Article

The efficacy of ingredients included in shrimp feeds to stimulate intake

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Abstract

The inclusion in feed formulations of ingredients that act as attractants and feeding incitants or stimulants has been proposed as a means of increasing feed consumption, and hence growth, of farmed shrimp. Squid, crustacean and krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates and a betaine product (Finnstim) were examined to assess their relative effectiveness in increasing the feed intake of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These presumed feeding effectors were added to a base feed at between 5 and 50 g kg−1. Given a choice between the base feed and one containing one of the test ingredients, P. monodon showed a significantly greater preference for the feeds containing crustacean or krill meal. Four of the presumed feeding effectors were further evaluated in a growth response experiment. There was no significant difference in the amount the shrimp consumed of any of the feeds. However, the growth rate of the shrimp was about 20% faster on the feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal. Although ingredients such as crustacean meal or krill meal can improve feed intake, in practical feed formulations that contain significant amounts of terrestrial protein but relatively low levels of marine ingredients, there does not appear to be need for additional feeding effectors. However, crustacean meal and krill meal do provide a significant nutritional benefit, as seen by the improved growth rates in this study.

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... Decapod crustaceans are slow feeder. Delay in feed detection by the animal will lead to nutrient loss from the feed and contribute to high feed conversion ratio (Mendoza et al., 1997;Smith et al., 2005). On top of that, plant proteins are commonly used to replace fishmeal protein in the aquafeed for crustaceans (Malcorps et al., 2019;Mente, 2006;Nunes et al., 2019;Tantikitti, 2014). ...
... crabs, feeding behaviour, food location, ingestion, lobsters, Shrimps food for ingestion (Kamio & Derby, 2017;Smith et al., 2005), dietary inclusion of chemoattractant and feeding stimulant hence can be practised to solve these feeding problems in crustacean farming (Mendoza et al., 1997). ...
... Chemoattractant (CA) is the substance that can trigger responses of searching and locating food, while feeding stimulant (FS) is that which can stimulate food ingestion in crustaceans (both of them are also broadly known as the feeding effectors) (Smith et al., 2005). Previous studies have reported on the utilization of marineand terrestrial animal-based ingredients as an effective CA or/and FS in decapod crustaceans farming (e.g. ...
Article
The aquaculture of decapod crustaceans is expanding continuously to supply protein source for human consumption. Therefore, intensive research is necessary to improve the quality of the feeds in decapod crustacean farming. Decapod crustaceans are slow feeders, and dietary inclusion of plant proteins reduces their intakes on the feeds. Dietary supplementation of chemoattractants (CA) (to reduce food searching duration) and feeding stimulants (FS) (to stimulate ingestion) is therefore necessary to solve these problems respectively. Amino acids are commonly used as the CA and FS in aquaculture, and the feeding response of aquatic animals to amino acids is species-specific. As the chemosensory systems of decapod crustaceans are complicated, and their feeding responses are different from fish, it is essential to understand which amino acids can function as the CA, FS or both to the targeted farmed species. This review provides an overview on the acceptance of some commercially farmed decapod crustaceans to amino acids. Topics related to the efficiency of amino acids being a CA and FS were discussed, and recommendations on how to present amino acids as a CA and FS efficiently in decapod crustacean farming were also made.
... The authors found that shrimp growth increased curvilinearly from 0.95% per day in a basal diet to 1.66% and 1.68% in diets that contained 15% shrimp head meal (SHM) and 15% whole-dried krill meal (KRM). Similarly, Smith et al. (2005) reported that juvenile tiger shrimp grew about 20% faster on feeds containing crustacean meal or KRM. In the whiteleg shrimp, L. vannamei, Córdova-Murueta and García-Carreño (2002) found that a krill hydrolysate enhanced shrimp growth, when it replaced 3, 5, and 15% of the total dietary crude protein (CP) of a commercial feed. ...
... Marine chemoattractants selected for this study were chosen based on previous studies, where they have shown their ability to elicit a positive feeding response in marine shrimp (P. monodon, Cruz-Suárez et al. 1987;Fox, Blow, Brown, & Watson, 1994;Aquacop and Cuzon, 1989;Smith et al., 2005;Williams et al., 2005;L. vannamei, Cruz-Suárez et al. 1987;Córdova-Murueta & García-Carreño, 2002;Nunes et al., 2006;L. ...
... The diet with 3% KRM remained the most effective in the increase of shrimp final BW and yield and in the reduction of FCR in L. vannamei. The ability of KRM in stimulating feed ingestion and growth performance in penaeid shrimp is corroborated by other studies conducted with both P. monodon and L. vannamei (Sá et al., 2013;Sabry-Neto et al., 2017;Smith et al., 2005;Williams et al., 2005). However, there was scarce information with regard to its performance relative to other marine raw materials with stimulatory feeding properties. ...
Article
This study compared the feed preference and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to chemoattractants. A diet with 3% fishmeal was supplemented with either 3% salmon meal (POS), 3% soy protein concentrate (NEG), 3% krill meal (KRM), 3% squid meal (SQM), 3% shrimp head meal (SHM), 3% shrimp meal (SM), 3% squid liver meal (SLM), or 5% liquid sardine hydrolysate (SAH). Shrimp with a body weight (BW) of 0.99 ± 0.08 g were stocked at 100 animals/m2 in 56 tanks of 1 m3 and fed 10 times daily for 74 days. Feed preference was evaluated by feeding shrimp of 10.87 ± 1.82 g in excess twice a day for 10 days in two separate feeding trays allocated in 50 tanks of 0.5 m3. Survival reached 93.3 ± 5.80% and was unaffected by supplementation. Final BW was the highest for shrimp fed the KRM‐supplemented diet (11.97 ± 0.93 g), followed by POS (11.11 ± 0.77 g) and SQM (11.01 ± 1.17 g). Diets SHM, SM, SLM, and NEG showed a lower shrimp BW than POS, but were not statistically different among them. Shrimp fed the SAH diet achieved the lowest BW (10.06 ± 1.02 g). The highest gained yield was obtained with diets KRM and POS. No statistical difference was observed in shrimp yield among other diets. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was achieved with shrimp fed KRM (1.31 ± 0.05) when compared to diets SHM (1.47 ± 0.05), SAH (1.47 ± 0.07), and SLM (1.45 ± 0.17). Two‐by‐two comparisons indicated that shrimp preferred SHM and KRM, except when these were compared to SQM and SLM. No difference in feed preference was found between diets with SQM and SLM. SAH was the least preferred raw material in all comparisons. Results indicated that KRM acts as a powerful feeding effector and growth enhancer in fishmeal‐challenged diets for whiteleg shrimp. A dietary supplementation with 3% KRM is more effective than the same dose of any other chemoattractant evaluated.
... Ingredients of animal origin, especially aquatic organisms, are feeding attractants in shrimp (Smith et al., 2005) because they are rich in small soluble chemical compounds such as certain amino acids, nucleotides and some organic acids. Each of these has been identified as a feeding stimulant and palatability enhancer. ...
... Each of these has been identified as a feeding stimulant and palatability enhancer. Many studies have reported that fish meal, fish protein hydrolysate, squid meal and casein serve as attractants and improve feed intake of shrimp when incorporated into the feed at optimal levels (Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Grey et al., 2009;Bankefors et al., 2011;Tantikitti, 2014;Montoya-Martínez et al., 2018). Under the experimental conditions in our study, feed intake rate significantly increased when 3% of each test protein ingredients (FM, FPH, SqM or CN) was added to the bland control feed. ...
... Therefore, rapid and inexpensive testing of a wide range of potential protein ingredients, or other phagostimulants, is possible. Unlike feed tests incorporate an ingredient or stimuli into a complete feed composed of a number of other ingredients (Smith et al., 2005;Suresh et al., 2011), our assay incorporated ingredients into a bland feed, which minimized influences from other feed ingredients that may contain compounds that could potentially confound the feeding response. ...
Article
A simple bioassay that quantifies feed intake as an estimation of relative attractability of feeds containing different ingredients in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is described. Fish meal (FM), fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), squid meal (SqM) and casein (CN) were assessed at the same dietary level for their relative influence on feed intake rates of Litopenaeus vannamei. A bland diet containing 92% whole wheat grain meal, 6% diatomaceous earth and 2% alginate with a known low attractability was used as the standard control or base diet. Ingredients were added to the bland base control diet at a level of 3% as fed. Shrimp were stocked into 80 L glass tanks (n = 20 per tank) in a recirculating aquaculture system. Tanks were randomly assigned to one of five diet treatments (3 tanks/treatment). Experiments measuring the attractability of each feed were conducted twice daily at 0900 h and 1330 h over a five day period. For each experiment, 40 feed pellets (ca. 1 g) corresponding to the assigned treatment were provided to each tank. To calculate the rate of feed intake, pellets remaining in each tank were counted at six minute intervals for a seventy-two minute period. Differences in rate of feed intake among diets were evaluated using Cox Regression Analysis. This attractability assay required only small amounts of ingredients and incorporated ingredients into a bland feed, which significantly reduces the influence from other ingredients or compound in the pellets. All of the test protein ingredients, especially SqM, in the feeds significantly increased the feed intake rate. The diet containing SqM was consumed at a significantly higher rate than those containing casein and FM but not FPH. FPH and CN containing diets were not significantly different but consumed at a higher rate than the diet containing FM. Results of these trials indicate that the presence of certain ingredients can increase feed intake, thereby increasing nutrient availability of the diets. This reported method to determine feed intake of diets containing certain ingredients may be considered as a valid method to estimate attractability for shrimp in culture.
... Responses to feeding effectors (term suggested by Smith et al. (2005), for chemoattractants, starters and stimulators) either natural, purified or synthetic compounds have been widely studied on marine shrimp because of its relevance in the understanding of feeding behavior of these crustaceans (Huang et al., 2005;Sánchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Ali et al., 2007;Grey et al., 2009). Chemoreceptors in crustaceans in general are sensitive to low molecular weight water soluble chemicals such as: aminoacids, ammonia quaternary compounds, nucleo-tides and biogenic amines (Lee & Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al., 2006). ...
... Responses to feeding effectors (term suggested by Smith et al. (2005), for chemoattractants, starters and stimulators) either natural, purified or synthetic compounds have been widely studied on marine shrimp because of its relevance in the understanding of feeding behavior of these crustaceans (Huang et al., 2005;Sánchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Ali et al., 2007;Grey et al., 2009). Chemoreceptors in crustaceans in general are sensitive to low molecular weight water soluble chemicals such as: aminoacids, ammonia quaternary compounds, nucleo-tides and biogenic amines (Lee & Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al., 2006). ...
... Chemoreceptors in crustaceans in general are sensitive to low molecular weight water soluble chemicals such as: aminoacids, ammonia quaternary compounds, nucleo-tides and biogenic amines (Lee & Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al., 2006). It is known that ingredients of aquatic animal origin (such as soluble meals of mollusks and crustaceans), are rich in these compounds and therefore, they act as excellent attractants (Smith et al., 2005;Ali et al., 2007). In the other hand, non-aquatic animal sub-product meals such as: poultry sub-products meals and blood meal show lower levels of those compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work evaluates the attractant and palatable potential of six ingredients of animal origin in longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles in a Y type maze system. Ingredients were pelletized for the first bioassay and included in neutral gelatin (in wet base) in the second bioassay. The ingredient to evaluate was placed in one of the Y-maze arms, allowing the free movement of prawn for 15 min. On both bioassays, attractability was evaluated by quantifying the time required for the first prawn to enter the region where the feed was found and the total of prawns which entered that region. In the second bioassay, also evaluated the palatability quantifying the time for the first prawn to have contact with the ingredient, the total of prawns which had contact with it and the time they remained feeding. No significant differences were obtained between treatments in the first bioassay. Significant differences were found in the second bioassay showing that pork meal, fish meal, feather meal and shrimp meal have greater attractability due to the number of prawns attracted, results also show significant differences in palatability, where fishmeal, shrimp meal and pork meal stimulating a higher number of organisms and promoting a longer consumption time.
... In recent years, substantial effort has been allocated to replace fish meal by plant protein sources in shrimp feeds, such as the widely available and cost-effective soybean meal (Samocha et al., 2004;Smith et al., 2005;Amaya et al., 2007ab;Roy et al., 2009;Sookying et al., 2013;Tantikitti, 2014;Galkanda-Arachchige et al., 2019;Guo et al., 2020). Soybean meal is considered an adequate ingredient in shrimp diets due to its high protein content, good digestibility and well-balanced amino acid profile, albeit it also has low methionine level (Davis and Arnold, 2000;Amaya et al., 2007aAmaya et al., , 2007bSookying et al., 2013;Tantikitti, 2014;Zhou et al., 2015;Guo et al., 2020;. ...
... The latest results of soybean-based diets on shrimp growth performance are promising both under in-laboratory Roy et al., 2009;Sookying and Davis, 2012;Zhou et al., 2015;Galkanda-Arachchige et al., 2019;Guo et al., 2020) and ponds systems (Roy et al., 2009;Sookying and Davis, 2012;Jescovitch et al., 2018;Ullman et al., 2019a;Ullman et al., 2019b;Reis et al., 2020). However, the addition of feeding effectors (chemoattractants, feeding incitants and stimulants) in diets with high percentage of plant material has been suggested to improve feed detection and consumption by stimulating shrimp chemosensory systems (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016). Such stimulation can also contribute to the minimalization of leaching of nutrients and feed waste caused by the intensive food manipulation and selective feeding behavior of shrimp (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Sanchez et al., 2005). ...
... The enhancement of desirable chemosensory characteristics of soybean-based shrimp diets has been attained by adding low percentages of ingredients (1 to 6% of meals, oils and hydrolysates) derived from aquatic animals, such as of krill, squid and fish (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Smith et al., 2005;Grey et al., 2009;Derby et al., 2016). These ingredients are rich in chemical signal compounds, particularly amino acids and nucleotides, that are readily detectable by the chemosensory systems of crustaceans (Derby and Sorensen, 2008;Suresh et al., 2011). ...
Article
The inclusion of feeding effectors in plant-based diets is a strategy to accelerate feed detection and consumption by shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of krill meal (KM), krill oil (KO) and fish hydrolysate (FH) addition to a soybean-based diet on feeding behavior and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ten diets (360 g/kg crude protein) were formulated including FH, KM and KO at 0, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg levels named as: Basal (0); FH10 (10 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH20 (20 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH40 (40 g/kg fish hydrolysate); KM1 (10 g/kg krill meal), KM20 (20 g/kg krill meal), KM40 (40 g/kg krill meal); KO10 (10 g/kg krill oil), KO20 (20 g/kg krill oil) and KO40 (40 g/kg krill oil). A growth trial was performed using twenty shrimp (0.15 ± 0.01 g) stocked per 100 L glass aquaria (four replicates/diet) in an indoor clear water recirculation system (4.2 ppt, 28 °C). Animals were fed the experimental diets four times a day for six weeks. At the end of the trial all animals were counted and weighted. Following, 300 animals (3.93 ± 0.35 g) were aleatory selected and transferred back to the system (10 shrimp/aquaria). Three replicates were used per treatment (ten diets) for feed intake and acoustic feeding behavior analysis. The food consumption and feeding activity sounds were recorded simultaneously in 30 min intervals during five consecutive days. All feeding effectors at the inclusion levels tested significantly increased L. vannamei food consumption and the passive acoustic monitoring indicated that shrimp ate faster and for longer periods of time. Food consumption was significantly higher in the treatments KM20, KM40 and KO40. The addition of feeding effectors also enhanced shrimp growth performance and significantly better values of biomass, final weight, and food conversion ratio were observed in the treatment KM40. Weight gain (%) was significantly improved only in shrimp offered KM40, KO20 and KO40 diets. It is concluded that KM, KO and FH can stimulate food consumption of soy-based diet by L. vannamei from 10 g/kg addition while the amount of food consumed and growth has been shown to be in general dose-related, although in a different way, for each type of feeding effector.
... The efficacy of krill meal, other animal meals, or other chemicals as chemostimulatory additives is often evaluated using growth rate as a measure (e.g. Harpaz, 1997;Felix and Sudharsan, 2004;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2011;Suresh et al., 2011). However, this metric does not allow parsing out the underlying mechanisms, such as enhancement of consumption or direct nutritional effects due to the quality of ingested protein or other nutrients, which is important in designing better additives. ...
... They might improve attractability by stimulating appetitive phases of behavior, such as arousal, search initiation, and locating the food. They also might improve palatability and thus affect the consummatory phase, thereby enhancing ingestion (Holland and Borski, 1993;Lee and Meyers, 1997;Samocha et al., 2004;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Suresh et al., 2011). Studies on effects of feed additives on ingestion have largely focused on end-of-experiment outcomes for groups of animals, such as total amount of food eaten by a group, and usually have not included behavioral observations of individual animals and quantification of their ingestive behavior over a feeding trial, such as changes in their handling of food and changes in their rate of consumption over feeding bouts. ...
... Previous work investigated the use of marine animal additives to improve the performance of feed pellets high in plant material in the commercial aquaculture of shrimp. These studies showed that marine animal additives can improve feed performance by two means, both of which can lead to faster growth: i) enhancing attractability by stimulating appetitive phases of behavior such as arousal, search initiation, and locating the food; and ii) enhancing palatability and thus increased consumption (Holland and Borski, 1993;Lee and Meyers, 1997;Samocha et al., 2004;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al., 2011). Our study demonstrated these effects as well, but went further by identifying the mechanisms underlying the enhanced attractability and palatability. ...
... Either freeze-dried hydrolysate meals or extracts of natural organisms like squid, scallop, krill, worms, or mussel could be viewed as attractants to enhance dietary palatability (Akiyama et al., 1984;Hartati and Briggs, 1993;Hernández et al., 2011;Kader et al., 2012;Nagel et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2005). A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that fish hydrolysate can be used as protein supplements, attractants and palatability enhancers in aquatic animal feeds (Aksnes et al., 2006;Anggawati et al., 1990;Bui et al., 2014;Hernández et al., Aquaculture 465 (2016) ...
... Hence, it has been recommended that research into the area of attractants and palatability enhancers or supplements to enhance growth performance in plant-based diets should receive more attention in future years (Browdy et al., 2007;Gatlin and Li, 2008). Marine feedstuffs including fish meal, fish oil, squid meal, krill meal, fish soluble, and various protein hydrolysates are well known to be highly palatable to various aquatic animals (Barrows and Hardy, 2000;Carr and Derby, 1986;Derby et al., 2016;Harpaz, 1997;Holland and Borski, 1993;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Suresh et al., 2011). In fish, several previous studies have demonstrated the protein hydrolysates from byproducts of marine sources would provide the beneficial effects in Goldfish Carassius auratus L. (Szlaminska et al., 1991), Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Carvalho et al., 1997), Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Infante et al., 1997). ...
... Likewise, results of Trial 3 (Table 8) confirmed that there are no significant differences regarding growth performance with the similar basal diet supplemented with 6% Squ or squid meal. Protein hydrolysates as an attractant in crustacean have been assessed with ambiguous or marginal results: improvements in growth in Pacific white shrimp (Anggawati et al., 1990;Córdova-Murueta and Garcıá-Carreño, 2002;Floreto et al., 2001;Hernández et al., 2011) or giant tiger prawn P. monodon, (Anggawati et al., 1990), while no significant effect of growth were observed in giant tiger prawn (Hartati and Briggs, 1993;Smith et al., 2005). This phenomenon is attributed to many factors such as the supplemental level, variation of quality for protein hydrolysates (different amino acids profile etc.), the different diet formulation (re-pelleted commercial feed, practical diet, or semi-purified diets), and different rearing period and conditions as well as different species. ...
... Among different feeding effectors commercially used in shrimp feeds (betaine, hydrolysates, squid and crustaceans), crustacean and krill meal are the most efficient drivers of feed intake in tiger shrimp (Smith et al. 2005). Moreover, krill meal increases the number of pellets eaten by whiteleg shrimp in a concentration-dependent manner by promoting longer, rather than faster consumption (Derby et al. 2016). ...
... The growth-enhancing activity is partly explained by the supply of inorganic elements and nutrient balance having positive influence on feed intake. A growth factor is present in the insoluble protein portion in crustacean-derived ingredients (Smith et al. 2005, Williams et al. 2005). Juvenile tiger shrimp grow 20 percent faster on feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal (Smith et al. 2005), while growth of shrimp increased from 0.58 g/wk with a basal diet to 1.22 g/wk with diets containing krill meal (Williams et al. 2005). ...
... A growth factor is present in the insoluble protein portion in crustacean-derived ingredients (Smith et al. 2005, Williams et al. 2005). Juvenile tiger shrimp grow 20 percent faster on feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal (Smith et al. 2005), while growth of shrimp increased from 0.58 g/wk with a basal diet to 1.22 g/wk with diets containing krill meal (Williams et al. 2005). Krill meal enhances culture performance of juvenile whiteleg shrimp fed a soy protein concentrate-based diet containing only 5 percent fishmeal (Sá et al. 2013). ...
Article
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In shrimp farming, increasing attention is given to Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) living in the Southern Ocean to improve yield and stress resistance without increasing production costs. Krill is a shrimp-like swarming pelagic crustacean, which is used as a feed additive in diet formulations, mainly in the form of a high-protein krill meal. Krill meal is a feed attractant and shrimp growth accelerator. Krill meal is a sustainable and pure alternative to fish meal consisting of around 11% omega-3 phospholipids. Shrimp inefficiently produce phospholipids and depend on dietary addition for building membranes, fat storage/transport and resisting to adverse growing conditions. Dietary phospholipids increase the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides and omega-3 fatty acids from the digestive tract to the hepatopancreas and over the hemolymph to tissues. The feed attractants in krill meal improve growth performance of shrimp fed normal, but also vegetable or poultry protein-rich diets and the omega-3 phospholipids may improve energy transport and stress sensitivity.
... Willams et al. (2005) reported that the growth rate of Penaeus monodon fed diets containing shrimp head meal and krill meal as a chemoattractant was 1.66 and 1.68% per day, respectively, while it was only 0.95% per day in the group fed a basal diet that did not contain any attractant. Similarly, about 20% faster growth was observed by Smith et al. (2005) when crustacean meal or krill meal was supplemented to same species compared to the control group. Suresh and Nates (2011) found increased attractability in Litopenaeus stylirostris reared with fishmeal challenged diet using 20% poultry-byproduct (w/w) with the supplementation of 3% squid liver meal and krill meal. ...
... This statement is in agreement with the findings of Hartati and Briggs (1993), who documented that betaine increased the attractiveness of casein-based, semi-purified diet of shrimp. The daily feed intake of shrimp reared with various chemoattractants is reported by Smith et al. (2005) (Table 4), who revealed that increasing the inclusion level of chemoattractants increased daily feed intake except squid meal, where the reverse trend was noticed. However, a positive response in feed intake was observed by Holland and Borski (1993) with squid meal in penaeid shrimp. ...
... But they become very effective when used with some other chemical stimulants particularly betaine, glycine and inosine. Polat (1999) reported that in addition to acting as a chemoattractant, these L-amino acids could be recognised as important energy source when supplemented Smith et al. (2005) with valine, serine, leucine and isoleucine in fish. Nunes et al. (2006) observed the superior effect of commercially available amino acid mix in attracting P. vannamei when compared with betaine, indicating that a blend of amino acids would be a better attractant than individual ones. ...
Article
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Aquaculture serves as a sustainable source of good quality wholesome food and major input is feed. In recent years, considerable quantities of plant sources have been attempted for inclusion in shrimp feed, due to high demand and high cost of fishmeal. Plant-based ingredients are in general poor in attractability and palatability to aquatic species compared to marine sources. It is desirable to develop an economical and nutritious feed that is attractive and palatable for ensuring reduction of feed wastage. Chemoattractants nowadays are unavoidable in commercial shrimp feeds and are included either individually or in combination. The present review revealed that the various marine sources, in particular krill meal would be more effective for aquatic species, compared to those derived from vegetable origin and chemical compounds. In addition to acting as a feed attractant, marine sources serve as a potential fishmeal substitute due to their rich nutritional composition. However, certain biogenic amines present in these marine-based ingredients need to be examined before their use, since these amines when present in high concentrations reduces feed intake by producing undesirable odour. Use of a combination of chemoattractants would give a better effect, rather than using them individually and compounds from plant origin have limited beneficial effects. The present review concludes that incorporation of chemoattractants would be beneficial in formulation of enriched and economical feeds with better attractability and palatability. The selection of suitable attractant and their supplementation at correct proportion is significantly more important to avoid undesirable effects in cultured shrimp. Further field-based research is needed to predict the actual effects of chemoattractants on farmed shrimp and to provide a sustainable base for the expansion of shrimp aquaculture sector, by reducing feed wastage.
... Other than feed water stability, feed with feeding attractant is also essential during feed formulation particularly in shrimp, as they can detect food easily just by their chemo-attractant senses located all over their body (Smith et al., 2005). Feeding attractant varies from chemical to natural, such as dimethyl sulphone (DMS), trimethyl amine oxide (TMO), trimethyl amine (TMA) and fish meat paste, clam meat paste, squid meat paste, respectively (Ali et al., 2007). ...
... These performances are due to the presence of protein-rich peptides, nucleotides, and nucleosides which act as feeding effectors for shrimp. All these small protein molecules in the formulated pellets demonstrated a huge impact in stimulating shrimp chemoreceptors (Smith et al., 2005). A study conducted Mohamad et al. / JIPK,13(2):279-287 each day and water was replaced by new filtered seawater to avoid any errors. ...
... Despite the high-protein contents in squid meal, the increased amount of squid oil also improved feeding attractants in L. vannamei. Previously, the inclusion of squid meal in feed diet increased the growth of shrimps due to high consumption of nutritive feeds (Smith et al., 2005). However, high inclusion of squid oil in the feed is not always improved shrimp attractants (Smith et al., 2005;Cordova-Murueta and Garcia-Carreno, 2002). ...
Article
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Highlight ResearchEffects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder on pellet water stability in shrimp diet.Evaluation of squid oil attractant on feed palatability.The quality of water after inclusion of CMC binder and squid oil in pellet.CMC and squid oil improved dry matter retention and feeding responses in shrimp. AbstractPellet water stability and feeding attractant are the crucial factors to be considered in the formulation of shrimp feed to minimize nutrient leaching and improve food palatability, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the binding effect of supplementation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) during pellet manufacturing, and feeding responses with the inclusion of squid oil in pellet. Both experiments were conducted separately in five feed formulations ranged from 0.00% to 3.00% of CMC and squid oil. All T0 was referred as control with no CMC or squid oil. Experiment was conducted using 30 shrimps/treatment with triplicates. The dry matter retention up to 120 min of immersion and the feeding response test were evaluated in pellet supplemented with CMC and squid oil, respectively. Results showed the percentage of dry matter retentions increased with the increase of CMC, over time. The CMC containing pellets at 2.00% and 3.00% had minimal disintegration in water and possessed high water stability after 120 min immersion. The addition of 3.00% squid oil in feed exhibited a significant result (p<0.05) in the time taken for shrimp to access the pellet, also increased the time starts for ingestion. No significant change was observed in water quality indicated no water contamination occurred throughout the study. Results demonstrated that the addition of CMC binder at 2.00% and 3.00% improved pellet water stability, whilst 3.00% squid oil was recommended to enhance feed palatability. However, future studies on the activity of enzymes in shrimp bodies after treatment would be an advantage.
... Estes resultados assemelham--se aos de Harpaz (1997), o qual registrou um aumento de 17% no ganho de peso de juvenis de Macrobrachium rosenbergii a partir da adição de 6 mL de uma solução de betaína--HCl (10 --3 M) introduzida nos tanques de cultivo. Smith et al. (2005), por sua vez, comprovaram que juvenis de Penaeus monodon apresentaram ganho de peso significativamente maior com rações que continham 5% de atrativos à base de farinha de crustáceos (23,01 %.semana --1 ) ou de krill (23,58 %.semana --1 ), em relação aos camarões alimentados com uma ração desprovida de atrativos. À semelhança, Córdova--Murueta & Garcia--Carreño (2002) registraram um aumento de 34% no ganho de peso semanal de juvenis L. vannamei quando estes tiveram sua ração suplementada com 3% de farinha de lula, e aumento de 31,5 e 33 %.semana --1 quando a ração foi aditivada com 9% de farinha de peixe e de krill, respectivamente. ...
... À semelhança dos resultados obtidos no presente estudo, Smith et al. (2005) demonstraram que o aumento do nível de inclusão de 1 para 5% de atrativos alimentares provenientes de farinha de crustáceos ou de krill numa ração composta principalmente por proteínas vegetais, provocava melhora no desempenho zootécnico de P. monodon. Contrariamente, Felix & Sudharsan (2004) concluíram que o aumento do nível de 0,5 para 1,5% de uma mistura entre o aminoácido glicina e betaína causava uma tendência a decréscimo no ganho de peso de juvenis M. rosenbergii; muito embora esses níveis exibissem um efeito positivo quando comparados a uma ração controle desprovida da mistura. ...
... Hartari & Briggs (1993) e Penaflorida & Virtanen (1996), por exemplo, constataram que a inclusão de níveis mais elevados de aditivos alimentares não resultava em aumento do consumo alimentar de juvenis de P. monodon, muito embora melhorasse o crescimento. Do mesmo modo, Smith et al. (2005) demonstraram que o aumento do nível de inclusão de estimulantes alimentares, constituído por farinha de lula, numa ração para juvenis de P. monodon, provocava um decréscimo no consumo alimentar e um aumento no peso dos animais. ...
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O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a utilização da biomassa de Artemia franciscana como aditivo alimentar no cultivo laboratorial do camarão marinho Litopenaeus schmitti. Durante 30 dias, os camarões (n=20) foram alimentados com ração comercial revestida com 3 diferentes níveis de biomassa de A. franciscana, correspondentes a 1, 3 e 5% da quantidade de ração ofertada. As variáveis temperatura, pH, salinidade, luminosidade, NH3 e NO2- da água foram monitoradas. Como critérios de avaliação foram determinados o ganho de peso absoluto (GPA), o ganho de peso relativo (GPR), a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR) e o consumo alimentar aparente (CAA) dos camarões. Adicionalmente, a estabilidade da ração física da ração e o teor de umidade da biomassa de A. franciscana foram aferidos. Os resultados relativos à estabilidade física da ração demonstraram que passadas 2 h de imersão, 80,9 ± 0,39% de seu conteúdo permaneceu íntegro. Por sua vez, o teste de umidade da biomassa indicou que 7,49 ± 0,19% de peso de A. franciscana representa a massa corpórea que revestiu as partículas de ração. Ao fim do experimento, o desempenho dos animais quanto ao GPA, GPR e TCR foi melhor nos tratamentos aditivados com maior percentual de biomassa. Já o CAA não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas (P >0,05) nos diferentes tratamentos. Os resultados desse estudo indicam que a adição de biomassa congelada de A. franciscana adulta à rações comerciais, em níveis correspondentes a 1, 3 e 5% da oferta diária de ração, aumenta o ganho de peso de juvenis de L. schmitti.
... Furthermore, the physical properties of food, such as palatability, particularly attracts decapods, thus affecting their feeding activity. Animal proteins that release certain amino acids generally attract decapods [41,42], although, in decapods, visual cues tend to predominate. ...
... This involves the mechanism of leaching amino acids from the feed during pellet immersion, which can be identified by the decapod through chemoreceptors. Tests on the inclusion of squid, crustacean and krill meal, fish and krill hydrolysates, and betaine product as feed effectors in the diet of giant tiger prawns revealed that the prawns showed a significant preference for feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal when more amino acid leachates were observed in the two attractants, which initiated the shrimp responses towards the feeds [42]. Similarly, experiments on whiteleg shrimp showed a higher affinity for a diet containing feed attractants with complex amino acids at a 1.0% inclusion level, particularly because of the presence of complex amino acids such as alanine, valine, glycine, proline, serine, histidine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, and betaine [69]. ...
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The increasing market demand for decapods has led to a considerable interest in cultivating decapod species at a larger scale. Following the development of hatchery technologies, most research has focused on the development of formulated feeds for commercially farmed decapods once they enter the juvenile stages. The use of formulated feed for decapods at a commercial scale is still in the early stages. This is probably because of the unique feeding behavior that decapods possess: being robust, slow feeders and bottom dwellers, their feeding preferences change during the transition from pelagic larvae to benthic juveniles as their digestive systems develop and become more complex. The current practice of decapod aquaculture involves the provision of juveniles with food such as natural diet, live feed, and formulated feed. Knowledge of nutrient requirements enables diets to be better formulated. By manipulating the levels of proteins and lipids, a formulated feed can be expected to lead to optimal growth in decapods. At the same time, the pellet’s physical characteristics are important factors to be considered upon formulating commercially farmed decapod feeds, considering the unique feeding behavior of the decapod. However, most published studies on decapod nutrition lack data on the physical characteristics of the feed types. Thus, it is difficult to establish a standard feed formulation that focuses on the physical pellet properties. Moreover, careful consideration must be given to the feeding behavior of species, as decapods are known as bottom feeders and are robust in terms of handling feed. Information on the pellet forms, diet composition, and unique feeding behaviors in commercially farmed decapods is gathered to suggest potential better formulated diets that can optimize growth and reproduction. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the information that has been published to date and to come up with suggestions on ways to improve the feed formulation in decapods that comply with their feeding behavior and nutrient requirements. Further research is needed to explore the potential of the pelleted feed at the adult stage so the decapod can take full advantage of the nutrients present in the pellets.
... Considering the importance of chemical signals during the development of crustaceans, it might be assumed that the incorporation of attractants to food would allow individuals to find potential food in a shorter period of time, increasing the possibility of ingestion (Mendoza et al. 1997). It has been demonstrated that squid meal acts as a stimulant, increasing food consumption in Homarus gammarus (Mackie & Shelton 1972), Penaeus stylirostris and P. setiferus (Fenucci et al. 1980), P. monodon (Smith et al. 2005), and Litopenaeus vannamei (Nunes et al. 2006). Similarly, shrimp protein hydrolysates stimulate feed consumption in C. quadricarinatus (Arredondo-Figueroa et al. 2013). ...
... Although crayfish have polytrophic feeding habits (Saoud & Ghanawi 2013), this study showed that squid protein extract in the tested concentration range did not increase the attractiveness of feed to Cherax quadricarinatus. This result disagrees with other studies on Pleoticus muelleri, Homarus gammarus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, P. setiferus and P. stylirostris (Mackie & Shelton 1972, Fenucci et al. 1980, Díaz et al. 1999, Smith et al. 2005, Nunes et al. 2006) even though the SM and the method for incorporating it into the experimental feed were the same across all studies. However, these other studies were performed on marine crustaceans (lobsters and shrimp), whereas this study is the first to test the effectiveness of SM as an attractant for a freshwater decapod. ...
... Overall shrimp survival in this study was high, which can be explained by good adaptation of shrimp to pond conditions and the absence of stress and disease, as well as environmental variations that were within the optimal ranges for shrimp growth (Martinez-Cordova et al. 1998;Samocha 2019). The study showed that dietary inclusion of 3% HPK into shrimp feed significantly improved shrimp final BW by 0.9 g, survival by 3.4%, yield by 278 g/cage, and FCR by −0.14 compared to the control diet after 60 days of rearing. ...
... This will decrease the pressure on wild fish stocks and increase cost effectiveness and sustainability of commercial shrimp feed. Since alternative protein sources might have different organoleptic profiles that change attractability and palatability of feed than fish meal, krill meal can act as a feed attractant, overcoming low feed intake as described previously (Sá et al. 2013;Sabry-Neto et al. 2017;Smith et al. 2005;Suresh and Nates 2011;Williams et al. 2005). In particular for low-cost diets with varying feed quality, the dietary inclusion of krill meal might provide a safety net that ensures high feed intake and thereby optimal growth performance. ...
Article
To investigate the potential of high-protein krill meal (HPK) to improve growth in low-cost diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a commercial control and a 3% HPK diet were compared. To simulate a semi-intensive culture system, a total of 4,500 shrimp with a body weight (BW) of 3.07 ± 0.01 g were stocked with 25 animals/m² in 20 cages in a 2.16-ha pond. After 60 days of rearing, the 3% HPK diet achieved a significantly higher yield (22,094.0 ± 130.35 g/cage) in comparison to the control diet (19,301.6 ± 272.28 g/cage) (P < 0.05). When the feed cost per kg shrimp produced was compared, it was significantly lower in the 3% HPK group (US$1.01/kg shrimp) when compared to the control group (US$1.11/kg shrimp). The results indicate that low feeding cost diets can profit from the partial replacement of fish meal by HPK to optimize shrimp growth performance without increasing formula cost.
... The feed containing chicken feather meal at 20 and 35% had lower attractability and palatability. Smith et al. (2005) found that shrimp response to increasing doses of feeding effectors varied from one ingredient to another. While shrimp responded positively to increasing inclusion of krill from 1 to 5% by increasing feed consumption, they negatively responded to increasing inclusion of squid meal. ...
... L-alanine, L-serine) acted as feeding stimulants for red seabream Chrysophyrys major (Goh and Tamura, 1980) and Tilapia (Johnsen and Adams, 1986), as well as nucleotides and nucleosides, sugars and other hydrocarbons. Smith et al. (2005) attributed the enhanced growth of juvenile Peneaus monodon to krill meal and krill hydrolysate included in the diet as a rich source of small peptides and free amino acids. Protein hydrolysate produced from tuna viscera also improved pellet stability, attractability and palatability of diets without fishmeal resulting in improved feed intake of giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Sae-alee and Tantikitti, 2008). ...
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Treated chicken feather meal with 20, 35 and 50% replacement of fish meal (20, 35, 50 CHF), algal meal with 20 and 35% replacement of fish meal (20, 35 AM) and control diet (CNL) were tested for attractability and pa-latability to juvenile gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Biochemical analysis of the ingredients revealed that treated chicken feather meal (CHF) had high levels of amino acids (AA), and high levels of protein whereas, AM and CNL had high levels of amino acid compositions (AA) except protein content for AM. The biochemical profile of CHF was only moderately superior to that of CNL. Algal meals (20% and 35%) were more attractable and palatable than the control whereas, 20, 35 and 50% CHF were not attractive. The 20 and 35% CHF were not palatable while 50% CHF was more palatable than CNL, 20 and 35% CHF. Attractability and palatability of treated chicken feather meal and algal meal to juvenile seabream were fairly consistent with the biochemical profile of the formulated diets.
... Suresh and Nates (2011) documented that the improved performance in shrimp due to the supplementation of additives was mainly attributed to higher attractability and palatability. Similar observation was described by various authors (Holland and Borski, 1993;Lee and Meyers, 1997;Samocha et al., 2004;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006), who stated that the components used as an additive can stimulate the appetitive phases, including arousal, search initiation and locating the feed and thus, resulted in higher feed intake. However, there are marine ingredients that not only provide high palatability and attractability, but also a combination of various nutritional benefits. ...
... This enhanced palatability nature of krill meal is considered to be another reason for obtaining higher growth with higher inclusion in our study. Our result is corroborated with the findings of Cordova-Murueta and Garcia-Carreno (2001) in P. vannamei andSmith et al. (2005) in P. monodon. However, contrasting results were reported with the fish hydrolysate being used, indicating that the inclusion of krill meal confers a greater nutritional value compared to this marine ingredient. ...
Article
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary krill meal inclusion in diets with moderate (12%) and low (6%) fishmeal concentrations for Penaeusvannamei.Inasmuch, eight iso‑nitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain 36% crude protein and 5.5% crude lipid. In the moderate-fishmeal diets, krill meal was included at 0, 2, 4 and 6% (called FK12:0, FK12:2, FK12:4 and FK12:6, respectively), likewise in the low-fishmeal diets, krill meal was included at the same concentrations of 0–6% (called FK6:0, FK6:2, FK6:4 and FK6:6, respectively). Shrimp with a starting body weight of 0.55 ± 0.02 g were stocked at 22 animals per tank of 350 lcapacity and fed three times daily. Results revealed that dietary krill meal and fish meal inclusion levels significantly increased growth performance (P < 0.05)and there was no significant effect on interaction between fishmeal and krill meal levels. Shrimp fed 6% krill meal diet had the highest final body weight of 11.61 g, weight gain of 11.05 g, weight gain % of 1969.38%,specific growth rate of 5.41%/d and yield of 229.42 g/tank The weight gain % and SGR showed non significant difference between 4 and 6% krill meal containing groups.Dietary change did not affect feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein utilization(P > 0.05). Survival was significantly increased in the groups containing 6 and 4% krill meal diets compared to 0% krill meal diet (P < 0.05). Inclusion levels of krill meal showed non-significant differences in post-fed body composition except for crude lipid and crude fibre content. Fishmeal inclusion levels showed significant (P < 0.05) variation in C14:0,C16:0,C18:0,C16:1, C18:1n-9,C18:2n-6,C22:6nn-3/n-6 ratio, whereas krill meal inclusion levels showed significant variation in the all n-3 fatty acids only. Immune-related gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated in the shrimp fed high fishmeal diets (12%) for all the analyzed genes (ProPhenoloxidase (ProPO),ProPhenoloxidase activating enzyme (PPAE), Serine Protease (SP), β-1, 3-glucan-binding protein (BGBP), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Hemocyanin (HC)). The dietary change led to a significant difference in both histology and haematology parameters (P < 0.05). The results inferred that krill meal could be used as a potential functional feed ingredient in Penaeus vannamei.The present study suggested beneficial effects of krill meal in shrimp diets. The levels of fishmeal inclusion (12 and 6%) also showed significant (P < 0.05) variations in various growth performance parameters. It is plausible that an inclusion level of 4% is the minimum for a measurable difference in growth performance.
... Se sabe que una elevada cantidad de harina de soya le confiere un efecto poco atrayente y antipalatable al alimento, lo que daña la conversión alimenticia (Webster et al., 1992;Sudaryono et al., 1995;Mendoza et al., 1999;Smith et al., 2005). Consecuentemente, se decidió valorar el empleo de ingredientes estimuladores del consumo. ...
... Los beneficios de la harina de cabeza de camarón han sido reconocidos por varios autores (Cruz-Suárez et al., 1993;Cuzon et al., 1994;Smith et al., 2005). Se ha planteado que este 69 ingrediente mejora la atracción hacia el alimento y palatabilidad del mismo (Hertrampf y Farooq, 2001), contribuyendo a minimizar el tiempo de exposición del alimento en el agua, las pérdidas de nutrientes y mejorando la eficiencia de alimentación (Tacon et al., 2000). ...
... Cruz- Suárez et al. (1989) found that squid extract had a positive impact on growth, feed utilization and nutrient availability in Kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus). Dietary squid meal enhanced the growth of giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) (Smith et al., 2005). The growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of L. vannamei were increased when squid meal supplementation comprised 9% of crude protein in their diet but decreased when the supplementation exceeded 15% of crude protein (Córdova-Murueta, & García-Carreño, 2002). ...
... The growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of L. vannamei were increased when squid meal supplementation comprised 9% of crude protein in their diet but decreased when the supplementation exceeded 15% of crude protein (Córdova-Murueta, & García-Carreño, 2002). Similarly, high levels of dietary squid products were reported to suppress shrimp growth (Smith et al., 2005). ...
Article
This study was conducted to examine the supplementary effects of tuna hydrolysate (TH) and shrimp hydrolysate (SH) as squid‐liver powder (SLP) replacers in a high soybean meal diet for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A diet containing 4.49% SLP was regarded as the control diet and two other diets were prepared by supplementing 1.14% tuna hydrolysate (TH) and 0.94% shrimp hydrolysate (SH) (designated as SLP, TH and SH, respectively). Five replicate groups of shrimp (initial mean body weight, 0.35 ± 0.002 g) were fed one of the experimental diets for 52 days. Final body weight and weight gain of shrimp fed SH and TH diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed SLP diet (p < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio was lower in SH group compared to that of shrimp fed other diets. Total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity were significantly higher in TH or SH group than SLP group (p < 0.05). Hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels of shrimp fed SLP were significantly lower than those of shrimp fed TH and SH (p < 0.05). Shrimp‐fed TH or SH exhibited significantly higher carcass lipid composition than shrimp‐fed SLP (p < 0.05). Dry matter and protein digestibility were significantly higher in SH diet (p < 0.05). The findings in this study indicate that SH and TH can be used as beneficial feed supplements or ingredients that could replace SLP in L. vannamei diet. Optimum inclusion level of SH would be approximately 1% to completely replace SLP in L. vannamei diet containing high level of soybean meal.
... The rationale of unknown nutrients and bioactive compounds that promotes shrimp growth have been investigated for years. Some of the key ingredients and additives responsible for these "unknown growth factors" in shrimp nutrition include fishmeal, invertebrate meals, marine hydrolysates, algae, and microbial biomass products (Cruz-Ricque et al., 1987Guillaume et al., 1989;Cordova-Murueta and Garcia-Carreno, 2002;Smith et al., 2005;Williams et al., 2005;Glencross et al., 2014Glencross et al., , 2015Glencross et al., , 2020Simon et al., 2019). Although some advances have been made the entire mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. ...
... Although some advances have been made the entire mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. Attempts to explain it have focused on feed attraction and palatability, balance and bioavailability of nutrients, improvement in digestion and absorption, postpandrial nutrient balance, and gut microbiota (Cruz-Ricque et al., 1987Guillaume et al., 1989;Smith et al., 2005;Glencross et al., 2014Glencross et al., , 2015Glencross et al., , 2020Simon et al., 2019). The squid factor, as defined by Guillaume et al. (1989), is the enhanced growth in shrimp fed squid without a robust explanation of its functions. ...
Article
Although Litopenaeus vannamei is the most produced and researched shrimp species worldwide, there are no published studies evaluating the use of the microbial biomass, Novacq™, in L. vannamei feeds. This study investigated the effects of supplementing Novacq™ at 100 g kg−1 in practical and commercial feeds in postlarvae 12 (PL 12) and juvenile white leg shrimp. Three experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, PL12 were fed for 21 days with a Control, Novacq™ or Commercial feed. The Novacq feed was equal in PL12 performance to the Commercial diet and superior to the Control (final individual weight = 0.169, 0.167 and 0.087 g; percentage weight gain = 8014, 7956 and 4091% for Novacq™, Commercial and Control feeds, respectively). No statistical differences in survival, coefficient of variation and daily feed offered were observed across dietary treatments. In Experiments 2 and 3 the performance of juvenile shrimp fed practical and Commercial feeds supplemented with Novacq™ for 42 days, respectively. In Experiment 2, Novacq™ feed outperformed the Control feed by improving survival (89 vs. 51%), final individual weight (7.4 vs. 3.5 g), weight gain (7.1 vs. 3.2 g), and percentage weight gain (1997 vs. 898%). In Experiment 3 supplementing Novacq™ into the Commercial feed improved performance (final individual weight = 6.4 vs. 5.5 g, weight gain = 6.0 vs. 5.1 g, and percentage weight gain = 1712 vs 1443%) and reduced the coefficient of variation (19 vs 53%). Shrimp fed feeds containing Novacq™ also displayed numerically reduced daily feed offered and estimated feed conversion ratio values in comparison to the other dietary treatments. Whole-body composition was similar across dietary treatments. In summary, supplementation of Novacq™ in practical and Commercial feeds improved growth and efficiency of PL12 and juvenile shrimp suggesting its validity as a useful feed additive in the nutrition of white leg shrimp.
... Such variations are mainly due to the water chemical composition, but also to the location of minerals in the crustacean exoskeleton (Raabe et al. 2005;Bosselmann et al. 2007). Therefore, L. dubia shells represent an interesting source of mineral elements (especially CaCO 3 ) in aquaculture (Smith et al. 2005). For instance, Toppe et al. (2006) showed that a high ash dietary based on Cancer pagurus shells, could increase feed intake and promote growth of Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758 without affecting feed efficiency. ...
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This work is the first study on biology and biochemistry of Libinia dubia on the Mediterranean Sea as well as socio-economic impacts of this spider crab proliferation on artisanal fishing activities along the Tunisian coasts. Morphometric characteristics of 913 spider crabs collected in 2016 within the Gulf of Gabès in Tunisia were examined. A sexual dimorphism was observed concerning the body, chelar propodus and abdomen form and sizes. Crab’s carapace width ranged from 22.7 to 89.1 mm and from 4.02 to 74.5 mm, for males and females, respectively. The sex ratio was male biased (M: F = 1: 0.92). Local Ecological Knowledge surveys revealed a decline in fishermen’s income of 72% due to crab invasion (damages of fishing nets and catches, decrease of working days and catch yield). Socio-economic impacts of Libinia dubia can be reverted into profits by using crab exoskeleton (shells) for feeding and for bioactive molecules extraction. They are mainly composed of ash (71% of the dry weight dw), chitin (from 14.66% to 15.13% dw), crude proteins (11%) and fats (between 0.49% and 0.86%) with no sex difference for all studied parameters (p > 0.05). Exoskeletons are largely composed of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus with heavy metals contents (Pb and Cd) under the detection limits (0.04 ppm).
... The results of the present study showed that the hydrolyzed protein from tuna by-products can reduce the deficiency of several amino acids in SBM-based diets. Besides their nutritional function, the free amino acids in TBS are chemoattractants (Smith et al. 2005), so they enhance the attractability and ingestion of the diets, positively affecting the feed efficiency. This suggests that the incorporation of TBS resulted in an increase in the digestibility of the whole diet. ...
Article
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This study evaluated the use of tuna by-product silage (TBS) in diets based on soybean meal (SBM) for the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). A fish meal-based diet (FM) was compared with six isonitrogenous formulations (35% crude protein) containing increasing dietary levels of TBS (14.9%, 29.8%, 44.7% or 59.6%) replacing 0% (TBS0), 25% (TBS25), 50% (TBS50), 75% (TBS75) or 100% (TBS100) respectively, of the protein derived from SBM. A diet containing tuna by-product meal (TBM) as the sole protein source and a commercial feed as reference were also included. Each diet was tested in triplicate over 41 d using 70-L fiberglass tanks in a closed recirculating system. Each tank was stocked with 10 juvenile shrimp (mean initial weight 1.09 g). Shrimp fed diet TBS25 grew as well as those fed diets with 100% of the protein from FM. The growth differences were mainly attributable to differences in the nutritional quality of diets. Whole-body composition was significantly affected by diet. The broken-line regression model using thermal growth coefficient data allowed us estimate that the maximum inclusion level of TBS in shrimp fed the SBM-based diet was 26.31%. In order to reduce the cost of shrimp feed, the ratio of 75% and 25% of SBM:TBS proteins seems to be the best inclusion for juvenile shrimp. Received 05 Jan 2017 accepted 17 Apr 2017 revised 02 Apr 2017
... Specialized literature on dietary attractants and stimulants for marine shrimp is scarce. Smith et al. (2005) examined squid, crustacean and krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates and a betaine product as stimulants in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 ) diets. P. monodon showed a significantly greater preference for feeds containing crustacean or krill meal. ...
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Tomatoes are known to be the richest source of glutamic acid and aspartic acid which give the "Umami flavor". In this study, tomato pulp incorporated prawn feeds and control were subjected to feeding stimuli experiments in post larvae of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (De Man, 1879) in a "Y-maze" tank. The Mean reaching time was measured as 701.4 ± 52.11 sec, in experiments with control while the same in test feeds T1 and T2 were only 278.7 ± 25.2 and 39.95 ± 3.68 sec, respectively. ANOVA results revealed a significant difference between the three treatments (f= 100.02, p<0.001). The results revealed that tomato pulp could be considered as a feed attractant for prawn feeds owing to the high content of glutamic acid in tomato. Its use can sustainably reduce feed costs besides increasing the feed consumption.
... Because extrinsic factors can be manipulated, current aquaculture research has focused on managerial aspects such as encouraging the feed consumption by incorporation of feed attractants which in turn improve the survival and shorten the production intervals. The feed attractants are specific compounds or ingredients added to the feed to enhance the diet palatability and consequently, its acceptability by fish (Smith, Tabrett, Barclay, & Irvin, 2005). As a result of the improvement in the diet acceptability, the fish can adapt earlier to artificial dry diet during the weaning period and attain a higher overall feed consumption and growth rate (Tandler, Berg, & Mackie, 1982;Kolkovski, Arieli, & Tandler, 1997;de Oliveira & Cyrino, 2004;Gaber, 2005). ...
Article
A 30-days experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of four chemo-attractants viz. DL-alanine, betaine, L-tryptophan (TRP) and inosine monophosphate (IMP) in the diet of Ompok bimaculatus during fry rearing. Fifty numbers of fifteen days weaned fry (0.0739±0.008 g; 2.32±0.06 cm) were stocked into each aerated aquariums (30.0 x 15.0 x 15.0 cm) following a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of five treatments including control with three replicates each. Five iso-nitrogenous purified diets were prepared including four treatment diets with attractants (2%) replacing the cellulose and fed to the fishes twice a day. The highest growth was observed in the treatment fed with betaine supplemented diet followed by inosine monophosphate whereas, no significant difference was observed among control, DL-alanine and L-tryptophan supplementation. The highest survivability was found in L-tryptophan supplemented diet (48.66±2.4%) followed by betaine, DL-alanine, control and lowest was found in inosine monophosphate treatment (32.00±2.0). It has also observed that there was significant difference (P>0.05) in survival between L-tryptophan and betaine supplemented diets fed groups. It is concluded that the dietary tryptophan supplementation could be a promising aquaculture management strategy for carnivorous fish as it showed significantly better survival without affecting the growth. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey.
... In the present study, the three fish meals were relatively similar in proximate composition, except Peruvian FAQ fish meal with lower lipid content (8.89%), fish meal protein was well digested by juvenile P. monodon, which was higher than those reported for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei [20,31]. Nutrient composition, quality and digestibility of amino acids in fish meals varies with the freshness and type of the raw ingredients and processing during manufacture [32]. According to other previous published research, fish meals used as an ingredient in feeds for shrimp should have at least 85% digestibility protein, contain <150 g/kg -1 ash, and dried at low temperatures to ensure good protein bioavailability and reduce nitrogen wastes that pollute the shrimp farms and outflow water [33]. ...
Article
Nutritional values and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), protein (APD), energy (AED) and amino acid (AAAD) of ten feedstuffs were determined for juvenile shrimp, which included Peruvian steam fish meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal, local fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, shrimp head meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, wheat flour and brewer’s yeast. A reference diet and test diets that consisted of a 70:30 mixture of the reference diet to test feedstuff were used with 0.01% Yttrium oxide as an external marker. The eleven diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile Penaeus monodon (mean initial weight 1.13 g ± 0.02 g) for 56 days. After the 56-day trial, the highest and lowest values of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of shrimp were found in shrimp head meal and cottonseed meal diet treatments, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was in the range of 1.25-1.65. Peruvian steam fish meal and shrimp head meal diet treatments had the lowest FCR and cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal diet treatments had the highest FCR. The ADMD of diets is in the range of 63.52% to 80.07%. The values of ADMD in shrimp head meal and wheat flour diets (77.58% and 80.07%) were significantly higher than that in other diets (P<0.05). APD, AAAD and AED differed greatly among feedstuffs, from 82.2% to 110.5%, 88.26% to 103.37% and 64.5% to 97.6%, respectively. ADMD for the shrimp head meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal and wheat flour were excellent (over 90%), while brewer’s yeast had lowest value of ADMD (under 60.52%). Peanut meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal and brewer’s yeast had the lowest average AAAD (~90%). The average AAAD of Peruvian steam fish meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal, local fish meal, soybean meal and shrimp head meal were nearly similar (95% to 99%). Wheat flour had the highest average AAAD (106%). In terms of ADMD, the most digestible ingredients were, in descending order, shrimp head meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal, Peruvian steam fish meal, local fish meal for the marine feedstuffs; soybean meal and wheat flour are more preferable for P. monodon feed compared to other plant feedstuffs such as peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal.
... Shrimp culture plays an important role in aquaculture and is among the fastest growing sectors of global seafood aquaculture with production levels that have stabilized at 3.5 million tons since 2012 (FAO, 2016). Hence, evaluating the application of krill meal in shrimp culture is important, but most studies have only focused on its use to enhance growth or promote feed intake (Nunes, S, & Sabry-Neto, 2011;Smith, Tabrett, Barclay, & Irvin, 2005). ...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary replacement fish meal supplemented with freeze‐dried powder of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (FDPE) on the growth performance, molting, and fatty acid composition of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (initial weight 1.27 ± 0.09 g). Four diets containing 0% (S0 group), 10% (S10 group), 20% (S20 group), and 30% (S20 group) FDPE were used in the present study. At the end of growth trial, the final body weight, weight gain rate, and specific growth rate in the S10, S20, and S30 groups were higher than those in the S0 group. The shrimp in the S10 and S20 groups exhibited better molting synchronism than those in the S0 group. The astaxanthin content in the hepatopancreas from the shrimp in the groups supplemented with FDPE was significantly higher than that in the S0 group (p < 0.05) and increased as the FDPE content in the feed increased. The shrimp in the S10, S20, and S30 groups had a higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in the hepatopancreas than those in the S0 group. The sum of EPA and DHA in the muscles from the shrimp in the S0 group was lower than that in the other groups. These results indicate that the dietary inclusion of 10%–20% FDPE can be used as practical diets in L. vannamei farmed under a clear water system.
... Such variations are mainly due to the water chemical composition, but also to the location of minerals in the crustacean exoskeleton (Raabe et al. 2005;Bosselmann et al. 2007). Therefore, L. dubia shells represent an interesting source of mineral elements (especially CaCO 3 ) in aquaculture (Smith et al. 2005). For instance, Toppe et al. (2006) showed that a high ash dietary based on Cancer pagurus shells, could increase feed intake and promote growth of Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758 without affecting feed efficiency. ...
Article
Feeding habits of the invasive spider crab Libinia dubia from the Mediterranean Sea were studied in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia) using the frequency of occurrence and points methods. The population was sampled at least monthly between November 2015 and October 2016. Stomach contents of 384 specimens were analysed. Results indicate that L. dubia is an herbivorous species exhibiting clear preferences for algae (ALG) and Magnoliophyta (MAG) (62.03%, 7.13 points and 59.36%, 5.3 points respectively) although Echinodermata (ECH), Porifera (POR), Cnidaria (CNI), Mollusca (MOL), Polychaeta (POL), Crustacea (CRU) and fish (FIS) were accidentally consumed along with Bryozoa (BRY), sediment (SED), and unidentifiable materials (UNM). The diversity of ALG ingested was studied in detail: Chlorophyceae were found in 87.93% of stomachs containing ALG and contributed most of points to the stomach contents (4.18 points) followed respectively by Phaeophyceae (81.03%, 2.27 points) and Rhodophyceae (40.95%, 0.68 points).Very low Vacuity Index was recorded (VI = 2.6%). Ingested items varied significantly with regard to the season (Chi-square test, χ2calculated = 87.86 > χ2theoretical = 7.81, df = 3, p < 0.05) and crab size (χ2calculated = 14.25 > χ2theoretical = 5.99, df = 2, p = 0.026). Insignificant differences were registered by studying Carapace Width-Stomach Weight (CW-SW) relationships (T-test, tcalculated < ttheoretical, p > 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis test was applied so that the composition of crab diet among groups could be compared (H = 1.1, df = 3, p = 0.77).
... Squid meal is currently added in shrimp diets to enhance palatability [16], and contains up to 1% to 3% free amino acids on a dry matter basis [3,17]. Krill oil is often used in shrimp diets to enhance palatability in combination with marine proteins [18]. ...
Article
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Marine feed ingredients derived from cephalopods (e.g., squid) and crustaceans (e.g., krill) are commercially used to improve the palatability of shrimp diets. Increase in global demand for shrimps has resulted in overfishing of these marine organisms and is a matter of concern. Insect protein hydrolysate could be a sustainable alternative for the possible replacement of these marine feed ingredients. During this study, four formulations: diet A (control: not containing any palatability enhancer), diet B (containing squid meal and krill oil), diet C (containing 1% insect protein hydrolysate), and diet D (containing 2% insect protein hydrolysate) were tested for (1) time required by first subject to begin feeding (time to strike) and (2) palatability in Litopenaeus vannamei. Additionally, the chemical composition of all four diet formulations was also analyzed. Results indicate that all diets had similar crude composition. The major essential amino acids in all diets were leucine and lysine, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid was the major omega-3 fatty acid in all diets. There were no significant differences between the mean time to strike for all the tested formulations. Palatability of tested formulations was found in the following order: diet D > diet C > diet B = diet A (p < 0.05), indicating that addition of squid meal and krill oil has no effect on palatability in comparison to control, whereas inclusion of insect protein hydrolysates significantly improves the palatability of formulations. Palatability enhancement potential of insect protein hydrolysate could be attributed to the high free amino acid content and water solubility in comparison to squid meal.
... In addition, enhancement of shrimp growth in terms of weight gain and SGR and efficient feed conversion was observed in P. vannamei fed diets supplemented with 5 % tuna by-product hydrolysate (Hernandez et al., 2011). Also, the efficacy of fish and krill hydrolysates to stimulate feed intake in P. monodon was reported to be similar to the response evoked during feeding with fishmeal-based diet (Smith et al. 2005). In the red sea bream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843), Kondo et al. (2017) showed enhancement of feed intake and feed conversion efficiency as an effect of dietary supplementation with squid viscera hydrolysate. ...
Article
The present study evaluated the potential of squid by-product hydrolysate as fishmeal replacement in the plant-based diet of juvenile black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798. Five experimental plant protein-based diets were formulated containing squid by-product hydrolysate to replace fishmeal at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %. These experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of P. monodon for 8 weeks. Results revealed that 25 % fishmeal replacement with squid by-product hydrolysate resulted in growth enhancement, attributable to increased feed intake and gut lactic acid bacteria proliferation. The shrimp fed with 100 % replacement level exhibited a similar growth response with the control group. Protein retention was not affected by the fishmeal replacement levels, but lipid retention was found higher in all treatments with squid by-product hydrolysate than the control. Digestive protease activity decreased with increasing levels of hydrolysate while α-amylase and lipase activities were not affected. Hepatopancreas histology showed thatB-cells dominated the control group while R-cells proliferated with increasing inclusion of dietary squid by-product hydrolysate. These results collectively indicate that fishmeal could be totally replaced with squid by-product hydrolysate and 25 % fishmeal replacement could promote the growth of juvenile P. monodon.
... In this context, one option would be to include growth promoters in feed formulations. 'Unknown growth factors' from specific ingredients in shrimp diets, such as some marine invertebrate-derived meals and hydrolysates including squid, krill, other crustaceans, and also some from microbial origins, have been the subject of research in the last 30 years [135,[168][169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180][181]. Premium commercial shrimp diets often rely on a selection of these ingredients to maximize attractiveness, palatability, and growth performance. ...
Article
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Intensification of the shrimp sector, also referred to as vertical expansion, has been predominately driven by consecutive incidences of global disease outbreaks, which have caused enormous economic loss for the main producer countries. A growing segment of the shrimp farming industry has opted to use production systems with higher density, biosecurity, and operating control to mitigate the risks posed by disease. However, successful super-intensive shrimp production is reliant on an advanced understanding of many important biological and economic parameters in the farming system, coupled with effective monitoring, to maintain optimal production. Compared to traditional extensive or semi-intensive systems, super-intensive systems require higher inputs of feed, energy, labor, and supplements. These systems are highly sensitive to the interactions between these different inputs and require that the biological and economical parameters of farming are carefully balanced to ensure success. Advancing nutritional knowledge and tools to support consistent and efficient production of shrimp in these high-cost super-intensive systems is also necessary. Breeding programs developing breeding-lines selected for these challenging super-intensive environments are critical. Understanding synergies between the key areas of production systems, nutrition, and breeding are crucial for super-intensive farming as all three areas coalesce to influence the health of shrimp and commercial farming success. This article reviews current strategies and innovations being used for Litopenaeus vannamei in production systems, nutrition, and breeding, and discusses the synergies across these areas that can support the production of healthy and high-quality shrimp in super-intensive systems. Finally, we briefly discuss some key issues of social license pertinent to the super-intensive shrimp farming industry.
... Therefore, our results suggest that S. spallanzanii could have potential use as a natural attractant, with the potential to replace synthetic compounds, in line with the requirements of the modern trend for organic fish production [6]. Attractants are compounds or ingredients that, when added to the feed, boosts its taste and acceptableness by fish, and are widely used in several sectors of animal production, including aquaculture [6,69]. The price of attractants is higher than that of fish meal, and are already used in fish feeds, especially when fish meal is replaced by diets rich in plant-based protein [6]. ...
Article
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Sabella spallanzanii and Microcosmus squamiger were profiled for proximate composition, minerals, aminoacids, fatty acids (FA), carotenoids, radical scavenging activity on the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and iron and copper chelating properties. Microcosmus squamiger had the highest level of moisture and crude protein, S. spallanzanii was enriched in crude fat and ash. Both species had similar levels of carbohydrates and energy. There was a prevalence of arginine and glycine in S. spallanzanii, and of taurine in M. squamiger. The most abundant minerals in both species were Na, Ca and K. The methanol extract of S. spallanzanii had metal chelating properties towards copper and iron, while the methanol extract of M. squamiger was capable to chelate copper. M. squamiger extracts had similar ORAC values. Fucoxanthinol and fucoxanthin were the major carotenoids in the M. squamiger dichloromethane extract. Saturated FA were more abundant than unsaturated ones in methanol extracts, and unsaturated FA prevailed in the dichloromethane extracts. Palmitic acid was the predominant FA in methanol extracts whereas eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids were the major compounds in dichloromethane extracts. Low n-6/n-3 ratios were obtained. Our results suggests that both species could be explored as sources of bioactive ingredients with multiple applications.
... It has been reported that the quantities of leaching observed to be high in acetate, exhibiting 100% in 30 min (da Silva et al. 2013). The attractability of diet stimulates shrimp to initiate feeding and continue feeding (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al. 2006;Derby et al. 2016) and ultimately leads to enhanced growth performance (Smith et al. 2005;Suresh et al. 2011). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of acidifying the diet of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon on its growth and feed efficiency by supplementing coconut sap vinegar CSV) or sugar cane vinegar (SCV) or their 1:1 combination. Three hundred and sixty post larva shrimps (average initial weight of 0.01g) were randomly distributed into 12 50-L plastic containers. Four experimental diets, namely, control diet, 2% CSV, 2% SCV and 2% CSV+SCV were fed to groups of shrimps. After 90 days, all shrimps fed with diets containing vinegar exhibited significantly higher final average body weight (FABW), weight gain (WG), feed intake, specific growth rate (SGR), and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed the control diet. Attractability tests showed that the CSV and CSV+SCV diets attracted significantly the highest percentage of shrimps after 10 min of feed placement. Survival rate was not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the vinegars tested could be used as growth enhancers in shrimp and that the combination of coconut sap and sugar cane vinegars supplemented to the diet resulted in the best growth and feed efficiency as well as attracted the most percentage of shrimps. Produced by the AquacultureHub non-profit Foundation the IJA is an open-access, scientific journal, published on http://www.aquaculturehub.org/group/israelijournalofaq uaculturebamidgehija To read papers free of charge, please register online at the above website. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden. 2 dela Calzada et al.
... In crustaceans (Litopenaeus stylirostris), Suresh et al. (2011) found that poultry by-product meals showed the highest attractability, but the highest palatability was obtained by krill meal. Smith et al. (2005) reported that the inclusion of krill increased feed consumption in Penaeus monodon and improved growth (Williams et al., 2005), with similar results obtained in Penaeus vannamei (Córdova-Murueta & García-Carreño, 2002). ...
Article
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Objective: To determinate the attractability of four oils, fish, chicken, krill, and red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) for Ambystoma mexicanum juveniles, evaluating their feeding behavior using a Y aquarium. Design/Methodology/Approach: Ten axolotls were used per test, fasted for 48 h. Gels with oils were prepared using gelatin and poured into petri dishes and refrigerated until gelation. A recording of the test was made using two video cameras. In the feed chamber the gelled oil was placed and allowed to stand for 15 min. On the other chamber a gelled disk with no other ingredient than gelatin and water was placed. The video recording began once the 15 min of gel permanence had finished, removing the barrier so that the axolotls could move through the rest of the aquarium. All tests were carried out with a recording time of 30 min. Results: Fish oil demonstrated a lower attraction effect compared to krill, red crab and chicken oils (P0.05), while chicken oil (30.001.73) doubled the attractive effect of krill oil (16.001.00). Limitations of the study/implications: It was necessary to condition a room with controlled environmental temperature for A. mexicanum (181 °C). Findings/Conclusions: Krill and chicken oil are good feeding effectors for A. mexicanum causing positive feeding behavior. The use of chicken oil is desirable because of its low cost compared to krill.
... Attractants are mainly used to enhance feed intake, growth and nutrient utilization in farmed aquatic animals. The feed attractants are specific compounds or ingredients added to the feed to enhance the diet palatability and consequently, its acceptability by fish (Smith et al. 2005). Further, protein and energy metabolism can be enhanced by nutrients that are contributed by attractants (Papatryphon and Soares 2001). ...
Article
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different natural and artificial attractants in the diet of stripped snakeheads Channa striata. The experiment was conducted into two phases- Nursery and Grow-out. There were four treatments TC (Control), TG (Glycine), TA (Alanine) and TN (Nappi) for each phase with three replicates. In phase-1, the fry/fingerling were fed three times daily for four months; in phase-2, the fish were fed twice daily in the morning and afternoon for six months where the effects of formulated diets were compared with control (TC) which is locally available as commercial feed. In phase-1, significantly (p<0.05) lower FCR (1.58±0.13), higher individual weight gain (91.90 g), higher SGR (2.47±1.79 %/day), higher survival (90%), and higher feeding efficiency (57.60±5.54%) were found in the control (TC) compared to all other treatments. On the other hand, in phase-2, significantly (p<0.05) lower FCR (1.63±0.06), higher individual weight gain (299 g), and higher feeding efficiency (45.96±1.63%) were found in Nappi (TN) supplemented diet whereas significantly (p<0.05) higher survival (93.33%) and higher SGR (0.90±0.17 %/day) were found in Glycine (TG) supplement diet compared to the control (TC). Therefore, domestication and then the addition of natural and artificial attractants in formulated feeds may enhance the efficacy of formulated feeds for better growth and survival of the carnivorous fish like stripped snakeheads especially in grow-out phase. Hence, this finding will help to culture C. striata using protein-rich formulated feed adding attractants rather than depending on any live feed or formulated feed which is not commercially feasible.
Article
P. monodon juveniles were fed krill meal (KM), krill hydrolysate (KH), whole squid (SQ), and the microbial biomass, Novacq™ (NQ), at 10% inclusion, in practical fishmeal and soybean meal based diets. Diets were fed to apparent satiation as well as restrictively pair-fed (~60% of control diet satiation) for 6 weeks to examine the effects of the test ingredients and feed restriction on shrimp growth, feed efficiency, digestive enzyme activity, nutritional condition, and gut microbiota. All diets when fed to satiety significantly outperformed the control diet, with shrimp fed NQ 87%, SQ 73%, KH 41% and KM 38% larger than shrimp fed the control diet. NQ fed shrimp had the best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and significantly improved retention efficiency (RE) of dietary lipid (RETL), protein (RECP) and gross energy (REGE). SQ significantly promoted feed intake over control and KM fed shrimp, but neither KM, KH nor SQ improved RETL, RECP or REGE. While there was little change in the apparent digestibility (AD) of each diet, the apparent biological value (ABV) of lipid (ABVTL), protein (ABVCP) and gross energy (ABVGE) were significantly improved by inclusion of NQ; and ABVTL and ABVGE were significantly improved by addition of SQ. Feed restriction had a stronger effect on hepatopancreas digestive enzymes and gut microbiota than addition of any feed ingredient. Total protease activity was positively correlated with feed efficiency, including FCR, RETL and REGE. Shrimp fed to satiety tended to have high levels of Vibrio whereas those on the restricted ration tended to have higher levels of bacteria in Rhodobacteracaea, Flavobacteriales and Bacteroidales. We conclude that shrimp are more efficient in using digested dietary macronutrients for growth when whole squid and Novacq™ are provided, due to improvements in feed intake and post-absorptive processes. Feeding restriction was shown to be a useful strategy to improve P. monodon feeding efficiency, digestive capacity and modulate gut microbiota, however it reduced the scope for shrimp growth especially on high performing diets. Novacq™ was more effective than some of the known invertebrate meals and a more environmentally sustainable growth and nutrient utilisation promoter for shrimp.
Chapter
Antarctic krill has been fished commercially in the Southern Ocean since the 1970s and has been consistently the largest fishery, by tonnage, in the region since then. The fishery has seen changes in the nations involved, with early catches dominated by vessels from the USSR, Japanese vessels in the middle years and, more recently, most of the catch has been taken by vessels from Norway. A variety of products have emerged from the fishery with early efforts aimed at human consumption but latterly, the bulk of the catch has been used as high-end aquaculture feed with a small but valuable fraction being used to produce krill oil. The fishery has been managed by the international Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources which recognised the potential threat to the marine ecosystem through krill harvesting and which has implemented a precautionary approach to management of the fishery. Currently the fishery catches approximately 300,000 tonnes annually, all from the South Atlantic, where the precautionary catch limit has been set at 5.6 million tonnes. The fishery and its management regime will face challenges in the future with the emergence of new technologies, increased catches by new entrants and environmental changes.
Article
An indoor experiment was carried out to assess the effect of various fresh foods and formulated diets on oxygen consumption in relation to nitrogen metabolism in Penaeus monodon. Seven iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated by substituting fishmeal (w/w) at 0 (control), 2.5 and 5% using groundnut oil cake (GNC-1 and GNC-2, respectively), rapeseed meal (RSM-1and RSM-2) and sesame oil cake (SOC-1 and SOC-2). Simultaneously, five different fresh foods (clam, crustaceans, fish, polychaete and squid) were also tested. Results revealed that nitrogen intake increased (p < 0.05) by 10.5%–86.6% in shrimp fed fresh food compared with control. Among the fresh food, fish meat showed the highest (p < 0.05) oxygen consumption and ammonia-N efflux. The O:N ratio decreased by 4.22–6.62 in shrimp fed on fresh food, whereas it increased by 0.91–3.28 in formulated diets. Regression analysis revealed a higher coefficient of determination for oxygen consumption (R2 = 0.9272) as well as ammonia-N excretion (R2 = 0.8778) in fresh food compared with the formulated feeds (0.3818 and 0.2187), whereas it was found to be low for O:N ratio for both the fresh food (R2 = 0.1789) and formulated feeds (R2 = 0.3260). The results confirmed that the measurement of O:N ratio can be an additional tool for assessing the nutritional quality of feed along with growth and digestibility and was more significant with the nutritional quality of formulated diets in P. monodon over fresh foods, in relation to nitrogen metabolism.
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RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilização do hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha como atrativo na alimentação do Rhamdia quelen. No experimento 1, foram utilizados os seguintes atrativos alimentares: 1. extrato aquoso de músculo de tilápia-do-Nilo (controle positivo); 2. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com baixo grau de hidrólise (GH); 3. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH; 4. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH diluído (10% da concentração) e 5. controle usando somente água destilada. Após jejum de 48 horas, o comportamento foi registrado em vídeo por um período basal de dois minutos e por mais 18 minutos após a inoculação do atrativo. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e 20 repetições. O experimento 2 foi realizado para avaliar a capacidade do hidrolisado proteico de estimular a ingestão de alimento em juvenis de jundiá. Para isso, foram confeccionados pellets de ágar contendo ou não hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha. Os peixes foram avaliados individualmente e tiveram um período de adaptação de sete dias. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste de proporção de Goodman (1964). A inoculação dos hidrolisados com alto e baixo GH aumentou o tempo de movimentação dos barbilhões. O hidrolisado com alto GH diluído proporcionou os mesmos resultados que o hidrolisado com baixo GH , mas as médias não diferiram das obtidas para a água destilada (controle negativo) e do extrato de músculo. O incremento na movimentação de um lado para outro do aquário foi maior (P<0,05) para os hidrolisados com alto e baixo GH. No experimento 2, a proporção de peixes que ingeriu os pellets contendo hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH foi maior (P<0,05) em relação aos que ingeriram os pellets contendo água destilada. O hidrolisado proteico foi eficiente para estimular o comportamento associado à alimentação em juvenis de Rhamdia quelen.
Article
An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaeapodocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2]) in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1) and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1) the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2) compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.
Article
There is an increasing recognition within the aquaculture industry that understanding the behaviour of farmed animals can help provide solutions to feeding problems. However, most studies have focused on finfish production, with fewer behavioural studies on feeding processes in commercially produced crustaceans. More than 60% of crustacean aquaculture is attributed to the production of penaeids, particularly the Pacific white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone). The profitability of the Pacific white-leg shrimp for aquaculture stems from its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and its fast growth at high densities. However, there are significant setbacks within their farming. In particular, while they can move rapidly to take food pellets, they can be slow to consume them leading to food wastage and subsequent economic losses for the industry. Understanding shrimp behaviour provides a starting point for refinements to feeding practices. Here, we review the different influences on shrimp behaviour which are likely to influence productivity such as individual-level effects (e.g. moulting, sex), environmental influences (e.g. photoperiod, conspecific presence) and water quality (e.g. salinity, temperature). Although work on feed management has been conducted, providing information on nutrition, feeding frequency and schedules, here we demonstrate that such advances must be accompanied by behavioural approaches to allow the development of optimal feeding efficiencies and to support the continued growth of the crustacean aquaculture industry.
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Previous studies have shown that crustacean feed attractability has an enormous importance, because the consumption, quality and feed conversion rate can be improved, by reducing the time of residence pre-ingestion and the leaching of nutrients. For this reason, different protocols and methods has been developed to measure feed attractability. This study evaluated the use of maze type Y, and rectangular systems to determine the attractant power of a commercial feed on longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum. The Y type maze system without barriers, and with three different types of barriers (with or without access to the area where a commercial feed) was evaluated. Ten prawns were placed in the acclimation chamber of the system at 28°C for 60 min before the start of the experiment. To start the test, commercial feed (20% of prawn biomass) was placed into the system feeding area, then the acclimation chamber was open to allow for the free prawn movement, evaluating the feed attractability by measuring the time for the first "hit", total number of hits, and the number of prawns which entrances to the feeding area during 15 min. Similar tests were performed with a rectangular type maze system, comparing the atractability results obtained in both systems. The results presented here highlight the importance of the genus behavior and the selection of protocols and systems, as well as the materials used in its maze system construction, for attractability testing in M. tenellum.
Article
Current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified canola oil (MCO) with enhanced levels of omega 3 fatty acids, to replace menhaden fish oil (MFO) in practical diets (36% protein and 8% lipid) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In first two trials, the basal diet containing 100% MFO was incrementally replaced by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MCO, which clearly demonstrated the potential of using MCO as a replacement for up to 75% of the supplemented MFO in poultry meal‐based diets. In the third trial, two series of diets were evaluated including fishmeal‐based diets replacing MFO by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MCO and three poultry meal‐based diets with 100% MFO, 75% MCO and 75% MCO supplemented with 4% hydrolysed salmon by‐product meal (HSM) as an attractant. In conclusion, no significant differences in performances of shrimp between diets were noted indicating no palatability issue in poultry meal‐based MCO diet and confirmed the efficacy of replacing 100% MFO by MCO in a low fishmeal diets and up to 75% in poultrymeal‐based diets without compromising the growth of shrimp.
Article
The attractiveness of crude feed ingredients to olive flounder and effects of including feed ingredients showing strong feeding attractiveness in extruded pellet (EP) on performance of fish were determined. Four types of experimental EP were prepared to evaluate the effects of feed ingredient manipulation on performance of fish. Five per cent anchovy meal component of the control diet was substituted with an equal amount of jack mackerel meal, sardine meal and hydrolysed fish meal to create the JM, SM and HFM diets respectively. The diets were prepared in commercial form as EP. Jack mackerel meal produced the strongest feeding attractant responses of olive flounder, followed by sardine meal and hydrolysed fish meal. The greatest weight gain, feed consumption and condition factor (CF) were observed in fish fed the JM diet, followed by fish fed the SM, HFM and control diets, in that order in the 8‐week feeding trial. The dietary manipulation of feed ingredients performed in this study showed that the inclusion of ingredients with strong feeding attractiveness improved feed consumption and eventually accelerated the growth performance and CF of the fish.
Article
In the present study, we isolated the lactic acid bacterium strain SC-01 from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) intestine. Using conventional and molecular methods, we identified the bacterium as Enterococcus faecium, and found it had the function of feeding attractant and could inhibit the development of Vibrioparahaemolyticus (zone of inhibition: 14mm). The attractant effect of its fermentation broth is significantly better than that of the chemical attractant trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) (P <0.05), and is equivalent to that of dimethyl-beta-propiothetin (DMPT) based on the feeding behavior of shrimp. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis suggested that inosine-5’-monophosphate (IMP) may be a component of the attractant. A biosecurity evaluation revealed a negative result in hemolytic assays, and no shrimp mortality was resulted from SC-01 fermentation broth challenge. Feeding trials (60 days) indicated that the SC-01 fermentation broth (viable counts: 5.7×109 cfumL−1) could improve feed intake, weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR), and decrease the count of Vibrio sp. in the intestine of shrimp.
Article
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacement of dietary fish meal by Antarctic krill Euphausia superba meal on growth performance, body composition and organoleptic quality of triploid rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (initial body weight: 102.06 ± 0.04 g) farmed in sea water. The basal diet contained 51% of fish meal. Based on it, five isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets were formulated with the protein replacement ratio of fish meal by krill meal as 0, 15%, 30%, 60% and 100%, respectively (DM0, DM15, DM30, DM60 and DM100, respectively). After an 8-week feeding trial, results showed that increasing levels of dietary krill meal linearly and quadratically increased significantly FBW, SGR and FI (P < 0.05). Significant positive linear trends were found between the increasing levels of dietary krill meal and carotenoid concentrations, redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and chroma (C*) in muscle; and significant negative trends were found in the lightness (L*) and hue (H*) responses (P < 0.05). The pH and liquid holding capacity (LHC) were not affected by dietary krill meal levels (P > 0.05). A positive quadratic trend was found between the dietary krill meal level and the springiness, and a negative linear trend in cohesiveness occurred (P < 0.05). The content of fluorine in vertebra increased linearly and quadratically significantly (P < 0.05) but the content of fluorine in muscle was not significantly affected by increasing levels of dietary krill meal (P > 0.05). The highest fluorine content in muscle was within the safe edible limit for humans. These results suggested that Antarctic krill meal could improve the growth performance and muscle pigmentation of triploid rainbow trout farmed in seawater.
Article
There is increasing recognition of the need to understand behaviours of species important in aquaculture to facilitate their production, however to date there has been limited focus in this area. The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), for example, is the most cultivated species in crustacean aquaculture globally, yet there are few studies that have addressed its feeding behaviour in detail. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feeding behaviour of L. vannamei in response to feed-deprivation and moult status. Twenty-four juvenile shrimp (10.51 ± 2.17 g) were divided across three different feed-deprivation conditions (+0 h (control), +24 h or +48 h; n = 8 per treatment). Shrimp in all treatment groups were provided with their last food intake at 19.00 and subsequently experienced 14 h feed-deprivation. Those in the control group were recorded for behaviour at 09.00 the following day and were not feed-deprived for any additional time (+0 h), whereas the other treatments were feed-deprived by one (+24 h treatment) or two (+48 h treatment) extra days. Moult status was constantly monitored as it changed in all shrimp throughout the course of the experiment. Shrimp, provided with food, were observed individually via video in test arenas for 20 min where behaviours (e.g. inactivity, detection, feeding, attraction-to-feed) were recorded. Each shrimp was observed five times across different days with three days between recordings to obtain information on within-individual in addition to between-individual variation. Shrimp feed-deprived for +24 h and +48 h showed significantly increased feeding activity compared to the control group, which spent more time inactive and performing detection behaviours. Shrimp deprived of food for +48 h also had higher attraction-to-feed score, which were positively correlated with feeding activity. Shrimp in the inter-moult stage displayed increased feeding activity and a higher attraction-to-feed score. Longer periods of feed-deprivation reduced within- and between-individual variation across the majority of the behaviours measured. The results of this study highlight the relevance of feed-deprivation and moult status in nutritional trials and provide important baseline information for developing the use of behaviour to improve L. vannamei production.
Article
In shrimp farming, there has been a considerable focus on the development of novel additives that might reduce costs associated with the time taken by shrimp to locate and ingest feed. However, within these trials there has been little consideration of the role that feeding behaviour of individuals can play in assessing the attractability of additives. As such, the use of tracking technologies in the development of automated protocols is beginning to gain attention as an important tool for monitoring associated behaviours. Therefore the objective of the present study was to validate an automated tracking software (EthoVision) for assessing feed attractability in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Twenty-seven juvenile shrimp (5.54 ± 1.37 g) were used to test three experimental diets with different theoretical levels of attraction; negative (0.07 M Quinine-HCl), control, and positive diet (3% attractant). Shrimp were individually video recorded in test arenas for 20 min with each one of the diets. Recordings were also carried out at two times of day (morning and afternoon) to evaluate the effect of time of day on shrimp feeding behaviour. The behaviour of each individual was recorded three times per diet to determine levels of individual variation. Comparison between manual and automated observations validated the reliability of EthoVision in analysing L. vannamei feeding behaviour and the software detected clear differences in feeding behaviour according to diet. Shrimp provided with the positive diet (i.e. 3% attractant) arrived faster and spent longer on the feeding area. In contrast, with the negative diet (i.e. 0.07 M Quinine-HCl), shrimp spent more time moving around the test arena and less time interacting with the feed. Time of day also had an effect on several behaviours, but not on the time spent on the feeding tray. Less individual variation in feeding behaviours was found when shrimp were fed the positive diet, suggesting attractive diets can decrease variability in feeding behaviour with potential applications to commercial ponds. Distribution heatmaps provided by EthoVision offered a quick and reliable assessment of feed attractability. The results of this study highlight the use of tracking technologies to assess feed attractability in L. vannamei and the feasibility of automated protocols for the industry.
Article
The attractiveness of various protein sources of 16 feed ingredients was determined in juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) by using reinforced acrylic tank composed of three equally divided rectangular attracting chambers and an acclimatization chamber. Thirty fish were held in the acclimatization chamber at a time and tournament comparison of feed ingredients was applied to evaluate attractiveness. Jack mackerel (JM) (40.0%), sardine (SM) (33.3%), Pollack (PM) (40.0%), shrimp (SHM) (36.7%), mussel meal (40.0%) and oyster (43.3%) meals achieved the highest feeding attractiveness to rockfish in the 1st through 6th preliminary test, respectively. JM (40.0%), SHM (36.7%), squid meal (SQM) (33.3%), SM (40.3%), PM (40.0%) and PM (36.7%) achieved the highest feeding attractiveness to fish in the 7th through 12th preliminary test, respectively. Among the top five feed ingredients showing high attractiveness to rockfish, JM achieved higher attractiveness than PM and SHM in the 1st trial. In the 2nd trial, attractiveness of JM to rockfish was higher than SM and SQM. SM achieved higher attractiveness to rockfish than SQM, but not different from PM throughout the 30-min observation in the 3rd trial. The strongest feeding attractant response of rockfish was observed in JM, followed by SM, SQM, PM, and SHM, in order among various feed ingredients.
Article
Organisms use chemical cues in their environment to extract relevant information to perform a variety of tasks, including foraging, finding shelter, and locating mates, and must locate and assess the quality of food sources based on these chemical cues. Crayfishes use chemical cues in the form of amino acids to locate food and to regulate consumption when determining the quality of food sources. It is currently unknown, however, whether crayfish foraging and feeding behavior in experimental flow-through systems are altered by differing amino acid concentrations. We collected individuals of the rusty crayfish, Faxonius rusticus (Girard, 1852), from two different watershed locations in Michigan, USA and exposed them to fish gelatin containing increasing concentrations of the amino acids β-alanine (excitatory amino acid) and L-tyrosine (inhibitory amino acid). The gelatin was weighed before and after each 24-hour trial to determine consumption. The addition of an excitatory amino acid (β-alanine) caused a significant drop in consumption but only for crayfish collected from one of the locations (P = 0.04). The addition of an inhibitory amino acid (L-tyrosine) had no effect on consumption from either location. This study demonstrates that feeding behaviors of F. rusticus are influenced by the presence of amino acids (β-alanine) in food sources.
Article
Full-text available
Dry peas of mixed Canadian prairie varieties which were commercially obtained and processed to provide a variety of meals were evaluated in practical shrimp feeds. Whole and de-hulled peas were pin milled to produce raw flours. A portion of these meals were processed to produce whole extruded and de-hulled extruded meals. Additionally, a portion of the whole pea meal was processed by infrared cooking to produce a micronized meal. The five meals were evaluated in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory conditions. The first experiment was designed to estimate apparent protein and energy availability of the various meals. Using a practical reference diet, the meals were substituted using a 70:30 ratio to produce the test diets. Based on contrasts, both extruding and micronizing the pea meals resulted in significant improvements in both apparent protein digestibility and apparent energy digestibility values. Apparent energy digestibility values for the various ingredients expressed as percentage ± SD were: whole raw, 72.3 ± 8.1; whole extruded, 86.0 ± 8.9; de-hulled raw, 88.4 ± 4.4; de-hulled extruded, 94.4 ± 10.0; whole micronized, 94.1 ± 10.2. To evaluate the response of shrimp to the diets containing pea meal, two 7-week growth trials were conducted in the laboratory using a practical diet formulated to contain 360 g kg−1 protein and 90 g kg−1 lipid. In the first growth trial the shrimp had a mean initial weight of 0.66 g and six test diets were evaluated that included the basal diet and five diets for which the pea meals were included in the diet at 250 g kg−1 dry weight replacing whole wheat. In the second growth trial the shrimp had a mean initial weight of 1.1 g and only the whole raw and whole extruded meals were evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 g kg−1 inclusion in the diet. At the conclusion of the first growth trial weight gain ranged from 718 to 862% and at the conclusion of the second growth trial weight gain ranged from 394 to 502%, with no significant differences or discernible trends observed as a result of the various dietary treatments. Based on the observed results, the continued evaluation of feed peas as a potential ingredient of shrimp feeds is warranted. Additionally, if feed peas are suitably priced, commercial producers are encouraged to evaluate feed peas as an alternative protein and energy source.
Article
Diets low in animal but high in plant protein were enhanced with a chemoattractant FinnStim (FS), a betaine/amino additive. These were fed to juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in three tank experiments. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (35% protein) and isocaloric. In run 1, where soybean meal was used as the plant protein source (33%), graded levels of FS (0 to 2.0%) were added to the basic mix (B). Shrimp fed the diet with 1% FS had a significantly (α=0.05) higher weight gain than the other treatments and a feed conversion ratio (FCR) which was higher than B and B+2% FS but not significantly different from the other FS levels. However, survival, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake were similar. In run 2 diet palatability, which may be affected by plant protein, was considered. Diets with a lower soybean meal content (18%) and 16% papaya leaf meal, with and without 1% FS, were tested. A higher weight gain and SGR were obtained for shrimp fed FS but survival, feed intake and FCR were not significantly different from those without FS. In run 3, where leaf meal was increased to 25%, shrimp fed 1% FS yielded a significantly better weight gain, SGR, feed intake and FCR, but survival rates were not significantly different. FS did not increase feed intake but may have caused faster feed consumption, resulting in less feed disintegration and nutrient loss. It could also have acted as a stimulant and counteracted the palatability problem of the 25% leaf meal diet. However, much of the response was evidently caused by the physiological role of betaine as methyl donor and osmoprotectant.
Article
Several pelletized feeds containing 30–35% total protein were tested on two penaeid species, Penaeus stylirostris and P. setiferus. Alginate bound test diets varied in protein composition but all diets contained about 30% sun-dried shrimp meal. Following initial testing with diets containing up to 13% squid meal, further test diets varied in percentage of squid meal between 0 and 12.7, and in α-soy flour between 0 and 12.4. One test diet replaced these components with 12.5% brewer's yeast. Conversion rates, survival, and growth were determined during a 3-week period, both in the two species and in two sizes of P. stylirostris. Comparisons of the various diets between the two species suggest that the presence of 5–6% squid meal is advantageous in feeds of about 30–35% total protein.
Article
This study aimed at determining the optimal lipid:carbohydrate and protein:energy ratios for growth and survival of juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Two experiments were performed using completely randomized designs in semi-closed recirculating water systems. Juveniles of 0.4–0.8 g in weight and 4.0–5.5 cm in length stocked at a density of 80 individuals m− 2 were fed semi-purified diets. The first experiment determined optimal lipid:carbohydrate using isonitrogenous (35%) and isocaloric (330 kcal 100 g− 1) diets with five lipid:carbohydrate ratios: 4:39, 7:32, 9:25, 14:18 and 16:12 (% wt/wt). The lipid:carbohydrate ratio of 7:32 gave the highest growth rate (P < 0.05), while survival rates of shrimp in all other diet groups were similar but less. Thus, optimal lipid:carbohydrate ratio for the juvenile tiger shrimp was ≈ 1:4.6. In the second experiment, optimal protein:energy (P:E) ratio was studied using five protein levels (25%, 30%, 35%, 40% and 45%) with a fixed lipid:carbohydrate ratio of 1:4.6. Nine diets containing energy content (203–459 kcal 100 g− 1) with protein:energy ratio (63–171 mg protein kcal− 1) were formulated. Shrimp fed the diet containing 33–44% protein and an energy content of 223–371 kcal 100 g− 1 had a significantly higher growth rate than those fed the other diets (P < 0.05). A regression analysis indicated that an optimal P:E ratio for optimal growth and survival of juvenile tiger shrimp was 150 and 146 mg protein kcal− 1 respectively. This diet contained 33–44% protein and had optimal energy of 263–331 kcal 100 g− 1.
Article
A study was conducted to obtain a measure of the potency of some potential and commercially used feeding attractants for Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Behavioural trials monitoring the feeding response of the shrimp were used to gauge the attractant qualities of the substances. A growth trial recording the feed intake, feed assimilation, growth, food conversion and survival rates of the shrimp was used to assess further the feeding stimulant properties of the substances. Replicate groups of juvenile shrimp were fed semi-purified diets containing 1·5% by weight of a range of potential feeding attractants. In the behavioural trial, diets containing taurine and a yeast extract were found to be significantly preferred to the control and all other diets. However, none of the substances appeared to act as potent feeding stimulants, producing statistically similar feed intake and assimilation rates to the control diet. However, taurine and an amino acid mixture designed to mimic a clam extract promoted the best performance of the attractants tested in terms of growth rate and feeding efficiency. Overall, the behavioural response of the shrimp to the feeding attractants was found to show similarities to the effects of attractant supplementation of feed on subsequent ongrowing performance, but not significantly so.
Article
A feeding bioassay which uses agar discs was developed for evaluating chemosensory stimuli influencing ingestive behavior in Penaeus vannamei. Agar disc hardness and preventing the shrimp from placing their mouthparts directly onto the stimulus discs were important aspects of the bioassay design. The palatability assay required only small amounts of stimuli, was suitable for rapid screening of a wide variety of compounds, and was independent of factors such as texture or size of feed pellets. The most effective stimulus tested was shrimp-head offal extract, indicating the best use of this material may be as a flavorant rather than as a source of nutrients. Greatest biological activity was in the < 1000 M.W. fractions of the extracts.
Article
Crustaceans utilize water-borne‘chemical signals’to identify and orient toward potential prey. These chemical signals are recognized in spite of the chemical complexity of aquatic environments. Because feeds are a significant expense in all aquaculture operations, the need to maximize feeding rates and reduce wasted feed, thereby lowering production costs, is paramount to economic success. Confusion concerning the function and utility of chemoattractants versus feeding stimulants in aquatic feeds necessitates updated terminology. Simply put, detection does not equal attraction. To accurately describe and predict responses to feeding stimuli, it is necessary first to classify all possible stimulus types and then to categorize behavioural responses to each specific stimulus. The proposed hierarchical behavioural model classifies an animal's response to chemical stimuli into five phases: (1) detection; (2) orientation; (3) locomotion or displacement; (4) initiation of feeding; (5) continuation or termination of feeding. The second step in description of the behavioural model is the association of specific behaviours with these five phases of response. Crustaceans exhibit four major categories of chemotactic behaviour: antennule flicking, which appears to be the most sensitive; probing movements made by the pereiopods that precede locomotion; locomotion by the crustacean, indicating true attraction or repulsion; and movements by the mouthparts that indicate generalized feeding stimulation. Finally, feed and environmental quality have direct effects on the effectiveness of feed attractants/stimulants; food detection and feeding stimulation ultimately determine the commercial value of an aquatic feed.
Article
Though some protein sources like squid and protein hydrolysates are assumed as growth enhancers for shrimp, little is known about the biochemical basis of this phenomenon. Low, heat-dried squid (Dosidicus gigas) (SQ) and two commercial protein hydrolysates from fish (FH) and krill (Euphasia sp.) (KH) were assayed in feeding trials with Penaeus vannamei. Feeds were prepared with the tested proteins at 3%, 9%, and 15% of the total crude protein. A total of nine experimental feeds plus a commercial one as control (C32) were tried. Additionally, digestibility in vivo and in vitro was evaluated. Survival was not different among groups. Weight gain of shrimp and total and specific proteolytic activity for trypsin and chymotrypsin were affected by type and quantity of supplemented protein. In vivo and in vitro digestibilities were also influenced by the source and quantity of the protein supplement. Shrimp fed feed with FH at 3% protein supplementation grew more than those fed with higher supplementations. Groups fed SQ had similar results as those fed FH, and gained more weight when fed the lowest SQ quantity. SDS-PAGE showed a large concentration of small peptides in SQ, which may explain results similar to FH. KH enhanced shrimp growth at all supplementations and had a lower degree of hydrolysis (DH) than FH. SQ also demonstrated good growth performance, but better at the lower supplementation, probably because of the presence of small peptides and possibly free amino acids from protein hydrolyzed by endogenous enzymes in the squid mantle. We conclude that hydrolyzed protein is a good supplement for shrimp feeds, but it must meet specific requirements for adequate assimilation.
Article
The feeding strategy used in the commercial culture of shrimp can have a significant impact on pond water quality and hence growth, health and survival of the shrimp, as well as the efficiency of feed utilization. These factors contribute to the profitability of production and to the environmental impact of shrimp farming. The effect of four different feeding frequencies (3, 4, 5 and 6 feedings day−1) on the growth and survival of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and water quality was studied in an 8-week growth trial. The shrimp were held in 20×2500-l outdoor tanks containing water and sediment from a shrimp pond. The water management and aeration strategies were designed to simulate a shrimp pond system. The shrimp (initial weight of 5.6 g) were stocked at a density of 25 animals m−2 and fed a widely used, commercial pelleted feed, with all the feed being placed on feeding trays. The uneaten feed on the feeding trays was removed at specific time intervals so that in all treatments, the shrimp had access to the feed for 12 h day−1. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences due to feeding frequency on growth rate (1.4±0.08 g week−1), feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.0±0.27) or survival (84±7.6%) of shrimp. Similarly, the water quality parameters (total N, ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, dissolved organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, phosphate, chlorophyll a, oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, turbidity) were not different among treatments. The results suggest that there is no benefit from feeding P. monodon more frequently than 3 times day−1 when using a feed that is nutritionally adequate and has high water stability. Therefore, it may be possible to reduce feeding frequency in commercial shrimp ponds without adversely affecting water quality, shrimp growth rate and survival, thereby improving farm profitability.
Article
Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (Ph. D.)--Texas A & M University, 1986. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-75). "Major subject: Nutrition."
Feed attractants and stimulants in practical feeds for blue shrimp L. stylirostris and freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii Supplement of various attractants to a practical feed for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius
  • R Mendoza
  • J Montemayor
  • C Aguilera
  • J Verde
  • G Rodriguez
  • Usa Murai
  • T Sumalangcay
  • A Piedad-Pascual
Mendoza, R., Montemayor, J., Aguilera, C., Verde, J. & Rodriguez, G. (2001) Feed attractants and stimulants in practical feeds for blue shrimp L. stylirostris and freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. In: Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts (Devor, R. ed), p. 433. World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Murai, T., Sumalangcay, A. & Piedad-Pascual, F. (1983) Supplement of various attractants to a practical feed for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Fish. Res. J. Philipp., 8, 61–67.
The nutri-tional response of two penaeid species to various levels of squid 271 Efficacy of ingredients to stimulate shrimp feed intake
  • J L Fenucci
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  • A L Lawrence
Fenucci, J.L., Zein-Eldin, Z.P. & Lawrence, A.L. (1980) The nutri-tional response of two penaeid species to various levels of squid 271 Efficacy of ingredients to stimulate shrimp feed intake............................................................................................. Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Aquaculture Nutrition 11; 263–272 meal in a prepared feed. Proc. World Mariculture Soc., 11, 403– 409.
Utilization of plant proteins by warmwater fish
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Lim, C. & Dominy, W.G. (1991) Utilization of plant proteins by warmwater fish. In: Proceedings of the Aquaculture Feed Processing and Nutrition Workshop, 19-25 September 1991, Thailand and Indonesia (Akiyama, D.M. & Tan, R.K.H. eds), pp. 80-98. American Soybean Association, Singapore.
Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International
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AOAC International (1999) Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, MD, USA.
Research in the Americas
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  • P G Lee
Lawrence, A.L. & Lee, P.G. (1997) Research in the Americas. In: Crustacean Nutrition (D'Abramo, L.R., Conklin, D.E. & Akiyama, D.M. eds), pp. 566-587. World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Feed attractants and stimulants in practical feeds for blue shrimp L. stylirostris and freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii
  • R Mendoza
  • J Montemayor
  • C Aguilera
  • J Verde
  • G Rodriguez
Mendoza, R., Montemayor, J., Aguilera, C., Verde, J. & Rodriguez, G. (2001) Feed attractants and stimulants in practical feeds for blue shrimp L. stylirostris and freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. In: Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts (Devor, R. ed), p. 433. World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Supplement of various attractants to a practical feed for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius
  • T Murai
  • A Sumalangcay
  • F Piedad-Pascual
Murai, T., Sumalangcay, A. & Piedad-Pascual, F. (1983) Supplement of various attractants to a practical feed for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Fish. Res. J. Philipp., 8, 61-67.