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Learning about responsibility: Lessons from homework

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Abstract

Background. Responsibility, it has been argued, can be usefully studied if it is defined in terms of specific principles, such as self-regulation. This study investigated children's practices and ideas about self-regulation for one particular aspect of school work, namely, completing homework. Aims. The research questions were: what practices do children report in regard to homework, what understandings do children display about being responsible for homework, and do these understandings vary as a function of the grade level or gender of the child? Sample. The sample comprised 98 Australian children, 34 from grade 2 and 32 from each of grades 4 and 6. Method. Children were interviewed individually, asked about homework practices and given questions which explored ideas about self-regulation. The taped interviews were transcribed and the open-ended responses coded by two independent judges. Results. Results indicated few age differences in reported practices, but an age-related shift in ideas, from other-regulation (grade 2) to self-regulation (grade 6). Conclusions. It is argued that activity contexts such as homework play an important role in both the development of self-regulated practice and in the understanding of responsibility. A proviso was given that such findings may be limited to middle class groups where completion of homework may be a parental priority.

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... Diğer taraftan, araştırmalar, öğrencilerin ilgi, merak ve ihtiyaçlarını dikkate alarak nitel ve nicel olarak iyi hazırlanmış ve öğrencilerin içsel motivasyon kaynaklarını destekleyen ev ödevlerinin; öz-düzenleme becerisini, akademik öz-yeterlik inançlarını, öğrenmeye karşı sorumluluk duygusunu, üst düzey düşünme becerilerini, etkili öğrenme stratejileri geliştirmeyi ve bağımsız çalışma alışkanlığını olumlu yönde etkilediğini göstermektedir (Bembenutty, 2011, Cooper, Robinson ve Patall, 2006Cooper ve Valentine, 2001;Coutts, 2004;Katz, Kaplan ve Buzukashvily, 2011;Özcan ve Erktin, 2015;Warton, 2001). Warton (1997) ev ödevlerinin istenilen olumlu etkiyi göstermesi için ev ödevlerinin verilme amacının çok iyi belirlenmesi ve bu amaç doğrultusunda ev ödevlerinin verilmesi gerektiğini vurgulamaktadır. Öğretmenler oldukça farklı amaçlar için ev ödevleri verebilmektedir. ...
... Ev ödevlerinin verilme amacının yanı sıra ev ödevlerinin miktarı, ev ödevlerini yapmak için gerekli olan beceriler, öğrencinin ödevler üzerinde seçim yapabilme derecesi, öğrencinin motivasyonu, başka bir ifadeyle ödev yapma nedenleri, ve çalışma alışkanlıkları, ödevlerin değerlendirilme şekli gibi nedenlerle ev ödevlerinin etkililiğini artıran nedenler arasında yer almaktadır (Bembenutty, 2011;Epstein ve Van Voorhis, 2010 ;Cooper, Robinson ve Patall, 2006) Öğrenciler, ev ödevleri dâhil birçok akademik çalışmayı sadece merak ettikleri, yapmaktan hoşlandıkları ya da ilginç buldukları için yapmıyor olabilirler. Hatta erken ilkokul döneminde yaptıkları birçok akademik çalışmanın nedenini ve önemini algılamayabilirler (Warton, 1997;Warton, 2001). Bundan dolayı öğrencilerin akademik gelişimlerini ve başarılarını desteklemek için yapılan çalışmalar olumsuz sonuçlanabilir. ...
... Tekrar ve pratik amaçlı verilen ev ödevleri öğrencilerin öğrenilen bilgileri daha kolay hatırlamasını sağlayabilir ancak anlama, sorgulama, eleştirel ve yaratıcı düşünme gibi düşünme becerilerini gelişimini desteklemeyebilir (Bedford, 2014;Cooper ve Valentine, 2001;Rosario ve diğ. 2015;Warton, 1997). Sürekli tekrar ve pratiğe dayalı verilen ev ödevleri öğrencide bıkkınlık yaratabildiği gibi (Rudman, 2014); çocukların kendi öğrenmeleri üzerine özerkliklerini kısıtlayabilir, dolayısıyla bağımsız öğrenme alışkanlıklarını olumsuz etkileyebilir. ...
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OZ. Bu arastirmanin amaci ilkokul ve ortaokul ogrencilerinin ve velilerinin ev odevleri ile ilgili goruslerini ve veli goruslerine gore ev odevleri ile ilgili karsilasilan sorunlari incelemektir. Bu cercevede ogrencilere ve velilere ev odevleri ile ilgili sorularin yoneltildigi soru formlari dagitilmis ve veriler betimsel olarak analiz edilmistir. Arastirmanin calisma grubunu 2015-2016 egitim ogretim yili guz yari yili doneminde Denizli il merkezindeki ilk ve ortaokullarda ogrenim goren toplam 621 ilkokul ve ortaokul ogrencisi ve onlarin velileri (N=279) olusturmaktadir. Sonuclar hem ilkokul hem de ortaokul ogrencilerinin hoslandiklari ev odevi turunun etkinlik temelli (proje, tasarim..vb.) odevler oldugunu, cok zaman alan, yazi yazma ve okuma gibi odevlerden hoslanmadigini gostermektedir. Ilkokul ogrencileri en cok matematik dersi odevini yapmaktan hoslanirken, ortaokul ogrencileri fen ve teknoloji dersinin odevlerinden hoslandiklarini ifade etmislerdir. Ogrenciler hoslandiklari ve hoslanmadiklari odevleri duygusal nedenlere (sevme/sevmeme, sikici/eglenceli, ogretmen ile ilgili duygular, kendini yeterli/yetersiz hissetme) baglamayi tercih etmistir. Velilere gore odevlerin verilme amaci tekrar ve pratiktir. Veliler ilkokul ogrencileri acisindan en sik karsilastiklari sorunu ogrencinin odevi yapmak istememesi olarak ifade ederken, ortaokul ogrencileri acisindan en sik karsilasilan sorun verilen odevin ogrenciler tarafindan anlasilamamasi olmustur. Bulgular ilgili alan yazin isiginda tartisilmistir.
... This may be because selfdetermination theory explains internalization and externalization process of different forms of exterior motivation in four groups depending on supporting or weakening reasons, and students may not distinguish this due to their cognitive development. Homework is not such an activity that the students do inherently but is the responsibility given them by the adults (Warton, 1997;Warton, 2010). Thus, students, particularly younger ones, are not expected to understand the long term effects of homework on learning (Warton, 1997;Warton, 2010). ...
... Homework is not such an activity that the students do inherently but is the responsibility given them by the adults (Warton, 1997;Warton, 2010). Thus, students, particularly younger ones, are not expected to understand the long term effects of homework on learning (Warton, 1997;Warton, 2010). The difference between the two groups supports this judgement. ...
... Sonuçta ev ödevleri, öğrencilerin içsel olarak kendi kendilerine yaptıkları bir etkinlik değildir. Yetişkinler tarafından dışsal olarak öğrencilere verilen bir sorumluluktur 1997;2001). Bundan dolayı, özellikle ilkokul alt sınıflarda öğrenim gören öğrencilerden, yetişkinler gibi ev ödevlerinin uzun vadeli öğrenmeye yönelik etkisini anlamaları beklenemez 1997;2001). ...
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The aim of this study is to adapt the Motivation for Homework Scale developed by Katz, Kaplan and Buzukashvily (2011) based on self-determination theory. The original scale consists of 19 items with two factors related to control and autonomy reasons of motivation. Each item is followed by a three point Likert-type scale for second and third graders, and a four point Likert-type scale for fourth garde and secondary school students. After translation to Turkish and the view of two experts from Guidance and Psychological Counseling department, the 17 items-scale was used for the study. Turkish form of the scale was distributed to 194 first and second graders and 427 fourth grade and secondary school students. Factor analysis was used for the structure validity of the scale. According to the factor analysis, 13 items of the scale were proper to use for the lower primary students and 15 items for upper elementary education students. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was calculated separately for two groups and internal consistency of the scales was sufficient. Results showed that Turkish version of the Motivation for Homework Scale is suitable to determine elementary students’ motivation for homework.
... Although there is not much research on this topic, there are some indications that a large part of the students engage in homework not because of the interest and enthusiasm it awakens but for other reasons, such as a sense of duty, the desire to please, or even to avoid punishments (Walker et al., 2004). Likewise, when they are asked about homework, references to responsibility do not begin to emerge before the end of PE (Warton, 1997); thus, most of the smaller children do homework to avoid problems and to please their parents (Corno, 2000;Warton, 2001). ...
... Although there is not much research on this topic, there are some indications that a large part of the students engage in homework not because of the interest and enthusiasm it awakens but for other reasons, such as a sense of duty, the desire to please, or even to avoid punishments (Walker et al., 2004). Likewise, when they are asked about homework, references to responsibility do not begin to emerge before the end of PE (Warton, 1997); thus, most of the smaller children do homework to avoid problems and to please their parents (Corno, 2000;Warton, 2001). ...
... On the other hand, it can be observed that, as students advance to higher levels, they have less intrinsic motivation towards homework and they perceive it as less useful. The expectation-value theory (Eccles, Adler, & Meece, 1984;Eccles & Wigfield, 2002) is particularly appropriate to explain motivation towards homework (Trautwein & Köller, 2003), suggesting that students are more apt to engage in tasks they perceive as emotionally rewarding, valuable, and where effort is "worth the trouble" (Warton, 2001). The problem of CSE students may stem not so much from their lack of comprehending the benefits that homework can provide as in their perception that the immediate associated costs may be greater than the potential benefits (Coutts, 2004). ...
... Older children have narrow views of homework purposes (e.g. revise previously learned material), whereas younger children see the purpose of homework as an aid for learning (Warton 1997). These age differences can be seen as an example of consequences of experiences students acquire during schooling. ...
... Older students, compared to their younger counterparts, show more independence at home, preferring no adult supervision, and are less concerned about satisfying their parents, while preferring to study with peers when doing homework (Hong and Milgram 2000). Increases in older students' understanding of their responsibility for homework, such as remembering to do homework, from their earlier years when homework was often regulated by parents, also demonstrate developmental progression (Warton 1997). Numerous studies on students' motivation for school tasks have documented declines in motivation as students reach upper grade levels (Lepper et al. 4 A. Iflazoglu and E. Hong 1997;Wigfield et al. 1997). ...
... This trend reflects a rather predictable course of social development amongst youth. As students gain autonomy as they approach upper grade levels, they gradually prefer working without someone looking over their shoulder (Warton 1997). Although guidance and feedback from adults promote expertise (Corno and Mandinach 2004), adult monitoring becomes less necessary as students get older and more experienced with homework. ...
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Turkish students’ motivation sources, organisational approaches, physical needs and environmental and interpersonal preferences during the homework process were examined in 1776 students in Grades 5–8 from 10 randomly selected schools in two districts of a major urban city in Turkey. These constructs were examined to determine grade, gender, socio‐economic status (SES) differences and interaction effects amongst the three grouping variables. Grade differences were demonstrated in some elements (e.g. motivation) whereas others (e.g. physical needs) were stable across grades. Gender differences were not significant in most elements, and Turkish students with low‐SES background reported more positive attitudes towards homework and more culturally acceptable ways of engaging in homework than did their high‐SES peers. The significance of the study in Turkish education system was discussed.
... Likewise, students' perceptions of homework change. Whereas young children see the purpose of homework as an aid to learning, older children have narrow views of homework's purposes (e.g., revise previously learned material) (Warton, 1997). Older than younger children consider homework boring and meaningless (Hong, Topham, Carter, Wozniak, Tomoff, & Lee, 2000). ...
... Given the variations in homework effects across grade level and the importance of students' responsibility for successful homework experience (Corno, 1996;Warton, 2001), it is important that educators understand whether students regulate their homework behaviors. Self-regulation applied in homework may be examined as a specific facet of responsibility ( Warton, 1997). Although self-regulated learning has been studied widely (e.g., Pintrich & De Groot, 1990), self-regulation applied to homework has rarely been examined (Xu & Corno, 2003). ...
... Young students, as compared to older students, are not skilled at using metacognitive strategies (Pressley & Ghatala, 1989). In home- work, a developmental progression is shown in students' under- standing of their responsibility for homework such as remembering to do homework ( Warton, 1997). Gender differences are observed in self-regulated strategy use, with females reporting the use of self- regulated strategies more often than males (Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998;Martin, 2004). ...
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Article
The study examined differences in students' reported homework value, motivation, and metacognitive strategy use during homework completion among two grades, gender, and three achievement levels. Differences among six homework self-regulation constructs (utility value, intrinsic value, effort, persistence, planning, and self-checking) were also examined. Participants were 330 seventh and 407 eleventh graders from a metropolitan city in China. Chinese students' reported self-regulated learning during homework declined from middle to high school. Whereas students rated utility value and effort high, intrinsic value and self-checking were rated low. Male and female students did not differ in homework self-regulation. Achievement-level differences in homework self-regulation were found in seventh graders, but not in eleventh graders. The pattern of Chinese students' reported homework value, motivation, and metacognitive strategy use were discussed, and instructional implications were offered.
... Unfortunately, homework is also a ''battlefield'' (Cooper, 2001) for students, parents , teachers, and administrators, with students' homework behavior often leading to strained relationships within the family (Grolnick, 2003). Seen from a developmental perspective, learning how to regulate homework behavior is an important developmental task for elementary and secondary students (Pomerantz & Eaton, 2001;Warton, 1997Warton, , 2001). An understanding of the mechanisms conducive to homework motivation and homework effort may provide valuable insights into this process. ...
... Students' behavior becomes increasingly self-determined over the secondary school years (e.g.,Wigfield, Eccles, & Pintrich, 1996). From perceiving their behavior to be regulated by teachers or parents (seeWarton, 1997Warton, , 2001) in the elementary years, students become increasingly aware of their own goals and values as they grow older. Hence, the relevance of the value component for explaining achievement-related choices should increase as well. ...
... We expected all three variables to have statistically significant effects on homework effort . Based on the observation that students' behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated over the secondary school years (e.g.,Warton, 1997;Wigfield et al., 1996), moreover, we expected the predictive power of intrinsic value for homework effort to increase over the three age groups. Given the theoretical and empirical difficulties with the time on homework variable (seeTrautwein & Köller, 2003b), we expected to find only small effects of expectancy, intrinsic value, and conscientiousness on homework time. ...
Article
In 2 studies, an expectancy-value framework was applied to investigate effort expended on mathematics homework. In Study 1 (2,712 students in grades 5, 7, and 9; mean age=13.37 years), lower homework effort was found in higher grades. The effects of intrinsic value on homework effort were higher in the older cohorts, whereas the effects of the expectancy component were lower. In Study 2 (571 students in grades 8 and 9; mean age=14.72), an expanded expectancy-value framework was found to explain both homework and classwork variables. The means for effort and value were lower for homework than for classwork; these differences were partly moderated by students' conscientiousness. The implications of homework behavior and motivation for developmental research are highlighted.
... Empirical research indicated that homework completion provided the context for the development of self-regulation (Warton, 1997). In this study of 98 Australian children, younger elementary school aged children (i.e., 2nd graders) were compared to older elementary school aged children (i.e., 4th and 6th graders). ...
... In this study of 98 Australian children, younger elementary school aged children (i.e., 2nd graders) were compared to older elementary school aged children (i.e., 4th and 6th graders). Based on children's selfreports, Warton (1997) found that when it came to homework completion, younger elementary school children tended to be externally regulated (e.g., completing homework because of teacher's expectations), whereas older elementary school children became internally regulated (e.g., completing homework because of the need to learn). Internal-or self-regulation is an important principle for being a responsible individual and a critical marker for college degree obtainment (e.g., Firmin and Gilson, 2007). ...
Article
This research examined the Homework Completion Program in Atlantic County, NJ, where college students and police officers tutored children with homework. Children ( N = 154) reported their impression of police officers and perception of the program. Across 5 years and three program sites, children chose completing homework as the best part about the program and they mostly reported feeling happy when seeing a police officer and finding police officers if they needed help. In summary, the program has shown promise in achieving the goals of preparing children for a college education and building trust between children and police officers.
... Some items were informed by homework literature regarding its academic benefits (e.g., practicing skills from class lessons; Epstein & Van Voorhis, 2001;Van Voorhis, 2004;Warton, 2001) and its self-regulatory benefits (e.g., promoting better study habits; Cooper, 1989;Corno & Xu, 2004;Xu, 2004;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005). Other items were informed by relevant finings from qualitative studies relating to children's views for doing homework (e.g., Warton, 1997;Xu & Corno, 1998;Xu & Yuan, 2003). Still other items were derived from survey studies on student attitudes toward homework (e.g., Cooper et al., 1998), with reasons for doing homework in particular (e.g., Chen & Stevenson, 1989;Xu, 2005). ...
... Another promising line of research could examine the validity of scores on the HPS with younger students, as children's developmental level may influence their stated purposes of doing homework (Warton, 2001). For example, qualitative findings from previous studies suggest that younger students may be less aware of their parents' view that homework could foster the development of desirable attributes such as learning responsibility and improvement time-management or study skills (Warton, 1997;Xu & Corno, 1998. It would also be important to examine whether younger students differentiate peer-oriented reasons from adult-oriented reasons for doing homework, as younger students tend to receive more homework help from their parents (Xu, 2007). ...
Article
The purpose of the present study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale (HPS) for middle school students. The participants were 1,181 eighth graders in the southeastern United States, including (a) 699 students in urban school districts and (b) 482 students in rural school districts. First, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the rural middle school sample. Results revealed that the HPS comprises 3 separate yet related factors, including learning-oriented reasons, adult-oriented reasons, and peer-oriented reasons. This factor structure was then tested with the data from the urban middle school sample. Given an adequate level of factor loading, common error covariance, and intercept invariance, the difference between the group means (the rural sample vs. the urban sample) was further tested. Results revealed no statistically significant mean differences between the rural and urban groups on any of the 3 latent factors (i.e., learning-, adult-, and peer-oriented reasons). With respect to validity evidence for the HPS scores, as hypothesized, the three subscales were positively related to homework management strategies (arranging the environment, managing time, handling distraction, monitoring motivation, and controlling emotion) and the amount of homework completion, and were negatively related to the frequency of coming to class without homework.
... Çünkü ödevin yapılmasındaki temel sorumluluk öğrencinindir (Epstein, 2001). Warton (1997), öğrencilerin kendi ödevlerini başkalarının yapmasını istemediklerini ortaya koymuştur. Bunun için öğrenciler, ödevi kendisi yapmazsa öğrenemeyeceğini, ödev yapmayarak öğretmenini üzmek istemediğini ve öğretmenlerinin ödevi kendisinin yapması için verdiğini belirtmiştir. ...
... i bulmakta, ödev yapma sürecini izlemekte ve yapılan ödevi kontrol ederek çocuklarına yardımcı olmaktadır. Kimi veliler ise çocuklarının ödevlerini bizzat kendisi yapabilmektedir. Ancak, bir velinin çocuğunun ödevini yapması ödevin amacı ve işlevi bakımından doğru değildir. Çünkü ödevin yapılmasındaki temel sorumluluk öğrencinindir (Epstein, 2001).Warton (1997), öğrencilerin kendi ödevlerini başkalarının yapmasını istemediklerini ortaya koymuştur. Bunun için öğrenciler, ödevi kendisi yapmazsa öğrenemeyeceğini, ödev yapmayarak öğretmenini üzmek istemediğini ve öğretmenlerinin ödevi kendisinin yapması için verdiğini belirtmiştir. Ancak, bazı öğrenciler ödevlerinin başkaları tarafından yapılmasın ...
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Researches on the application of Science and Technology course indicates that teachers have various problems about homework. That is, homework is seen as a part of teaching-learning process at Science and Technology Course Curriculum which was applied in 2005-2006 academic year. The main purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ opinions about homework process. The research has been conducted qualitatively. Data were collected from eight elementary school teachers working at two elementary schools through semi-structured interviews in 2007-2008 academic year. The data were analyzed in descriptive data analysis methods. The findings showed that the teachers give homework mostly for the purpose of reinforcement, and asked for homework that prevents creative skills. Research findings also indicated that teachers have problems about homework with regard to web, students, and their parents.
... Ancak bu süreçte öğrencilerine sorumluluk duygularını kazandırmak için ödevlerini kendilerinin yapması hususunda teşvik etmelidirler. Bu doğrultuda çocuklara ev ödevlerini yapmazsa üst öğrenmeleri gerçekleştiremeyeceği düşüncesinin verilmesi gerekmektedir (Warton, 1997). Gennaro ve Lawrenz (1992) yaptıkları araştırmada fen bilimleri dersine olan tutum ile verilen ev ödevleri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemişlerdir. ...
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Dünya genelinde yaygın olarak kullanılan öğretim uygulamalarından birisi ev ödevleridir. Ev ödevi uygulaması, öğrencilerin kendi öğrenme hızına göre öğrenme faaliyetlerini gerçekleştirmesi, öğrenmelerinin sorumluluğunu alması ve daha sonraki öğrenmelere öğrencilerin hazırlıklı olmasını sağlaması açısından önem arz etmektedir. Öğrencilerin ev ödevlerini yaptıkları zaman diliminde genel olarak evde olmaları, ev ödevine verdiği destek düzeyi açısından ebeveynleri önemli kılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ortaokul düzeyinde öğrenim gören öğrencilerin ailelerinin fen bilimleri dersi ev ödevlerine sağladığı desteğin çeşitli demografik değişkenler açısından istatistiki olarak anlamlı fark oluşturup oluşturmadığını tespit etmektir. Bu amaç çerçevesinde araştırmada nicel araştırma yaklaşımlarından betimsel araştırma modeli olan tarama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın örneklemini ise Erzurum ili Yakutiye ilçesinde öğrenim görmekte olan 249 ortaokul öğrencisi oluşturmuştur. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak Demografik Bilgi Anketi ve Ailenin Ev Ödevlerine Desteği Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Katılımcılardan elde edilen veriler SPSS 24.00 paket programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler doğrultusunda çalışmada, ebeveynlerin ev ödevleri desteğinin çocuğunun cinsiyeti, ebeveynlerin çalışma durumu açısından anlamlı bir fark oluşturmadığı; sınıf düzeyi, anne ve babanın eğitim düzeyi açısından istatistiki olarak anlamlı bir fark oluşturduğu tespit edilmiştir. Özellikle üniversite ve yüksek lisans öğrenim düzeyine sahip anne ve babaların çocuklarının fen bilimleri ev ödevlerine desteği istatistiki açıdan anlamlı fark oluşturmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Ebeveynler, ev ödevi, katılım, demografik değişkenler. ABSTRACT One of the widely used teaching practices around the world is homework. Homework application is important in terms of students' learning activities according to their own learning speed, taking responsibility for their learning and ensuring that students are prepared for further learning. The fact that students are generally at home during the time they do their homework makes the parents important in terms of the level of support they give to their homework. The aim of this study is to determine whether the support of parents of secondary school students to their homework in science classes makes a statistically significant difference in terms of various demographic variables. For this purpose, the descriptive research model, which is one of the quantitative research approaches, was used in the research. The sample of the study consisted of 249 secondary school students studying in Yakutiye district of Erzurum. Demographic information questionnaire and Family Support to Homework Scale were used as data collection tools. Data obtained from the participants were analyzed using SPSS 24.00 package program. In line with the analyzes, it was found that the homework support of the parents did not make a significant difference in terms of gender of the child, the working status of the parents and a statistically significant difference in terms of class level, education level of the parents. In particular, the support of the parents of children with university and graduate education to their science homework constitutes a more significant and statistically significant difference.
... Learning responsibility can be described as setting out to study by making efforts to learn, maintaining this responsibility, and reviewing the process of learning by evaluating its results in this respect. In this sense, characteristic features possessed by learners who have learning responsibility can be elucidated as identifying objectives in relation to learning, knowing their own learning attributes (learning styles) with respect to learning process, motivating themselves to learn and be interested in learning, being in cooperation with their peers, making new arrangements when faced with failure to achieve their objectives specified in the learning process, making the best use of time, making efforts to fulfill their duties and responsibilities to the fullest extent possible (Felder & Brent, 2009;Conzemius & O'Neil, 2001;Giorgis & Johnson, 2001;Warton, 1997). ____________________ *Corresponding Author: Meltem Gökdağ Baltaoğlu, meltem.gokdag@gmail.com ...
... Studies in the academic domain have shown that parental involvementoften in the form of helping with homework-is beneficial for improvements in reading achievement (Mize 1977), mathematics achievement (Gutman 1981;Wheeler 1984), and general academic achievement (Baker 1997;Epstein 1992;Grolnick et al. 2002;Hoover-Dempsey et al. 2001;Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler 1995;Keith et al. 1992;Spera 2005;Wilson 1976). Warton (1997) has established that although children understand the importance of doing homework to improve their competence, it will take many years before they take personal responsibility for completing their homework by themselves. Alderman (1999) has shown that a child will often need assistance to learn how to manage, plan, and prioritize use of time. ...
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We examined the effects of choices parents can make regarding their child’s piano lessons: age started, instruction method, taking exams, taking group lessons, sitting in on lessons, helping with home practice, giving rewards for practising. Parental choices were correlated with the following child variables regarding piano playing: autonomous motivation, interest in performance and creativity, interest in effortful practice, time spent practising, feeling of competence, and exam performance. We administered questionnaires to 173 piano students aged six to sixteen and their parents. The most beneficial predictors were: initiating lessons before age seven, sitting in on lessons, and helping with home practice.
... Since high quality education resource is rare in China (Wang, 2004), students' effort is regarded as the approach to the success (Li, 2003). Recently, homework is stressed as an engagement indicator, referring to the level of motivation, expectancies, efforts and self-regulation (Hong, Peng, & Rowell, 2009;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2005;Warton, 1997). Parents and teachers believe that homework accelerates knowledge acquisition and academic achievement (Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006). ...
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Homework aims to improve variables and processes related to academic achievement. In China, homework assignments are not only given by teachers, but also by parents and students themselves. In present study we focus on the impact of additional homework developed by parents and learners. The data comes from 10,959 students enrolled in Chinese primary schools. The results reveal that parents and students from disadvantaged families approach homework as a way to compensate for an unprivileged background. Students develop homework assignments depending on the extent to which their parents develop homework. It shows that the learning performance of students improves significantly when their parents with low level jobs assign a moderate level of homework. In contrast, student achievement is significantly lower when their parents with high level jobs don't assign any homework. Students from disadvantaged families benefit largely from homework involvement. Although there is a certain compensatory impact of homework, educational authorities should provide additional support to students from disadvantaged families.
... Aunque no hay demasiada investigación sobre el tema, existen indicios de que gran parte del alumnado participa en los deberes no por el interés o entusiasmo que le producen, sino por otras razones como el sentido del deber, el deseo de agradar o, incluso, por la evitación de castigos (Walker et al., 2004). Del mismo modo, las referencias a la responsabilidad cuando se les pregunta por los deberes no comienzan a surgir antes de finales de EP (Warton, 1997); así, la mayoría de las niñas y niños más pequeños los completan para evitar problemas o para complacer a sus padres (Corno, 2000;Warton, 2001). ...
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The present investigation examines changes in students' homework engagement and motivation as they advance to higher grade levels in Spanish compulsory education. The study takes into account the possible effect of prior academic achievement on students' homework engagement and motivation. Participants included 1257 students (ranging in age from 9 to 16 years) from four regions in northern Spain. Results show that: (a) There are statistically significant differences in students' homework engagement and motivation as they advance to higher grade levels; and (b) Students' prior academic achievement is related to their homework engagement and motivation.
... Notwithstanding discourses of participatory decision making in schooling, children's perspectives on the near-ubiquitous practice of homework and its effects on their daily lives and subjectivities remain under represented in both public debates and the research literature. When primary children's views of homework have been sought by researchers, they tend to respond simplistically that it helps them to 'learn more' (Warton, 1997;Xu & Corno, 1998;Hutchison, 2007) and dispute claims made in policy and by parents and teachers that homework teaches time management or study skills (Coutts, 2005;Hutchison, 2007). Other studies note that children's primary motivation for doing homework is to please teachers and parents and to avoid punishment (Corno, 2000;Warton, 2001). ...
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Whilst the notion of children's rights and an entitlement to express their views and participate as global citizens is threaded throughout the international policy field, children's perspectives on the near ubiquitous practice of homework, and its effects on their daily lives and learner subjectivities, remain under-researched. Drawing on the Bourdieuian concepts of practice, habitus, capital and field, this article develops a cross-cultural analysis of homework practices in Australia, Denmark and Britain to make visible the embodied habitus and agentic possibilities shaping the reproduction of educational advantage and disadvantage for variously located students. Using video data generated by children in primary schools, the article explores children's visual representations of their compliance and resistance to homework's regulatory functions. It demonstrates the affordances of visual ethnographic methods as a form of participatory research with children which foregrounds students' experiences and opinions and makes visible the inclusionary and exclusionary effects of homework on children in diverse socio-cultural settings.
... Z. Keith, Reimers, Fehrmann, Pottebaum, & Aubey, 1986). Homework may also be important in laying the groundwork for skills essential for the work world; Warton (1997), for example, concluded that homework helps children learn about responsibility. Other research has been mixed; some researchers have found no association between homework and achievement at the elementary school level (Chen & Stevenson, 1989;Smith, 1990). ...
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Conference Paper
Geographical location is a basic principle for the formation and development of society and geopolitics as a strategy. It is the basis for establishing a mentality approach in a society striving for cultural prosperity. The continent of Europe, as one of the cradles that formed the last human civilization, is the place that, highly developed socio-economic and military nations, at different times, sought to impose their hegemon over other countries in the form of unification. Their views, theories and approaches have always been "clothed" in some form of Doctrine, justifying the techniques and means used to achieve the ultimate goal - the creation or "unification" of new territorial spaces. In the last two centuries on the territory of the Old Continent - Europe, two World Wars and many regional conflicts have taken place on this basis. Geopolitics has always been a major tool for any country on the continent that has sought to achieve more than its own prosperity by imposing its influence on a particular territory in one way or another. Keywords: Geopolitics, Europe, Doctrine and regions
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ABSTRACT Morocco's rangelands cover an area of over 500,000 km2, are mainly located in arid areas and play economic, sociocultural and environmental roles. Since the mid-1970s, the high plateaus of eastern Morocco (HPEM), which are the country's second largest pastoral ecosystem, have shown obvious manifestations of climate change (CC), thus threatening their sustainability and that of the rangelands- based small ruminant production, the main source of livelihood for the local population. Despite livestock rearing on rangelands is highly vulnerable to CC and the understanding of pastoralists’ perceptions is critical for designing more efficient and successful adaptation strategies, how the livestock producers perceive CC is still not studied. This paper aims to detect the main long-term changes that have affected climatic conditions in the HPEM and to assess the consistency between the perception of pastoralists with regard to CC and actual climate trends observed from historical meteorological data. The climate data used include the annual rainfall of 6 meteorological stations, namely Bni Mathar (1931-2019), Tendrara (1931-2019), Bouaârfa (1981-2019), Figuig (1935-2019), Taourirt (1923-2019) and Oujda (1914-2019) and the temperature data from the stations of Bni Mathar (1970-2016) and Oujda (1935-2020). To investigate the trends and ruptures in homogeneity within these climatic series, the Mann-Kendall, Pettitt and Buishand tests were performed, while the standardized precipitation index was used to detect years of drought. Data on CC perceptions were examined using frequency analysis. Rainfall data indicated a general drop in annual amounts of precipitation with a significant downward trend for the stations existing in the north part of the study area, namely Bni Mathar (τb = -0.194, p = 0.007), Taourirt (τb = -0.217, p = 0.002) and Oujda (τb = -0.189, p = 0.004). These stations showed, respectively, rupture dates located at 1976, 1976 and 1980, with rainfall losses of 23, 30 and 22%. The mean (τb = 0.553, p < 0.0001; τb = 0.311, p < 0.0001) and minimum (τb = 0.647, p < 0.0001; τb = 0.333, p < 0.0001) temperatures have experienced a significant increasing trend, respectively for the stations of Bni Mathar and Oujda. The minimum temperature showed the greatest rise either 2.7 °C (39%) between the periods before and after the rupture date of 1988 for Bni Mathar, and of 1.1°C (11%) between the periods before and after 1986 for the Oujda station. The frequency of droughts has increased over the past five decades, showing high values ranging from 43% in the south of the HPEM to 57% in the northern part. Indeed, the frequency of dry years has risen considerably between the two periods before and after 1976, with an average increase of 26 to 49% (i.e., 88%). Results indicated that the overwhelming majority of livestock producers have observed decrease in rainfall (100%) as well as an increase in the frequency of droughts (97%), temperature (82%), high winds (81%) and sandstorms (87%) during the last five decades. Therefore, the pastoralists’ perceptions of CC matched well with the trends observed in the historical meteorological data and the findings of previous studies. To deal with the negative consequences of these observed unfavorable trends arising from CC and improve the resilience of pastoralists, public policies and programs should urgently develop and implement effective and appropriate adaptation actions and jointly integrate pastoralists' perceptions and recorded meteorological data in future climate research.
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This study investigates the associations between parental involvement and academic achievement across three criteria: school level (elementary and middle school), gender (male and female) and subject (mathematics and science). Additionally, it examines whether students’ attitudes towards a subject and their academic aspirations mediate this relationship. A nationally representative sample of elementary and middle school children in Japan (1884 female fourth-grade students from 140 schools, 1849 male fourth-grade students from 139 schools, 1812 female eighth-grade students from 133 schools and 1789 male eighth-grade students from 131 schools) from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 was used for the analysis. The results show that parental involvement is associated with students’ educational outcomes. Students’ attitudes and aspirations mediate the associations between parental involvement and academic achievement. In particular, different associations between parental monitoring involvement and achievement are found for elementary and middle school.
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Homework is generally one factor that has been discussed and claimed to have a relationship with achievement; it has a central role in providing students with opportunities to continue learning out of the school. This study forms one of cross-cultural investigations that analyze the links between homework variables and achievement in mathematics. Data was drawn from TIMSS database 2015, including 477 schools and 73,987 eighth grade students from 10 Arab countries. Analysis showed that the majority of Arab students spend less time doing homework (less than 60 minutes) and do not need to take homework every day to strengthen their knowledge and get better scores in mathematics. Two-level analyses revealed that different associations were seen in most of Arab countries between homework time, homework frequency, computer use, and internet use in doing homework with achievement in mathematics. The result was interpreted in terms of the consistency between instruction and homework evaluation.
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Homework in the primary school is a subject much debated by teachers, parents and pupils. This paper offers a brief critique of key issues in the current homework debate with particular reference to research literature, theoretical perspectives, educational policy and other professional publications. Consequently, a discourse between homework in academic literature and classroom pedagogy emerges and a number of opportunities for further research are identified. Ultimately, it is argued that whilst a range of work has been published around certain aspects of homework, many complexities remain and conclusive answers are most likely to be found only within the cultural context where the homework is actually undertaken.
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Results from international mathematics tests are focussing the attention of national leaders on the learning of mathematics in the primary years. With this attention, comes the need to explore the factors that contribute to and impede this learning. Though much of this focus is on classroom practices, it is timely to examine the important influence that parents have on their children's achievement. This paper reports on a secondary analysis of data from a large longitudinal study in Australia; in particular, the effectiveness of Australian parents’ involvement in their children's homework. The results suggest that the actual help with homework has, on average, a negative effect on children's achievement even after controlling for earlier achievement. Significantly, however, the other types of involvement, such as provision of a good home environment, have positive effects on achievement. The implications of these findings are also discussed.
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One of the basic conditions for successful pedagogical work is promoting a favorable effective atmosphere for teaching. In this context is the assertion that school climate is the heart and soul of a school. It is being of the school that led the students, teachers, school staff, to love school and have a reason every day to be in it. School climate refers to the quality of the school that helps each individual to feel a personal responsibility, and simultaneously helps to feel you belong somewhere. The importance of school climate, educators, and researchers in the field of education has recognized hundreds of years ago. Especially important issue that is constantly searching response across all educational reforms is how school can improve student achievement and quality of school life. Inspiterd by the thought of the importance of the classroom climate for the success of students and their realization as full persons, which in the future will be part and base for the development of a modern democratic society, the attention of the paper we directed to defining the concept of school climate and its importance for improving of school achievement.
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The author examined purposes for doing homework perceived by 920 students in Grades 5-12. Through an exploratory factor analysis, 8 homework purposes were reduced to 2 factor structures: Intrinsic Reasons and Extrinsic Reasons, Both factors related positively to students' use of homework management strategies. However, only Intrinsic Reasons was related to lower frequency of incomplete homework and to higher self-reported grade. Each factor was further subjected to a 2 x 2 x 2 (Grade x Gender x Homework Help) analysis of variance. Older students and students who did not receive homework help were more likely to disagree that they did homework for extrinisc reasons. The effect of homework help on Intrinsic Reasons was apparent among only the boys.
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Many English schools have a homework policy which prescribes how much homework should be set for each pupil each week, irrespective of whether it can be made meaningful. Research recommends Assessment for Learning (AfL) as supportive of students’ learning, but teachers can find it difficult to incorporate AfL techniques into their practice. This study explores how research homework, undertaken over several weeks, may provide a vehicle for integration of AfL techniques into science lessons at a 13–18 upper school. Prior to completing homework, students were provided with formative feedback, and given the opportunity to self- and peer-assess their work, against assessment criteria. Their work was evaluated to examine how students changed their work in response. Students also completed a short questionnaire, which provided a basis for focus group interviews. Findings suggest that research homework, operating alongside AfL techniques, can support students’ learning, and that research homework can support implementation of AfL.
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This research examines whether parental homework involvement mediates the relationship between family background and educational outcomes such as academic achievement and academic self-concept. Data from two studies in which grade 8 students (N=1274 and N=1911) described their parents’ involvement in the homework process were reanalyzed via structural equation modeling. Perceived parental homework interference and perceived homework-related conflict were negatively related to students’ academic development, whereas perceived parental support and perceived parental competence to help with homework were positively related to academic outcomes. Although there were small associations between some aspects of parental homework involvement and family background variables, parental homework involvement did not mediate the relationship between family background and educational outcomes. Findings highlight the need for differentiated conceptualizations of parental homework involvement as well as detailed analyses of the processes underlying the association between family background and educational outcomes.
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A framework for studying parent-child interactions is proposed, based on evidence that parents play a pivotal role in their children's musical development. It is suggested that the goals and aspirations that parents hold impact on the styles and practices they adopt during interactions with their children. Importantly, the model proposes a feedback loop in which child and socio-contextual characteristics interact with parenting goals, styles and practices to help shape children's musical competence and achievement, their sense of musical identity and accomplishment, and their continuing desire to participate, exert effort, overcome obstacles and succeed musically.
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Many of the discussions in both the popular and academic press assume that the key participants and stakeholders have the same understandings about homework and its meanings. However, this is not necessarily the case. For example, in the widely reported tension and conflict in families about homework completion, one contributing factor may be the meanings students, parents, and educators ascribe to homework and the purposes it fulfills. This article examines how research has considered these varying meanings and perceptions and how they may impact student attitudes and behaviors toward homework. The article argues that the positive outcomes of homework frequently cited by parents (such as motivational, academic, and life skills benefits) are less recognized by children, especially elementary students. In most cases, the mismatch is likely to be between the student focus on proximal costs of homework and the adult focus on long-term benefits. The implications of these understanding for practitioners is then discussed.
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This study examines the perceptions of Chinese students and parents in Hong Kong on homework involvement, assignment type and homework functions. The relationships of homework perceptions to student and parent attributes are also assessed. The sample includes 1393 pairs of students and their parents from 36 primary schools in Hong Kong. Findings of this study show similarities in preference for assignment type across students and parents. Between‐group discrepancies are observed in preference for homework involvement and endorsement of homework functions. Moreover, homework perceptions are found to relate to students’ and parents’ efficacy attributes and involvement behaviour. Findings of this study are discussed in light of the Chinese sociocultural context in Hong Kong. Suggestions are made on the design and use of homework in primary schools by incorporating the views of different stakeholders.
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According to the domain-specific, multilevel homework model proposed in the present study, students' homework effort is influenced by expectancy and value beliefs, homework characteristics, parental homework behavior, and conscientiousness. The authors used structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling analyses to test the model in 2 studies with 414 and 1,501 8th graders, respectively. In line with the authors' assumptions, most intercorrelations observed between corresponding homework variables across 2 school subjects were small to moderate, conscientiousness and homework motivation proved to be strong predictors of homework effort, and perceived homework quality varied considerably between classes and predicted homework motivation and behavior. Findings highlight the need to take into account the domain specificity and multilevel character of homework variables when analyzing students' homework behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The influence of homework experiences on students’ academic grades was studied with 223 college students. Students’ self-efficacy for learning and perceived responsibility beliefs were included as mediating variables in this research. The students’ homework influenced their achievement indirectly via these two self-regulatory beliefs as well as directly. Self-efficacy for learning, although moderately correlated with perceptions of responsibility, predicted course grades more strongly than the latter variable. No gender differences were found for any of the variables, a finding that extends prior research based on high school girls. Educational implications about the importance of students’ homework completion and its relationship to college students’ development of self-regulation and positive self-efficacy beliefs is discussed from a social cognitive perspective.
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This study examines the determinants of homework motivation and homework effort in six school subjects at three levels: student level, classroom level, and school level. We hypothesized that several factors—including stable personality characteristics such as gender and conscientiousness, students' domain-specific homework motivation, and characteristics of homework assignments—have concomitant effects on student homework effort. The sample consisted of 511 students in Grades 8 and 9. Across all six school subjects, multilevel modelling showed that students' homework motivation and homework effort varied primarily as a function of their shared perceptions of homework quality and control (classroom level) and of their conscientiousness, individual perception of homework quality, and expectancy and value beliefs (student level). Domain-specific patterns were found for student gender in line with gender stereotypes. Cognitive ability, family background, and parental homework help or control were only loosely associated with homework motivation and homework effort.
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Despite the long history of homework and homework research, the role that homework plays in enhancing student achievement is, at best, only partly understood. In this review, we give an overview of twentieth-century homework research and discuss the reasons why the relationship between homework and achievement remains unclear. We identify the operationalization of homework and achievement and the problematic handling of hierarchically ordered data as two important factors affecting the validity of many of the studies performed over the last century. We then describe a new generation of homework studies using multilevel modeling to deal with hierarchically nested data. Finally, we argue that homework research should be more closely connected to well-founded psychological theories of learning and instruction, and we offer three potential links (theories of instruction time, self-regulation theory and expectancy-value theory, and teaching behavior).
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Winne made a case for closer examination of an expanded definition of feedback and student monitoring in the context of controlled experiments. His efforts should lead to a more refined definition of this complex student aptitude, and new ways to index self-regulation as it pertains to academic studying. A basic research agenda is clearly one direction in which future research on self-regulated learning (SRL) needs to go. There is another direction in which future research ought to move concurrently to complement the basic science agenda that Winne articulated. Examples of two systemic investigations of SRL are described in this commentary.
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The present study starts from the argument that research on responsibility will benefit from defining it in terms of some specific principles. The 3 principles considered deal with the sharing or distribution of work. They are (a) direct-cause responsibility (e.g., people should fix problems they have created), (b) self-regulation (e.g., you should not expect to be reminded), and (c) continuing responsibility (e.g., a job remains “yours” even when someone else agrees to do it). These principles were embedded in vignettes and a sorting task, all related to household work, with children of 8, 11, or 14 years of age commenting on the fairness of various work arrangements. The results show differential developmental paths for the 3 principles rather than a unitary sense of responsibility. The redefinition emerges as providing both a way to generate new research on responsibility and a link to studies of distributive norms dealing with rewards or rights.
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Theories of internalization typically suggest that self-perceptions of the "causes" of (i.e. reasons for) behavior are differentiated along a continuum of autonomy that contains identifiable gradations. A model of perceived locus of causality (PLOC) is developed, using children's self-reported reasons for acting. In Project 1, external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic types of reasons for achievement-related behaviors are shown to conform to a simplex-like (ordered correlation) structure in four samples. These reason categories are then related to existing measures of PLOC and to motivation. A second project examines 3 reason categories (external, introject, and identification) within the domain of prosocial behavior. Relations with measures of empathy, moral judgement and positive interpersonal relatedness are presented. Finally, the proposed model and conceptualization of PLOC are discussed with regard to intrapersonal versus interpersonal perception, internalization, cause-reason distinctions, and the significance of perceived autonomy in human behavior.
Homework: a cross-cultural examination Student volition and education: outcomes, influences, and practices
  • C Chen
  • H W Stevenson
Chen, C. & Stevenson, H. W. (1989). Homework: a cross-cultural examination. Child Development, 60, Corno. L. (1994). Student volition and education: outcomes, influences, and practices. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds), Self-regulation of Learning and Performance, (pp. 229-25 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Homework Practices, Achievements, and Behaviors of Elementary School Students. Centre for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools Understanding responsibility: adolescents' views of delegation and follow-through within the family
  • J L Epstein
Epstein, J. L. (1 988). Homework Practices, Achievements, and Behaviors of Elementary School Students. Centre for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. (ERIC document PSOl762 1.) Goodnow, J. J. & Warton, P. M. (1992). Understanding responsibility: adolescents' views of delegation and follow-through within the family. Social Development, 1, 89-106.
The emergent interaction of home and school in the development of students' adaptive learning
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McCaslin, M. & Murdock, T. (1991). The emergent interaction of home and school in the development of students' adaptive learning. In M. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Eds), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Vol. 7, (pp. 213-259). Greenwich, CT: JAl.
Doing homework: a study of possibilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University
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Xu, J. (1994). Doing homework: a study of possibilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University. 551-561. (Manuscript received 29 March 1996;Jinal version 8 October 1996)