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Predicting Exercise and Health Behavioral Intentions: Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Other Behavioral Determinants1

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Abstract

By comparing exercise and health domains, the current experiment extends recent findings that within-participant analyses of attitudes and subjective norms predict behavioral intentions well (Finlay, Trafimow, & Moroi, 1999). Within-participant analyses show that health behaviors are particularly likely to be influenced by subjective norms, and those that are relatively normatively influenced are intended to be performed more than those that are not. However, neither was true of exercise behaviors. Additionally, other potential predictors for exercise (e.g., indirect attitudinal measures and goal-oriented attitudes and intentions) correlated more strongly with exercise behavioral intentions than did general health attitudes and intentions.

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... Attitudes toward performing a behavior have generally been viewed as assessments of how much one likes or favors doing the behavior (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villarreal, 2002). Eagly and Chaiken (1993) suggest that affect may not be synonymous with attitude, and researchers have recently considered both affective attitude and evaluative attitudes . ...
... Subjective norm refers to the influence one's personal community has on the specified behavior (Young & Kent, 1985). Together, attitude toward a specified behavior and subjective norms have been shown to account for much variance in intention to perform a specified behavior (Finlay et al., 2002). In a meta-analysis reviewing the TPB, Armitage and Conner (2001) included 185 independent studies and found that the frequently occurring weak predictive relationship between subjective norm and behavioral intentions was mainly due to subjective norm being measured by a single item. ...
... Respondents were asked whether "most people important to me think that I should do this activity," "close friends and family think it is a good idea for me to do this activity," "important people in my life want me to do this activity," and "people I listen to could influence me to do this activity." These items are similar to ones used by other researchers Finlay et al., 2002). ...
Article
Consumers are motivated to engage in activities for many varied reasons. The present study broadens the theory of reasoned action model to include three variables reflecting motivations: hedonic involvement, self-expressive involvement, and self-concept congruity. It is suggested that eagerness to engage in a behavior encapsulates emotional commitment, and including this affective variable would further broaden the cognitive approach taken to model a consumer's intention to engage in a behavior. A model that links hedonic involvement, self-expressive involvement, self-concept congruity, subjective norm, and attitude toward the behavior to both intentions and eagerness is proposed. In addition, eagerness is posited as a mediator linking these three new variables to intentions. The models are tested with the use of data from 717 adults. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... TPB posits that normative beliefs determine subjective norms. In conjunction with attitudes toward a particular behaviour, subjective norms lead to the intention to practice a particular behaviour (Finlay, Trafimow, and Villarreal 2002). Subjective norms reflect a person's beliefs about what important others think of his or her particular behaviour, thus they are conceptualised as social pressures that a person feels from others in a given social context (Kim and Kim 2017;Rivis and Sheeran 2003). ...
Article
Under today’s complex and ever-changing regulatory environment, only forcing employees into compliance by wielding control or imposing punishment does not automatically lead to improved compliance awareness and performance. Based on the adaptive structuration theory and theory of planned behaviour, this study investigated the effect of Compliance Support Systems (CSS) appropriation on compliance intention. A two-stage survey was conducted to see whether the continuous use of CSS enhances users’ intention to comply with laws and regulations. This approach comes under longitudinal research because it seeks to discover the causality between variables by observing research subjects at different times. The PLS-SEM analysis verified the direct and indirect impact of compliance behavioural beliefs and social pressure on compliance intention. In particular, the two factors were found to affect CSS appropriation by way of CSS quality and compliance knowledge. The proposed structural model was developed to compare the gaps of perception in different measurement times. Therefore, the findings highlight a significant role of CSS appropriation in raising compliance intention and provide practical insights by presenting the factors that enhance employees’ positive and voluntary engagement in compliance behaviour.
... For example, some people can intend to perform a behavior due to subjective norm while others PBC, or attitude. In support of this theorizing, work by Trafimow and colleagues has systematically demonstrated people are either primarily attitudinally influenced (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villarreal, 2002;Trafimow & Finlay, 1996;Trafimow & Fishbein, 1995), normatively influenced Trafimow & Finlay, 1996;Trafimow & Fishbein, 1995), or control-influenced (Sheeran, Trafimow, Finlay, & Norman, 2002). The underlying foundation for this discrepancy is, by definition, a moderator. ...
Article
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A leading theoretical model explaining informational and motivational influences on exercise behavior is the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Despite the relatively consistent performance of the TPB, over half of the variance remains unexplained in intention and behavior. One possibility for this unexplained variance may be underlying moderating effects that bias linear coefficients. The purpose of this study was to examine lower-order personality facet traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness as moderators of the TPB. Hypotheses were generated based upon the specific personality traits and previous research, but all possible moderating effects were examined given the exploratory nature of the research. Participants were 298 undergraduate students (mean age=19.97) who completed measures of the TPB, personality, and a two-week follow-up of exercise behavior. Results showed that two personality facets (i.e., industriousness-ambition, irritability) significantly (p<0.01) moderated the relationship between the TPB and exercise behavior and two personality facets (i.e., insecurity, activity-adventurousness) significantly (p<0.01) moderated the relationship between the TPB and intention. The moderating effects were small-to-moderate (e.g., 3–4% additional explained variance). Theoretical and practical implications for exercise behavior were discussed.
... Trafimow and Finlay (1996) proposed that one reason for this pattern may be that the majority of participants base their intentions on attitudinal considerations, but suggested that there may be a minority of participants for whom their intentions were based on subjective norms and this would be stable across many behaviours. A series of studies have tested the hypothesis that an individual difference variable reflecting this tendency could be isolated using within-participants analyses of individuals' decisions to engage in a number of social behaviours (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villarreal, 2002;Johnston & White, 2004;Trafimow & Finlay, 1996). Findings suggest that participants with stronger withinparticipants correlations between subjective norms and intentions across a set of behaviours exhibit a stronger contribution of subjective norms to intentions in betweenparticipants analyses for each behaviour compared with individuals with a stronger attitude-intention relationship. ...
Article
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Two studies addressed the hypothesis that a minority of people are more oriented towards their self-identity when forming intentions to act than the traditional antecedents of intentional action; attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC). In Study 1, participants (N=241) completed measures of an augmented version of theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that included self-identity for 30 behaviours. Using within-participants multiple regression analyses, the sample was classified into self-identity-oriented (SI-oriented) and TPB-oriented groups. Between-participants multiple regression analyses revealed that self-identity was a significantly stronger predictor of intentions and accounted for significantly more incremental variance in intentions in the SI-oriented sample compared with the TPB-oriented sample across the 30 behaviours. In Study 2, participants (N=250) completed the same TPB and self-identity measures used in Study 1 as well as measures of generalized self-concept and social physique anxiety for dieting behaviour. Results indicated that self-identity was significantly associated with the generalized self-related measures, and self-concept and social physique anxiety moderated the self-identity-intention relationship. This investigation provides some preliminary evidence to support the effect of individual differences in self-identity on the formation of intentions to act.
... Attitude towards conducting a behavior is viewed as an assessment of the degree to which one likes or favors performing the behavior (Finlay et al., 2002). The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980;Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) posits that, in the consumer's decision-making process, an attitude towards a behavior is a direct predictor to the behavioral intention. ...
... Yanovitzky and Rimal (2006) argued that social norms exert a great deal of influence on human behavior, but that much research must be done to specify the mechanisms and processes through which normative influence is exerted. In the health domain, injunctive norms appear to play a particularly important role with regard to intention to perform healthful behaviors (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villareal, 2002). Terry and Hogg (1996) proposed that injunctive norms may be especially important in predicting healthrelated behaviors because, for these types of behaviors, people tend to be confident of what they believe their most important others think, which may not be as true of other types of behaviors. ...
Article
This paper describes research on two normative concepts thought to impact health behaviors: injunctive and descriptive norms. The study tests whether the extent to which the same health behavior is enacted in an observable or non-observable setting will lead to variation in normative influence on parent intention. In on-line experiments conducted in winter 2009, 467 participants were randomized to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior was described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of descriptive norms on intention. For nutrition behaviors, observability primed the influence of injunctive norms on intention. Across both conditions, observability of the behavioral scenario increased the strength of the association between norms and intention.
... Although understanding the attitude change processes outlined in Figure 1 is critical for understanding behavior change, it is worth mentioning that behavior can be determined by many aspects in addition to people's evaluations even if those evaluations are formed by high elaboration and validity. These additional factors include subjective norms, perceived control over the action, and personal goals (Ajzen & Kruglanski, 2019;Forscher et al., 2019;Finlay et al., 2002;Sheeran, 2002). For example, the likelihood that people will engage in healthy eating is greatest when they have the will to act in a healthy way, when they have the ability to do so and when their social and physical environment offer the right opportunities for engaging in the healthy behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 2005;Brug, 2008). ...
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The successful impact of healthy eating campaigns often depends on the extent to which messages are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors over time. The present work proposes that healthy eating campaigns can be designed taking into consideration elaboration and validation processes so that the degree of attitude change is maximally influenced and is consequential. The first set of studies described in this review demonstrates the importance of considering elaboration in determining initial attitudes toward healthy foods as well as the subsequent attitude strength consequences (e.g., stability, prediction of behavior, spreading). The second set of studies focuses on the role of perceived validity of one’s thoughts in the domain of eating as a potential mediator of the persuasion process. These studies include campaigns promoting positive attitudes toward healthy eating (e.g., eating of vegetables and fruits), and interventions oriented to decreasing the intake of unhealthy food (e.g., taxing junk food). We also discuss the role of modality of information presentation (e.g., verbal and visual information vs. direct physical experience) in those studies. Finally, the review offers a tutorial with concrete recommendations that researchers, practitioners and public policy makers can follow in order to predict both short and long-term attitude and behavior changes.
... Wansink (2007) discusses the myriad external influences that result in eating habits. Exercise is also considered to be a habit, and researchers have studied what contributes to habitual exercise(Aarts et al., 1997;Finlay et al., 2002). Indeed, much of an individual's daily activities can be classified as habitual repetition(Neal et. ...
Technical Report
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Meals, snacks, and beverages purchased at fast-food restaurants account for an increasingly large share of a typical American’s food budget and have been blamed for Americans’ expanding waistlines and poor diet quality. This study uses data from the 2003-11 American Time Use Survey to examine the effects of time-use behaviors, prices, sociodemographic characteristics, labor force participation, and prices on fastfood purchasing patterns in the United States before and after the Great Recession. Fastfood purchasers spend less time sleeping, doing housework, eating and drinking, and watching television than nonpurchasers, and more time traveling from place to place. They also tend to have higher incomes and higher education levels. While the time that Americans spent eating out at all restaurants declined during and after the 2007-09 recession, the share of the population eating at fast-food restaurants on a given day stayed fairly constant, seemingly unaffected by the economic downturn, but the share for sit-down restaurants declined. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err-economic-research-report/err178.aspx
... In the current research we will test the process model in multiple health-related behaviors (N = 20) relevant to important health outcomes (controlling calorie intake to control weight, eating low-fat foods, wearing a seat belt when a passenger in cars/taxis/mini-buses, getting a good night's sleep, keeping alcohol intake within daily guideline limits, wearing a condom when having sexual intercourse, washing hands before preparing or handling food, regularly going for a walk to relax and unwind, brushing teeth every day, avoid eating "junk" food, avoiding consumption of caffeine, using stairs instead of an elevator or escalator, washing hands after going to the toilet, taking dietary supplements to maintain a healthy diet, exercising regularly for more than 30 minutes at a time, planning work in advance to reduce stress, sitting with correct posture to avoid back pain, avoiding foods high in sodium/salt, eating foods containing sufficient dietary fiber, five portions of fruit and vegetables per day). The behaviors have been identified in previous research as key behaviors linked to salient adaptive health outcomes in undergraduate students, the target population of the current study (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villarreal, 2002;Hagger, Anderson, Kyriakaki, & Darkings, 2007;Trafimow & Finlay, 1996). Given that the majority of research on self-determination theory in health contexts suggests that autonomous forms of motivation is linked to behavioral persistence, we expect that the path from autonomous motivation to behavior mediated by intention will be the most pervasive and consistent across the health behaviors with a lesser role for the influence of controlled forms of motivation, again mediated by intentions. ...
Article
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Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects of autonomous motivation on intentions and behavior across multiple health-related behaviors with little evidence of moderation by individual differences. Findings have implications for the generalizability of proposed effects in self-determination theory and intentions as a mediator of distal motivational factors on health-related behavior.
... However, some activities, such as eating patterns, have a large degree of persistency, meaning that day-to-day variation is minimal; Wansink's (2007) Mindless Eating discusses the myriad external influences that result in eating habits. Exercise is also considered to be a habit, and researchers have studied what contributes to habitual exercise (Aarts et al. 1997;Finlay et al. 2002). Indeed, much of an individual's daily activities can be classified as habitual repetition (Neal et. ...
Article
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This paper uses data on daily activities from the American Time Use Survey and the associated Eating & Health Module to analyze the relationships between time poverty and specific energy-balance behaviors. The authors estimate a simultaneous model to jointly analyze the relationships between time poverty and the probability of a fast food purchase, the number of eating and drinking occurrences, minutes spent engaging in sports and exercise, and the probability of engaging in active travel (walking or cycling). Time-poor individuals were found to have different eating and physical activity patterns than non-time-poor individuals; those who were time-poor were less likely to purchase fast food and also less likely to engage in active travel.
... In addition to this it has been argued that not only people but also behaviour could be under normative control (Finlay, et al., 1997;. This is also consistent with a number of studies who have found that subjective norm was an important predictor of performing different health related behaviours (Finlay, Trafimow & Moroi, 1999;Finlay, Trafimow & Villarreal, 2002) whereas it was less important when the behaviour was considered to be habitual and/or low in arousal (Fredricks & Dossett, 1983;Rutter & Bunce, 1989). In a study by Akers et al. (1979) it was pointed out that the effect of significant others might vary according to how familiar the person is with the behaviour. ...
... However, some activities, such as eating patterns, have a large degree of persistency, meaning that day-to-day variation is minimal; Wansink's [46] Mindless Eating discusses the myriad external influences that result in eating habits. Exercise is also considered to be a habit, and researchers have studied what contributes to habitual exercise [47,48]. Indeed, much of an individual's daily activities can be classified as habitual repetition [49]. ...
Article
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Objectives: Promoting active commuting is viewed as one strategy to increase physical activity and improve the energy balance of more sedentary individuals thereby improving health outcomes. However, the potential effectiveness of promotion policies may be seriously undermined by the endogenous choice of commute mode. Policy to promote active commuting will be most effective if it can be demonstrated that 1) those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity, and 2) that current active commuting is not explained by unobserved characteristics that may be the true source of a lower body mass index (BMI). Methods: Daily time-use diaries are used in combination with geographical characteristics of where respondents live and work to test 1) whether residents of more compact settlements are characterized by higher activity levels; and 2) whether residents of more compact settlements are more likely to bike or walk to work. An endogenous treatment model of active commuting allows testing whether reductions in BMI associated with walking or biking to work are in fact attributable to that activity or are more strongly associated with unobserved characteristics of these active commuters. Results: The analysis of general activity levels confirms that residents of more compact cities do not expend more energy than residents of more sprawling cities, indicating that those in compact cities do not necessarily have a preference for more physical activity. The endogenous treatment model is consistent with walking or biking to work having an independent effect on BMI, as unobserved factors that contribute to a higher likelihood of active commuting are not associated with lower BMI. Conclusions: Despite evidence that more compact settlement patterns enable active commuting, only a small share of workers in these areas choose to walk or bike to work. In general, the activity level of residents in more compact cities and residents in more sprawling areas is very similar. But, there is a robust association between active commuting and lower body mass index that is not explained by unobserved attributes or preferences suggests that policies to promote active commuting may be effective. In particular, active commuting has a greater effect on BMI. Consequently, compact settlement appears to be an effective infrastructure for promoting more active lifestyles. The policy challenge is finding ways to ensure that this infrastructure is more widely utilized.
... Although this study focuses on a message emphasizing injunctive norms, both descriptive and injunctive norms are acknowledged to play an important role in behavior change. Injunctive norms play an important role with regard to intention to perform healthful behaviors (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villareal, 2002) and have guided the design of community interventions (e.g., Fishbein et al., 1995). Terry and Hogg (1996) proposed that injunctive norms may be especially important in predicting health-related behaviors, because, for these types of behaviors, people tend to be confident of what they believe their most important others think, which may not be as true of other types of behaviors. ...
Article
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This study tests the interaction between an individual-level characteristic—identification with other parents—and the effects of persuasive messages about nutrition. In an online experiment conducted in 2010, 242 parents of children aged five through nine were randomized to a message condition. The parents were exposed to a message that emphasized normative justifications or personal benefit justifications for feeding one's child healthy foods (or no message). Parents who identified with other parents were more influenced by normatively focused messages than were parents with lower levels of identification. Theoretical and practical implications for message design are presented.
... Several studies that have examined the theory of reasoned action have demonstrated that attitudes predict risky behaviors such as drinking (Todd & Mullan, 2011) and substance abuse (Kelly, Deane, McCarthy, & Crowe, 2011). Furthermore, studies on exercise behavior have concluded that attitudes can predict physical activity (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villarreal, 2002;Hagger, Chatzisarantis, & Biddle, 2002). Similarly, favorable attitudes toward healthy food were strongly associated with intention to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables (Cox, Anderson, Lean, & Mela, 1998). ...
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Based on the influence of presumed media influence (IPMI) model as the theoretical framework, this study examines how injunctive norms and personal norms mediate the influence of healthy lifestyle media messages on public intentions to engage in two types of healthy lifestyle behaviors-physical activity and healthy diet. Nationally representative data collected from 1,055 adults in Singapore demonstrate partial support for the key hypotheses that make up the extended IPMI model, highlighting the importance of a norms-based approach in health communication. Our results indicate that perceived media influence on others indirectly shaped public intentions to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors through personal norms and attitude, providing partial theoretical support for the extended IPMI model. Practical implications for health communicators in designing health campaigns media messages to motivate the public to engage in healthy lifestyle are discussed.
... Normative beliefs, another component of TPB, yield subjective norms. Subjective norms, along with attitude toward a specific behavior, have been shown to account for significant variances in intention to engage in the behavior (Finlay et al., 2002). In relation to performing a behavior, subjective norms are conceptualized as social pressures that are based on the perception of the beliefs of others (Rivis and Sheeran, 2003). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand from the knowledge management perspective how the mechanism of different voluntary compliance behaviors works and how information technology is used for compliance management in corporate settings where privacy and security issues are getting critical due to the advancement of big data and artificial intelligence. Design/methodology/approach In this study, the authors propose a structural model based on the theory of planned behavior and the IT relatedness theory that behavioral belief about compliance and social pressure affect compliance knowledge and compliance intention, and compliance knowledge partially mediates the impact of both independent variables on compliance intention. The authors surveyed with a structured questionnaire 975 employees of a major Korean energy company, S-OIL, which deploys a compliance support system. The respondents are classified into two groups: an Active IT Utilization Group and a Passive IT Utilization Group. Findings The results of our empirical examination show that compliance intention belief and social pressure influence compliance intention, and further, that compliance behavior is mediated by compliance knowledge – in both the active IT utilization group and the passive IT utilization group. However, the significance of each path coefficient, R square and the mediation effect in Model 1 (passive IT utilization group) are obviously a poor contrast to Model 2 (active IT utilization group). Also, the path from behavioral belief to compliance knowledge and social pressure to compliance knowledge show a significant moderating effect of IT utilization level. Originality/value This paper aims to promote more effective voluntary compliance behavior by increasing the understanding of the impact differences of the preceding factors, and the ways in which those are related to the knowledge management practice in terms of both knowledge itself and its support systems, i.e. compliance support system.
... Normative beliefs, another construct of TPB, result in subjective norms. Subjective norms, in combination with attitudes toward the behavior in question, form different level of behavioral intention (Finlay et al., 2002). Subjective norms serve as social pressures in performing a particular behavior (Rivis and Sheeran, 2003). ...
Article
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Purpose Effective risk management (RM) requires not only proactive prevention, but also reactive response where the role of individual managers is pivotal as they are the main players to perform RM behavior. Hence, the key questions related to effective corporate RM can be identified as how actively managers engage in RM behaviors and how well the firm supports their RM behavior. The purpose of this paper is to understand the mechanism of managers’ engagement in an active RM behavior and highlight the role of knowledge and organizational support in explaining the mechanism. Design/methodology/approach A structural model built on the theory of planned behavior and the institutional theory is proposed to empirically examine the factors affecting managers’ RM intention. The survey of 150 senior managers from different divisions of six major companies in Korean food industry was conducted. Findings The data analysis brings forward three key findings: individual factors (behavioral belief about RM, social pressure and RM knowledge) positively influence RM intention; organizational factor (organizational RM support) positively affects managers’ RM knowledge; and both individual and organizational factors are affected by organizational environment and/or RM championship. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature by identifying the mechanism in that managers perform RM behavior voluntarily. This study also contributes to the practice by informing practitioners of the importance of implementing a company-wide RM system and motivating managers for an active RM behavior.
... Attitude was initially defined as the level of individual affection toward a specific object or willingness to respond to certain stimuli [31]. Consumer attitude is regarded as an evaluation of the degree to which one likes or favors performing the behavior [32]. Review the consumer behavior literature and confirm that the evaluation or attitude of customers to the product and the final adoption decision depend on their cognition of the product. ...
... Perceived social influence has been found to be associated with a number of health behavior outcomes including sexual experimentation (Di Noia & Schinke, 2008), age of sexual initiation (Gilliam, Berlin, Kozloski, Hernandez, & Grundy, 2007), health behavioral intentions (Finlay, Trafimow, & Jones, 1997), and health behaviors (Finlay, Trafimow, & Villareal, 2002). Other studies report relationships with smoking (Ahern, Galea, Hubbarde, & Syme, 2009), smoking intentions (Grube, Morgan, & McGree, 1986), fruit and vegetable consumption (Emmons, Barbeau, Gutheil, Stryker, & Stoddard, 2007), and mammography utilization (Allen, Stoddard, & Sorensen, 2008). ...
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Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81-.84) and acceptable test-retest reliability (r = .68-.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions.
... Many participants shared their experiences of using new online media applications during the lock-down because their peers were using it as substitutes for various reasons. This relates to the fact that an individual's behavioral intention is shaped by what is being done in their society or surroundings (Finlay et al., 2002). ...
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Since its inception in December 2019, the novel Corona virus has proved to be a source of uncanny changes and difficulties for the entire world. This research gives detailed insights on the previous work that has been performed surrounding the subject of social media habits during a crisis. A qualitative analysis based on three focus group discussions and a quantitative analysis based on an online, self-administered survey conclude the report.
... Nevertheless, this would not appear to have dampened the interest in this variable and a large number of studies using the TRA presented confirmative results arguing for an extension (e.g. Bentler & Speckart, 1979;Budd et al., 1984;Charng et al., 1988;Finlay, Trafimow, & Villarreal, 2002;Hom & Hulin, 1981;Mullen, Hersey, & Iverson, 1987;Rutter & Bunce, 1989). It has also been argued that the effect of past behaviour depends on whether the behaviour in question has become habitual or not. ...
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Road crashes are largely attributed to driving violations, a behaviour which is committed willingly. The most commonly used theoretical model to predict this behaviour has been the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and its predecessor, the theory of reasoned action. This study includes a sample of 275 people of the general public holding a current driving licence. Its general aim is to predict the intention to commit two different driving violations: speeding in an urban area and dangerous overtaking by an expanded version of the TPB containing separate measures of descriptive norms and past behaviour. The results show that both past behaviour and descriptive norm make a unique contribution towards the prediction of intention to violate. Furthermore, it also found that the effect of descriptive norms is greater in a situation described as ‘risky’. The effect of age and annual mileage were significant with regard to speeding indicating that young drivers and those who use the car regularly are more likely to speed. Implications of the current findings for the development of intervention programmes are discussed.
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Health communication interventions encouraging exercise may aid in mitigating the obesity crisis in the United States. Although much research has investigated behavioral predictors of exercise, little work has explored message characteristics most persuasive in the exercise context. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to test a message strategy drawing on previous work in health behavior theory combined with persuasion theories (exemplification theory and prospect theory) to encourage positive exercise attitudes, control beliefs, and intentions. The authors report the results of a controlled experiment testing messages using gain or loss frames and narrative or statistical evidence. Results indicate that gain-framed messages are significantly more successful in promoting positive exercise variables and are perceived as more effective than are loss-framed or control messages. The authors discuss the implications of the results for future research.
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Hispanic women (HW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, however, little is known regarding their perceived susceptibility for acquiring HIV (SAHIV). We studied predictive factors for perceiving SAHIV among HW. Participants (88.5%) reported not feeling SAHIV. Women who felt SAHIV, had a significant probability of reporting a higher chance for acquiring HIV from their partner's actions (OR 9.75), and a higher probability of not being tested for HIV (OR 2.05). Educational strategies to increase perception of SAHIV and HIV testing knowledge would be beneficial giving emphasis to women who do not perceive to be at risk from their partner's actions.
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Much literature has suggested that people who are discriminated against or are in collectivist cultures are particularly susceptible to the social consequences of society. In the present study, the authors conducted 3 experiments to test how this factor influences attitudinal versus normative control over behaviors. First, they measured males' and females' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions with respect to a large number of behaviors. Although between-participants analyses were mostly uninformative, within-participants analyses uncovered strong evidence that behaviors are more under attitudinal control for females than for males. Similar analyses in a crosscultural experiment involving participants from the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and Mexico support the hypothesis that behaviors are more under attitudinal control for collectivists than for individualists. Finally, experimental data collected in the United States and Saudi Arabia further support this conclusion. Taken together, the findings suggest that although social consequences are both "social" and "consequences", the latter is more important than the former.
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This dissertation describes studies which apply theory from the fields of communication and social psychology to create and test persuasive messages aimed at increasing parental intention to provide healthy nutrition and perform sun protection behaviors for their children. These behaviors have been shown to be significantly associated with the risk of developing cancer later in life. The experiments tested whether the manipulation of the observability of a health behavior and exposure to normative (i.e. stresses injunctive norms) or attitudinally focused messages (i.e. stresses health benefits of the behavior), could influence the normative route to intention to perform preventive health behaviors. The first study randomized participants to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior is described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. The effects of observability were tested in the contexts of nutrition and sun protection behaviors. A second study tested the effect of normative compared with attitudinal messages on the relative weight given to attitudes and norms in forming intention to perform preventive health behaviors among parents of young children. This study also tested the interaction between two individual level traits - other-directedness and identification with other parents - and exposure to normatively focused messages. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of social norms on intention. Among parents who reported lower levels of social norms, observability reduced intention to practice sun protection behaviors. Among parents who reported higher levels of social norms, observability increased intention. In addition, among participants exposed to a normative message about nutrition, identification with other parents was shown to moderate the effects of message type on intention to serve one’s child healthy foods. Results also showed some evidence to support an interaction between self-consciousness and exposure to message type among parents surveyed about nutrition. Parents who were more attuned to their own beliefs and values when forming intentions (i.e. high in self-consciousness) were more vulnerable to the effects of attitudinally focused messages about nutrition than parents who were low in this trait. Possible explanations for the findings, as well as implications for future research are discussed.
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The objective of this study was to examine affecting factors that influence Indian consumers׳ attitude toward retailers and purchase intention from the retailers. A questionnaire was used to collect data using systematic sampling from department store shoppers of age 18 years and above in Kolkata, a metropolitan city of India. Structural equation modelling (n=355) was used to examine the impact of affecting factors on consumers׳ attitude toward retailers and the impact of consumers׳ attitude toward retailers on purchase intention. Results indicated that the factors namely self-congruity, retailer awareness, retailer associations and retailer perceived quality have significant positive impacts on consumer׳s attitude toward retailers. The results also indicated that consumers׳ attitude toward retailers positively influences purchase intention. Arguably, this paper was the first to explore such linkages between the affecting factors that influence consumers׳ attitude toward retailers and purchase intention in Indian context.
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We proposed a hypothesis that not only can people be under attitudinal or normative control across a large number of behaviors (Trafimow & Finlay, 1996), but behaviors can be under attitudinal or normative control across a large number of people. Further, both types of findings can be obtained using the same sets of people and behaviors. To test the hypothesis, a large number of participants were asked to indicate their attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions towards performing 30 behaviors. On the basis of within-participants multiple regression analyses, participants were deemed to be generally under attitudinal or normative control across the 30 behaviors. In addition, consistent with previous research (Trafimow & Finlay, 1996), the unique variance in intentions accounted for by attitudes and subjective norms was highly dependent upon whether attitudinally or normatively controlled participants were used. Finally, however, attitudes accounted for more variance in intentions than did subjective norms for some behaviors, even when normatively controlled participants were analyzed! Thus, the hypothesis was strongly supported.
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This article reviews the major social cognitive models of adherence or compliance in health and exercise behavior and attempts to show that these models are more similar to each other than different from each other. Self-efficacy theory and the theory of reasoned action/planned behavior have guided most of the theory-based research on exercise behavior. Two other models, protection motivation theory and the health belief model, have guided much research on the role of social cognitive factors in other health behaviors. These models are comprised largely of the same basic set of social cognitive variables: self-efficacy expectancy, outcome expectancy, outcome value, and intention. Two other factors, situational cues and habits, although not common to all the models, round out the theoretical picture by explaining how the relationship between the major social cognitive variables and behavior may change with repeated performance of a behavior over time.An integration of these models is offered using the theory of planned behavior as a foundation. It is suggested that research on health and exercise behavior that pits one model against another to determine which one is the better predictor of behavior is likely to be unproductive due to the striking similarities of the models. It is suggested instead that theorists and researchers focus their efforts on integration of the major social cognitive models and on determining the relative predictive utility of the various social cognitive factors with various health behaviors and in various contexts.
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Trafimow & Finlay (1996) employed between- and within-subjects analyses to show that people, as well as behaviors, can be under attitudinal or normative control. Using both types of analyses, Finlay, Trafimow & Jones (1997) provided evidence that subjective norms are particularly important in the health domain. The current research compares health and domain general behaviors to show that people intend to perform health behaviors that have relatively large subjective norm beta weights more than those with smaller normative beta weights. Also, people whose behaviors are generally under normative control intend to perform more healthful behaviors than do people whose behaviors are generally under attitudinal control. These results were not found using domain-general behaviors.
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Two studies involving 26 behaviors were perforned to test four hypotheses. Between-participants and within-participants analyses of attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions and actual behaviors suggested the following conclusions. First, consistent with Trafimow and Finlay (1996), the prediction of intentions from attitudes and subjective norms is better when within-participants analyses than between-participants analyses are used. Second, behavioral intentions are a good predictor of actual behavior, regardless of whether between-participants or within-participants anal-yses are used. Third, attitudes can predict unique variance in behaviors even when controlling for intentions, but it takes within-participants analyses to detect the effect. Fourth, subjective norms can predict unique variance in behaviors even when controlling for intentions, but it takes within-participants analyses to detect the effect. We conclude that within-participants analyses should be used for more sensitive tests of the theory of reasoned action.
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Two experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that confidence in the correctness of one's perceptions of normative pressure to use a condom influences the correspondence between those perceptions and intentions to actually perform the behavior. In Study 1, confidence in perceptions of normative influence was manipulated in an experimental paradigm using hypothetical scenarios. In Study 2, confidence in subjects' a]ctual perceptions was measured. Results from both experiments indicate that the correspondence between perceptions of normative influence and intentions was greatest when subjects were confident that their perceptions of normative influence were correct.
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Much previous research (Trafimow & Fishbein, 1994a, 1994b) indicates that some behaviors are mostly under attitudinal control and some are mostly under normative control. Further, other research (Trafimow & Finlay, 1996) demonstrates that people, as well as behaviors, can be generally under attitudinal or normative control. The present research applies these ideas to the domain of health behaviors. Analyses conducted between-subjects for each behavior, and within-subjects across all of the behaviors, demonstrate that both behaviors and people can be under attitudinal or normative control when responding to items pertaining to health.
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In an attempt to understand the inherent process underlying the regular practice of physical activity, the relationships among subjective norm, attitude, habit, intention, and future behaviors have been investigated in a random sample of 136 University of Toronto employees. For this purpose, leisure-time exercise behavior was measured on two occasions after a statement of intentions had been obtained: (1) 3 weeks later (proximal behavior) and (2) 2 months later (distal behavior). The results of a path analysis (LISREL) suggest that (1) intention is directly influenced by habit and attitude, (2) proximal behavior is the result of habit only, and (3) distal behavior can be explained by a combination of intention and proximal behavior. Subjective norm was not a significant predictor of intention, proximal behavior, or distal behavior. This modeling approach offers a clearer understanding of the dynamics of exercise intention and behavior, strongly supporting the role of habit as a determinant of exercise behavior.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the simultaneous influence of age, gender, physical-activity level, and personality factors on the reasons that individuals participate in leisure-time physical activity. In previous research only a few studies have considered potentially influential factors besides gender. Preliminary factor analytic procedures tested the independence of the seven original subscales of the Reasons for Exercise Inventory (REI). Since the fit of the initial model to the data was poor, modifications were made. Regression analyses indicated few age or gender differences in the reasons reported for exercising. Extraversion and neuroticism were, however, positively correlated with several of the REI scales—findings that can be explained theoretically. Results underscore the importance of taking account of individual differences in efforts to understand what motivates individuals to engage in exercise activities.
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The following paper gives a summary of the published studies that have applied the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to the prediction of exercising intentions and behavior. The paper focuses primarily on the knowledge gained from the application of these theories and how these theoretical frameworks could potentially be used in guiding the development of exercise promotion programs.
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This paper has two purposes. It first prefaces a symposium titled "Exercise adherence and behavior change: prospects, problems, and future directions." The symposium describes the progress made during the past 5 years toward understanding the adoption and maintenance of physical activity and exercise. Specifically, research is discussed that has tested the applicability to physical activity of four psychological models of behavior: Reasoned Action, Planned Behavior, Social-Cognitive Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model of stages of change. Recent exercise interventions in clinical/community settings also are discussed to illustrate how theoretical models can be implemented to increase and maintain exercise. The second purpose of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the contemporary literatures on the determinants of physical activity and interventions designed to increase and maintain physical activity. The summary focuses on the measurement problems that have limited the advances made in theory and application in these areas of research. Progress toward resolving the measurement problems during the past 5 years is contrasted with earlier scientific consensus.
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Although the association between habitual exercise and health benefits has been well documented, physical activity levels in the United States are lower than is necessary to reach the nation's health potential. Beliefs that people hold can be a motivating factor in engaging in exercise. A critical review of the literature was conducted to assess the efficacy of using the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior with respect to exercise. Evidence for the predictive utility of the theories was found. The Theory of Planned Behavior is a more promising framework for the study of exercise because it includes beliefs about control of factors that would facilitate or inhibit carrying out exercise. Strategies for use of the theories in planning exercise programs are provided and suggestions for future research discussed.
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To determine whether gender differences existed in the relationships among potential predictors of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), a heuristic model of nine explanatory variables was tested with the responses of 146 men and 158 women randomly selected from middle- and upper-income census tracts of a midwestern city. The models for men and women did not differ significantly. The findings suggest interventions to increase LTPA participation that enhance health self-determinism and social influences on exercise and influence the negative attitudes toward exercise held by those who have poorer perceived health status, smoke, or are overweight.
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