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Abstract

To quantify the impact on skeletal development of mistakes in the feeding regime of puppies, 90 cases from the last 3.5 years of the authors' nutrition consultation practice were reviewed. Symptoms of disorders of skeletal development were found in 79% of the puppies. The complete nutritional history was established to check and evaluate the food rations. A possible overfeeding with energy was proved by comparing the actual growth rate with the recommendation for each breed and age. The results demonstrate that an excessive growth rate is the most common problem in afflicted puppies (66%), followed by a distinct over supplementation with calcium (61%), a calcium supply below the recommendations was observed in 20% of the cases.
J.
Anim. Physiol. a. Anim. Nutr.
80
(1998), 76-81
0
1998
Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin
ISSN
0931-2439
'Institut
fur Physiologie, Physiologische
Chemie
und
Tierernahrung
der Ludwig-
Maximilians-
Universitat
Miinchen, and 'Chirurgische
Tierklinik
der Ludwig-
Maximilians-
Universitat
Miinchen, Miinchen, Germany
Mal- and overnutrition
in
puppies with or without clinical
disorders
of
skeletal development
By
B.
DO111
Nkc
hl
K',
E.
KILN/I
t',
K.
Ko\II
INZ
and
u.
MATIS'
Introduction
Skeletal diseases in growing dogs are often diagnosed, mostly in large and giant breeds. The
connection between mistakes in the feeding regime and disturbances
of
bone development
has been shown by various authors: on one hand the negative effects on bone formation
due
to
a lack in calcium supply (MAKEK and WEI.I.hlANN
1931)
and on the other hand the
consequences
of
an oversupplementation with energy and/or calcium for skeletal health
(MAKIK and
Wk:i
I
MANN
1931;
Ht.I)HAhIhiAK
ct al.
1974;
HAZkWINKt~L
et a].
1991,
MI:Ytx
and
ZEN.I'I.K
1992;
DOHlNt(:hlK and Kit"%i.t:
1996).
The use
of
commercial products such as
complete dog
food
or special diets for growing dogs is increasing, which leads to the
assumption that there is enough knowledge about correct feeding within the population
and that the number
of
wrongly nourished pets is decreasing. However, despite the well-
known fact that puppies need a balanced diet, breeders and owners have uncertainties over
creating a balanced diet for their puppies and therefore often experiment with their nutrition.
To
verify the impact
of
nutrition on skeletal development in practice, all cases from the
nutrition consultation practice that concerned puppies were reviewed.
Materials and methods
Ninety cases from the last
3.5
years in the nutrition consultation practice dealing with
growing dogs
of
ages from
2
to
12
months were analysed. The cases were sorted into two
groups. The first one consisted
of
the puppies with problems
of
the skeleton. These afflicted
dogs were usually referred by the surgery (Chirurgische Tierklinik) or other veterinary
practitioners who had carried out diagnostics ranging from superficial examination to
radiographic or ultrasonic diagnosis. Some
of
them showed symptoms such as lameness and
deviation
of
limb axes without
a
diagnosed aetiology, others had hypertrophic ostew
dystrophy, secondary nutritional hyperparathyreoidism, osteochondrosis dissecans, pano-
stitis or comparable diseases
of
the growing skeleton. Altogether
82%
of
the afflicted
puppies suffered from lameness,
49%
showed distinct deviation
of
limb axes and in
59%
of
the cases unspecific dystrophic alterations
of
the skeleton were diagnosed (multiple attach-
ment is possible). The second group consisted
of
the healthy dogs. The owners
of
these
dogs consulted
us
because
of
a personal interest in correct nutrition with the purpose
of
preventive health care.
First the complete nutritional history was established in a personal interview. All com-
ponents
of
the diet and the daily amounts including all supplements and snacks were
noted. Other questions were asked concerning the age, body weight (curve
if
possible),
temperament and activity
of
the patient.
If
there were problems with skeletal development,
U.
S.
Copyright Clearance Center Code Statement:
093 1-2439/98/8002-0076
$
14.00/0
Nutrition and skeletal disorders in puppies
the clinical history (clinical symptoms and their duration, results
of
previous examinations
and therapy carried out
so
far
)
was discussed with the owners and/or colleagues.
The actual body weight was then compared with the recommended values for the cor-
responding age and breed (MEYEK et al. 1993; MEYEK and
ZEN.I.EK
1992). The rations were
checked by calculation and comparison
of
the daily intake of nutrients and the recommended
amount. For this purpose the requirement figures from
MI:YI;K
(1990) were used. Only cases
with a reliable and complete history were included.
The 90 dogs were divided into the
two
groups
of
those with (n
=
71) and those without
(n
=
19) problems
of
skeletal development. In the first group all puppies with problems such
as those already described, i.e. diseases not based on trauma or other evident cause, were
summarized.
To
quantify the influence
of
breed and size, the puppies were subdivided
corresponding
to
their expected adult body weight, using 30 kg as the limiting value. All
puppies with an expected final body weight
of
30 kg or more were counted within the group
of
large or giant breeds (n
=
79). Next mistakes in the feeding regime were analysed. The
percentage
of
each
of
the three major reasons for incorrect nutrition were calculated from
the data.
To
check the energy supply
of
the puppies, the content
of
digestible energy
(DE)
in the
daily food offered was estimated using the equation
of
MF.YI..K et al. (1993) and later the
content
of
metabolizable energy (ME) was estimated using the equation
of
KIENZI.E
et al.
(1998). These data were compared with the recommendations for age and body weight. In
addition, a check was made
to
determine whether the actual body weight was within the
recommended range corresponding
to
age and breed using the figures from MEYIX et al.
(1993) and MEYER and
2EN.Tt-K
(1992). A calcium supply
of
70-150%
of
the recommended
requirement related
to
age, actual and adult body weight was accepted as harmless. Cases
with a calcium intake
of
more than
150%
were defineded as the group whose ‘calcium
supply exceeds recommendations’ and those cases with a calcium supply
less
than 70% as
the group with ‘calcium supply below recommendations’. Each case
of
a puppy could be
counted up
to
three times because more than one mistake in the feeding regime was possible
(for example oversupply with energy, calcium and other nutrients). Afterwards the diet was
corrected and the owners
of
the dogs received recommendations for balanced feeding in the
future, according
to
the recommendations
of
MI:YI:R (1990).
77
Results
More than three-quarters
of
the 90 clients (n
=
71) came with their puppies to the nutrition
consulting surgery because
of
problems
of
skeletal development that already existed such
as lameness, deviation
of
limb axes or other signs
of
osteodystrophy (Table
1).
Nearly all
of
these patients (96%) belonged
to
a large or giant breed. In contrast, only
58%
of
the dogs
without skeletal problems had an expected adult body weight
of
more than 30 kg. Only
three puppies
of
a small or medium breed were attached to the group
of
dogs with problems
of
skeletal development. The clinical findings
of
alterations in the carpal joint
of
one
of
them with a distinct oversupplementation with calcium were ascertained accidentally with
an X-ray, as problems had not been evident before.
By checking the diet composition and feeding regime
of
the dogs, mistakes were detected
in almost every afflicted puppy. An excessive growth rate caused by overnutrition with
energy was the most frequent problem in the cases of growing dogs with disturbances
of
their skeleton (66%) that were reviewed. This mistake was often found in combination with
others such as a distinct oversupplementation with minerals and vitamins mostly due
to
additional supplementation with mineral and/or vitamin mixtures. In a similar number
of
cases (61%) an excessive intake
of
calcium was detected. In 48%
of
cases, the dogs with an
excessive growth rate were also those that had an oversupply
of
calcium. In only three cases
was the overfeeding with prepared food the reason for the combination
of
energy and
78
R.
Dobcnecker
et
RI.
Tablc
1.
Occurrence
of
disorders
of
skeletal development, breed size and mistakes
in
the nutritional
history in the
90
cases
of
growing dogs reviewed
I
Number
of
growing
dogs
(11
=YO)
71
0
8
,
>
SO'%)
DE
from commercial
diets
55
<
50%
DI'. from commercial diets
16
Growth r.itc
exceeds
recotiimctidations' 47
Calcium
supply
exceeds
43
recommendations'
Cakium
supply
below recommendations'
14
Other inappropriate
diets'
7
Expected
adult
body
weight
>30
kg
79
96
77
22
66
61
20
10
19
II
14
5
4
6
2
I
21
58
74
26
21
32
II
5
'
coinhinations
of
tactors
.ire
possible;
'more th.in
150'%)
of
requirements;
'less
than
70%
of
rcquirc-
ments; 'iiiist~kes
other
th.un
those
described
in
notes
1
-3
calcium excess. Only four
of
the cases
of
puppies without disorders
of
skeletdl devclopmcnt
had growth rates which exceeded the recommendations and in
32%
of
the cases an excessive
calcium intake w.is detected. Two
of
the four dogs with body weight that was
too
high or
an excessive energy supply were young dogs
(14
weeks maximum) and the other two cases
were puppies
of
'1
small breed (Beagles).
An insufficient supply
of
cdcium seems
to
be less important but
it
still occurs:
20%)
of
the puppies with disorders
of
skeletal development and two
of
the healthy puppies had
<I
daily intake
of
70'%
of
the recommendations or
less.
Other mistakes such
as
feeding a diet
that was not balanced for vitxnin
D,
vitamin A or trace elements were seen in eight cases.
At least one
of
the mistakes described above was detectable in all
of
the cases
of
puppies
with problems
of
skeletal clevelopment. In the unafflicted puppies fewer mistakes in feeding
regime were found.
To
elucidate the main reasons for the mistakes in feeding regime described above, two
typical examples, found by checking the nutritional history
of
the afflicted puppies, will be
shown in detail in the form
of
CASC
reports.
Puppies
thdt
were fed special products for growing dogs mostly reccived all
of
the
nutrients in sufficient or even slightly excessive amounts. This provided a safety margin for
the nutrients when
a
combination with unmincralizcd foodstuffs in sinall amounts wa
given. By adding
.I
mineral supplement an oversupplementation results. In the cases reviewed
.I
combination
of
'I
great number
of
components was very often seen.
Case report
1
German Shepherd
Dog,
1 1
months, male,
38
kg body weight
(30
kg estiinxed as normal).
He
showed extreme lameness and weakness mainly
of
the hind legs. The owner gave him a
diet composed
of
'I
commercial product and various supplements including calcium sources
(Table
2).
The comparison
of
the daily intake
of
nutrients and the requirements showed a
distinct disproportion between needs and supply. Corresponding
to
the exceeding growth
rate the puppy received 'in excess
of
3.6
MJ
digestible energy and the calcium intake
WAS
eight times the requirements.
This is
<I
typical example
of
a home-made diet. Such diets are often supplemented with
Nutrition and skeletal disorders in
puppies
79
Table2.
Diet
of
a 11-month-old German shepherd dog
Foodstuff
Puppy food, dry
Puppy croquettes
Bones (cattle)
Viscera (pluck)
Whole egg
Curd, low fat
Cracker
CaCO
,
Amount'
(g)
Phosphorus
(ma)
330
50
150
100
70
250
20
40
5.7
0.9
1.4
1
.o
0.5
1.1
0.3
0.0
102
15
35
I6
8
38
4
0
3 960
800
20 700
40
2 520
175
0
16000
2
970
600
9 300
70
140
475
0
0
Supply
1010
10.7 218 44 195
13
555
Requirements'
7.1
71
5510 3 420
'
as fed
'Digestible energy, calculated (after MI
YI
K
et al.
1993
and
KII
N/I
I
et al.
1998)
'Digestible crude protein
'calculated for a puppy of
11
months
of
age,
38
kg actual and
35
kg expected body weight
inappropriate mineral-vitamin mixtures or the wrong amounts.
In
this case insufficient
amounts
of
the mineral supplement were fed.
Case
report
2
Great Dane, male, 5.5 months, actual body weight of 35
kg
(30
kg
estimated as normal).
Symptoms were lameness, hypertrophic osteodystrophy and severe deviation
of
the limb
axes. The ration (Table3) showed an oversupplementation with energy and
also
a calcium
supply far below his needs.
Table3.
Diet
of
a 5.5-month-old Great Dane
Foodstuff
Beef
550 7.0 94 55 880
Chicken
550 3.9 110 83 825
Rice, raw
400 5.7 24 24 480
Mineral supplement
3
0.0
0 660 2425
Supply
1503 16.6 228 822 2425
Requirements'
15.0 150 10675 5600
'
as fed
'Digestible Energy, calculated (after MI.YI:K et al.
1993
and
KII.NZI
I.
et al.
1998)
'Digestible Crude Protein
'calculated for a puppy
of
5.5
months of age,
35
kg actual and
60
kg expected body weight
80
H.
Dobeneckcr
ct
al.
Discussion
This investigation has shown
thx
the risk for disturbances
of
skeletal development mainly
exists for dogs from lugc and giant breeds. Only three puppies
of
‘1
small or medium breed
were included in the group
of
dogs with problems. The fact, that the clinical findings
of
alterations in the carpal joint
of
one
of
them were ascertained accidentally, is in agreement
with investigations from
NAP
and
HAZI.WINKI,,I.
(1997)
which indicate that puppies
of
small
breeds with a calcium supply
of
three times the requirements show subclinical signs
of
disturbances in cartilage maturation similar
to
ostcochondrosis in giant breeds,
In agreement with others the connection between problems
of
skeletal development and
mistakes in the feeding regime is evident in the reviewed cases. In the majority
of
the
90
cases an oversupply
of
energy and nutrients were detected. This demonstrates that a relation-
ship exists between ‘in excessive growth rate and damage to the weak juvenile bones, as
already shown by
MIYIK
and
ZuNnh
(1992)
and others. Two
of
the four dogs with an
excessive body weight or energy supply in the group
of
healthy dogs were rather young
dogs, where the feeding regime, i.e. mainly the energy supply, could be corrected before
clinical problems occurred. An oversupplementation with calcium
is
another important
reason for disturbances
of
skeletal development. As known from the investigations
of
HAXI..WINI(I:I.
et al.
(1985)
this may cause an increased mineralization and a delayed ossi-
fication
of
the juvenile skeleton. The consequences
of
a distinct lack
of
calcium intake on
bone development has already been described by
MAKIK
and WI.I
I
MANN
(1931).
Another question that arises is: what were the main reasons for the large number
of
mistakes in the feeding regime made by the owner
of
the
90
puppies? The main part
of
the
diet was home-made in only
23%
of
the cases. Although three-quarters
of
the owners used
mainly commercial products, distinct mistakes were found. The data suggest, in particular,
that owners
of
puppies from large breeds tend to experiment with the nutrition
of
their
dogs. They combine home-made diets with complete dog
food
and mineral supplements
without calculation and this very often leads to unbalanced rations which may well con-
tribute
to
the development
of
the disorders described above.
Another major reason for mistakes in the feeding regime is, that the breeders and owners
of
puppies from large and giant breeds particularly want to have a tall puppy. For that
reason they give more puppy
food
with a high nutrient and energy content than is needed.
The puppies then grow
too
fast without being overweight in the sense
of
obese (as occurring
in adult dogs in cases
of
oversupply with energy). The owners
did
not realise this because
judgement
of
body condition was not possible.
To
prevent this problem, regular weighing
and adjustment
of
energy supply is necessary in order
to
control the growth rate.
I:rom the nutrition consultation practice the results indicate that
it
is
important
to
inform
the breeders and owners
of
puppies about the necessity to quantify the daily intake
of
nutrients in order
to
compare
it
with the requirement figures. With respect
to
the growth
rate they should know that on one hand the adult weight is fixed genetically and cannot be
changed by trying
to
retard or increase growth and on the other hand a low intensity
of
growth is preferable for puppies
of
large and giant breeds.
Summary
To
quantify the impact
011
skeletal
developinent
of
mistakes
in
the feeding regime
of
puppies,
‘10
cases
from
the
last
3.5
years
of
the authors’ nutrition
consultation
practice were reviewed, Symptoms
of
disorders
of
skeletal development
were
found in
79%
of
the puppies. The complete nutritional
history
w.is established
to
check and evaluate the food rations.
A
possible overfeeding
with
energy
was
proved
by comparing the
actual
growth
rate
with
the
recommendation
for
each
breed and
age.
The
results
demonstr‘ite th‘it
an
excessive growth rate is the most common problem
in
afflicted puppies
(66%),
followed by
a
distinct oversupplementation
with
calcium
(61%).
A
calcium supply below the recom-
mendations
wlis
observed in
20%
of
the
c‘iscs.
Nutrition and skeletal disorders
in
puppics
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Authors' address:
B.
DOBFNI
K
(for correspondence) and
E.
KII,N%I.I,,
lnstitut fur Physiologic,
Physiologischc Chcmic und Tiercrnahrung dcr
Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat
Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr.
13,
80539
Munchcn, Germany;
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KOSI'I.IN and
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MATIS,
'Chirurgische Ticrklinik dcr
Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat
Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr.
13,
80539
Munchen, Germany
... Phosphorus deficiency during growth has been shown to lead growth reduction and disturbance in musculoskeletal development [12,13]. Especially large and giant breed puppies are at risk of developing skeletal disorders during growth [14][15][16][17]. ...
... Expected BWs (kg) and the respective metabolic BW (kg 0.75 ) for the ages 9, 13,17,22,26,31,35,39,44,48 and 52 weeks were calculated for exemplary puppies with mature BWs of 5, 10, 20, 35 and 60kg according to literature data [32,33], based on [31] and [34,35] (see S1 Table). Data given for the end of a month was transferred to weeks as follows: weeks = months � 30.5 / 7. ...
... However, the exact mechanism is not completely understood. The risk of skeletal disease is especially high when calcium excess, i.e. slow bone turnover, meets too fast growth due to energy oversupply [10,17]. The NRC [23] offers a safe upper limit (SUL) of calcium intake in growing dogs which is 1.5 times the RDA (4.5g / 1000kcal ME). ...
Article
Full-text available
Calcium and phosphorus requirements for growing dogs can be calculated by different methods. The current standard feeding recommendations are based on experimental data derived from young giant breed puppies. In order to determine the absolute requirement, an extrapolation via metabolisable energy requirement is recommended. Another approach is to calculate the requirement factorially, taking into account the endogenous losses and the amount of calcium and phosphorus retained due to tissue accretion during growth as well as the expected availability of these nutrients. The working hypothesis was that both methods are valid and lead to comparable results in young puppies of a high mature body weight (BW). Yet, deviations for other age and mature BW groups were expected. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the results of both methods using exemplary puppies of different age and mature BW groups. The hypotheses could be verified for calcium. The extrapolated requirements overestimate the factorial requirements by up to 59.7% for puppies <60kg mature BW and/or >6 months of age. In case of phosphorus requirement, the deviations between both methods are overall very high in all stages. Taking into account the potentially harmful effects of calcium and phosphorus excess, the feeding recommendations based on the extrapolation should be reconsidered.
... Similarly, a dog study has shown that 83% of dogs that were overweight by early adulthood had crossed at least two centile lines when tracking their bodyweight through puppyhood using the WALTHAM Puppy Growth Charts [24]. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is detrimental to skeletal development [25][26][27][28]. In a similar vein to cats, neutering also increases the risk of obesity in dogs in addition to sex, breed and owner characteristics/behaviours [2][3][4][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
... Furthermore, this study shows that it is likely that if the dogs on this study had been fed to the NRC (2006) equation for growth, they would have been offered food in amounts providing excessive energy intake. This could have led to faster growth, likely at least partly due to increased fat deposition and resulted in possible harm to skeletal development and obesity [26,[71][72][73]. The combined techniques of feeding to an optimal body condition score and using a WALTHAM™ Puppy Growth Chart to monitor weight development appeared to prevent or address any periods of rapid/slow growth before they become detrimental to the animal and thereby ensured healthy growth. ...
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An appropriate energy intake for healthy growth can reduce the risk of obesity and co-morbidities, such as orthopaedic diseases. The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) universal equation calculates the energy requirement of growing dogs based on predicted adult body weight, but evidence suggests a revision may be required. This study investigates the energy requirements of seventeen Norfolk terrier puppies over their first year (10 to 52 weeks). Puppies were individually fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain an optimal body condition score (BCS), recording intake daily and body weight and BCS weekly. To monitor health a veterinary examination, haematology and plasma biochemistry and serum measures of bone turnover were undertaken every 12 weeks. Skeletal development was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (26 and 52 weeks). Puppies were clinically healthy with normal skeletal development and healthy growth throughout. The energy intake to achieve this was significantly lower than that predicted by the NRC (2006) equation at all time points, with largest mean difference of 285 kJ/kg0·75 per day at 10 weeks. If fed according to the NRC 2006 equation, dogs would have been in positive energy balance, possibly leading to obesity. These data support a revision to the NRC (2006) equation.
... It has been demonstrated repeatedly that a high energy intake in puppies leads to faster growth. This may harm the skeletal development (Dobenecker, Kienzle, Köstlin, & Matis, 1998;Hedhammar, Wu, & Krook, 1974) ...
... There was no systematic deviation from the recommendations calculated with log curves from Table 1. Twenty years ago, 57% of young dogs presented to our service were growing too fast according to the same growth recommendations as in the present study (Dobenecker et al., 1998). This suggests that our clients are aware of the risks of overfeeding growing dogs and tried to avoid them. ...
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The correct assumption of metabolisable energy (ME) requirement is essential for the nutrition consultation and diet formulation. In young dogs, too high energy supply can accelerate growth and thus lead to developmental orthopaedic diseases. The aim of the present study was to collect the data on ME intake and body weight (BW) development in privately owned growing dogs in order to compare these data with the current recommendations. Our hypothesis was that the actual ME intake of healthy young dogs would be lower than the actual recommendation. The data of 493 privately owned puppies (median age at first consultation 21 weeks, the median expected mature BW 30 kg) on ME intake, actual and expected mature BW were collected and compared with recommendations of the Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE, Meyer and Zentek and NRC). In 243 dogs, there was a follow‐up. The actual BW did not deviate systematically from the calculated expected BW (R2 = .929). The ME intake significantly decreased with age (p < .05) and significantly increased with expected mature BW (p < .05). There was no significant interaction between these two parameters (p > .05). Sex had no effect on the ME intake (p > .05). The ME intake of young dogs with a history of skeletal problems or of food allergy did not differ systematically from healthy dogs of similar age and expected mature BW. The ME intake was considerably below NRC recommendations, especially in younger puppies (>8–17 weeks: 78%, >17–26 weeks: 83% of NRC recommendation). A predictive linear equation for ME intake was developed: ME intake (MJ) = (1.063 − 0.565 × [actual BW/expected mature BW]) × actual BW0.75.
... A deficient as well as excessive supply of Ca and P can cause developmental orthopaedic diseases [42][43][44], especially in large breed dogs [45,46]. An evaluation of the supply has to take the availability of the minerals into account, which depends on factors such as the amount and sources, fibre content and digestibility of dry matter [47,48]. ...
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Raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) are widely used as unconventional diets for dogs and cats at different life stages, despite concerns regarding nutritional adequacy and microbial contamina-tion. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the nutritional and hygiene quality profile of RMBDs purchased in Germany. For this purpose, crude nutrients were assessed in 44 RMBDs and compared to declared values. In addition, selected minerals were determined in 31 RMBDs la-belled as complete and compared to the minimum requirement (MR) for intended species and life stages. Aerobic colony count (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae were used to assess the hygiene quality of 37 commercial RMBDs, while the presence of Salmonella spp. was examined in 10 products. Fat and protein content exceeded tolerated deviation from declared values in 33% and 45% of RMBDs, respectively. Each RMBD showed at least one concern regarding nutrient content. The RMBDs had high fat contents (mean 69, range 33–95 g/Mcal) that were negatively correlated with protein (r = −0.74, p < 0.0001). Considerable contaminations by ACC and Enterobacteriaceae were found (2.61 × 108 ± 3.63 x108 and 3.61 × 106 ± 8.39 x106 CFU/g, respectively). A higher count of Enterobacteriaceae was detected in a frozen RMBDs made of poultry or carcasses from different animals, compared to the thawed counterpart (p = 0.003), as well as compared to other sources, such as beef, horse, and lamb, regardless of the storage condition. Salmonella spp. were found in 2/10 RMBDs. This study confirmed that feeding commercial RMBDs might pose a risk to pet health.
... praktizieren Spezialformen der Fütterung wie das BARFen. Ohne individuelle Rationsanpassung oder Verwendung geeigneter Rezepte steigt dabei jedoch das Risiko für Fehlversorgungen, wie die Zahlen belegen, besonders auch mit Kalzium (3,5,6,14). Beispielhaft sollen zwei Fälle vorgestellt werden. ...
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Zusammenfassung Zwei Fallberichte zeigen Folgen und Therapiemöglichkeiten eines Kalziummangels beim Hund. Beim ersten Fall handelt es sich um einen adulten Hund, der aufgrund einer Futtermittelallergie über Jahre eine unbilanzierte Ausschlussdiät (ohne Ergänzung von Mineralstoffen oder Vitaminen) erhielt und schließlich mit der Problematik eines Gummikiefers (Osteomalazie) zur Rationsoptimierung überwiesen wurde. Im zweiten Fall wurde ein Welpe mit einer selbst zubereiteten und ebenfalls unmineralisierten Ration ernährt und erlitt eine Oberschenkelfraktur nach moderater Belastung. In beiden Fällen ergab die computergestützte Rationsüberprüfung neben weiteren Nährstofffehlversorgungen einen massiven Kalziummangel, während die Serumkalziumspiegel im Referenzbereich lagen. Nach bedarfsdeckender und ausgewogener Ergänzung der Rationen mit Mineralstoffen und Vitaminen zeigten beide Hunde eine deutliche Verbesserung des Gesundheitszustandes. Für die Praxis gilt, dass bei Störungen des Skelettsystems eine Fütterungsanamnese zum Ausschluss nutritiver Ursachen essenziell ist. Die Bestimmung des Serumkalziumspiegels hat bei der Überprüfung eines nutritiven Kalziummangels dagegen in der Regel keine Aussagekraft.
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To investigate the impact of a selective reduction in dietary phosphorus (P) supply on healthy growing dogs, a total of 23 Beagles and 30 Foxhound crossbreds (FBI) were used in a feeding trial between 6 and 24 weeks of age. Sixteen Beagles and 19 FBI were fed with selectively reduced P concentrations (low phosphorus, LP). The remaining puppies received a completely balanced control diet (CON). With these diets, the P supply in the Beagles at the age of 12 weeks added up to 2.5 ± 0.6 (LP) and 9.8 ± 1.4 g P/kg DM (CON), and in the FBI 4.3 ± 0.9 (LP) and 13.0 ± 1.6 g P/kg DM (CON). Therefore, the LP Beagles received an average of 33 ± 11% of the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of P, the LP FBI 41 ± 11%. The calcium (Ca) concentration stayed unaltered and led to a Ca/P ratio above the recommended range of 1.3/1 to 2/1. The apparent digestibility (aD) of phosphorus was reduced in the LP Beagle; otherwise, the aD of both minerals was not affected by the P concentration of the diet. The renal excretion of P was reduced to zero in both LP groups while the renal calcium excretion increased significantly. Several of the puppies from both breeds showed impaired appetite, growth, skin and fur quality, and a few also clinically showed relevant signs of a disturbed musculoskeletal system after the LP feeding. A rapid loss of muscle strength and posture within hours led to severe deviation of the limb axis with hyperflexion of the joints but no radiological aberrations or signs of pain. Immediate transition of affected puppies to a balanced diet with sufficient phosphorus resulted in a complete recovery of the puppies in less than one month. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate P supply on the healthy development of growing dogs.
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The prediction of the energy content in commercially prepared dog and cat foods was investigated using three databases [database A: 128 dog digestion trials and food analyses with fibre analysed as crude fibre (CF) including literature data; database B: 107 dog digestion trials, fibre analysed as total fibre (TF) after ENGLYST and CUMMINGS (1988) and database C: 58 cat digestion trials, fibre analysed as CF]. Multiple regression equations with the dependent variable digestible energy (DE) in kJ/100 g dry matter and the proximates including fibre in percentage dry matter as independent variables were calculated. A second approach was based on the prediction of digestibility of energy (ad GE;%) from fibre content in percentage dry matter (for database A: ad GE=91.2 - 1.43 x CF; for database B: ad GE = 93.3 - 1.42 x TF and for database C: ad GE = 87.9 - 0.88 x CF). The DE was then calculated: DE = gross energy(GE) x ad GE/100. The GE in kJ/100 g dry matter was either calculated or analysed by adiabatic bomb calorimetry. The results of all methods correlated significantly with the experimental data (r greater than or equal to 0.88**). The most important source of error was the calculator of GE. The most accurate method for estimation of DE is the measurement of GE by bomb calorimetry and the estimation of ad GE from fibre content. Metabolizable energy (ME) can be estimated by N-correction For dog food 4.34 kJ/g protein and for cat food 3.10 kJ/g protein can be subtracted. A comparison of the correlation between ME as calculated by, the authors' recommended method, or by the NRC equation and the experimentally determined ME in a dataset with 61 prepared dog foods which were not used to develop the method, showed a coefficient of correlation of 0.95** (method of this study) or 0.56** (NRC equation).
Article
Influence of various levels of energy intake on development of body weight and skeleton in growing Great Danes 1. Growth rate and energy requirement27 Great Danes (from 3 litters) were fed ad lib. (n = 9) or with an energy intake (n = 18) restricted to 80 and 70% of the paired ad lib. group, respectively, and a nearly equalized protein and nutrient supply meeting the current recommendations (8 dogs of the restricted groups were bearing weight loaded [15% of own BW] belts in the scapular region).Dogs were weighed weekly, shoulder height, approximate length of the forearm and foot were recorded in certain intervalls. In plasma protein, urea, Ca, P, Cu, Zn, and alkaline phosphatase were determined. Intake of digestible energy (according to the results of digestive trials) was recorded daily.Zusammenfassung27 Doggen (aus 3 Würfen) wurden ad lib. (n = 9) oder restriktiv (n = 18) aufgezogen (Energieaufnahme 80 bzw. 70% der ad lib. gefütterten Gruppe) bei annähernd gleich hoher, bedarfsgerechter Eiweiß- und Nährstoffzufuhr in beiden Gruppen (die Hälfte der restriktiv gefütterten Tiere mit Gewichtsbelastung; 15% der KM).Die Hunde wurden regelmäßig gewogen, gemessen (Widerristhöhe, Unterarm- und Fußlänge) und zu Blutanalysen herangezogen (Plasmaeiweiß, Harnstoff, Ca, P, Cu, Zn, alkalische Phosphatase). Die Aufnahme an verd. Energie (bestimmt durch Verdauungsversuche) wurde täglich registriert.
Article
The influence of dietary calcium on calcium metabolism was investigated in growing dogs that reach an adult body weight similar to that of humans. Seven groups of dogs (n greater than or equal to 5) were raised on a diet with a composition meeting the National Research Council (NRC) requirements (1974), but differing in calcium content, with or without a constant ratio to phosphorus. Control dogs fed 1.1% calcium and 0.9% phosphorus (all on a dry matter basis) were fed ad libitum (n = 10) or in restricted amounts (n = 6); dogs fed high calcium (3.3%) diets received either 0.9% phosphorus (n = 6) or 3.0% phosphorus (n = 6); dogs fed low calcium (0.55%) diets received either 0.9% phosphorus (n = 5 + 6) or 0.5% phosphorus (n = 8). Food intake, circulating total calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations and calcium metabolism, with 45Ca kinetics, were studied at 8, 14, 20 and 26 wk of age. Except for the difference in food intake in two groups at 14 wk (i.e., 0.55% calcium-0.9% phosphorus higher and 3.3% calcium-0.9% phosphorus lower, respectively, than the controls) no differences were noticed during the rest of the study. The mean plasma calcium concentrations did not differ between groups during the studies, whereas that of inorganic phosphorus revealed temporal aberrations in two groups. An absorption coefficient alpha of 45-66% was found for the control group. High and low calcium diets gave rise to values of 23-43% and 70-97%, respectively, for alpha irrespective of the phosphorus content of the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
lnstitut fur Physiologic, Physiologischc Chcmic und Tiercrnahrung dcr Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr. 13, 80539 Munchcn
  • B Authors
  • E Dobfni
  • N%i I Kii
  • R Kosi
  • I In
  • U Matis
Authors' address: B. DOBFNI K (for correspondence) and E. KII,N%I.I,, lnstitut fur Physiologic, Physiologischc Chcmic und Tiercrnahrung dcr Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr. 13, 80539 Munchcn, Germany; R. KOSI'I.IN and U. MATIS, 'Chirurgische Ticrklinik dcr Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr. 13, 80539 Munchen, Germany
Nutrition Consultation: Common Problems in Growing Dogs Influences of chronic calcium exccss on skeletal dcvelopment of growing Grcat Danes
  • B Ki~
  • E E N%i
  • D On
  • T K Wani
, B.; KI~.N%I.E, E., 1996: Nutrition Consultation: Common Problems in Growing Dogs. 'ON, D.; WANI..K, T. Proc. XXIst WSAVA Congress, Jerusalcm, Israel. p. 412. H A % I : W I N K ~ I., H. A. W.; GoI:I)t:~;i~.i~uuKE, S. A,; POUI.OS, P. W.; WOI.VI:KAMP, W. Tti. C., 1985: Influences of chronic calcium exccss on skeletal dcvelopment of growing Grcat Danes. J. Am. Anini. H o s ~. ASSOC. 21, 377-391.
A 3Y. 130-141. and large brccd dogs Authors' address: B. DOBFNI K (for correspondence) and E. KII,N%I.I, lnstitut fur Physiologic, Physiologischc Chcmic und Tiercrnahrung dcr Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr. 13, 80539 Munchcn
  • Verlag Auflagc
  • Schapcr
  • Hannover
  • Germany
  • Kijrpcrmassc
  • J Skclcttentwicklung
  • Vet
  • Mcd
Auflagc, Verlag Schapcr, Hannover, Germany. auf Kijrpcrmassc und Skclcttentwicklung. J. Vet. Mcd. A 3Y. 130-141. and large brccd dogs. In: Proc. ESVCN Conference, Munich. p. 22. Authors' address: B. DOBFNI K (for correspondence) and E. KII,N%I.I,, lnstitut fur Physiologic, Physiologischc Chcmic und Tiercrnahrung dcr Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr. 13, 80539 Munchcn, Germany; R. KOSI'I.IN and U. MATIS, 'Chirurgische Ticrklinik dcr Ludwig-Maximilians-Univcrsitat Munchcn, Vctcrinarstr. 13, 80539 Munchen, Germany