questions or allow for discussions to span multiple sessions. Large-group discussion in a circle may also contribute to student success and engagement through allowing students to see and hear each other more easily (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Three students indicated in the comments that they would have liked to incorporate this structure into the futureoriented discussion, and four said they would have liked to incorporate this structure into the future-oriented roleplay. ...
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There is little research on teaching futurology, which is surprising, given that instructors with a future-oriented perspective can encourage students to express constructive hope about controversial problems (e.g., climate change) rather than denying problems (Ojala, 2015). This study evaluates what learning outcomes can be accomplished through three different future-oriented in-class group activities: a future-oriented discussion, a future-oriented roleplay activity, and a backcasting activity. Analysis of student feedback suggests that these three activities encourage similar levels of student interest, understanding, and productive discussion while helping students practice both general college skills and skills specifically related to futurology. The main strength of future-oriented discussion is general understanding of both a topic and one’s own perspective on it; of future-oriented roleplay, debate and emotional engagement; and of backcasting, evaluation of different potential futures and a sense of ownership over the future.
... This includes factors such as the room's lighting, color-scheme, maintenance level, noise level (Klatte et al., 2010), temperature (Mendell & Heath, 2005;Wargocki & Wyon, 2007), furniture quality and layout (Castellucci et al., 2017), air quality (Daisey et al., 2003), and the incorporation of connections to nature (Kidger et al., 2012;Ulrich, 2006). In addition to ambient environment variables, the design of the physical classroom, such as seating arrangement (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008), seating type (Harvey & Kenyon, 2013), access to technology (Radcliffe, 2008), color (Engelbrecht, 2003), and building quality (Maxwell & Schechtman, 2012) have been shown to impact student attitudes, achievements, and behaviors, even when controlling for socioeconomic variables. ...
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This study investigated the neural dynamics associated with short-term exposure to different virtual classroom designs with different window placement and room dimension. Participants engaged in five brief cognitive tasks in each design condition including the Stroop Test, the Digit Span Test, the Benton Test, a Visual Memory Test, and an Arithmetic Test. Performance on the cognitive tests and Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed by contrasting various classroom design conditions. The cognitive-test-performance results showed no significant differences related to the architectural design features studied. We computed frequency band-power and connectivity EEG features to identify neural patterns associated to environmental conditions. A leave one out machine learning classification scheme was implemented to assess the robustness of the EEG features, with the classification accuracy evaluation of the trained model repeatedly performed against an unseen participant's data. The classification results located consistent differences in the EEG features across participants in the different classroom design conditions, with a predictive power that was significantly higher compared to a baseline classification learning outcome using scrambled data. These findings were most robust during the Visual Memory Test, and were not found during the Stroop Test and the Arithmetic Test. The most discriminative EEG features were observed in bilateral occipital, parietal, and frontal regions in the theta and alpha frequency bands. While the implications of these findings for student learning are yet to be determined, this study provides rigorous evidence that brain activity features during cognitive tasks are affected by the design elements of window placement and room dimensions.
... Additionally, connectivity analysis reinforces that there were changes in the transfer of information from centro-parietal to frontal electrodes. These features were found mostly in the theta and alpha frequency bands (4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). The EEG features that reached the statistical significance level, and their distributions, were different between each of the design conditions vs. the neutral condition. ...
Article
This study investigated the neural dynamics associated with short-term exposure to different virtual classroom designs with different window placement and room dimension. Participants engaged in five brief cognitive tasks in each design condition including the Stroop Test, the Digit Span Test, the Benton Test, a Visual Memory Test, and an Arithmetic Test. Performance on the cognitive tests and Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed by contrasting various classroom design conditions. The cognitive-test-performance results showed no significant differences related to the architectural design features studied. We computed frequency band-power and connectivity EEG features to identify neural patterns associated to environmental conditions. A leave-one-out machine-learning classification scheme was implemented to assess the robustness of the EEG features, with the classification accuracy evaluation of the trained model repeatedly performed against an unseen participant’s data. The classification results located consistent differences in the EEG features across participants in the different classroom design conditions, with a predictive power (test-set accuracy: 51.5%-61.3%) that was significantly higher compared to a baseline classification learning outcome using scrambled data. These findings were most robust during the Visual Memory Test, and were not found during the Stroop Test and the Arithmetic Test. The most discriminative EEG features were observed in bilateral occipital, parietal, and frontal regions in the theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) frequency bands. Connectivity analysis reinforced these findings by showing that there were changes in the transfer of information from centro-parietal to frontal electrodes in the different classroom conditions. While the implications of these findings for student learning are yet to be determined, this study provides rigorous evidence that brain activity features during cognitive tasks are affected by the design elements of window placement and room dimensions. The ongoing development of this EEG-based approach has the potential to strengthen evidence-based design through the use of solid neurophysiological evidence.
... With the seating arrangement in an orderly row and letter U or following the necessity, both Indonesia and Philippines consider the appropriate condition for supporting the learning process. In step with seating arrangements have the potential to assist preventing problem behaviors that decline students' attention and reduce available instructional time [44]. Additionally, the teacher should allocate the seating arrangements that are appropriate to the type of learning activities such as let the learners sit in a circle as they work in pairs or groups. ...
... Classroom seating is a crucial spatial element of children's everyday school experiences. In the literature pertaining to education, the classroom seating layout is recognized as one of the basic components of educational environment (Wannarka and Ruhl 2008;Weinstein 1979), and the assignment of seating order is regarded as an important pedagogical tool for classroom management (Dreikurs, Grunwald, and Pepper 1982;Rands and Gansemer-Topf 2017;van den Berg, Segers, and Cillessen 2012). ...
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The classroom is a crucial, everyday element of children's geographies with important socio-spatial characteristics that demand scholarly attention. This study ethnographically investigates the production of meanings in the classroom space through seating. Building on the conceptual framework of spatial dialectic (Lefebvre, H. 1991. The Production of Space. Translated by Donald Nicholson-Smith. Oxford: Blackwell), it theorizes that classroom space is a fluid process that shapes and is shaped by the everyday spatial practices of teachers and students. Specifically it draws on the fieldwork conducted at a suburban middle school in China's underdeveloped northwest region, exploring the process by which the hierarchical seating arrangements are used as a pedagogical tool for creating a charged space conducive for learning at the classroom level. The study reveals that the built space in the classroom has been transformed into a space imbued with moral terms, in and through which students are expected to commit themselves to schoolwork.
... Practically, not only the class syllabus should be given in advance, but seat arrangement and clear instructions also will be essential elements for the students with selfdisciplined dispositions. Therefore, have learners to fix their seats in the classroom will be more helpful than free seating as well as arrange their learning partners (Wannarka and Ruhl, 2008). ...
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The present study aims to develop a model illuminating the relationship between student personality traits and motivation towards learning Mandarin as a foreign language. A model framework consisting of five exogenous variables and one endogenous variable of motivation are examined in the present study. Sample of 260 undergraduates taking Mandarin language at public university in East Malaysia was used as respondents for the present work. The path analysis revealed that the big five personality traits significantly influence and explained 52% of the variance in students' motivation. The analysis further indicates that extraversion and conscientiousness produce the strongest correlation with students' motivation. The results inferred that students who enjoy social visibility and self-discipline are also who will be motivated to learn the Mandarin language. Findings also demonstrated that agreeableness positively influence motivation, and neuroticism, as expected, produce negative direct relations with motivation towards learning Mandarin as a foreign language. On the contrary, the present study did not find any correlation between openness and motivation. The implications of this study are also discussed and interpreted within the context of what educators could do to encourage students' motivation. Keywords: Big five, Extraversion, Mandarin language, Neuroticism, Personality traits.
... The most significant of this work was that of Barnard (1854) who, based on thorough classroom observations, prescribed a series of classroom arrangements to maximize teachers' surveillance of students and student's attention directed to the teacher, leading to the "traditional" lecture-based seating arrangement. This and subsequent works (see reviews by Haghighi & Jusan, 2012;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008) have been the foundation for the body of literature focused on learning spaces architecture. However, more recent work has focused on proximity aspects of the teacher in relation to students' learning. ...
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic The term “Classroom Proxemics” refers to how teachers and students use the classroom space, and its impact on learning. A large number of teachers, particularly in higher education, receive no pedagogical training or feedback on classroom proxemics. Little is known about how to create interfaces to enhance teachers' awareness, using automatic position tracking. What this paper adds Indoor positioning data from four teachers in a physics classroom are analysed. Teachers' reflections on visual representations of teachers' positioning are documented. Analytics of teachers' proxemics are identified from teachers' reflections. Emerging themes included classroom territoriality, classroom space use according to the learning design, differences between teaching behaviours and temporality. Implications for practitioners The learning design and differences among teachers play a critical role in making sense of teachers' positioning data. Analytics of classroom proxemics can create new opportunities to support professional development. The use of positioning sensors in the classroom can provide evidence for teachers to reflect on improvement and how they approach students over time.
... II. RELATED WORKS Student seating position in a classroom is often associated with student's motivation in attending the lecture [12,13,14,15] where front-seated students are perceived as students with higher motivation when compared to rear-seated students. Some even may jump into a conclusion that high performer students tend to seat in front rows whereas low performer students prefer rear rows. ...
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A number of studies regarding the correlation between student seating position and their academic performance have been conducted. However, only a few of them focusing on computer science major, which is argued to be unique in terms of teaching style and classroom layout; as the discipline puts more emphasise on hands on activity like programming, system and network configuration. Further, among those works focusing on that major, none of them specifically address undergraduate students. This paper presents an observational study involving 426 computer science undergraduate students. The study covers student activity over one academic semester. A questionnaire survey measuring student awareness about that correlation in their seating preference was also performed, with 126 students as the respondents. In general, the correlation only exists on some circumstances like student major and lecture time. Further, the seating preference can be driven by the awareness of that correlation with some motivating factors like friends, whiteboard position, and personal habit. Per occasion, it is suggested to analyse the class circumstances and the student motivating factors prior performing further actions. Index Terms— seating position; academic performance; observational study; survey instrument; computing education
... Classroom arrangements vary dramatically across and even within schools, in part, because different arrangements are beneficial for different reasons. For example, circle arrangements promote on-task behavior (e.g., Rosenfield, Lambert, & Black, 1985) and class discussions (Marx, Fuhrer, & Hartig, 1999), whereas rows and column arrangements support more positive classroom behavior (e.g., Marx et al., 1999;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). Even within a single classroom, teachers are often mobile, teaching from multiple locations. ...
Article
Purpose Current recommendations for clinical management of school-aged children with limited useable hearing unilaterally primarily focus on remote microphone systems and preferential seating. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the existing evidence supporting these recommendations. Method A narrative review was conducted, focused on nonsurgical interventions for children with limited useable hearing unilaterally. Results Six articles were identified. Three survey studies suggest high use rates and improved academic performance with contralateral routing of signal systems. One laboratory study suggests students with hearing loss need to sit closer to the desired signal (e.g., teacher) than their peers with normal hearing to achieve similar speech recognition. Two laboratory studies suggest remote microphone systems provide consistent benefits when the microphone is located near the talker of interest, whereas contralateral routing of signal systems impairs performance in noise. Conclusions The discrepancy between survey studies and laboratory studies could be explained partly due to the difference between listening situations in the laboratory and in classrooms. Everyone in the classroom is a potential talker of interest, and the listening environments are often dynamic. Thus, contralateral routing of signal systems might have more potential to improve classroom communication than was suggested by the laboratory studies. Recommendations for microphone technologies should be based on the extent to which a student is struggling, where the student sits in the classroom, and where the important talkers are located. There is not one optimal recommendation for all students, but a combination of remote microphone and contralateral routing of signal systems could work for most students. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.9956663
... Prior research on the role of classroom design on student learning outcomes has primarily focused on physical features of the learning space (e.g., seating arrangements), and ambient characteristics of the facility (e.g., light, temperature, acoustic noise) Evans, 2006;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). For example, prior research found that children are often taught in suboptimal acoustic environments, which can be detrimental for learning as increased noise and reverberation compounds the difficulty of processing oral instruction (see Erickson & Newman, 2017;Klatte, Hellbrück, Seidel, & Leistner, 2009 for review). ...
Article
Prior laboratory research suggests the visual environment can be a source of distraction for children, reducing attention to instructional tasks and learning outcomes. However, systematic research examining how the visual environment relates to attention in genuine classrooms is rare. In addition, it is unknown what specific aspects of the environment pose a challenge for attention regulation. This observational study aims to (1) provide a nuanced examination of specific elements of the classroom visual environment (e.g., visual noise, display quantity, color variability) by analyzing panoramic classroom photographs (N = 58) and (2) investigate whether specific visual environment elements are related to children's rates of on‐task behavior. Results indicate on‐task behavior was lower in classrooms containing greater quantities of visual noise and color variability, and in classrooms with either relatively small or large amounts of displays (controlling for observation session, school type, student gender, grade‐level, and instructional format). Implications for creating more optimal visual learning environments are discussed. Laboratory studies suggest that highly decorated environments reduce attention to instructional activities and learning outcomes. It is unknown whether these findings extend to genuine classrooms. This observational study investigated whether specific aspects of the visual environment are related to rates of on‐task behavior in 58 elementary school classrooms in the United States. On‐task behavior was lower in classrooms containing greater visual noise and color variability and in classrooms with relatively small or large amounts of displays.
... 3 Given that the most prevalent seating arrangement in classrooms is that of students seated in rows and facing the teacher, most studies examining the relationship between communication and the location in the classroom focus on the participation of students in these conventionally organized classrooms. Nevertheless, various types of classroom organization are used in practice, such as groups or modules, circle or half-circle arrangements, U shaped seating, and the "open-plan" classroom (Gremmen et al., 2018;Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). The relationship between students' seating locations and their positions among their peers was examined by Babad and Ezer (1993) in a study based on a sample of 2,039 fifth graders from 39 Israeli schools and using the sociometric nomination method. ...
Article
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The aim of this explorative research study was to identify the relationship between the positions of individual students in their peer social networks and their classroom seating arrangement through sociometry and social network analysis. We examined the social networks of 17 classrooms comprising 363 students (183 boys, 180 girls) attending lower secondary schools (ISCED 2A). We found that positions in social networks could not be connected with single specific seating positions. Nonetheless, certain tendencies can be observed. Students who are perceived as more likeable sit in the middle column of the classroom and are seated close to each other. Locations inhabited by dominant students are positioned further from teachers and further apart from each other. The increase of the values of degree centrality, closeness centrality, and eigenvector centrality is noticeable in desks positioned further away from the teacher. By comparing these results with studies examining seating arrangements as a means of distributing learning opportunities through student participation, specific zones can be observed in the classroom that could benefit the children seated there in their roles as students and at the same time in their roles as classmates.
... Cooperative learning happenings and presence of youngsters with distinct requirements clarify particular backgrounds affecting CM (Emmer & Stough, 2008. It seems valuable if teachers make seating arrangements according to the nature of the task (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008) accommodating all members of the class usefully. Teacher's efficiency, educational opinions, and learning prospects in the class are central (Rubie-Davies, 2008) leading her to successful manage the class. ...
... The spatial structure of the classroom, which involves patterns of student seating, the physical proximity of students to teachers, routes of physical circulation, and the overall sense of atmosphere and order, can have a significant effect on student engagement (MacAuley 1990;Rinehart 1991;Shores, Gunter, and Jack 1993;Walker and Walker 1991;Walker, Colvin and Ramsey 1995;Wolfgang 1996;Stewart and Evans 1997;Bettenhausen 1998;Quinn et al. 2000;Wannarka and Ruhl 2008). ...
Chapter
A brief survey of evidence based, classroom strategies for dealing with SEMH issues in classrooms.
... A seating arrangement in rows compared to that one in groups can instigate such positive academic behaviors (e.g., hand-raising for assistance and complying with requests). Rows can especially support students' on-task behavior during independent work but seating arrangements in small groups can facilitate interaction between students due to proximity and close positions between peers (Wannarka & Ruhl, 2008). During Civic Education lessons, only 5% of students reported having the opportunity for seating arrangements in the small groups' circle or at a round table (Figure 2). ...
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The paper highlights evaluative findings of quantitative and qualitative analysis of Civic Education curriculum implementation in the secondary school curriculum in Ukraine. The study reveals contemporary determinants of civic education improvement, identifies relevant benefits and problem issues focuses on a comprehensive assessment of CE curriculum implementation with regard to specific criteria, and emphasizes the importance of its positive impact for challenging modern Ukrainian society integration issues.
Chapter
This chapter discusses best practices in providing supports for students diagnosed with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), and spelling (dysorthographia) deficits. It examines some impacts of these and associated conditions on learning. The recommended strategies for leveraging learning for the identified population are all evidence-based. Per the author, early intervention is key to providing students with learning disabilities a meaningful learning experience. An early intervention involves the use of multiple measures to diagnose a student's present level of performance primarily with a view to finding strengths (Strengths can be used to mitigate deficits) and learning gaps, utilizing evidence-based systematic instruction delivered with treatment fidelity, and an ongoing progress monitoring.
Article
Automatic tracking of activity and location in the classroom is becoming increasingly feasible and inexpensive. However, although there is a growing interest in creating classrooms embedded with tracking capabilities using computer vision and wearables, more work is still needed to understand teachers' perceived opportunities and concerns about using indoor positioning data to reflect on their practice. This paper presents results from a qualitative study, conducted across three authentic educational settings, investigating the potential of making positioning traces available to teachers. Positioning data from 28 classes taught by 10 university teachers was captured using sensors in three different collaborative classroom spaces in the disciplines of design, health and science. The contributions of this paper to ubiquitous computing are the documented reflections of teachers from different disciplines provoked by visual representations of their classroom positioning data and that of others. These reflections point to: i) the potential benefit of using these digital traces to support teaching; and ii) concerns to be considered in the design of meaningful analytics systems for instructional proxemics.
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School furniture design which follows the latest pedagogical guidelines is a neglected topic in the education system of many countries in the world. This paper highlights preliminary results of the project "Enhancing children's well-being by sustainable school furniture design", which has a goal to enhance the school environment and furniture design, environmental creativity, sustainability and well-being of elementary school students by new furniture concepts. The first phase of the project was to analysing school environment and furniture typology in New York Central District Elementary Schools (USA) vs Zagreb City Elementary Schools (Croatia) and observing user's behaviour using current equipment in NYS public school classrooms. Among all schools which have mostly traditional furniture but creative layouts, new efforts are found in Groton Elementary School, Groton NY. This school will be used as a starting point for the new observations and creative design concepts in the next phase of the project.
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The extent to which teachers make changes in classroom seating reflects, in part, the degree to which they value promoting positive peer relationships in the classroom. We assessed the frequency with which teachers made both minor (i.e., involving only 2–3 students) and major (involving half or more students in the class) changes in classroom seating. We tested whether the frequency of seating changes was linked to teachers' beliefs about promoting positive peer relationships, their attunement to child‐ or peer‐reports of peer victimization, and their concern about bullying at the school. Participants were 37 fourth‐grade teachers and their students (N = 677). The frequency of major seating changes was negatively associated with teachers' peer‐focused classroom seating (PFCS) beliefs and to their attunement to student peer victimization. Minor seating changes were positively associated with PFCS beliefs for teachers with low or average attunement to peer victimization; however, teachers highly attuned to peer victimization made fewer minor seating changes regardless of their PFCS beliefs. Implications for research and practice are discussed. 1. Past research suggests teachers can improve children's peer relationships through the use of classroom seating arrangements. Despite this, teachers often prioritize academic or behavior management concerns when making seating changes. 2. Teachers who were more attuned to children's experiences of victimization were less likely to make changes involving the majority of the class (i.e., major changes) but were more likely to make seating changes involving a small number of students (i.e., minor changes). Relatedly, teachers who endorsed that considering peer relationships in their classroom to be highly important made the most minor seating changes. 3. The results of this study sugggest that teachers should make the most of the opportunity to both attend to and potentially improve children's peer relationships using classroom seating changes. Future research should continue to examine how classroom seating changes relate to student socioemotional and academic functioning.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of three choral configurations on a soprano section’s sound. The first configuration resembled a choir section without an assigned standing position, the second configuration grouped singers by timbre, and the third used acoustic-compatibility placement. Three conductors configured a university soprano section ( N = 13) who were audio-recorded singing in each configuration and answered questions about their perceptions. Audio recordings were analyzed acoustically using long-term average spectra and perceptually through pitch analysis and listener perceptions. Results indicated that participants sang with significantly increased spectral energy in the acoustic-compatibility configuration ( p < .001), and both singer and listener participants preferred intentional standing configurations over the random standing configuration. Findings from this study suggest that choral directors can use intentional configurations in conjunction with 2 ft intersinger spacing to improve singer comfort and overall sound.
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Les écoles au Québec font face à un contexte de détérioration des infrastructures et du mobilier qui atteint des seuils allant bien au-delà de ce qui est tolérable. L’état des lieux soulève des questions en matière d’habitabilité et fait plus spécifiquement surgir la question du confort des élèves. En effet, plusieurs recherches en pédagogie soulignent que le confort représente une des fonctions essentielles auxquelles la classe doit pouvoir répondre afin de soutenir l’apprentissage des élèves. À ce jour, le confort en milieu scolaire a surtout été abordé à partir de données objectives de nature ergonomique et architecturale. Or, les avancées en recherche suggèrent de l’envisager sous l’angle de l’expérience en raison des facteurs subjectifs qui le définissent. Ce mémoire vise à comprendre comment l’expérience de confort est perçue, vécue et imaginée par les élèves et les enseignants, à traduire ces facteurs subjectifs en critères de design et en recommandations, de même qu’à identifier son apport à l’enrichissement de l’expérience éducative. Il aborde ces questions dans 19 écoles primaires du Québec à partir de données du contexte matériel, spatial, ainsi que d’enquêtes menées auprès des élèves et des enseignants. Les résultats montrent que l’expérience de confort en contexte d’apprentissage est viscéralement contextuelle et subjective. Elle s’articule autour de treize indicateurs interreliés qui s’inscrivent dans quatre dimensions. En classe, le confort passe par un environnement calme et silencieux qui évite les stimuli inutiles, offre une cohérence visuelle, une fluidité de circulation, l’accès à des zones dédiées, ainsi qu’à des espaces personnels pour les élèves. Afin de stimuler le mouvement et l’autonomie des élèves, il ressort que l’environnement d’apprentissage doit aussi préconiser l'intégration d'une diversité de mobilier. Cette offre doit toutefois être rationalisée en regard des préoccupations ergonomiques. D’autres variables sont aussi en cause. Parmi celles-ci, les assises et surfaces de travail, devraient être ajustables spacieuses, mobiles, légères, silencieuses, personnalisables, réparables, nettoyables, durables, stables et simple à entreposer. Les sièges et les dossiers devraient privilégier des matériaux souples et des formes organiques. Enfin, selon les enseignants, le confort serait susceptible d’améliorer l’expérience éducative, notamment en matière de concentration, de motivation et de confiance en soi.
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Objective: This study aimed to explore students' perceptions of flipped classroom (FC) compared to live demonstration (LD) in transferring skills of fabricating orthodontic wire components for orthodontic removable appliances. Methods: Forty third-year undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to two groups: FC (n = 20) and LD (n = 20). Students in group FC attended FC, while students in group LD attended LD. Both groups underwent a series of standardized teaching sessions to acquire skills in fabricating six types of orthodontic wire components. Eight students (four high achievers and four low achievers) from each group were randomly selected to attend separate focus group discussion (FGD) sessions. Students' perceptions on the strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions for improvement on each teaching method were explored. Audio and video recordings of FGD were transcribed and thematically analyzed using NVivo version 12 software. Results: Promoting personalized learning, improvement in teaching efficacy, inaccuracy of three-dimensional demonstration from online video, and lack of standardization among instructors and video demonstration were among the themes identified. Similarly, lack of standardization among instructors was one of the themes identified for LD, in addition to other themes such as enabling immediate clarification and vantage point affected by seating arrangement and class size. Conclusions: In conclusion, FC outperformed LD in fostering personalized learning and improving the efficacy of physical class time. LD was more advantageous than FC in allowing immediate question and answer. However, seating arrangement and class size affected LD in contrast to FC.
Article
To investigate how high school students engaged in blended STEM courses, this study developed a new digital observation protocol, Classroom Observation Protocol for Interactive Engagement in STEM (COPIE-STEM) to observe patterns of behaviors between teachers and students. We also distinguished the data according to two common types of STEM programs (i.e., mainly lecture versus mainly hands-on). In the present study, a case study design was used to validate this COPIE-STEM. It was able to code 8 teacher behaviors classified into three categories: Student-Centered, Teacher-Centered, and Transitional activities; and 26 student behaviors of Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive engagement based on the ICAP framework (Chi, 2009). Interrater reliability was satisfactory. Observational data collected from 25 classes showed that students were most engaged in Active activities and less in Constructive and Interactive activities. When students engaged in Interactive, Constructive and Active activities, teachers' activities were mostly Student-Centered. In contrast, when students showed Passive Engagement behaviors, teachers were mostly engaged in Teacher-Centered educational activities. Using social network analysis to process each student's data, we created graphs of student-teacher associations and found four types of student-teacher behavior associations: Constructive with Extensive Interaction (C-EI), Constructive with Few Interactions (C-FI), Constructive Engagement (CE) and Active Engagement (AE). In hands-on courses, there were more C-EI patterns, while in lecture courses, CE and C-FI patterns dominated. The results of social network analysis showed there was more and diverse co-occurrence of teacher-student behaviors in the C-EI patterns, and students' behavioral nodes were more closely related to teachers' behavioral nodes in the C-EI patterns in both hands-on and lecture courses. Finally, student interaction was limited and constrained in the lecture courses, whereas in the hands-on courses, student interaction was more frequent and less constrained by seating arrangement. The findings suggest that high school teachers should design tasks that allow students to stay engaged in deeper learning.
Article
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) provides great potential to experimentally investigate effects of peers on student learning in class and to strategically deploy virtual peer learners to improve learning. The present study examined how three social-related classroom configurations (i.e., students' position in the classroom, visualization style of virtual avatars, and virtual classmates' performance-related behavior) affect students' visual attention toward information presented in the IVR classroom using a large-scale eye-tracking data set of N = 274 sixth graders. ANOVA results showed that the IVR configurations were systematically associated with differences in learners' visual attention on classmates or the instructional content and their overall gaze distribution in the IVR classroom (Cohen's d ranging from 0.28 to 2.04 for different IVR configurations and gaze features). Gaze-based attention on classmates was negatively related to students' interest in the IVR lesson (d = 0.28); specifically, the more boys were among the observed peers, the lower students' situational self-concept (d = 0.24). In turn, gaze-based attention on the instructional content was positively related to students' performance after the IVR lesson (d = 0.26). Implications for the future use of IVR classrooms in educational research and practice are discussed.
Article
L’aménagement physique de la classe n’est pas une préoccupation nouvelle, quoiqu’il fasse l’objet d’un intérêt grandissant depuis quelques années. Pourtant, encore relativement peu d’études scientifiques portent sur le sujet. Quelques recherches sur la classe flexible commencent à émerger, mais elles occultent souvent des dimensions de l’apprentissage des élèves qui dépassent leurs résultats scolaires ou les aspects pédagogiques. Ainsi, nous avons cherché à dégager les influences que la classe flexible peut avoir sur les pratiques pédagogiques d’enseignantes du primaire au Québec, de même que sur l’apprentissage de leurs élèves, en considérant la satisfaction de certains de leurs besoins et des dimensions de leur bienêtre. Pour ce faire, nous avons réalisé des analyses secondaires sur les données d’un sondage en ligne (n=27) et d’entretiens semi-dirigés (n=5) qui ont tous deux été administrés en 2019. Plus spécifiquement, une analyse par codage thématique a été réalisée sur les perceptions des enseignantes au sujet des retombées de la classe flexible pour leurs élèves et pour elles-mêmes. Les résultats indiquent que la classe flexible contribuerait notamment à la satisfaction de plusieurs besoins chez les élèves, de même qu’à certaines dimensions et composantes de leur bienêtre. De plus, elle faciliterait la mise en œuvre de diverses compétences professionnelles pour les enseignantes.
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of learning environment (traditional and non-traditional classroom seating) and course experience on the learning effectiveness of undergraduates. This study also examined the effects of both variables on adaptability, creativity, and motivation; consequently, contribute to learning effectiveness. Overall, 483 undergraduates from a university in Taiwan participated in the survey. Findings evinced that the learning environment and course experience had significant positive influences on learning effectiveness. The relationship between the learning environment and learning effectiveness was partially mediated by adaptability; while creativity partially mediated the adaptability and learning effectiveness relationship. Furthermore, motivation was found to be partially mediated the course experience and learning effectiveness relationship; while, creativity partially mediated the motivation and learning effectiveness relationship. Results suggested that non-traditional classroom seating was promoting adaptability, creativity, and learning effectiveness of students. A good course experience can motivate students, promote creativity, and learning effectiveness.
Article
Teachers' efforts to manage classroom social dynamics can have positive effects on students' social relationships. One way in which teachers may seek to manage these relationships is through seating arrangements. In a randomized control trial, van den Berg, Segers, and Cillessen (2012) found that closer proximity in the classroom can reduce disliking between two students who dislike each other (target students). However, the effect of this intervention on the larger class is unknown. The current study implemented a short version of this seating chart intervention, investigated effects on both target and nontarget students, and explored whether teachers' efficacy to manage social dynamics moderated the effects of the intervention. Data came from 1573 students in 59 Grade 5 classrooms in the Netherlands. Results indicated that students in intervention classes exhibited more overt aggression and perceived less cooperation among classmates than students in the control condition. These effects were consistent across target and nontarget students and were not moderated by teachers' efficacy for managing social dynamics. It may be that the intervention initially causes tension between target students that is resolved first at the dyad level and is only later noticed by other classmates. Whether these initial negative effects for target and nontarget students become positive after a longer period of adjustment and reorganization of relationships is to be determined in further research.
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17 underachieving 6th graders were observed under 4 conditions: sitting at tables, sitting in rows, sitting at tables again, sitting in rows again. The dependent variable was study behavior. There were 6 observation periods, for which interrater agreement was 92% or higher. The results show that study behavior was more frequent in the row arrangement. A 2nd study involved 32 adequate achievers in the 7th grade. Talk-outs was the dependent variable. The students were observed sitting at tables, in rows, and at tables again. There was less talk-out behavior under the row condition than under either table condition. It is concluded that the row arrangement reduces number of distractions, thereby increasing study behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Observed 8 Ss in each of 2 5th-grade, 2 5th–6th grade, and 2 6th-grade classrooms, using a time-sampling method, to determine the effect of desk arrangements. One classroom at each grade level experienced all 3 desk arrangements (rows, clusters, circle), while the other classroom was assigned to 1 of the 3 arrangements. Ss observed were males and females of high and low ability and high and low classroom interaction. Results confirm the hypotheses that Ss seated in circles engage in significantly more on-task behavior than those in rows and that Ss seated in clusters engage in more on-task behavior than those in rows but less than those in circles. Ss' behavior varied significantly across student types, as was expected. (9 ref)
Article
The inattentive and/or hyperactive—impulsive behaviors that typify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been associated with increased stress in parents of children who are so diagnosed and are known to adversely affect the quality of parent—child interactions. Far less is known, however, about the effects of ADHD on interactions between students with the disorder and their teachers and on levels of teacher stress. Using the Index of Teaching Stress, an instrument assessing a teacher's subjective level of stress and frustration in response to teaching and interacting with a particular student, we found that general education elementary school teachers rated students with ADHD as significantly more stressful to teach than their classmates withoutADHD. However, we found that the stress reported by teachers was highly individualized.Students with ADHD who evidenced oppositional/aggressive behavior or severe social impairment were rated as significantly more stressful to teach than students with ADHD who did not evidence these associated difficulties.
Article
The aim of this study is to present an overview of communication patterns between students during ordinary lessons in a compulsory school system. The results, based on observations of 70 lessons, reveal that every lesson is filled with internal communication between students. Even if this interaction is mostly out of teachers’ conscious control, it is not random. The results do not provide any evidence to support an assumption that chatter between peers will increase in larger classes. The students’ participation in private interaction may to some extent depend on their position in the classroom. However, some factors of greater importance and highly relevant to peer interaction are the age of students (school level) and the form of work. The study demonstrates both the intensity of students’ private communication during ordinary lessons and also the relationship to some contextual factors. These contextual factors can be seen as educational means which teachers can use or misuse in their pupils’ ‘identity‐seeking process’. When teachers place children at different desks, and when they choose a special form of work, they are creating interactive arenas for their students. These arenas are important elements in the developmental setting which the school offers each individual child.
Article
The effect of different seating positions on the frequency with which pupils were addressed questions by the teacher was examined in two primary school classes. Baseline observations identified areas in both classes to which a disproportionately high and low number of questions were directed. Utilising a multiple baseline design six pupils in both classes were systematically moved in and out of these areas. Results indicate that location within the classroom is in itself a causal factor in the question distribution pattern. Concomitant measures of teacher location and pupil on‐task levels indicate that changes in these features of the behavioural ecology of the classes did not confound the location effects. Data are discussed illustrating the value of obtaining observational measures on behaviours concomitant with the dependent variable both in order to monitor uncontrolled variables which it is anticipated may confound the experimental effects, and to assist in the identification of other potentially significant ecological setting events within the classroom.
Article
The effect of different seating arrangements on the quantity and quality of work produced in reading, language and mathematics among two classes of 10and 11‐year‐old children was examined. In both classes matched for size, and age and sex distribution, the pupils spent the first two weeks in their normal classroom groups. The second two‐week period was spent in rows before moving back into groups. The findings indicate that quantity of work completed generally increases when children are sat in rows whilst quality of work is maintained.
Article
This paper reviews research on the impact of classroom environments on student behavior, attitudes, and achievement. The first section examines studies of six environmental variables: seating position, classroom design, density, privacy, noise, and the presence or absence of windows. In the second part of the paper, research conducted from an “ecological” perspective is considered. A third section focuses on the effects of open space school designs. Finally, some future directions for research are discussed, and the advantages and limitations of various research designs are summarized.
Article
Large‐scale research programmes in primary schools have frequently identified a mismatch between classroom seating arrangements and the nature of pupils’ tasks. While children are typically seated in groups, their assigned tasks are generally individual. Intervention studies have consistently found that seating in rows for individual task work improves time spent on‐task. However, one weakness of these studies is that novelty could account for all or part of the improvement rather than the seating arrangements per se. In the first study reported here, an attempt was made to test the novelty hypothesis. Two primary classes, neither of which normally sat in groups or rows for individual task work, took part. In parallel ABA designs, one class moved from rows to groups to rows and the other from groups to rows to groups. In both classes, on‐task behaviour was higher in the rows arrangement, with the effect being most marked for children who were least on‐task when seated in groups. A second study, designed to increase the time on‐task of three individually disruptive pupils and employing seating in rows for individual task work, produced a similar pattern of outcomes: class mean time on‐task increased substantially, while the time on‐task of the three target pupils increased dramatically. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
The effect of different classroom seating arrangements on children's on‐task behaviour was examined by observations of two top junior classes of ten‐ to eleven‐year‐old children. In both classes mean on‐task behaviour was lower for the first two weeks in which children sat around tables compared with the second two‐week period spent in rows, and declined again when the children returned to tables for the final two weeks. An analysis of the data broken down into groups of children with low, average and high initial on‐task behaviour showed that the rows condition had its most powerful effect on children with low initial on‐task behaviour. There was little difference between conditions for the children with high initial on‐task behaviour. The results for the average groups of children were similar to those for the classes as a whole. Rising baselines during the first tables condition confused the effect but there was clear evidence for declines in on‐task behaviour in the final tables condition.
Article
Summary Seating arrangements in which children sat in rows and around tables were compared experimentally in three classes in a special school for behaviourally troublesome children with moderate learning difficulties. Children were observed daily in four two week phases: seated around tables, then in rows, again around tables, and finally again in rows. Percentage on‐task behaviour was recorded along with rate of pupil disruption and rates of teacher approval and disapproval. In all three classes on‐task behaviour doubled from around 35% to 70% as the conditions changed from tables to rows. Moreover, rate of disruption was three times higher in tables conditions. Teacher behaviour was also affected; positive comments increasing during rows whilst negative comments decreased. It is argued that these studies support the results of previous studies regarding the importance of ecological variables, such as seating, on classroom behaviour.
Article
Observed 8 Ss in each of 2 5th-grade, 2 5th–6th grade, and 2 6th-grade classrooms, using a time-sampling method, to determine the effect of desk arrangements. One classroom at each grade level experienced all 3 desk arrangements (rows, clusters, circle), while the other classroom was assigned to 1 of the 3 arrangements. Ss observed were males and females of high and low ability and high and low classroom interaction. Results confirm the hypotheses that Ss seated in circles engage in significantly more on-task behavior than those in rows and that Ss seated in clusters engage in more on-task behavior than those in rows but less than those in circles. Ss' behavior varied significantly across student types, as was expected. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated the relationship between classroom seating arrangements and the question-asking of fourth-graders. Data were collected during 53 lessons spread over 8 weeks. Children were assigned to sit in a semicircle and then in a row-and-column seating arrangement for 2 weeks each. This rotation was repeated. Both children's questions and the teacher's verbal reactions were recorded using an observational system based on Kearsley's question taxonomy. The results showed that children asked more questions in the semicircle than in the row-and-column arrangement, and that the pattern of question characteristics was stable over time. The findings also revealed that, within the row-and-column arrangement, there was an action-zone in which children asked more questions per lesson. The results are interpreted in terms of Steinzor's postulation that social interaction is encouraged when individuals are able to establish face-to-face contact.
Article
. The constituent parts of a five component behavioural intervention package are described and the effect of the intervention on the on-task behaviour of two “disruptive” secondary school classes reported. It is claimed that levels of pupil on-task behaviour were significantly increased in both classes. Concomitant changes in teacher behaviour were also reported and it is suggested that increased levels of pupil on-task behaviour may have elicited higher levels of positive verbal behaviour from the teachers.
Article
This study investigates the behavioral and emotional problems of children with learning disabilities (LD), serious emotional disturbance (SED), and LD/SED, using the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The sample consisted of 217 students with LD, 72 with SED, and 68 with SED/LD, ages 6 to 18 (mean age = 11.5). The students with SED were rated more impaired than the students with LD on all TRF scales except Attention Problems, and on three of the eight CBCL syndrome scales. The children with LD differed from those with SED mainly in terms of severity of problems, not with respect to type of problem. It is concluded that students with co-morbid LD and SED are underidentified and underserved in special education systems.
Effective Mainstreaming: Creating Inclusive Class-rooms (third edition)
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