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Chemical analysis of Tiger nut

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Abstract

Tiger nut, Cyperus esculentis L, is a tuber that grows and is consumed widely in West Africa. It is eaten unprepared, soaked in water, or dried and mixed with roasted peanuts. The purpose of this work was to determine the composition of tiger nut as part of its nutritional evaluation.

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... Three varieties of tiger nut tubers are available; they are yellow, black and brown varieties (Umerie et al., 1997;Okafor et al., 2003;Belewu and Abodunrin, 2006;Oladele and Aina, 2007;Arafat et al., 2009), are widely distributed in Europe and Africa including Nigeria where they are widely consumed uncooked (Oderinde and Tairu, 1988;Omode et al., 1995;Ejoh et al., 2006;Dhouha et al., 2016). Tiger nut tubers are rich in starch, fats, sugars, proteins, oleic acid, and vitamins B, C and E (Temple et al., 1990;Omode et al., 1995;Okwu, 2005;Belewu and Belewu, 2007;Dhouha et al., 2016). It has been also reported that they are rich in minerals such as phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron (Temple et al., 1990;Omode et al., 1995;Belewu and Belewu, 2007;Oladele and Aina, 2007;Arafat et al., 2009;Dhouha et al., 2016). ...
... Tiger nut tubers are rich in starch, fats, sugars, proteins, oleic acid, and vitamins B, C and E (Temple et al., 1990;Omode et al., 1995;Okwu, 2005;Belewu and Belewu, 2007;Dhouha et al., 2016). It has been also reported that they are rich in minerals such as phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron (Temple et al., 1990;Omode et al., 1995;Belewu and Belewu, 2007;Oladele and Aina, 2007;Arafat et al., 2009;Dhouha et al., 2016). Their antioxidant capacity is known to be relatively high because reports from previous studies have shown that they contain considerable amounts of water-soluble flavonoids and glycosides which are known natural antioxidants (Temple et al., 1990;Eteshola and Oraedu, 1996;Pietta, 2000;Oloyede et al., 2014). ...
... It has been also reported that they are rich in minerals such as phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron (Temple et al., 1990;Omode et al., 1995;Belewu and Belewu, 2007;Oladele and Aina, 2007;Arafat et al., 2009;Dhouha et al., 2016). Their antioxidant capacity is known to be relatively high because reports from previous studies have shown that they contain considerable amounts of water-soluble flavonoids and glycosides which are known natural antioxidants (Temple et al., 1990;Eteshola and Oraedu, 1996;Pietta, 2000;Oloyede et al., 2014). ...
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This study evaluated the effects of Cyperus esculentus methanolic tuber extract (CEME) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced sub-acute liver damage in albino rats. Dried tubers of C. esculentus were pulverized and extracted by cold maceration, using 80% methanol. Thirty albino rats, randomly assigned to 6 groups (A-F) of 5 each were used for the study. Sub-acute liver damage was induced in Groups A-E rats using intra-peritoneal injections of CCl 4. Group A was treated with distilled water placebo, while Groups B, C and D were treated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg CEME, respectively. Group E was treated with 100 mg/kg Silymarin and Group F was also given distilled water placebo. Treatment was done orally for 15 days, after which hepatocellular integrity and liver function were evaluated. Results showed that treatment with CEME (at all doses) led to significantly lower (p<0.05) serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, bilirubin levels and relative liver weight of the CEME-treated groups, when compared to Group A rats. It was concluded that administration of CEME as used in the study led to significant protection of hepatocellular integrity, enhancement of hepatic excretion of bilirubin and amelioration of CCl 4-induced inflammatory enlargement of the liver.
... This plant is mostly adapted in sandy loam soils, endures highly moisture contents of soil, but has no yield once keeping in shade condition [22]. Tiger nut constitutes coarse tufts from high amounts of lengthy tubers when growing on edge of ponds and streams [23,24]. ...
... Similarly, the fat contents of tiger nut is higher than the cereals and almost similar to other seeds and nut [6]. The fiber contents of tiger nut is also higher and daily consumption of 100 g of tiger nuts can be helpful in digestion by reducing transit time and pressure [23]. The flatulence problem can be overcome by the consumption of tiger nuts. ...
... From ancient times, this not has been using to treat an assort of infections and stomach disorders. Essential fatty acids, oleic acid and short-medium length fatty acids might lead to calcium uptake in bone [23]. Currently, tiger nut is extensively cultivated in Spain [40], in spite of the fact that its utilization has been limited for human consumption in other areas like Nigeria. ...
Article
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a weed crop in the temperate and Mediterranean areas. Its sweet almond-like tubers are considered important for their health and nutritional. Recent investigations have shown that tiger nuts are a valuable source of vegetable oils, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, tocopherols, and phytosterols, as well as high-value compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds. Despite its high nutritive quality, tiger nut oil is used in the food industry compared to other vegetable oils. These dietary fibers are being used to prepare of fiber-rich meat products with higher physicochemical and nutritional properties. Since these by-products contain polyphenols, their application may be extended to control or inhibit lipid oxidation in foods. Tiger nuts and their by-products from the “horchata de chufa” production process have a resources for large of vitamins and minerals, fiber and bioactive compounds. Collected data that present the possible uses of this fantastic plant to the food industry, pharmaceutical application, agricultural development, and the generation of biofuels are also clarified. The aim of this study is to review the findings of the research on tiger nut and its food applications. The current review presents an overview of these studies and seeks to reveal possible future avenues for further research in the economic interests of tiger nuts and their by-products.
... Avec une valeur en protéines brutes de 5 à 15% les tubercules de souchet présentent une teneur considérable comparée à celle des autres tubercules et racines (Pelzmann, 1989 ;Temple et al., 1990et Ikpeme et al., 2012. Le majeur obstacle de l'utilisation des protéines alimentaires est la présence des substances antinutritionnelles tels que les inhibiteurs trypsiques or dans cette denrée alimentaire, ils sont les plus faibles soit 42,7 Trypsin Inhibitor Unit/mg comparés à ceux du soja où ils varient de 73 à 110 TIU/mg (Addy et Eteshola, 1984). ...
... Le majeur obstacle de l'utilisation des protéines alimentaires est la présence des substances antinutritionnelles tels que les inhibiteurs trypsiques or dans cette denrée alimentaire, ils sont les plus faibles soit 42,7 Trypsin Inhibitor Unit/mg comparés à ceux du soja où ils varient de 73 à 110 TIU/mg (Addy et Eteshola, 1984). Le Tableau 2 montre que les protéines de Cyperus esculentus L. présentent une composition en acides aminés indispensable assez équilibrés et aussi son contenu en arginine est remarquable malgré un léger déficit en leucine et en lysine (Temple et al., 1990 ;Glew et al., 2006 ;Oladele et al., 2009). ...
... Les tubercules de souchet présentent une teneur en cendre de 1,8-2,2% (Temple et al., 1990 ;Coskuner et al., 2003 (Temple et al., 1990). ). ...
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Le souchet (Cyperus esculentus L.) est une plante sous-exploitée dont les tubercules, de texture rugueuse, sont couramment rencontrés sur les marchés alimentaires locaux du Cameroun et sont utilisés essentiellement comme aliment de grignotage. La production et la commercialisation de cette boisson sont limitées par deux contraintes : sa charge microbienne élevée qui provient des microorganismes localisés sur le tubercule et la présence massive de l’amidon qui rend le traitement thermique délicat, en raison de la gélatinisation de l’amidon au cours du traitement. Ainsi ce travail a été réalisé dans le but de valoriser les tubercules de souchet cultivés dans les savanes du Cameroun à travers la mise en place d’un procédé de production d’un lait végétal sain, nutritif et qui se prête à la pasteurisation. 4 objectifs spécifiques ont à cet effet été assignés à cette thèse. (1) Evaluer le contenu nutritionnel des tubercules de souchet cultivés dans les savanes du Cameroun. (2) Etudier les conditions technologiques d’extraction du lait de souchet après trempage des tubercules et caractériser sur le plan physico-chimique et nutritionnel les boissons obtenues. (3) Définir les meilleures conditions de trempage pour faciliter le dépelliculage et l’assainissement des tubercules de souchet et (4) Réduire le taux d’amidon et améliorer le rendement et les pratiques d’extraction de cette boisson par le prétraitement de germination des tubercules et d’hydrolyse in situ de l’amidon de la boisson.
... Similarly, the fat contents of tiger nut is higher than the cereals and almost similar to other seeds and nut [6]. The fiber contents of tiger nut is also higher and daily consumption of 100 g of tiger nuts can be helpful in digestion by reducing transit time and pressure [23]. The flatulence problem can be overcome by the consumption of tiger nuts. ...
... From ancient times, this not has been using to treat an assort of infections and stomach disorders. Essential fatty acids, oleic acid and shortmedium length fatty acids might lead to calcium uptake in bone [23]. Currently, tiger nut is extensively cultivated in Spain [40], in spite of the fact that its utilization has been limited for human consumption in other areas like Nigeria. ...
... (Table 1). Our results are similar of the study of Temple (1988) and Temple et al. (1990). However, values reported by Umerie et al. (1997) and Addy and Eteshola (1984) on tiger nuts were significantly higher values (2.4 and 6.7%, respectively). ...
... The starch content of chufa tubers decreases and the reducing sugar (inverted sugar) content increases during storage (Coşkuner et al., 2002). The carbohydrates of chufa tuber are composed, mainly, by starch and dietetic fibre (Temple et al., 1990). Ogunlade et al. (2015) analysed Nigerian dry tiger nuts and revealed that had 825 micromole Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g for total phenolic contents. ...
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Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.), also known as chufa (European sedge), is a member of the Cyperaceae family, which is used in organic and conventional agriculture for its small edible tubers and grown in temperate and tropical zones of the world being consumed raw, roasted or pressed for its juice as beverage. The aim of this study is analyzing the proximate composition (AOAC methods), total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) and microbiological profile (International Standard Organization norms, ISO) of samples of Spanish organic and conventional, Nigerian conventional and unknown origin tiger nuts obtained from supermarkets and local markets in Spain. No significant differences in proximate composition and antioxidant properties were found between Spanish organic and conventional tiger-nuts, except in total phenolic level (p<0.005). No significant differences were found in all samples about ash, lipid, total sugar and carbohydrate values, but significant differences (p<0.005) were found for moisture, protein, fiber and antioxidant capacity between Spanish samples and Nigerian or unknown origin samples. No coagulase-positive staphylococci, nor Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the studied samples. Significant differences (p<0.005) were found for moulds and yeasts between analysed samples, but no significant differences were detected in other microorganisms
... One such source could be from tiger nut tubers. It has 5.8% moisture, rich in protein (7%) (Temple et al., 1990) and carbohydrates such as reducing sugar (5.6%), soluble polysaccharides (7.4%) and starch (86.4%) (Temple 1989). It also has essential amino acids like lysine, threonine and cysteine in appreciable proportion (Temple et al., 1990). ...
... It has 5.8% moisture, rich in protein (7%) (Temple et al., 1990) and carbohydrates such as reducing sugar (5.6%), soluble polysaccharides (7.4%) and starch (86.4%) (Temple 1989). It also has essential amino acids like lysine, threonine and cysteine in appreciable proportion (Temple et al., 1990). ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify the nutritional value of tiger nut tubers and their products. Tiger nut tubers (Cyperus esculentus L.,) cultivar were collected from Tanta city, Egypt. The chemical composition and mineral analysis of tiger nut tubers were determined. Extraction of oil and determined of some physico-chemical properties of oil and identification of fatty acids composition (%) by gas liquid chromatography (GC). Also, identify of amino acids in tiger nut flour by amino acid analyzer. Preparation of tiger nut milk was processed in lap and compared with soymilk as a control. Also, microbial content of tiger nut milk were determined. In addition to, sensory evaluation of milk made from tiger nut was determined. The obtained data for the composition of tiger nut tubers indicated that the moisture content of tiger tubers was 8.50%. The carbohydrate content of tiger nut tubers was found to be the first component in these tubers (45.73%) followed by oil content (30.01%). moreover; protein, ash and crude fiber of tiger nut tubers were 5.08%, 2.23% and 14.80% respectively. The results provide additional information about the nutritional value and confirm that of tiger nut tubers are an interesting healthy food such as imitation milk.
... Like other sedges, the plant is most frequently found inhabiting wet marshes and edges of streams and ponds where it grows wildly in coarse tufts (Temple et al. 1990), but they are sometimes cultivated especially in the middle belt and Northern regions of Nigeria for their small and sweet nuts a b c d e (Mordi 2003). This plant was originally native to the Mediterranean region, but its cultivation has now spread to many warm countries (Mohamed et al. 2005). ...
... A dried tuber nut can absorb up to three times its own weight of water. A single tuber can produce nearly 2000 plants and 7000 tubers in one growing season (Bamishaiye and Bamishaiye 2011).The nuts are valued for their highly nutritious starch content, dietary fibre, digestible carbohydrate (mono, di and polysaccharides) and agreeable nutty flavour (Temple et al. 1990;De Vries 1991;Ade-Omowaye et al. 2009). Pascual et al. (2000) reported that tigernuts contain a high amount of dietary fibre which could find useful application in food processing. ...
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The use of some crops in Sub-Saharan Africa is currently limited to local culinary uses despite promising characteristics of their non-starch polysaccharide. There is very little information on the properties of their non-starch polysaccharide which would stimulate expansion in their applications. Non-starch polysaccharides represent a group of heterogeneous compounds which differ considerably in chemical composition and physical properties both within and between plant sources. They show various physiological effects in the small and large intestine and therefore have important health implications for humans. The physiochemical and biological properties of these compounds correspond to dietary fibre. Their application/introduction in food may lead to diminished risk of serious diet-related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with a greater affluence. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalise blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In this review, techniques applied in characterising non-starch polysaccharides in five underutilised crops in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed.
... This present study was aimed at analysis of airborne bacteria in environmental exposed tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) sold by street vendors in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Exactly, six (6) different yellow tiger nut distributed at 10gram each, six (6) different exposed air contaminated Petri dishes samples by passive sampling method were collected randomly from three different traffic points and assessed using standard microbiological techniques. The mean aerobic bacteria coliform counts (CFU) ranged from 1.1×10 3 ±0.30 to 3.4×10 4 ±0.10 at Abakpa junction, 1.5×10 3 ±0.10 to 3.8×10 4 ±0. ...
... in the market almost throughout the year and it is usually processed into different edible products [5]. The tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tubers are commonly consumed in raw form, such as dry, fresh and can be mixed with groundnut or other nuts and fruits that are nutritious to the body to produce nonalcoholic dairy-like beverage [6]. The energy value of tiger nut tuber ranges within 400-413.8 kcal/100 g [7]. ...
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Tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) are tuber crops that are consumed as snack, for their medical and nutritional values. Thus, if exposed to microbial contamination, can impose public health treat. This present study was aimed at analysis of airborne bacteria in environmental exposed tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) sold by street vendors in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Exactly, six (6) different yellow tiger nut distributed at 10gram each, six (6) different exposed air contaminated Petri dishes samples by passive sampling method were collected randomly from three different traffic points and assessed using standard microbiological techniques. The mean aerobic bacteria coliform counts (CFU) ranged from 1.1×103±0.30 to 3.4×104±0.10 at Abakpa junction, 1.5×103±0.10 to 3.8×104±0.16 at Afikpo road and 2.0×103±0.17 to 3.9×104±0.20 at Vanco junction. Six different bacteria species were detected, namely Staphylococcus aureus 11 (25.0%), Escherichia coli 10 (22.7%), Salmonella species 7 (15.9%), Shigella species 5 (11.4%), Enterobacter species 5 (11.4%) and Pseudomonas species 7 (15.9%). Some of the isolates were resistant to cephalosporin which is one of the major classes of antibiotics commonly available in pharmaceutical stores. Majority of the bacteria isolates were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. Multidrug resistances were reported on 9 (20.5%) aerobic bacteria out of 44 isolates studied. The microbial count in this study is above acceptable threshold and presence of multidrug resistances bacteria in tiger nut is a serious public health concern. Regular monitoring of food items by environmental health officers is ideal to avoid outbreak of epidemic as a result of contaminated tiger nuts/food.
... The yellow and brown varieties are widely available in Nigeria, with the yellow variety preferred over others because of its larger size, higher protein content, and lower fat and anti-nutrients content (Okafor et al., 2003). The nuts contain significant amounts of starch, dietary fiber, digestible carbohydrate (mono-, di-, and polysaccharide), and a moderate amount of minerals (Temple et al., 1990;Salem et al., 2005;Sanful, 2009). Tigernut is known to have antioxidant and antidiabetic properties (Owusu and Owusu, 2016). ...
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Tigernut, also known as Cyperus esculentus, is considered high in nutritional and medicinal value. The purpose of this study was to determine the C. esculentus’s antimutagenic activity. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the nut were analyzed for chemical constituents, antioxidants, ultraviolet-visible, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using standard procedures. The extracts contained a total of 17 major compounds that were docked against human RecQ-like protein 5 (RECQL5) helicase protein. The antimutagenic property of the ethanolic extract in vitro was assessed using the Allium cepa chromosome assay. Onion bulbs were pre-treated with 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of C. esculentus for 24 h and then grown in NaN3 (250 μg/L) for 24 h; onion bulbs were also first exposed to NaN3 (250 μg/L) for 24 h before treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract respectively. Standard methods were used to determine the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. Results revealed that C. esculentus ethanolic extract contained flavonoids (22.47 mg/g), tannins (0.08 mg/g), alkaloids (19.71 mg/g), glycosides, phenol, and tannin and showed high scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyland H2O2. Docking with RECQL5 showed good binding energies (ΔG>−7) of five compounds in C. esculentus ethanolic extract. The A. cepa assay results revealed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in chromosomal aberrations and a higher mitotic index in groups treated with the C. esculentus ethanolic extract. The antimutagenic activity of C. esculentus ethanolic extract was attributed to its high levels of phytosterols and phenolic compounds.
... The TNM was rich in protein (7%). Temple et al (1990) had shown that tiger nut tuber is a rich source of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Although the protein level decreased progressively during storage, the fermented sample maintained consistently higher protein levels than the unfermented samples. ...
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Fresh tiger nut tubers were crushed and juice expressed, filtered, boiled and fermented (37°C, 18 h) with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The fermented and unfermented imitation milk samples were stored at ambient (32±2°C) and at refrigeration (4°C) temperatures for 14 days. Chemical, microbial and sensory analyses were carried out. pH, protein, fat, total solids and sugar levels decreased during storage. The rate of decrease in the unrefrigerated samples was faster than that of the refrigerated samples. While fermentation decreased the pH, it increased the protein and fat in all the samples. K (15.6 mg/100 g) and chloride (7.5 mg/100 g) were the dominant mineral elements. The imitation milk was also rich in Ca (2.8 mg/100 g), Fe (3.2 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.1 mg/100 g). The unfermented sample stored at ambient temperature had high bacterial load and could not be stored for more than 6 days. Refrigeration and fermentation helped retain the keeping quality of the imitation milk samples. Fermented tiger nut imitation milk compared favourably in sensory qualities with similar fermented milk of animal origin.
... The starch content of chufa tubers decreases and the reducing sugar (inverted sugar) content increases during storage (Coskuner et al., 2002 ). The carbohydrates of chufa tuber are composed, mainly, by starch and dietetic fiber (Akher and Michalinos, 1963; Temple et al., 1989). Chufa tubers contain almost twice the quantity of starch as potato or sweet potato tubers (Coskuner et al., 2002). ...
... In Nigeria, imported soybean milk beverages are marketed commercially at very high prices as a result of the scarce foreign exchange used for their importation. However, hardly any attention has been given to the use of locally available tigernut as such or in combination with milk to produce a palatable ready-to-serve bottled beverage, like 'Horchata de chufas' as done in South Europe especially in Spain [2]. Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) belong to the family Cyperaceae which produces rhizomes from the base and tubers which are somewhat spherical with sitting diameters 5-17 mm. ...
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Two species of tigernut tuber (yellow and brown i.e. fresh and dried) were processed in different ways to formulate three new products, Product 1-Apple Tigernut Beverage (ATB), Product 2-Pineapple Tigernut Beverage (PTB) and Product 3-Coconut Tiger nut Beverage (CTB). ATB, PTB and CTB were blends of Apple juice, Pineapple juice and Coconut milk with the Tiger nut milk (yellow and brown mixed separately) by substitution at ratio (YTM:AJ, BTM:AJ) (YTM:PJ, BTM:PJ) (YTM:CJ, BTM:CJ) 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. These samples were evaluated for their chemical composition, physiochemical properties, vitamins, mineral content, sensory and shell life and the samples maintained a good statue. Statistical analysis was carried out in chemical composition of which the result significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) existed between yellow tiger nut milk brown tiger nut milk at 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 but sample 0:100 of AJ, PJ and CJ were not significantly difference (P > 0.05). From the chemical composition results it was observed that the beverages had high content of moisture, carbohydrate and energy value. However, the beverages were fairly rich in protein, ash and fat contents. The microbial result of fungi was a bit at variance with standard record. Although, all samples were highly accepted but coconut tigernut beverage had the highest acceptability. Microbial content ranged from zero growth to 103cfu/ml which was not critical to the wholesomeness of the products. Furthermore, samples were stored in an air tight container in a cool place and were seen to last for 10 days before fermentation set in, hence, the presence of CO2 increased their shell life.
... Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a weed plant of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Its tubers are widely eaten under different forms in West and Central Africa: unprepared, soaked in water or dried and mixed with roasted groundnut (Temple, Ojobe, & Kapu, 1990). In Spain, tubers are used principally to make a milky-like beverage called ''Horchata de chufa'', typical of the Valencia region (Beneyto, Varo, Guillem, & Murillo, 2000;Pascual, Maroto, SanBautista, Alagarda, & Lopez-Galarza, 2003). ...
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Three diameter sizes (D < 0.5 cm, 0.5 cm < D < 1 cm and D > I cm) of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tubers growing in Cameroon (Central Africa) were soaked between 20 degrees C and 100 degrees C until water content equilibrium, and pressed for extraction of milky beverage ("horchata"). Application of Peleg model was investigated for predicting water absorption of tubers during soaking. The model showed to predict kinetics of the tiger nut soaking. The Peleg absorption rate constant (k(1)) decreased as temperature increased, indicating increase in absorption rate with temperature, with a discontinuity at 60 degrees C. The water absorption capacity (k(2)) was relatively stable, but displayed the same discontinuity at 60 degrees C. The extraction yield and the insoluble extract content of the milky beverage increased with temperature, while its soluble extract content decreased in the same conditions. These trends were attributed to the weakening of cell walls of the tubers at higher soaking temperature, generating high level of material transfer, as justified by the very low values of k(1) at high soaking temperature. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... It is also used in medicine and perfume production. The yellow variety of tiger nut contains low fats and has less anti-nutritional factors especially polyphenols (Temple et al., 1990;Devries and Feuker, 1999;Okafor et al., 2003). ...
... It is also used in medicine and perfume production. The yellow variety of tiger nut contains low fats and has less anti-nutritional factors especially polyphenols (Temple et al., 1990;Devries and Feuker, 1999;Okafor et al., 2003). ...
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The use of termite mound soil as a construction material and as a replacement for clay in brick production was investigated. This research investigated the physical properties (Moisture Content, Specific Gravity, Dry-bulk Density, Grain Size Analysis), the Atterberg limits (liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL) and plasticity index (PI)) and engineering properties of termitaria bricks. Mound soil was sourced from two sites (Tanke, Ilorin (A) and Civil Engineering Department, University of Ilorin, Ilorin (B)). The results of the physical properties of mound soil from both sites showed that there was no significant difference in the physical properties. The Atterberg analysis revealed that soil from site A and site B had plasticity index of 40.57 % and 41.07 % respectively. The average compressive strength of 1.70N/mm2 and 1.52 N/mm2 was recorded after 14 days of curing for sites A and B respectively. The highest average compressive strength of 2.70 N/mm2 and 2.50 N/mm2 was recorded after 28 days of curing for site A and site B respectively. This indicated 58.8 % increment in compressive strength for sites A and 64.50 % increment in compressive strength for site B. These increments in compressive strengths were as a result of the strong bond between the soil particles as a result of a high percentage of clay and silt and the elimination of air and water pockets within the brick formation. As a result, soil samples from both sites are suitable for brick production for agricultural structures such as grain silos and yam barn.
... The morphotype 2 protein content was significantly higher than morphotype 3. The levels of protein are not related to either colour or size. The protein content for the three morphotypes from Burkina Faso was very low compared to tubers from Cameroon [20], Nigeria [23], and Turkey [5]. The ash content of the three morphotypes was ranged between 1.81±0.24 ...
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Tuber characteristics and nutrient composition of three morphotypes ofCyperus esculentus tubers and tuber oils were determined. Th mean value for length and width of the tuber and one thousand dried tuber weights ranged from 0.98 to 1.31 cm, 0.90 to 1.19 cm, and 598 to 1044 g, respectively. Tubers displayed high level of starch (30.54–33.21 g 100 g−1 ), lipid (24.91–28.94 g 100 g−1 ), and sucrose (17.98–20.39 g 100 g−1 ). Th yellow tubers had signifiantly higher content in lipid compared to black ones. Levels of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and 𝛽carotene of the three morphotypes diffred signifiantly. Yellow ones (morphotypes 1 and 2) were the richest in tocopherol and the poorest in 𝛽carotene. Saturated fatty acid content of morphotype 2 was signifiantly lower than that of morphotypes 1 and 3. Morphotype 3 had the signifiantly lowest PUFA content compared to morphotypes 1 and 2. Morphotype 1 was found to be richer in Ca, Cu, and Mn contents. Al, Mg, P, S, and Si were most abundant in morphotype 2. Morphotype 3 had the highest content of Cl, K, and Zn.
... It is also used in medicine and perfume production. The yellow variety of tiger nut contains low fats and has less anti-nutritional factors especially polyphenols (Temple et al., 1990;Devries and Feuker, 1999;Okafor et al., 2003). ...
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A direct active solar dryer was designed and fabricated to dry Chester leaves (Heinsia Crinita ) within one day but with features that will enhance its efficiency such as fans, battery, photovoltaic module, storage unit. Thus, it achieved solar drying utilizing forced convection to enhance the drying operation. Temperatures of the dryer were monitored on hourly basis while the moisture content analysis was done on a two (2) hourly basis. Test results showed that under no – load conditions, the dryer achieved a maximum temperature of 68.7C under sunshine. Heinsia Crinita weighing 1000 g of initial moisture content of 66.4% (w.b) was reduced to a final moisture content of 11.5% (w.b) under eight (8) hours. The Vitamin C content of Heinsia Crinita leaves was also determined by Redox titration at the beginning and end of the drying operation. The Vitamin C content of the solar dried leaves was compared with that of Sun dried leaves. Vitamin C was found to decrease as the Drying took place from 14.3 mg/100 g to 6.23mg/100 g at the end of the solar drying whereas the Vitamin C content was found to be 2.67 mg/100 g at the end of sun-drying. Solar drying preserved color to a great extent as compared to sun dried leaves. There was also significant reduction in drying time as compared to sun drying. Equipment tests showed that there was a significant retention of product quality at least when compared to sundrying. The dryer performed satisfactorily and is recommended to be used in drying other high moisture crops to achieve product stability.
... It is also used in medicine and perfume production. The yellow variety of tiger nut contains low fats and has less anti-nutritional factors especially polyphenols (Temple et al., 1990;Devries and Feuker, 1999;Okafor et al., 2003). ...
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... Tiger-nut is a plant also known as chufa, zulu nut, yellow nutgrass, ground almond, edible rush, and rush nut (Horticultural Sciences Department, 2005). This tuber is widely eaten, as dried and mixed with roasted groundnut, soaked in water and unprepared, in West and Central Africa (Temple, Ojobe, & Kapu, 1990). In the southern USA, tiger-nuts are also used as an important animal feed ingredient. ...
... It has been a dependable source of native and modified starches (Eke-Ejiofor, 2015). Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) is an underutilized crop with a nutritious starch and rich carbohydrate contents (Bamigbola et al., 2016;Temple et al., 1990). The high carbohydrate content of tigernut has promoted its used in composite flour formulation (Bamigbola et al., 2016;Awolu et al., 2017). ...
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The effect of some physical and chemical treatments on the functional and pasting characteristics of native tigernut starch (TNNS), native sweet potato starch (SPNS) and blends of tigernut-sweet potato starch were studied. Native tigernut and sweet potato starches were subjected to physical (annealing and heat-moisture) and chemical (acetylation) modifications and compared to tigernut (T)-sweet potato (S) starches blends (T75:S25, T50:S50, T25:S75). Only heat-moisture treatment (THMT) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased water absorption capacity of the TNNS while only acetylation significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the oil absorption capacity of the native tigernut starch. The bulk density was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by annealing and acetylation. In addition, TNAS, mixture of blends and SPNS had higher swelling capacity than TNNS. The final and peak viscosities of TNNS, SPNS and all the starch blends were between (217–280 RVU) and (214–395.3 RVU) respectively with SPNS having the highest va...
... Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus), an underutilized crop (19,20) are valued for their highly nutritious starch content, and digestible carbohydrate (21,22). The nut was reported to be rich in sucrose, fat (which are resistant to peroxidation) and protein (23,24). ...
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Some individuals are intolerant to gluten of wheat and other cereals like oats, rye and barley used for food formulations and this intolerance seriously impairs intestinal absorption. There is need to develop alternative gluten-free flours for baking and confectioneries. This research therefore aimed at determining the chemical and functional properties of plantain–tiger nut composite flour to be able to explore its potentials in food formulation. The flours made from matured plantains and tiger nuts were blended at the ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 0:100 to make different plantain–tiger nuts flours and these were analysed using standard methods. The results revealed that protein ranged from 4.55 to 6.78/100 g, fat (2.25–32.75/100 g), crude fibre (3.50–6.13/100 g), bulk density (0.81–0.92 g/cm3), swelling power (38.38–2.37/g), Mg (30.65–49.08 mg/100 g), P (3.65–120.65 mg/100 g), K (71.62–212.08 mg/100 g), Vitamin C (3.18–5.30 mg/100 g) and Vitamin A (1.71–51.31 μg/100 g). There were significant differences (p
... Tigernut has been reported to have an affinity for nutrient accumulation in the tuber [42,43] and Fe has been found to be one of the metals. It has been measured in raw tuber and the flour and different groups have reported different values, ranging from 6.5-41 ppm in the flour [44][45][46]. In this study the level of Fe detected in the tuber (168-218 ppm) was much higher than previously reported. ...
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Tigernut or ‘chufa’ (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus) is gaining popularity in the United States as a high energy tuber crop known for sweet and chewy taste, 40–45% gluten-free digestible carbohydrate, high dietary fiber content, healthful fatty acid profile (73% monounsaturated, 18% saturated, 9% polyunsaturated—similar to olive oil), high oleic acid, and high P, K, and vitamins C. E. Tigernut tubers were obtained from specialty crop markets in central NJ and purchased online from commercial distributors as propagules for transplants for hoop house and field production studies. Nine tigernut selections were also evaluated under NJ hoop house culture conditions for growth habit and in the field for adaptation and productivity We concluded that tigernut production is feasible in NJ based on the results of these experiments. The growth patterns of three selections (GH, MV and SK) were studied and characterized. Foliage growth was similar in the three selections. Plant height ranged from an average of 90 cm in GH to 110 cm in MV and SK; side shoot production capacity ranged from 13 shoots per propagule in GH to 20 or more in MV and SK over 14 weeks. Over 99% of tubers in MV and SK were located within the upper 5 cm of the growth media (Pro-Mix BX brand) but tubers of GH were observed at greater soil depths (~20 cm). Tubers varied from spherical (round) in shape in GH and SK to oblong (elongated) in MV. In the field the best growth and tuber yields from NG3 and T-USA selections were obtained under black or white-over-black plastic mulch in conventionally managed plots. Tubers showed high levels of Fe (168–218 ppm) and Zn (39–50 ppm) implying that they should be a good source of these essential elements in human diet. Studies also showed that the tigernut tuber cannot survive the cold winter months in the field in NJ, therefore minimizing the fear of “tigernut invasion” of agronomic fields in NJ and similar agroecosystems.
... Only one work was carried out with authentication purposes of the P.D.O. (Protected Designation of Origin) of "horchata de Valencia", a beverage where tiger nut is the main ingredient, regarding their mineral content (Boeting et al., 2010;Temple et al., 1990Temple et al., , 1991. ...
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Four lines of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) grown in 1998 and 1999 in the Çukurova region of Turkey were analysed for their physical properties, proximate chemical composition and fatty acid contents. The chufa lines contained on average (g kg−1) 932.8 dry matter, 245.0 crude lipid, 256.8 starch, 14.3 ash, 50.5 protein, 89.1 crude fibre, 17.1 reducing sugar, 154.3 total sugar and 130.4 sucrose. Hunter L, a+ and b+ colour values of ground chufa samples were in the ranges 55.93–60.59, 3.71–5.09 and 15.60–16.85 respectively. Individual chufa tubers weighed between 0.224 and 0.283 g. The fatty acid composition of chufa oil included (g kg−1) 689.2–732.9 oleic acid, 125.5–141.2 palmitic acid and 99.6–154.6 linoleic acid, which is comparable with that of olive oil. After storage for 1 year the differences in mean values were significant (p < 0.05).© 2002 Society of Chemical Industry
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Analysis of black plum (Vitex doniana) indicated a fruit with useful nutritional value in tropical African diets (crude protein 27·5, lipid 49·5, sugars 842 g kg−1 DM; moisture 488 g kg−1 FW) and possibly a good shelf-life.
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A flow-injection (FIA) manifold is described for the simultaneous determination of potassium and sodium in samples of vegetables using flame emission spectrometry as the detection process. Two dialysis units were included so as to provide the system with a high dilution capacity (dilutions of about 600-700 fold), and also to allow bicomponent analysis: the same sample plug was divided between a donor and an acceptor stream that were subsequently directed to two detectors placed in parallel. The results of the FIA method were in good agreement with those of the reference procedures (relative deviations lower than 3%). Sampling rates from 120 to 150 samples per hour (corresponding to 240 to 300 determinations per hour) were achieved with relative standard deviations below 1.7%.
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Chemical analysis of Livingstone potato tubers (Plectranthus esculentus) show crude protein, crude lipid and total carbohydrate values of 63.5 g kg-1, 26.3 g kg-1 and 854.0 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The trace element content of the tubers was Fe 25.6 mg kg-1, Cu 5.0 mg kg-1, Pb 0.39 mg kg-1 and Zn 10.0 mg kg-1 DM. The levels of threonine (4.48 g per 16 g N) and phenylalanine (3.34 g per 16 g N) in the tubers are higher than the FAO reference values from 1970.
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Tigernut tubers were differently processed into six products: Fermented Tigernut Milk (FTM), Pasteurized Tigernut Milk (PTM), Ultra-high Temperature Tigernut Milk (UHTM), Sterilized Whole Tigernut Milk (SWTM), Unheated Tigernut Milk (UTM) and Sweetened Tigernut Milk (STM). The effect of these treatments on the sensory, chemical and microbiological qualities of the various samples was investigated. Microbiological examination of the products was carried out over a 6 week storage period. Processing treatment significantly (p<0.05) affected the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples had high moisture content (77.0-80.7%) and reasonable amount of protein (6.4-8.2%). Total solid ranged from 20.2% in STM to 23.2% in SWTM. The pH of the sample ranged from 4.4 in UTM to 6.2 in PTM and UHTM. Significant difference (p<0.05) existed in sensory scores of mouth feel and general acceptability, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in colour and flavour. Although, all the samples were generally acceptable in terms of sensory quality, STM had the highest general acceptance while UTM had the least. The milk products were microbiologically stable during storage. UHTM and SWTM had no microbial growth throughout the storage period. The other samples recorded microbial growth from the 4<SUP>th</SUP> week of storage but was not high enough (bacteria and mould 10<SUP>2</SUP> cfu/ml maximum) to cause any appreciable spoilage of the samples. Processing treatment has effect on the qualities of tigernut milk.
Article
The amino acid profile of 11 samples of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentusL.) grown in the area of “L'Horta Nord” in Valencia (Spain) and one sample of African origin were determined, along with the amino acid contents of 10 samples of natural orgeat from Valencia. Protein was hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid at 110 °C for 23 h, and amino acids were derivatised with AQC and determined by RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection. The chromatographic conditions were optimised. The analytical parameters (detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy) showed the method to be sufficiently sensitive and reproducible for determining amino acids resistant to acid hydrolysis in tiger nuts and orgeat. Arginine was the most abundant amino acid in both tiger nuts and orgeat and the lowest contents corresponding to histidine and tyrosine. The essential amino acid contents of tiger nuts and orgeat protein were greater than those proposed in the protein standard for adults by the FAO/WHO, with the exception of histidine. No significant differences were found among the arginine, lysine and isoleucine amino acid contents in tiger nuts from Valencia, Alboraya and Alm‡ssera; nor were they found among amino acids in tiger nuts from Valencia and Alm‡ssera, with the exception of tyrosine.
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Horchata is a refreshing beverage obtained from tiger nut tubers that yields high amount of by-products. These by-products have a high content of fibre that allows its application in the development of dietary fibre rich foods. The utilization of increasing levels (0%-control, 5%, 10% and 15%) of tiger nut fibre (TNF), in the formulation of pork burgers was evaluated. This evaluation was based on: chemical composition, physicochemical, cooking characteristics and sensory properties of burgers. Pork burgers elaborated with TNF had higher nutritional value (higher fibre content) and better cooking characteristics (higher cooking yield, fat retention and moisture retention) than control burgers. Some of the negative changes in colour (a* decrease and b* increase) and texture (chewiness and springiness increase) parameters due to TNF addition observed in raw burgers were masked by the stronger modifications due to the cooking process. Burgers with TNF were perceived as less greasy, less juicy, more grainy and with less meaty flavour than controls; although this perception did not reduce the overall acceptability of burgers. Overall acceptability scores were slightly lower in burgers with 15% TNF, although no significant differences were detected with the scores of control, 5% and 10% TNF burgers. TNF addition to burgers is a promising and convenient application as dietary fibre of burgers was significantly increased without changes in sensory acceptance.
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In this study, selected physical properties (size and shape, volume and density, surface area, weight, spherecity, coefficient of friction, angle of repose, as well as terminal velocity) of the brown type of tiger nut seed were determined using standard procedures. The average values of the surface area (206.12 mm 2), geometric mean diameter (7.29 mm), spherecity (74.39 %), coefficient of friction for the three materials used were 0.37, 0.32 and 0.26 respectively (0.32), the mean values of the angle of repose of tiger nut seed for wood (20.5°), glass (17.°5) and metal (14.4°) and terminal velocity of 17.60 mm/s of the tiger nut seed at moisture content of 17 % (wb) were used in this study. These data are important for designing of cleaning and sorting machines of Tiger nut seeds.
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Tiger nut milk (“horchata”) liquid co-products (TNLC) were evaluated as carbon source for probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis) growth by screening via microplate assay and determination of viable cells and metabolic activity. Based on MRS five different basal media were prepared ((i) without carbon source, (ii) with 2% (w/v) glucose, (iii) with 2% (w/v) FOS, (iv) with 2% (v/v) TNLC and (v) 3% (v/v) TNLC). Additionally, reconstituted TNLC was also used as basal medium. For determination of viable cells and metabolic activity skim milk powder was used. Glucose was found to be the best substrate to L. acidophilus grows, followed by FOS and TNLC (2% and 3%, respectively). TNLC (3%) was found to be the best substrate followed by TNLC (2%), glucose and FOS, in the promotion of growth of B. animalis. The growth of L. acidophilus and B. animalis in skim milk reconstituted TNLC + water was higher than samples inoculated in skim milk reconstituted only with water (p < 0.05). This is supported by the pH effect and by the faster organic acid production (mainly lactic acid, acetic acid, and butyric acid), confirming the property of TNLC as a carbon source for probiotic bacteria growth.
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This study was aimed to clarify the effect of defatted chufa (Cyperus esculentus L., DC) on diet-induced obesity and lipid metabolism in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed 1 of 4 experimental diets for 7 weeks: a normal diet (N), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 5% DC (LDC), and a high-fat diet with 10% DC (HDC). DC supplementation (10%) significantly reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte size increased by high-fat diet although there was no significant difference between HF group and LDC group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels of the HDC group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The hepatic triglyceride levels also decreased significantly with 10% DC supplementation, but not changed with 5% DC supplementation. Serum insulin and leptin levels in the LDC and HDC groups were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. These results suggest that defatted chufa may be useful for the prevention of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia.
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Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a weed plant (yellow nut sedge) of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Its sweet almond‐like tubers are highly appreciated for their health benefits and nutritive value: high content of fiber, proteins, and sugars. They are rich in oleic acid and glucose, as well as in phosphorus, potassium, and vitamins C and E. In Spain, these tuberous “nuts” are mainly used to manufacture a milky beverage called “horchata de chufa.” Tiger nut has attracted very little scientific and technological interest, except for the production of “horchata de chufa” and some studies on its oil. Development of new products from the tubers could enhance more interest in this crop. In this respect, various opportunities are offered: source of dietary fiber, use of its oil in cooking or salad preparation, production of caramel to be used as a food additive. This review presents an overview of the tiger nut, its products, and the co‐products obtained during commercial processing.
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The recovery of effluents for different uses is an interesting practice that can contribute to a better management of water resources all over the world. Tiger nuts or “chufa” (Cyperus esculentus) are tubers mainly used to produce “horchata de chufa” (tiger nuts milk), yielding a high quantity of co-products (solids and liquids). The composition of these co-products makes them suitable for other uses. The aimof this work was to study the composition, microbial quality, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant activity of the “horchata” drained-water. The obtained results prove that “horchata” drained-water could be considered a valuable source of natural antioxidants. A good correlation between total phenol content and reducing power, rancimat performance, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of buffered egg yolk assays supports the idea that phenols may be the main contributors to the antioxidant power of “horchata” drained-water. However, its microbial quality is poor, so this liquid residue must be heat-treated before its addition to any food product.
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Physicochemical properties of chufa starch were investigated The result are summarized as follow: Moisture content crude protein and crude fat were 10.10%, 0.31% and 0.41,% respectively. Amylose content of chufa starch was 41.6% and blue value was 0.49. Lightness and whiteness of chufa starch was 96.36 and 92.23 of Hunter's color value. In iodine reaction, maximum absorbance wavelength () was 628 nm. Water binding capacity was 83% and swelling power and solubility of chufa starch were increased slowly to , but increased rapidly after . Scanning election microscope(SEM) showed that granule type of chufa starch was round or elliptic type, and average granule size was . The results by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) revealed that gelatinization patterns were similar to those of potato or rice starch. In rapid viscoanalyzer(RVA) examination, pasting temperature was and peak viscosity of chufa starch was 385.08.
Conference Paper
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In this study, selected physical properties (size and shape, volume and density, surface area, weight, spherecity, coefficient of friction, angle of repose, as well as terminal velocity) of the brown type of tiger nut seed were determined using standard procedures. The average values of the surface area (206.12 mm 2), geometric mean diameter (7.29 mm), spherecity (74.39 %), coefficient of friction for the three materials used were 0.37, 0.32 and 0.26 respectively (0.32), the mean values of the angle of repose of tiger nut seed for wood (20.5°), glass (17.°5) and metal (14.4°) and terminal velocity of 17.60 mm/s of the tiger nut seed at moisture content of 17 % (wb) were used in this study. These data are important for designing of cleaning and sorting machines of Tiger nut seeds.
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Tigernut tubers were processed in different ways to formulate two new products: product 1 -Orange Tigernut Beverage (OTB) and product 2 - Tigernut Drink (TD). OTB was formulated from a blend of Orange Juice (OJ) and Tiger Nut Milk (TM) by substitution at ratio (OJ:TM) 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. TD was formulated by drying tigernut tuber (8% moisture) and milling to obtain a powder. Spices were added. TD samples were obtained by reconstituting the powdered tigernut with cold water at a concentration of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% (w/v). The samples were evaluated for their sensory, proximate composition and microbiological status. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed between samples under various parameters. All the samples of OTB were highly acceptable but the sample (OJ:TM) 40:60 received the highest (8.3) over all acceptability. In TD, reconstituting the sample from 20 to 25% (w/v) was most (8.3-8.6) acceptable. Carbohydrate (38-50%) and moisture (39-60%) were quantitatively the major component of OTB. The samples were deficient in crude fiber. Samples (OJ:TM) 40:60 and 20:80 with carbohydrate (46%), protein (2%), ash (2-3%) and fat (3-4%) had the highest nutrient values. The reconstituted TB sample of 25% (w/v) had the highest (carbohydrate 46%, fat 22%, Ash and protein 2% respectively) nutrient level with carbohydrate, fat and moisture forming its major component. Crude fiber in TB was higher than that in OTB. A direct relationship existed between the microbial content of OTB and the rate of substitution. Microbial content ranged from no growth to 102 cfu/ml, which was not critical to the wholesomeness of the products. The TD samples showed no microbial growth thereby confirming the wholesomeness of the samples.
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Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO) with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO) on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), and triglycerides (TG), were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI) was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels. La hiperlipidemia es un factor de riesgo predominante para la aterosclerosis y las enfermedades cardiovasculares asociadas (ECV). Las directrices internacionales emitidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomiendan una reducción de grasas saturadas y colesterol, como medio para prevenir la hipercolesterolemia y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El principal objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar los efectos de una alimentación conteniendo mezclas de aceites, que consiste en aceite de coco (CNO) con diferentes proporciones de aceite de chufa (TNO), sobre los niveles de lípidos en suero en ratas albinas. Se realizó un análisis GLC para determinar la composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites mezclados. Los aceites se obtuvieron mezclando aceite de chufa con aceite de coco en las relaciones:100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 y 0:100 (volumen:volumen). Cincuenta y seis ratas albinas macho se dividieron aleatoriamente en 7 grupos de 8 ratas cada uno, según el tipo de aceite y se alimentaron durante un período de hasta 10 semanas con las mezclas de aceites. Se determinó el colesterol total (T-Ch), colesterol en lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-Ch), colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL-Ch), triglicéridos (TG) y el índice aterogénico (IA). Los resultados mostraron cambios no significativos en todos los parámetros nutricionales entre el grupo control y las ratas alimentadas con los aceites ensayados. Los resultados también indican que el aceite de coco tiene un 86% de ácidos grasos saturados. TNO por otro lado contiene un 66% de ácido oleico. Por lo tanto, una mezcla de aceite de coco con aceite de chufa reduce la relación de ácidos grasos saturados a insaturados del CNO. Las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites mostraron niveles significativamente mas bajos de colesterol en suero en comparación con los de CNO. Los niveles de HDL mejoraron ligeramente en las ratas alimentadas con las mezclas de aceites. El colesterol total y colesterol LDL estuvieron controlados cuando las proporciones TNO / CNO variaron entre el 25/75 a 70/30. Esto se reflejó en el índice aterogénico calculado. Cambios similares también se observaron con los niveles de triglicéridos en suero.
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A comprehensive study was conducted on oils from raw and boiled black variety of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L), in order to evaluate their potential uses. The quality of the extracted oils was assessed in terms of acid value, iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, specific gravity, flash point, kinematic viscosity and unsaponifiable matter with the mean range values of 9.03-9.12 mg KOH/g,57.30-92.60mg of 1/100 g, 179.40-180.30 mg KOH/g, 6.90-7.50 meqO2/kg, 0.90-0.91 g/cm, 275.00-282.00°C,8.30-8.42mm2/s at 100°C and 0.50-0.82%, respectively. The major fatty acids of the tigernut oil were oleic acid (32.14-50.85%)> linoleic acid (24.08-46.71)> palmitic acid (12.96-15.84%)> stearic acid (4.35-4.60%). Palmitoleic, eicosenoic, erucic, nervonic, elaidic, eicosadienoic, docosadienoic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, dihomo- γ -linolenic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 1.0% in either of the samples while lauric and myristic acids in the boiled sample were not at the detectable range of GC. The boiling process reduced the content of lauric, myristic, arachidic, behenic, palmitoleic, pentacosylic and oleic acids by 100, 100, 98.72, 99.21, 99.76, 1.47 and 36.79%, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with an adequate amount of essential fatty acid (linoleic acid). Generally, the boiling method showed deviations in fatty acid components from the raw sample. Phosphatidylethanolamine had the highest content (223.08 mg/100 g) in raw tigernut while the lowest was lysophosphatidylcholine (3.83 mg/100 g) also in the raw sample. However, the total phytosterols were of low values with range of 1,59e-3 to 9.74e-3 mg/100 g except that of stigmasterol and sitosterol. The high percentage PUFA and the low sterols particularly cholesterol may make processed black variety of tigernut a good food source on health wise basis.
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Milk and dairy products are fundamental items in all social groups’ diets. The production of functional milk and dairy products supplemented with plant extracts is a potential direction of research in the dairy sector. In the present study, chufa (tiger nut) milk was mixed with buffalo milk for manufacturing functional frozen yoghurt. Flavoring materials (orange (O), strawberry (St), cocoa (Co), instant coffee “soluble coffee” classic (N) and cinnamon (Ci)) were used, aiming to improve the sensory attributes of the final products. The resultant frozen yoghurt was analyzed for chemical, physical and sensory properties. Interestingly, our study revealed that buffalo–chufa milk (50%:50%, w/w) frozen yoghurt (F) had higher total solid (TS), fat and protein contents compared to the control buffalo milk frozen yoghurt (CT). These parameters reached their highest values in cocoa frozen yoghurt (CoF). Lactose, acetaldehyde and pH were lower in F compared to CT, while the highest acetaldehyde value was observed in strawberry chufa frozen yoghurt (StF). Plain or flavored F recorded higher petaldehyde values, observed in strawberry chufa frozen yoghurt (StF). Plain or flavored materials improved the melting resistance, and the highest value was recorded in cinnamon chufa frozen yoghurt (CiF). Na, K, Mg, and Fe contents were significantly higher in F; however, Ca was lower compared to CT. In general, the used flavoring materials markedly increased the mineral content in the final products. A significant decrease was observed in the sensory properties in F compared to CT, whereas frozen yoghurt manufactured with coca was preferred over all other types, followed by the soluble coffee-flavored product (NF). Collectively, functional frozen yoghurt can be produced by mixing buffalo yoghurt and chufa milk (50:50 v/v). Buffalo—chufa frozen yoghurt (F) had higher nutritional value but lower physical and sensory properties compared to buffalo frozen yoghurt (control). A clear improvement in the properties of the final product can be achieved using different flavoring materials. Cleary, our present study provides novel interesting information about the potential beneficial use of chufa buffalo milk for manufacturing functional frozen yoghurt. Further similar research is recommended to explore the potential benefits of the supplementation of other dairy products with chufa.
Article
A method based on matrix solid phase dispersion extraction was applied to determine aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) from tigernuts and tigernut beverages. Recoveries of each aflatoxin from tigernut (spiked at 10 microg/kg level) and from tigernut beverages (spiked at 10 microg/L level) ranged from 72.3 to 82.1% and from 74.0 to 86.3%, respectively. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.21 to 1.49 microg/kg (for tigernuts) and from 0.13 to 0.57 microg/L (for tigernut beverages) studied using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The proposed extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection determination was applied to 37 and 25 samples of tigernuts and tigernut beverages, respectively, 3 positives being found in each category.
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Seven samples of some Nigerian oil seeds have been studied with respect to their proximate composition, calcium and phosphorus contents as well as the amino acid composition which was determined by column chromatography. Three of the groundnut samples were processed in the laboratory. These were then compared with a commercial groundnut cake. The African oil bean seeds, the conophor nuts and the soya beans obtained locally were processed in the laboratory. The chemical composition of the oil seed meals were with few exceptions similar to those reported in the literature. The tryptophan and sulphur amino acid contents of the conophor nuts were extremely high compared with the other oil seeds in which the sulphur amino acids were the limiting ones. The lysine contents of the African oil beans and the conophor nuts were exceptionally high compared with others. Glutamic acid followed by aspartic acid and arginine levels were generally high in each of the oil seeds. The implication of these findings are fully discussed.
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1. An acid ninhydrin reagent was found to react specifically in forming a pink product (E(max.) 560mmu) with cysteine. 2. The method was highly sensitive for the determination of cysteine (in 28.0x10(3)). Homocysteine, glutathione, proline, ornithine and other naturally occurring amino acids tested did not give a similar reaction. 3. The reaction product was stable for at least 3-4hr. at room temperature and the extinction was proportional to the concentration in the range 0.05-0.5mumole of cysteine. 4. The acid ninhydrin reagent also gave yellow products (E(max.) 370-404mmu) with tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and indol-3-ylacetic acid. 5. The method was applied for the determination of cysteine in perchloric acid extracts of rat brain, liver and blood.
Article
Quantitative determination of amino acids is made simpler and more rapid by an instrument for automatically recording the ninhydrin color value of the effluent from ion exchange columns. The influent buffer, freed of air, is pumped at a constant rate through a column of sulfonated polystyrene resin. The effluent is met by a capillary stream of ninhydrin reagent delivered by a second pump. The color is developed by passing the mixture of reagent and effluent through a spiral of capillary Teflon tubing immersed in a boiling water bath. The absorbance of the resulting solution is measured continuously at 570 and 440 mμ as it flows through a cylindrical glass cell of 2-mm. bore. The peaks on the recorded curves can be integrated with a precision of 100 ± 3% for loads from 0.1 to 3.0 μmoles of each amino acid. A hydrolyzate of a protein or peptide may be analyzed in less than 24 hours. The more complex mixtures characteristic of blood plasma, urine, and mammalian tissues can be analyzed in 2 days. The instrument is applicable in principle to detection of ninhydrin-positive constituents in the effluent from various types of Chromatograph columns.