Article

The Relative Effectiveness of Three Compliance Techniques in Eliciting Donations to a Cultural Organization

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Abstract

To compare the relative effectiveness of three compliance techniques during a museum fund-raising drive, 89 individuals were asked to contribute $1 to the museum after having been exposed to an initial request according to one of the following conditions: (1) in the foot-in-thedoor condition, individuals were first asked to sign a petition in support of the museum; (2) in the door-in-the-face condition, they were initially asked for a $5 contribution; (3) in the. low-ball condition, they were asked to contribute 75 cents and then to increase this amount by 25 cents in order to support the children's program: and (4) in the control condition, subjects simply received the target request for $1. The groups differed significantly in terms of the number of individuals who donated, and in the amount of their contributions. The low-ball condition was generally the most effective, especially with respect to the amount of money contributed. This was followed in turn by the door-in-the-face and control conditions, with the foot-in-the-door condition the least effective in virtually every comparison. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the experimental analysis of compliance, as well as the development of more effective fund-raising programs.

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... For instance, people are first asked to donate a small amount (they are thrown the low ball), for example a donation to a museum of $0.75. After they have agreed to do so, an additional amount is requested, for example $0.25 for the museums children's program (Brownstein & Katzev 1985). ...
... Compared to the first, excessive request, the second appears as a small concession (Abrahams & Bell 1994, Cialdini et al 1975, Reingen 1978. In a study by Brownstein and Katzev (1985), visitors to a museum were asked to donate $1 'to cover reduced funding'. In a control group, 73% did so; in an experimental group that first received a request to donate $5, 87% did so (though this difference is not statistically significant, pp. ...
... However, the foot in the door-technique does not always work. Brownstein and Katzev (1985) found that first asking to sign a petition in support of an art institution did not increase compliance with a subsequent request for a donation for this art institution. Allison, Messick and Samuelson (1985) found that sending a flyer with a questionnaire actually reduced the amount contributed subsequently. ...
Article
We present an overview of the academic literature on philanthropy, divided in two parts: 1. Who gives how much; 2. Why people give. In part 1 we survey the literature on characteristics of individuals and households that are related to giving. In part 2, we identify eight mechanisms as the most important forces that drive giving: (1) awareness of need; (2) solicitation; (3) costs and benefits; (4) altruism; (5) reputation; (6) psychological benefits; (7) values; (8) efficacy. We evaluate the progress in the almost 500 studies we reviewed and suggest directions for future research on philanthropy.
... For instance, people are first asked to donate a small amount (they are thrown the low ball), for example, a donation to a museum of US$0.75. After they have agreed to do so, an additional amount is requested, for example US$0.25 for the museums children's program (Brownstein & Katzev, 1985). Another set of findings illustrating that it matters how costs are perceived concern the "door-in-the-face effect." ...
... Compared to the first, excessive request, the second appears as a small concession (Abrahams & Bell, 1994;Cialdini et al., 1975;Reingen, 1978). In a study by Brownstein and Katzev (1985), visitors to a museum were asked to donate US$1 "to cover reduced funding." In a control group, 73% did so; in an experimental group that first received a request to donate US$5, 87% did so (though this difference is not statistically significant, pp. ...
... However, the foot in the door-technique does not always work. Brownstein and Katzev (1985) found that first asking to sign a petition in support of an art institution did not increase compliance with a subsequent request for a donation for this art institution. Allison, Messick and Samuelson (1985) found that sending a flyer with a questionnaire actually reduced the amount contributed subsequently. ...
Article
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The authors present an overview of the academic literature on charitable giving based on a literature review of more than 500 articles. They structure their review around the central question of why people donate money to charitable organizations. They identify eight mechanisms as the most important forces that drive charitable giving: (a) awareness of need; (b) solicitation; (c) costs and benefits; (d) altruism; (e) reputation; (f) psychological benefits; (g) values; (h) efficacy. These mechanisms can provide a basic theoretical framework for future research explaining charitable giving.
... La même personne doit énoncer les 2 requêtes X X Les 2 requêtes doivent viser le même bénéficiaire X Les requêtes doivent être prosociales X X Les requêtes doivent être faites en face-à-face X Il ne doit pas y avoir de délai entre les requêtes X X Depuis une trentaine d'années, beaucoup de travaux sur la porte-au-nez ont été menés afin d'aider à soutenir monétairement diverses causes comme par exemple la lutte contre le sida (Abrahams et Bell, 1994 ;Bell et al., 1996), l'association du coeur (Reingen, 1977(Reingen, , 1978a(Reingen, , 1978b, l'aide aux personnes mentalement handicapées (Schwarzwald et al., 1979), un musée privé (Brownstein et Katzev, 1985), la recherche sur le cancer (Wang et al., 1989), un zoo (Wiliams et Williams, 1989). . . Le recours à la porte-au-nez semble donc tout indiqué pour soutenir financièrement des causes prosociales. ...
... En revanche, les montants de la condition porte-au-nez sont supérieurs à ceux de la condition témoin. Ce résultat est cohérent avec certains travaux antérieurs (Wang et al., 1989 ;Williams et Williams, 1989), mais pas avec d'autres pour lesquels même si l'effet porte-au-nez a été obtenu, les montants moyens étaient identiques à la condition témoin (Reingen, 1977 ;Brownstein et Katzev, 1985). Pour ce qui est du « vous êtes libre de. . . ...
Article
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Cette étude compare l’efficacité de deux techniques de soumission sans pression (porte-au-nez et « vous êtes libre de. . . ») en vue de récolter des fonds en faveur d’une oeuvre humanitaire. Cette évaluation porte sur un événement qui a très largement été médiatisé (tsunami du 26 décembre 2004). Les résultats indiquent une efficacité des deux techniques par rapport à une condition témoin. Cependant, le « vous êtes libre de. . . » s’est avéré moins efficace dans le temps que la porte-au-nez. Une interprétation sur la base des divers mécanismes impliqués par les deux techniques est proposée.
... La même personne doit énoncer les 2 requêtes X X Les 2 requêtes doivent viser le même bénéficiaire X Les requêtes doivent être prosociales X X Les requêtes doivent être faites en face-à-face X Il ne doit pas y avoir de délai entre les requêtes X X Depuis une trentaine d'années, beaucoup de travaux sur la porte-au-nez ont été menés afin d'aider à soutenir monétairement diverses causes comme par exemple la lutte contre le sida (Abrahams et Bell, 1994 ;Bell et al., 1996), l'association du coeur (Reingen, 1977(Reingen, , 1978a(Reingen, , 1978b, l'aide aux personnes mentalement handicapées (Schwarzwald et al., 1979), un musée privé (Brownstein et Katzev, 1985), la recherche sur le cancer (Wang et al., 1989), un zoo (Wiliams et Williams, 1989). . . Le recours à la porte-au-nez semble donc tout indiqué pour soutenir financièrement des causes prosociales. ...
... En revanche, les montants de la condition porte-au-nez sont supérieurs à ceux de la condition témoin. Ce résultat est cohérent avec certains travaux antérieurs (Wang et al., 1989 ;Williams et Williams, 1989), mais pas avec d'autres pour lesquels même si l'effet porte-au-nez a été obtenu, les montants moyens étaient identiques à la condition témoin (Reingen, 1977 ;Brownstein et Katzev, 1985). Pour ce qui est du « vous êtes libre de. . . ...
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a Équipe de psychologie sociale des insertions, université de Bordeaux-II, 3 ter, place de la Victoire, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France b Faculté des sciences du sport, université de Bordeaux-II, EA 498, vie sportive : tradition, innovation, intervention, Reçu le 28 mars 2006 ; accepté le 18 juillet 2006 Résumé Cette étude compare l'efficacité de deux techniques de soumission sans pression (porte-au-nez et « vous êtes libre de. . . ») en vue de récolter des fonds en faveur d'une oeuvre humanitaire. Cette évaluation porte sur un événement qui a très largement été médiatisé (tsunami du 26 décembre 2004). Les résultats indiquent une efficacité des deux techniques par rapport à une condition témoin. Cependant, le « vous êtes libre de. . . » s'est avéré moins efficace dans le temps que la porte-au-nez. Une interprétation sur la base des divers mécanismes impliqués par les deux techniques est proposée. © 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. Abstract This study compares the effectiveness of two compliances without pressure techniques (door-in-the-face and "you-are-free-of. . .") in favour of a charitable donation. This evaluation relates to an event, which was very present in medias (tsunami of December 26, 2004). The results indicate an effectiveness of the two techniques compared to a control condition. However, the "you-are-free-of. . ." technique proved less effective in time than the door-in-the-face. An interpretation on the basis of various mechanism implied by the two techniques is proposed. © 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. Mots clés : Soumission sans pression ; Altruisme ; Porte-au-nez ; Technique du vous-êtes-libre-de Keywords: Compliance without pressure; Altruism; Door-in-the-face; You-are-free-of technique
... Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the low-ball technique regarding compliance with various helping requests such as collecting money for a student's class fund (Burger & Cornelius, 2003, Experiment 1), participating in a 3-mile walk for sponsors who had been lined up to donate money to needy families (Burger & Cornelius, 2003, Experiment 2), agreeing to keep a dog on a lead for a confederate who wanted to visit someone in hospital (Guéguen, Pascual, & Dagot, 2002), donating $1 to an art museum (Brownstein & Katzev, 1985), participating in a laboratory study or filling in a questionnaire (Cialdini et al., 1978;Hornik, Zaig, Shadmon, & Barbash, 1990;Joule, 1987), and agreeing to display posters for the United Way organization (Cialdini et al., 1978). In these studies, the requests used could be described as requests for desirable behavior. ...
... A number of studies have shown that the low-ball technique is more effective for gaining compliance than the traditional foot-in-the-door technique (Cialdini 8 GUE´GUEN AND PASCUAL et al., 1978;Hornik et al., 1990;Joule, 1987) or the door-in-the-face technique (Brownstein & Katzev, 1985). In our two experiments, the low-ball technique remained effective with women who are less likely to adopt deviant behaviors (Ma, 2005;Ma, Shek, Cheung, & Lee, 1996). ...
Article
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Low-balling is a technique designed to gain compliance by making a very attractive initial offer to induce a person to accept the offer and then making the terms less favorable. Studies have shown that this approach is more successful than when the less favorable request is made directly. However, the effect of this technique on more problematic and costly requests remained in question. In two experimental field studies, a request was made to participants and, after agreeing, they were informed that the request referred to deviant behaviors. Results showed that the low-ball technique remained effective with both men and women. The theoretical power of commitment is discussed to explain these results.
... Each study was examined to determine if the target request was a reduction of the original request in the DITF condition. For example, Brownstein and Katzev (1985) initially requested a $5 donation and followed this with a request for a $1 donation, demonstrating a reduction in the original behavior. In contrast, Abrahams and Bell (1994) initially requested participants' help in coordinating a walk-a-thon (i.e., volunteering). ...
... Each study was coded to determine if the initial and target requests were made by same, or different, individuals in the DITF condition. Brownstein and Katzev (1985) 0.093 48 79.20 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Burger (1986) 0.091 38 20.00 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Cialdini and Ascani (1976) 0 Guéguen (2007) 0.103 60 57.00 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Pascual et al. (2007) 0.236 60 13.00 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Pascual and Guéguen (2006) 0.572 80 10.00 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reingen (1978) 0.177 64 19.00 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reingen and Kernan (1979) ( Beneficiary variation. Each study was coded to determine if the initial and target requests in the DITF condition benefitted the same individual or organization. ...
Article
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A random-effects meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the Door-in-the-Face (DITF) persuasive message strategy on compliance. Results indicate an overall significant effect of the DITF strategy on verbal compliance (k=78, r=.126), but an insignificant effect for behavioral compliance (k=39, r=.052). In terms of verbal compliance, the DITF strategy works significantly better than controls for different samples, across varied communication media, and for prosocial causes. Additionally, the DITF technique is more successful than controls for volunteering/research than other target behaviors (e.g., monetary donation). For both verbal and behavioral compliance outcomes, the toughness (measured as amount of baseline compliance) of the donation context negatively predicted the magnitude of the DITF effect. It is argued social responsibility theory best accounts for observed moderator factors.
... The low ball technique refers to the practice of increasing the request after people have expressed willingness to comply (Brownstein and Katzev, 1985). For instance, people are first asked to donate a small amount, and after they have agreed to do so, a larger amount is requested. ...
Article
We present an overview of theories and research on charitable giving in economics, sociology, social psychology, and marketing from the past 50 years (1955-2005). We identify seven mechanisms as the most important forces that drive giving. The seven principles of philanthropy are: (1) solicitation; (2) awareness of need; (3) costs; (4) reputation; (5) psychological benefits; (6) changing the world; (7) confidence. We discuss each of these mechanisms and show how they are related to the findings of survey and experimental studies on philanthropy, and how practitioners can use them.
... Although a prior service request is quite close to consistency-based compliance techniques, it differs from them. Compared to FITM or FITD, the service request technique bears directly on the target behavior and, just like the lowball technique; according to Brownstein and Katzev (1985), Cialdini et al. (1978), Hornik, Zaig, Shadmon, and Barbash (1990), it could thereby show an better effect than these. Finally, compared to lowball, this form of solicitation is not based on a false promise or erroneous information, and from this perspective, it constitutes a more ethical technique. ...
Article
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Empirical observation led us to identify a particular and widespread form of solicitation involving requesting a service before making the target request. Relating this form of solicitation to compliance paradigms based on consistency, we hypothesized that the technique would increase the compliance rates of individuals. 167 passersby were approached in the street for a money donation according to two conditions: the appeal for money was preceded by a service request or not. We found that those passersby receiving the service request and the monetary appeal were significantly more compliant than those receiving the monetary appeal only. The discussion focuses on the psychological mechanisms at work in the acceptance of the requests, and avenues for future research are suggested.
... Pour prendre un exemple chiffré, en ce qui concerne la première étude du Tableau 3 (Brownstein et Katzev, 1985), nous observons que : ...
Article
Depuis plusieurs décennies, la technique de la méta-analyse s’impose comme la méthode la plus employée pour synthétiser un ensemble de recherches portant sur un même thème, un même processus… En synthétisant, statistiquement, les études, la méta-analyse permet de mesurer l’importance de l’effet d’un phénomène étudié et de voir quels facteurs influencent ce phénomène. Cette méthode, très utilisée dans les revues anglo-saxonnes, est peu connue en France notamment par les chercheurs en psychologie sociale. L’article qui suit présente le principe de la technique, ses avantages et la mise en oeuvre dans le cas où des données statistiques s’expriment sous forme de fréquences. Une illustration de l’intérêt de cette méthode d’analyse est proposée comme étude de cas à partir d’un jeu de données réelles issues de l’étude comparative de deux processus connus de la littérature psychosociale.
... Identification of new compliance techniques has typically been followed by attempts to compare one technique to another. For example, Brownstein and Katzev (1985) compared the effectiveness of three techniques in a fundraising field experiment: foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, and low-ball. In that study, they found that the low-ball technique garnered significantly more donations than the other strategies. ...
Article
Driving toward a goal (DTAG) is a compliance technique derived from observed persuasion practice (e.g., telethons) wherein the persuader utilizes a goal pitch (e.g., “Help us raise $500”) and progress toward a goal (e.g., a tote board) to encourage compliance. It was postulated that DTAG would be more effective than legitimizing a paltry contribution (LPC) at increasing compliance rate, size, and stability. In Study 1, a fundraising field experiment (N = 840 donations) found that LPC garnered significantly more donations and DTAG garnered significantly larger donations. In Study 2, a lab experiment (N = 992 participants) found that LPC garnered more donations at Time 1, DTAG garnered more donations over time (eventually matching LPC), and LPC yielded smaller donations over time.
... In this condition, 50% of participants agreed to give 2 hours of their time to accompany the youths to the zoo, which shows a significant increase in the frequency of the desired behavior compared to the control condition. This compliance technique has been shown to be particularly effective when the request serves a socially desirable, altruistic cause (Pascual, Dagot, Vallée, & Guéguen, 2009;Fointiat, 2000) or involves social marketing such as giving financial support to cultural or charitable endeavors (Williams & Williams, 1989;Brownstein & Katzev, 1985). However, the door-in-the-face technique has rarely been used to promote health behaviors, except for a study conducted by Sénémeaud, Somat, Terrier, and Noel (2008). ...
Article
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Introduction The aim of this action research was to encourage workers to comply with an anti-smoking charter and get them to effectively reduce their tobacco use. Two change procedures were compared: a classic one based on an information campaign and an original one based on the door-in-the-face technique. Method Forty-three smoking workers participated in this study. They were assigned to one of the two groups: information campaign group or door-in-the-face group. Two types of measures were administered. The first assessed self-reported attitudes towards smoking, such as perceived dependence (Fagerström Test); the second assessed effective behavior, such as number of cigarettes smoked and physiological nicotine addiction. Conclusion Taken together, the results show that the door-in-the-face technique was more effective than the information campaign. These results are discussed in light of the social acceptability of the initial refusal.
... Consequently, theorists fail to interpret these conflicting results, owing to the complexity and multiplicity of the factors involved. As an example, something as simple as the researcher's characteristics (age, sex, charisma, credibility, etc.) will inevitably influence the participation rates (Brownstein and Katzev, 1985). ...
Article
Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants.
... Of course, OR was calculated only when the compliance measure was a dichotomous (comply or not with the request) one. This excluded the second dependent variables measured in Brownstein and Katzev (1985) Table 2 displays the information about the overall findings and the subgroups analysis. The first column, "k," indicates how many studies were included in that calculation. ...
Article
Introduction: The low-ball (Cialdini et al., 1978) is a compliance-gaining technique consisting of making an attractive initial offer to get a person to agree to the request and then making the terms less favorable (target request). Objective and methods: The effectiveness of this technique was evaluated in a meta-analysis using 17 references, 23 studies, 44 subgroups and a combined sample size of 4733. Results: Analysis reported a weighted mean correlation coefficient of r = .16 and a weighted mean odds ratio of OR = 2.47. Moderator analysis reported that the low-ball was more efficient with a high cost request in terms of effort for the participant and when the solicitation of the target request is deferred. Conclusion: These findings appeared congruent with commitment theoretical explanation of the low-ball.
... Делотворноста на техниката ниска понуда е потврдена и во други истражувања иако таа досега не била толку инспиративна за истражувачите за да ја проверуваат повеќе пати и во различни контексти како во случајот со техниките нога на врата и врата в лице. Во некои од тие истражувања техниката е во одреден степен и модификувана и, притоа, е утврдено дека таа, на пример, e успешна во однос на собирање добротворни прилози за музеј (Brownstein & Katzev, 1985), воздржување од пушење цигари (Joule, 1987), собирање парични средства за студентски фонд и помагање во собирање парични средства за сиромашни семејства (Burger & Cornelius, 2003). ...
... Usualmente ambos procedimientos se han investigado por separado, y en cada caso se han incluido habitualmente dos requerimientos. Muy pocos estudios han comparado ambos procedimientos, habiéndose informado tanto de una superioridad del pie-en-la-puerta (Cann, Sherman & Elkes, 1975: Snyder & Cunnningham, 1975, como de una mayor efectividad de la puerta-en-la- cara (Cialdini & Ascani, 1975;Brownstein & Katzev, 1986). Sin embargo, y aunque ha sido mucho menos común, también existe la posibilidad de combinar ambos procedimientos y además incluir más de dos requerimientos. ...
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Primer texto de Psicología Social editado en Chile
... 2 More than superficially kindred behaviour such as voting, which is too exclusively value-driven to usefully be analysed as social exchange (Blau, 1964: 234-5;Alexander, 1984: 95). 3 Some of the same issues have been investigated with respect to charitable donations. Among many ploys (discussed in Weyant, 1984;Brownstein and Katzev, 1985), a notion by Allison et al. (1985: 202) seems intriguing: ' ... we investigated the idea that contributions to a public good may increase if people are given the opportunity to express their opinions regarding the manner in which their contribution might be put to use.' In their study of alumni donations, enclosing a questionnaire for the above purpose decreased the sum of money contributed. ...
Thesis
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Die Dissertation besteht im Wesentlichen aus zwei Teilen: der Synopse und einem empirischen Teil. In der Synopse werden die Befunde aus dem empirischen Teil zusammengefasst und mit der bisherigen Forschungsliteratur in Zusammenhang gesetzt. Im empirischen Teil werden alle Studien, die für diese Dissertation durchgeführt wurden, in Paper-Format berichtet. Im ersten Teil der Synopse werden grundlegende Annahmen der Terror Management Theorie (TMT) dargelegt—mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf die Mortalitätssalienz (MS)-Hypothese, die besagt, dass die Konfrontation mit der eigenen Sterblichkeit die Motivation erhöht das eigene Weltbild zu verteidigen und nach Selbstwert zu streben. In diesem Kontext wird auch die zentrale Rolle von Gruppen erklärt. Basierend auf diesen beiden Reaktionen, wird TMT Literatur angeführt, die sich auf bestimmte kulturelle Werte und soziale Normen bezieht (wie prosoziale und pro-Umwelt Normen, materialistische und religiöse Werte, dem Wert der Ehrlichkeit, die Norm der Reziprozität und deskriptive Normen). Darüber hinaus werden Randbedingungen, wie Gruppenmitgliedschaft und Norm-Salienz, diskutiert. Zuletzt folgt eine Diskussion über die Rolle von Gruppen, der Funktion des Selbstwerts und über Perspektiven einer friedlichen Koexistenz. Der empirische Teil enthält elf Studien, die in acht Papern berichtet werden. Das erste Paper behandelt die Rolle von Gruppenmitgliedschaft unter MS, wenn es um die Bewertung von anderen geht. Das zweite Manuskript geht der Idee nach, dass Dominanz über andere für Sadisten eine mögliche Quelle für Selbstwert ist und daher unter MS verstärkt ausgeübt wird. Das dritte Paper untersucht prosoziales Verhalten in einer Face-to-Face Interaktion. Im vierten Paper wird gezeigt, dass Personen (z.B. Edward Snowden), die im Namen der Wahrheit handeln, unter MS positiver bewertet werden. Im fünften Paper zeigen zwei Studien, dass MS dazu führt, dass mögliche gelogene Aussagen kritischer beurteilt werden. Das sechste Paper zeigt, dass der Norm der Reziprozität unter MS stärker zugestimmt wird. Das siebte Paper geht der Frage nach, inwiefern MS das Einhalten dieser Norm beeinflusst. Und schließlich wird im achten Paper gezeigt, dass MS die Effektivität der Door-in-the-Face Technik erhöht—eine Technik, die auf der Norm der Reziprozität basiert.
Article
Consent to perform a small favor increases a respondent's susceptibility to perform a relatively large favor. This phenomenon, known as the foot-in-the-door effect, is considered to result from induced self-perception changes: the respondent comes to feel helpful for doing the small favor and complies again later out of a desire to maintain the instilled self-view. This study did not find a link between self-perception changes and large-request compliance in 2 experiments, although manipulations successfully altered self-rated helpfulness. Specifically, self-rated helpfulness increased (in Experiments 1 & 2) if participants' consent to a small favor brought social approval, and the ratings decreased (in Experiment 2) when social feedback for the small favor contained consensus information (i.e., indicated everyone else was also doing the favor). However, the ratings failed to predict either foot-in-the-door effects actually observed or compliance generally. Preexperimental gender differences in self-perceived helpfulness, in which women construed themselves to be more helpful than men, did successfully predict compliance with the large request. Implications for a theory of foot-in-the-door are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Si les pouvoirs publics ont en charge la gestion des déchets ménagers, la réussite de la politique de revalorisation repose sur l'adoption par chacun des pratiques domestiques adaptées. L'enjeu pour les institutions concernées est alors que le plus grand nombre participe au dispositif de tri mis en place. Pour ce, les collectivités territoriales multiplient les communications à destination de leurs administrés. Ces opérations d'information et de sensibilisation revêtent le plus souvent la forme d'une éducation au geste juste, ne favorisant pas la responsabilisation du citoyen. Par ailleurs, elles sont de forme persuasive et reposent sur l'hypothèse d'un homme rationnel qui agirait en fonction de ses idées, savoirs et croyances. Les liens entre attitudes et comportements sont aussi complexes que discutés ; de nombreuses études et arguments plaident en faveur d'un homme rationalisant. La psychologie de l'engagement s'inscrit dans ce paradigme et préconise la réalisation « libre » d'un comportement comme le meilleur prédicteur des comportements et attitudes futurs. Autrement dit, elle préconise l'obtention d'un acte préparatoire dans l'objectif d'obtenir de l'individu qu'il réalise à la suite le comportement attendu. Nous expérimenterons ici différentes techniques d'influence issues de ce paradigme. Des observations réalisées en marge de ces expériences nous conduiront à reconsidérer le modèle d'une influence unilatérale proposé par cette théorie. Aussi, en appréhendant les phénomènes d'influence dans leur complexité, nous développerons des modalités de communication participative au sein desquelles le sujet sera appelé à devenir acteur et l'administré à devenir citoyen
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Examined the independent and combined effects of the foot-in-the-door (FITD) and pregiving compliance techniques as part of a door-to-door fundraising effort on behalf of a local AIDS organization. Each of 845 Ss was solicited at home with 1 of 5 message strategies. Control Ss were simply asked to make a donation. FITD Ss were asked to sign a petition before receiving the critical request. Pregiving Ss were given a brochure before being asked for a donation. The other 2 conditions were FITD/pregiving and pregiving/FITD. Results indicate that FITD and pregiving, as well as FITD/pregiving, were more profitable than the other conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA )
Article
Two versions of the legitimization-of-paltry-contributions technique (Cialdini & Schroeder, 1976) were compared with respect to their effectiveness in generating compliance with requests for charitable donations. When immediate, on-the-spot donations were requested, the technique significantly increased compliance rates relative to control conditions; but when the respondents were asked to mail in their contributions, virtually none did. The results offered some support for an image-maintenance explanation of the technique and were viewed as indicating that the effectiveness of the technique is reliable, but primarily under conditions that impose a high degree of situational constraint upon respondents. Implications of the results for door-to-door fundraising and for future research were discussed.
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The issue of why individuals choose to support charity has been the focus of considerable research in the disciplines of economics, psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology and more recently, management and marketing. This paper draws together extant work, developing a content model of giving behavior that fundraisers may use to inform their professional practice. A number of specific propositions are developed from the literature to assist in this goal. The paper provides summary tables of existing empirical studies categorized by the dimensions of the model, explores ambiguity in research findings, and concludes by highlighting opportunities for further research Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Pour comparer l'impact de trois techniques d'acquiescement sur l'incitation au comportement charitable, on a demandéà 409 personnes de verser $2 à l'American Cancer Society. Cette requête fut immédiatement présentée dans trois groupes contrôle et précédée dans neuf groupes expérimentaux d'une demande préliminaire correspondant à une procédure d'acquiescement à requête multiple. On a d'abord demandé aux sujets soumis à la technique “pied dans la porte” de répondre à un questionnaire composé 10, 35 ou 60 items. On sollicitait d'abord $10, 25 ou 50 de la part de ceux confrontés à la situation “porte dans la figure”; et $0,50, 1 ou 1,50 de la part des sujets “ras des pâquerettes”. Les résultats montrent que les méthodes $10 et 25 “porte dans la figure” furent les plus rentables. Les sujets contrôle et “ras des pâquerettes” donnèrent à peu près la même chose et les conditions “pied dans la porte” furent les moins productives. On discute, à partir de ces découvertes, de la valeur pratique et des inconvénients virtuels de l'application des techniques d'acquiescement à requête multiple pour stimuler le comportement charitable.
Article
The possibility that psychological compliance techniques might be applied to increase the effectiveness of direct-mail requests for charitable contributions is raised. Although there are few studies with direct bearing on this possibility, there is an extensive literature on compliance techniques in general and many studies on the effectiveness of such techniques when applied to verbal requests for contributions, most often in door-to-door campaigns. Research on the application of the foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, low-ball, and legitimization-of-small-donation techniques to verbal requests for charitable contributions is reviewed, and the relevance of these studies to potential direct-mail applications is explored. The few attempts to apply the legitimization of small contributions to the direct-mail mode, which have produced mixed results, are also reviewed and analyzed. It is suggested that successful application of compliance techniques to the direct-mail mode may depend on careful modifications of the techniques to calibrate them optimally to direct mail, and to the particular situations in which campaigns are to be undertaken. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel widmet sich den Mechanismen sozialen Einflusses, d. h., wie wir durch andere Menschen in unserem Denken und Handeln beeinflusst werden. Sozialer Einfluss liegt bereits vor, wenn sich allein durch die Anwesenheit anderer Personen unser Leistungsverhalten verändert, auch wenn jene uns gar nicht absichtlich beeinflussen wollen. Dies wird unter den Stichworten „soziale Erleichterung“ und „soziale Hemmung“ dargestellt. Ob andere Personen eine Mehr- oder Minderheitsmeinung uns gegenüber vertreten, wirkt ebenfalls als sozialer Einfluss (eine direkte Beeinflussungsabsicht kann, muss hier aber nicht vorliegen) und wird im Anschluss besprochen. Im letzten Teil des Kapitels geht es um den klassischen Fall sozialen Einflusses, den absichtlichen, taktisch klug eingefädelten Beeinflussungsversuch.
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“Even a penny will help!” is a donation solicitor's effort in legitimating paltry donations in hopes of gaining higher compliance. This study reexamined the effect of Legitimization of Paltry Donation (LPD) in combination with Social Proof (SP) strategy. Participants were given one of four donation soliciting messages: simple request (control), LPD, SP, and LPD/SP. Compliance rate and size were examined through both the survey experiment and the field experiment. The LPD/SP condition yielded the highest rate of compliance both in the survey and field studies, followed by the LPD condition, the SP condition, and the control condition. As for the donation amount, results were not consistent across the two studies. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
Article
Practitioners of the low-ball compliance procedure allow individuals to agree to a request and then raise the cost of agreement slightly. When successful, the tactic results in more compliance than a condition in which people are presented only with the higher price. A meta-analysis of published low-ball studies found that the procedure is a reliable and effective method for increasing compliance. The procedure appears to be most effective when participants state their initial agreement publicly and when the second request is only slightly more costly than the first. Three psychological processes are identified that may explain the low-ball effect—commitment to the action, commitment to the person, and self-presentation. It is likely that all three contribute to the effectiveness of low-ball manipulations.
Article
Cooling-off periods are universally employed in doorstep selling regimes. Paired with a right for consumers to withdraw from the contract, this legal instrument seeks to protect consumers against superior skilled and knowledgeable sellers thus restoring the balance of interests. According to prior literature, cooling-off periods also serve an economic function by moderating the abuse of market power, by mitigating problems of hidden characteristics, and by promoting consumer choice. If their drawbacks -- mainly the creation of consumer moral hazard and shifting of risk to the seller -- can be contained, cooling-off periods are hence supposed to yield efficiency gains. By thinking out of this box, the present paper showcases that cooling-off periods also establish the perverse incentive for the seller to increase consumer compliance to a level which outlasts the cooling-off period. I argue that inevitably occurring psychological factors and transaction costs from the cooling-off regime amplify each other, thus creating a hard-lock status-quo bias. Based on behavioural insights and transaction cost theory, I predict that an inefficiently high number of consumers will enter into a doorstep contract and that, at the same time, the number of cancelled contracts will be inefficiently low. Consequently, I propose to change the default inherent in current cooling-off regimes from presumed consent to presumed withdrawal in order to debias consumers' withdrawal decision.
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The study investigated the role of behavioral self image on philanthropic behaviour. One hundred (100) first-year students of psychology from a university in SouthEastern Nigeria participated in the study. Participants were within the age range of 17 and 28 years with a mean age of 22.5 years. One hypothesis was postulated and therefore tested for the study. The instrument for data collection was the self-description sheet devised by the researchers. The method of study is experimental, and it involves two-independent group design. Data analysis using ANOVA (f-test) indicate significant influence of self-image on philanthropic behaviour, F(1,99) – 37.052, P<.05. The results were discussed in terms of their relevance for fundraising. Thus, it was concluded that people donate more to charity when they are in negative mood, resulting from self-blame, probably as means of atonement.
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According to Howard’s proposal of chaining compliance techniques and based on the proximity of interpretation of their effects, this study aimed to test a combination of two paradigms: a door-in-the-face request that makes a high-cost request before the target request and the but-you-are-free request that adds an evocation of freedom to the request. Two experiments were conducted (N = 120 and 1,292) to promote donations to non-profit organizations. There were four conditions. Participants were approached according to the door-in-the-face procedure, to the but-you-are-free procedure, to a combination of both of them, or directly in a control condition. There was an increase of compliance rates in experimental conditions compared to the control condition and an increase in the average amount donated in the combination condition compared to the control condition in the second study. Results are discussed in terms of responsibility and guilt mechanisms, and future developments are proposed.
Book
All companies rely on committed and loyal employees to reach their goals. However, we know little about how exactly the mechanisms of leadership influence the job involvement of employees. This study focused on the established leadership model of lateral leadership by investigating the underlying forces of lateral leadership and developed a practical recommendation for its use. We empirically demonstrated which forces constitute the base of the lateral leadership model, how they interact with each other, and how much impact the forces have on the performance variables of job involvement and organisational commitment.
Chapter
There may be a natural reluctance to criticize non-profit organizations, as any attempt to do good for humanity is surely better than no attempt at all. However, ‘doing good poorly’ may undermine the public’s trust in a specific non-profit organization, and in the non-profit sector in general. Many circumstances, including inefficiency of operations, failure to achieve outcomes, and fraud, can lead to the public forming the opinion that a non-profit organization is not doing a good job. A failure to develop and maintain the public’s trust may lead to long-term difficulties for non-profit organizations to raise sufficient funds to support their work. In this chapter, the development of the public’s trust in non-profit organizations is discussed in terms of organizational ‘accountability’ and ‘efficiency’. The chapter discusses literature and describes research which offers suggestions on how non-profit organizations can build and maintain a trusting relationship with the public.
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Research on terror management theory has found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to activated social norms and values. Recently, research has shown that mortality salience also increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. Based on this, in the current paper we investigated the idea that mortality salience influences persuasion strategies that are based on the norm of reciprocity. We therefore assume that mortality salience should enhance compliance for a request when using the door-in-the-face technique—a persuasion strategy grounded in the norm of reciprocity. In a hypothetical scenario (Study 1), and in a field experiment (Study 2), applying the door-in-the-face technique enhanced compliance in the mortality salience condition compared to a control group.
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Meta-analyses were performed on research investigating the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. A total of 120 experimental groups were examined, as well as a subset of the research considered to be pure tests of the foot-in-the-door hypothesis. The statistical combinations were consistent in indicating that the phenomenon, although replicable, is weak and not nearly as robust as assumed. Nearly half of the studies either produced no effects or effects in the wrong direction. The common self-perception explanation was found to be imprecise in leading to clear predictions; nevertheless, data were presented that have implications for the theory. A number of potentially mediating variables were examined. New theorctical development and clarification of underlying proceses are needed.
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J. L. Freedman and S. C. Fraser (see record 1966-10825-001) demonstrated that an individual is more likely to comply with a large request for help if that person has previously agreed to an initial small request—a phenomenon they called the "foot-in-the-door" effect. In the present survey, studies that have sought to replicate the foot-in-the-door effect are reviewed. The adequacy of a self-perception explanation for the foot-in-the-door effect is assessed by examining (a) the importance of the size of the initial request; (b) the effect of noncompliance with the initial request; (c) the impact of salient external justifications for the initial act of compliance; (d) the impact of social labels of subsequent levels of compliance; and (e) attempts at actually measuring changes in self-perception. Alternative explanations of the foot-in-the-door effect are considered and rejected, and directions for future research are outlined. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experiments were conducted in a door-to-door charity drive context with 165 Ss to examine the effectiveness of a technique for solving the dilemma of small requests. In this predicament it has been observed that minimal requests, while serving to make a target person's compliance highly likely, also tend to produce low-level payoffs for the requester. A procedure was developed to avoid the dilemma by legitimizing, rather than requesting, the delivery of a minimal favor. It was predicted that a solicitor who implied that a very small favor was acceptable, but not necessarily desirable, would make it difficult for a target to decline to help and, at the same time, make it unlikely that the target would actually offer a low grade of assistance. In confirmation of this prediction, a door-to-door solicitor for charity was able to increase significantly the frequency of donations while leaving unaffected the size of the donations by adding the sentence, "Even a penny will help," to a standard request for funds. Exp II replicated this result and provided evidence for the legitimization-of-small-favors explanation of the effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 3 experiments to test the effectiveness of a rejection-then-moderation procedure for inducing compliance with a request for a favor. Ss were a total of 202 passersby on a university campus. All 3 experiments included a condition in which a requester first asked for an extreme favor (which was refused to him) and then for a smaller favor. In each instance, this procedure produced more compliance with the smaller favor than a procedure in which the requester asked solely for the smaller favor. Additional control conditions in each experiment support the hypothesis that the effect is mediated by a rule for reciprocation of concessions. Several advantages to the use of the rejection-then-moderation procedure for producing compliance are discussed. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the low-ball technique, a tactic often used by automobile sales dealers to produce compliance from customers, in a set of 3 experiments. In all 3 studies, a requester who induced Ss to make an initial decision to perform a target behavior and who then made performance of the behavior more costly obtained greater final compliance than a requester who informed Ss of the full costs of the target behavior from the outset. The low-ball phenomenon—that an active preliminary decision to take an action tends to persevere even after the costs of performing the action have been increased—was found to be reliable (Exp I), different from the foot-in-the-door effect (Exp II), and effective only when the preliminary decision was made with a high degree of choice (Exp III). In competition with 3 other conceptual explanations, a formulation based on the concept of commitment was seen to best account for the results. An ecologically derived strategy for the identification and investigation of research questions is discussed. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A field experiment was conducted to test the self-perception explanation of the "foot-in-the-door" phenomenon of increased compliance with a substantial request after prior compliance with a smaller demand. In this study, some subjects were first approached with a small request (answer 8 questions in a telephone survey) the size of which was virtually certain to guarantee compliance. Other subjects were first approached with a request sufficiently large to guarantee noncompliance (answer 50 questions). Subjects in both of these conditions were subsequently approached with a moderately sized request (30 questions sponsored by a different public service organization). As predicted by self-perception theory, subjects in the small-initial-request condition showed a higher rate of compliance to the second request (.519), whereas subjects in the large-initial-request condition showed a lower rate of compliance (.219) than subjects in the no-initial-request control condition (.333).
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A field experiment tested four separate procedures for influencing compliance to the second of two requests. Two factors--size of initial request and timing of the second request--were included in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Subjects were induced either to comply with a small initial request or to refuse a large initial request. They then received a moderate request either immediately (no delay) or 7--10 days later (delay). Compliance to the second request was the dependent measure. The results in the two delay conditions and the small-request--no delay condition supported a self-perception position in that the induction of one kind of behavior (compliance or noncompliance) carried over to affect subsequent behavior similarly. The large-request--no dealy condition supported a bargaining explanation, as initial refusal to comply led to an increase in subsequent compliance. Possible processes that could account for these results are discussed.
Article
The relative effectiveness of three influence strategies in gaining acceptance of a new service advocated by either a high or low credibility source was determined. Although the influence strategies did not differ in their overall effectiveness, the optimal strategy varied as a function of level of source credibility. These results were obtained in both personal selling and mass-media-like contexts. The theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
The effects of prior exposure to an initial request of small or moderate magnitude on later willingness to comply with a much larger request were examined. It was predicted that Ss exposed to a moderate initial request would be more likely to comply with the later, large, request than those exposed to only a small initial request, and that individuals in both of these groups would show a higher rate of compliance than those in a control condition who were contacted only once and immediately asked the large request. Contrary to these predictions, however, results indicated that only exposure to the small initial request was successful in increasing later compliance.
Article
Door-to-door solicitors contacted 371 people and asked for donations to the Leukemia Society of America. Solicitors were either of high strength (middle-aged and well-dressed females) or of low strength (college-aged and casually dressed females), either stood close or far from the door, and either approached the door alone or in pairs. Pairs of high strength solicitors elicited more donations than low strength pairs or single solicitors, while distance had no effect. The results provide some support for social impact theory and have implications for better collection techniques and for our conceptions of generosity and altruism.
Article
A total of 154 randomly chosen faculty members at a large public university served as subjects in a study of compliance by professors to students' request for help. The door-in-the-face technique (large initial request, followed by a moderate request) elicited significantly more compliance than the foot-in-the-door technique (small initial request, followed by a moderate request) and the control technique (moderate request only). The foot-in-the-door technique was significantly less effective than the control technique. The results were viewed conceptually and pragmatically.
Article
Approximately 3000 male and female pedestrians (mostly college students) were solicited for a donation to a charitable organization. Three male and three female undergraduates served as solicitors and made either a direct, face-to-face appeal or a less direct, impersonal appeal. As hypothesized, the direct appeal was more successful than the impersonal appeal. Also, donors receiving the direct appeal gave larger amounts when the traffic was comparatively light, but the proportion giving was unaffected by traffic density. The sex of the solicitor made a difference only with the impersonal appeal. Females may be viewed as more trustworthy in situations in which suspicion of the genuineness of the request is most relevant; face-to-face requests of a relatively nonsuspicious kind may appear equally trustworthy whether made by male or female solicitors.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Notes that the most commonly accepted explanation for the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is the self-perception explanation which holds that once a person has complied with a small initial request, his self-perception alters so that he begins to view himself as a complying individual who is more likely to comply subsequently with a larger request. The present study, with 112 randomly chosen adults, varied 4 sizes of the first request and found that only large initial requests produced more subsequent compliance than a no-first-request condition. Results are interpreted to mean that for the foot-in-the-door technique to succeed, the first request must be of sufficient size to commit the individual to further compliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The applicability of the door-in-the-face technique was tested in a monetary donation context where established behavioral standards exist, and where the target person has standards by which to judge the legitimacy of the solicitor's demand. Based on the proposition that exaggerated initial requests might discredit the solicitor and thereby halt the give-and-take process, it was expected that (a) with legitimate initial requests, the probability of compliance with a request would be greater when preceded by a larger request than if presented alone; and that (b) with illegitimate initial requests, the probability of compliance with a second request would be smaller when preceded by a larger request than if presented alone. On the national collection day for the Association for the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Handicapped, 400 subjects were asked to contribute IL 10, 15, or 20. In the experimental groups, these amounts were preceded with requests for larger sums which were judged previously by a pretest to be considered legitimate or illegitimate. In the control groups, subjects were asked to contribute the same amounts, but no larger amounts were first requested. The replicability of the door-in-the-face technique has been proven with requests for which established customs exist. However, the technique was only effective with legitimate initial requests. With initial requests that were previously judged as unreasonable, the technique had a “boomerang effect” and suppressed compliance.
Article
A replication of the Freedman and Fraser (1966) “foot-in-the-door” technique was attempted in which subjects were exposed to one of two prior requests and were then asked to comply with a larger request. The results showed that subjects receiving prior requests complied with the larger request significantly more often than did control subjects. The mechanism by which the technique operates was discussed.
Article
The effects of three compliance techniques were examined. None elicited more returns than did a conventional mailed questionnaire.
Article
The rejection-then-retreat technique for inducing compliance involves a sequencing of requests for favors in which a requester begins by asking a target person for an extreme favor and, after being refused, retreats to a smaller favor (the one that was desired from the outset). Previous research has suggested that the power of this technique derives from the target's perception that a requester who employs it has made a concession and from the action of a societal rule for reciprocation of concessions. On the basis of evidence on the consequences of the perception of concession in an interaction, it was predicted that the rejection-then-retreat procedure would be superior to comparison procedures that did not involve a concession. This was found to be the case for verbal compliance, behavior compliance, and compliance with requests for subsequent favors. 189 Ss on a university campus were approached on campus with requests to donate blood. 100% of Ss refused to donate blood every 2 mo for a period of 3 yrs, but 84% of them agreed to comply with the subsequent critical request to donate 1 pint of blood.
Article
2 experiments were conducted to test the proposition that once someone has agreed to a small request he is more likely to comply with a larger request. Exp. I demonstrated this effect when the same person made both requests; Exp. II extended this to the situation in which different people made the 2 requests. Several experimental groups were run in an effort to explain these results, and possible explanations are discussed.
Article
3 EXPERIMENTS WERE ADDRESSED TO THE EFFECTS OF ALTRUISTIC MODELS UPON HELPING, WHILE 1 WAS CONCERNED WITH THE IMPACT OF THE SOLICITOR'S RACE UPON DONATIONS. 3 INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYED AS A SITE PARKING LOTS OF 2 LARGE DEPARTMENT STORES AND INDEXED HELPING BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SALVATION ARMY. EXP. IV INDEXED HELPING BY OFFERS OF AID BY PASSING MOTORISTS TO A WOMAN WITH A DISABLED VEHICLE. RESULTS WERE CONSISTENT. THE PRESENCE OF A HELPING MODEL SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED HELPING BEHAVIOR. AS RACE OF THE SALVATION ARMY SOLICITOR AFFECTED THE PERCENTAGE OF DONORS WILLING TO CONTRIBUTE MONEY, IT IS CONCLUDED THAT INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION IS A RELEVANT VARIABLE AFFECTING DONATIONS. (23 REF.)
A shill for charity Altruism and Helping Behavior
  • J Macaulay
Macaulay, J. (1970). A shill for charity. In J. Maccaulay and L. Berkowitz, Altruism and Helping Behavior. New York: Academic Press.
An examination of the self-perception mediation of the foot-in-the-door effect Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique
  • W Dejong
  • J Freedman
  • S Fraser
DeJong, W. (1979). An examination of the self-perception mediation of the foot-in-the-door effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychologv, 37, Freedman, J., & Fraser, S. (1966). Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 195-202.
The applicability of the door-in-the-face technique when established behavioral customs exist Relationship between compliance in the foot-in-the-door paradigm and size of the first request
  • J Schwartzwald
  • M Rax
  • M Zvibel
  • Brownstein And Katzev
  • C Seligman
  • M Bush
  • K Kirsch
Schwartzwald, J., Rax, M., & Zvibel, M. (1979). The applicability of the door-in-the-face technique when established behavioral customs exist. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9,576-586. 774-782. 2221-2239. BROWNSTEIN AND KATZEV Seligman, C., Bush, M., & Kirsch, K. (1976). Relationship between compliance in the foot-in-the-door paradigm and size of the first request. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 5 17-520.
Effects of initial request size and timing of a second request on compliance: The foot-in-the-door and the door-in-the-face Test of a concession procedure for in-ducing verbal, behavioral and further compliance with the request to give blood
  • A Cann
  • S J Sherman
  • R Elkes
Cann, A., Sherman, S. J., & Elkes, R. (1975). Effects of initial request size and timing of a second request on compliance: The foot-in-the-door and the door-in-the-face. Journal of Personality and Social Psychologv, 32, Cialdini, R. B., & Ascani, K. (1976). Test of a concession procedure for in-ducing verbal, behavioral and further compliance with the request to give blood. Journal ofApplied Psychology, 61,295-300.