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Cholesterol Content of Beef Bone Marrow and Mechanically Deboned Meat

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Abstract

Marrow from cervical, lumbar and femur bones of 5 steers and 5 cows fed only on native range (grass fed) and 5 steers and 5 cows fed a finishing ration (grain fed) was analyzed for cholesterol content. The cholesterol content of the marrow was significantly different when diet or anatomical locations were compared. Bovine marrow from grass-fed animals averaged 119.6 mg/100g and marrow from grain-fed animals averaged 150.6 mg/100g marrow. The cholesterol content of marrow from the cervical, lumbar, and femur was 190.1, 124.1, and 91.0 mg/100g marrow, respectively. Mechanically deboned meat (MDM) and beef lean had a mean cholesterol content of 153.3 and 50.9 mg/100g tissue. Spinal cord material in MDM can account for the increased concentration of cholesterol in some MDM samples over the values for lean and marrow.

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... by the presence of bone marrow, which is similar to mechanically deboned beef (Kunsman and others 1981). Dietary treatments, such as feed rations, also have been studied extensively in an effort to improve lipid quality and decrease cholesterol content in poultry meats (Konjufca and others 1997; Ayerza and others 2002; Ponte and others 2004, 2008; Hur and others 2007; Simsek and others 2009). ...
... Osman and Chin (2006) used a high-temperature column and reported that the cholesterol peak was sharp. Even with packed columns, the separation and quantification of free cholesterol were found to be satisfactory (Kovacs and others 1979; Kunsman and others 1981; Ryan and Gray 1984). Kovacs and others (1979) found no significant difference between recoveries of the cholesterol TMS-derivative and the free cholesterol. ...
Article
  Available data for cholesterol content of beef, pork, poultry, and processed meat products were reported. Although the cholesterol concentration in meat and poultry can be influenced by various factors, effects of animal species, muscle fiber type, and muscle fat content are focused on in this review. Oxidative red muscles tend to have greater total lipid and cholesterol contents, although differences in the same types of muscles or cuts have been reported. Moreover, contradictory results among various studies suggest that unless there are pronounced changes in muscle structure and composition, cholesterol content is unlikely to be affected. Second, multiple issues in cholesterol analysis, including sample preparation, detection, and quantification, were evaluated. Cholesterol content of meat and poultry has been determined mostly by colorimetry and chromatography, although the latter has become predominant because of technological advances and method performance. Direct saponification has been the preferred method for hydrolyzing samples because of cost- and time-effectiveness. The extraction solvent varies, but toluene seems to provide sufficient recovery in a single extraction, although the possible formation of an emulsion associated with using toluene requires experience in postsaponification manipulation. The most commonly used internal standard is 5α-cholestane, although its behavior is not identical to that of cholesterol. Cholesterol can be analyzed routinely by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector without derivatization; however, other methods, especially high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors, can also be used. For research purposes, HPLC-ultraviolet/Visible/photodiode array detector with nondestructiveness is preferred, especially when cholesterol must be separated from other coexisting compounds such as tocopherols. More advanced methods, such as GC/HPLC-isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, are primarily used for quality control purposes.
... Hence, the recommended maximum daily cholesterol intake is only 300 mg (Jim enez-Colmenero et al., 2001). Cholesterol is influenced by diet, and bovine marrow from grass-fed animals contains an average cholesterol content of 119.6 mg/ 100 g, while marrow from grain-fed animals contains an average of 150.6 mg/100 g (Kunsman et al., 2010). In our study, increased ryegrass content in the diet caused a gradual reduction in breast meat cholesterol. ...
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of diet with different proportions of ryegrass on breast meat quality of geese. In total, 240 healthy male Yangzhou geese (28-day-old) with similar body weight were divided randomly into 4 diet groups (control group: fed commercial diets; treatment groups I, II, and III: fed ryegrass and commercial diet in the ratios of 1.5:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively), the birds being fed from the age of 29 to 70 D. The results shows that the body weights of 70-day-old geese of treatment groups II and III were lower than those in the control group, whereas those of geese of treatment group I were similar to those of the control group. The contents of flavor amino acid and total (essential) amino acids in treatment groups I and II were higher than those in treatment group III (P < 0.05). In addition, grass supplementation reduced saturated fatty acid content and increased that of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Finally, among the 6 minerals analyzed in breast muscle, differences existed in Zn, Se, and Cu contents among the geese fed with different proportions of ryegrass. Zn content of geese from treatment groups II and III was significantly higher than that of those of the control group; Cu content was lower with grass intake and was significantly higher in the control group than in treatment group III; Se content was significantly higher in the control group than in both groups II and III (all at P < 0.05). The results from this study indicated that geese fed with low proportions of ryegrass (1.5:1 or 2:1) showed good growth performance and increased total (essential) amino acid, flavor amino acid, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and Zn content in meat, which had a certain guiding value for the production of high-quality goose meat under intensive feeding conditions.
... The edible meat tissue from camels also contains less cholesterol than beef or lamb (Table 10), which suggests that camel meat is healthier, but measures of cholesterol in comparable samples within the same laboratory are required to confirm this. The range of cholesterol values that are available for meat is wide and often affected by dietary factors, age, sex and analytical method used (Abu-Tarboush & Dawood, 1993;Kunsman, Collins, Field, & Miller, 1981). Low levels of saturated fat in the diet are important for avoiding atherosclerosis because of their effect on plasma cholesterol levels (Stamler & Lilien Field, 1970), and low intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol are important for the control of obesity, and hypercholesterolemia, and to decrease the risk of cancer (Chizzolini, Zanardi, Dorigoni, & Ghidini, 1999). ...
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The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.
... Indirect evidence of brain tissue consumption reflected in the remains of fresh broken skulls has been identified in early human sites [24,[127][128]. Ruminant brain and marrow contains around 2037mg /100 g [129] and 119-6mg/ 100g [130] cholesterol respectively. We believe, that such amounts would entail a significant increase in cholesterol and metabolites in early human sterol output, reflecting dietary changes. ...
Article
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Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeo-logical data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei). Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodie-tary research and early human diets.
... Estimated intakes from the models of Eaton et al. (26) and Cordain et al. (27) (recalculated from our data) were 480 and 830 mg/d, respectively, while the current estimates from Models 2-4 are 498, 914 and 523 mg/d. The sizeable intakes of cholesterol in Models 1 and 3 are derived from very high amounts of cholesterol in brain (2037 mg/ 100 g) (33) and marrow (119·6 mg/100 g) (117) , compared with an average amount of 65·9 (6) in meat and 60·2 mg/100 g (33) in fish. The estimated Paleolithic cholesterol intakes are well above the present intakes of 320 mg/d in the USA (118) and the proclaimed 'high cholesterol intakes' of Japanese men (446 mg/d) and women (359 mg/d) (118) . ...
Article
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Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein < 35 energy % (en%) and linoleic acid (LA) >1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.
... The femur bones are composed of fatty white marrow, whereas ribs and vertebrae are abundant in red marrow. Beef femur bones contain 85% lipid compared with 26-56% in vertebrae (Kunsman, 1981). Beef bone marrow lipids contain small amount of phospholipids. ...
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The possibility that the high blood cholesterol accompanying protected lipid feeding would cause deposition of cholesterol in body tissues and counteract advantages due to higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content was studied by comparing tissue cholesterol from cows, calves and steers fed polyunsaturated fats with those on conventional diets. Chuck, round, heart, liver, fat, plasma and milk were compared from cows fed either protected safflower oil-casein-formaldehyde (SOC-F), unprotected safflower oil-casein (SOC) or a conventional (control) hay-grain ration for 2–1/2 yr. Mean cholesterol, as mg %, for SOC-F, SOC and control cows were: chuck, 41, 52, 52; round, 46, 50, 50; heart, 96, 119, 103; liver 256, 231, 222; plasma, 336, 287, 200; milk, 12, 12, 12. Calves were fed milk high in 18:2 for 10 wk, followed by SOC-F for 8 wk, while a second group was fed normal milk, followed by SOC. Cholesterol for SOC-F and SOC calves were: chuck, 80, 68; plasma, 208, 166. Other calves were fed high 18:2 milk (SOC-F) or normal milk (control). Cholesterol for SOC-F and control were: chuck, 84, 68 (p < 0.025); round 72, 63; plasma, 197, 208. Ground beef of steers fed SOC-F or SOC for 6 wk had cholesterol levels of 67.1 and 65.0 mg/100 g and C18:2 levels of 14% and 2%. Our data show that the cholesterol content of these polyunsaturated meats was not greater than in conventional products.
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An efficient method has been developed for the microdetermination of cholesterol and some plant sterols such as brassicasterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The method is a greatly simplified analytical procedure in which samples are directly saponified, the unsaponifiable substances extracted, and the sterols estimated by gas liquid chromatography without further processing. The sterol contents from the new method are at least as high, alid generally higher, than those from the official method, indicating superior recovery. The analysis has been found to be simple, sensitive, economical of time and particularly of solvents. It is probably adaptable to a wide variety of food ingredients or products.
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Bones from six different anatomical locations of two young, two intermediate and two old bovine were used to characterize bone marrow lipids as a function of animal age and bone location with the view of utilizing these lipids for human consumption. Nonpolar lipids from bone marrow increased with increasing animal age. Oleate was the predominant fatty acid in both nonpolar and polar lipid fractions. There was a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids in nonpolar and polar lipids from young to old bovine. As chronological age advanced the percent of triglycerides in bone increased while the percent of cholesterol esters, cholesterol, free fatty acids and diglycerides decreased. Some changes in lipids as a function of anatomical location were evident.
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Samples of all-beef, beef-pork, and chicken frankfurters as well as various other meat and poultry products were purchased from several area supermarkets. The samples were analyzed for water, total fat, fatty acids, protein, ash, and sterols. Cholesterol values ranged from 7 to 100 mg/100 g of product. The fat content of the products varied from 2 to 30 g/100 g of product. All of the products were compared with respect to proximate analysis and sterol and fatty acid content.
A search of the literature has been conducted on the cholesterol content of foods and on the methods for its determination. The amount of cholesterol in food is important because of its possible relationship to the onset of atherosclerosis in humans. Cholesterol is present primarily in foods of animal origin. The main sources in the American diet are eggs, poultry, dairy products, fish and seafood, and meat products. Only a few samples of these products have been analyzed. In many cases there is a wide range in cholesterol values for samples analyzed. Much of the research was conducted many years ago. The most commonly used methods were gravimetric or colorimetric. In many cases the samples investigated were not adequately described. Cholesterol was often determined without isolating it from interfering materials. Although some of the cholesterol values reported in the literature appear to be reasonably accurate, there is an urgent need for reinvestigation of the cholesterol content of foods using more recently developed methods of analysis.
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The determination of cholesterol by a new reagent, o-phthalaldehyde, selected from a group of promising compounds has been described. Reactions of compounds which interfere with other cholesterol color reagents have been studied and found to be unreactive in this procedure. Two Δ5 compounds, cholesterol and dehydroepiandrosterone, underwent reaction to yield sensitive purple colors whereas the naturally occurring compounds, dihydrocholesterol and epiandrosterone, differing only in the saturation of the Δ5 double bond were unreactive. Although no serum results are shown, a study of such an application is in progress for both an extraction procedure and a screening technique by direct reaction without prior isolation of the cholesterol. In addition, a technique for the determination of tissue content (heart and liver), red blood cell, leucocyte and red blood cell cholesterol are under investigation.
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changes in bone maturity. These bone com- ponents could also be used to estimate amount of bone in mechanically deboned meat. Whole cervical and lumbar vertebrae, ribs and femurs from 12 ovine, eight porcine and 14 bovine carcasses and whole cervical vertebrae, fibs, femurs and synsacrums from eight chickens and eight turkeys were removed from animals slaughtered at different chronological ages. Large increases in fat and dry matter with increased age were found in cervical and lumbar vertebrae, ribs and femurs from ovine, porcine and bovine carcasses. In chickens and turkeys, dry matter increased with age but fat in fresh bone remained relatively constant. In all five species dry-fat-free bone decreased in percent nitrogen and increased in ash and calcium as age increased. Percent calcium in bone ash was similar for all age groups of all species except turkeys and for all four bones studied. Calcium to nitrogen ratio increased with age. Significant differences in composition of bones within animals were evident. Rib bones had the lowest fat percentage and femurs had the highest fat and dry matter percentage in cattle and sheep. Ribs, partially because of high ash content, usually contained more dry matter than lumbar and cervical vertebrae. In general, femurs possessed the least nitrogen and the most ash of any of .the bones studied. Hydroxyproline content, on a dry-fat-free basis, did not differ significantly according to age or bone in the red meat species. Nutritional value of bone protein from all five species was low when based upon hydroxyproline analysis. Calcium or ash could be useful in studying
The lipid content of mechanic-ally deboned red meats Lipid characterization of bovine bone marrow Lipid autoxidation in mechan-ically deboned chicken meat
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Least-squares analysis of data with unequal subclass numbers
  • W R Harvey