Article

The efficacy of ingredients included in shrimp feeds to stimulate intake

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The inclusion in feed formulations of ingredients that act as attractants and feeding incitants or stimulants has been proposed as a means of increasing feed consumption, and hence growth, of farmed shrimp. Squid, crustacean and krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates and a betaine product (Finnstim) were examined to assess their relative effectiveness in increasing the feed intake of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These presumed feeding effectors were added to a base feed at between 5 and 50 g kg−1. Given a choice between the base feed and one containing one of the test ingredients, P. monodon showed a significantly greater preference for the feeds containing crustacean or krill meal. Four of the presumed feeding effectors were further evaluated in a growth response experiment. There was no significant difference in the amount the shrimp consumed of any of the feeds. However, the growth rate of the shrimp was about 20% faster on the feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal. Although ingredients such as crustacean meal or krill meal can improve feed intake, in practical feed formulations that contain significant amounts of terrestrial protein but relatively low levels of marine ingredients, there does not appear to be need for additional feeding effectors. However, crustacean meal and krill meal do provide a significant nutritional benefit, as seen by the improved growth rates in this study.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Willams et al. (2005) reported that the growth rate of Penaeus monodon fed diets containing shrimp head meal and krill meal as a chemoattractant was 1.66 and 1.68% per day, respectively, while it was only 0.95% per day in the group fed a basal diet that did not contain any attractant. Similarly, about 20% faster growth was observed by Smith et al. (2005) when crustacean meal or krill meal was supplemented to same species compared to the control group. Suresh and Nates (2011) found increased attractability in Litopenaeus stylirostris reared with fishmeal challenged diet using 20% poultry-byproduct (w/w) with the supplementation of 3% squid liver meal and krill meal. ...
... This statement is in agreement with the findings of Hartati and Briggs (1993), who documented that betaine increased the attractiveness of casein-based, semi-purified diet of shrimp. The daily feed intake of shrimp reared with various chemoattractants is reported by Smith et al. (2005) (Table 4), who revealed that increasing the inclusion level of chemoattractants increased daily feed intake except squid meal, where the reverse trend was noticed. However, a positive response in feed intake was observed by Holland and Borski (1993) with squid meal in penaeid shrimp. ...
... But they become very effective when used with some other chemical stimulants particularly betaine, glycine and inosine. Polat (1999) reported that in addition to acting as a chemoattractant, these L-amino acids could be recognised as important energy source when supplemented Smith et al. (2005) with valine, serine, leucine and isoleucine in fish. Nunes et al. (2006) observed the superior effect of commercially available amino acid mix in attracting P. vannamei when compared with betaine, indicating that a blend of amino acids would be a better attractant than individual ones. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture serves as a sustainable source of good quality wholesome food and major input is feed. In recent years, considerable quantities of plant sources have been attempted for inclusion in shrimp feed, due to high demand and high cost of fishmeal. Plant-based ingredients are in general poor in attractability and palatability to aquatic species compared to marine sources. It is desirable to develop an economical and nutritious feed that is attractive and palatable for ensuring reduction of feed wastage. Chemoattractants nowadays are unavoidable in commercial shrimp feeds and are included either individually or in combination. The present review revealed that the various marine sources, in particular krill meal would be more effective for aquatic species, compared to those derived from vegetable origin and chemical compounds. In addition to acting as a feed attractant, marine sources serve as a potential fishmeal substitute due to their rich nutritional composition. However, certain biogenic amines present in these marine-based ingredients need to be examined before their use, since these amines when present in high concentrations reduces feed intake by producing undesirable odour. Use of a combination of chemoattractants would give a better effect, rather than using them individually and compounds from plant origin have limited beneficial effects. The present review concludes that incorporation of chemoattractants would be beneficial in formulation of enriched and economical feeds with better attractability and palatability. The selection of suitable attractant and their supplementation at correct proportion is significantly more important to avoid undesirable effects in cultured shrimp. Further field-based research is needed to predict the actual effects of chemoattractants on farmed shrimp and to provide a sustainable base for the expansion of shrimp aquaculture sector, by reducing feed wastage.
... In recent years, substantial effort has been allocated to replace fish meal by plant protein sources in shrimp feeds, such as the widely available and cost-effective soybean meal (Samocha et al., 2004;Smith et al., 2005;Amaya et al., 2007ab;Roy et al., 2009;Sookying et al., 2013;Tantikitti, 2014;Galkanda-Arachchige et al., 2019;Guo et al., 2020). Soybean meal is considered an adequate ingredient in shrimp diets due to its high protein content, good digestibility and well-balanced amino acid profile, albeit it also has low methionine level (Davis and Arnold, 2000;Amaya et al., 2007aAmaya et al., , 2007bSookying et al., 2013;Tantikitti, 2014;Zhou et al., 2015;Guo et al., 2020;. ...
... The latest results of soybean-based diets on shrimp growth performance are promising both under in-laboratory Roy et al., 2009;Sookying and Davis, 2012;Zhou et al., 2015;Galkanda-Arachchige et al., 2019;Guo et al., 2020) and ponds systems (Roy et al., 2009;Sookying and Davis, 2012;Jescovitch et al., 2018;Ullman et al., 2019a;Ullman et al., 2019b;Reis et al., 2020). However, the addition of feeding effectors (chemoattractants, feeding incitants and stimulants) in diets with high percentage of plant material has been suggested to improve feed detection and consumption by stimulating shrimp chemosensory systems (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016). Such stimulation can also contribute to the minimalization of leaching of nutrients and feed waste caused by the intensive food manipulation and selective feeding behavior of shrimp (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Sanchez et al., 2005). ...
... The enhancement of desirable chemosensory characteristics of soybean-based shrimp diets has been attained by adding low percentages of ingredients (1 to 6% of meals, oils and hydrolysates) derived from aquatic animals, such as of krill, squid and fish (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Smith et al., 2005;Grey et al., 2009;Derby et al., 2016). These ingredients are rich in chemical signal compounds, particularly amino acids and nucleotides, that are readily detectable by the chemosensory systems of crustaceans (Derby and Sorensen, 2008;Suresh et al., 2011). ...
Article
The inclusion of feeding effectors in plant-based diets is a strategy to accelerate feed detection and consumption by shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of krill meal (KM), krill oil (KO) and fish hydrolysate (FH) addition to a soybean-based diet on feeding behavior and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ten diets (360 g/kg crude protein) were formulated including FH, KM and KO at 0, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg levels named as: Basal (0); FH10 (10 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH20 (20 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH40 (40 g/kg fish hydrolysate); KM1 (10 g/kg krill meal), KM20 (20 g/kg krill meal), KM40 (40 g/kg krill meal); KO10 (10 g/kg krill oil), KO20 (20 g/kg krill oil) and KO40 (40 g/kg krill oil). A growth trial was performed using twenty shrimp (0.15 ± 0.01 g) stocked per 100 L glass aquaria (four replicates/diet) in an indoor clear water recirculation system (4.2 ppt, 28 °C). Animals were fed the experimental diets four times a day for six weeks. At the end of the trial all animals were counted and weighted. Following, 300 animals (3.93 ± 0.35 g) were aleatory selected and transferred back to the system (10 shrimp/aquaria). Three replicates were used per treatment (ten diets) for feed intake and acoustic feeding behavior analysis. The food consumption and feeding activity sounds were recorded simultaneously in 30 min intervals during five consecutive days. All feeding effectors at the inclusion levels tested significantly increased L. vannamei food consumption and the passive acoustic monitoring indicated that shrimp ate faster and for longer periods of time. Food consumption was significantly higher in the treatments KM20, KM40 and KO40. The addition of feeding effectors also enhanced shrimp growth performance and significantly better values of biomass, final weight, and food conversion ratio were observed in the treatment KM40. Weight gain (%) was significantly improved only in shrimp offered KM40, KO20 and KO40 diets. It is concluded that KM, KO and FH can stimulate food consumption of soy-based diet by L. vannamei from 10 g/kg addition while the amount of food consumed and growth has been shown to be in general dose-related, although in a different way, for each type of feeding effector.
... Ingredients of animal origin, especially aquatic organisms, are feeding attractants in shrimp (Smith et al., 2005) because they are rich in small soluble chemical compounds such as certain amino acids, nucleotides and some organic acids. Each of these has been identified as a feeding stimulant and palatability enhancer. ...
... Each of these has been identified as a feeding stimulant and palatability enhancer. Many studies have reported that fish meal, fish protein hydrolysate, squid meal and casein serve as attractants and improve feed intake of shrimp when incorporated into the feed at optimal levels (Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Grey et al., 2009;Bankefors et al., 2011;Tantikitti, 2014;Montoya-Martínez et al., 2018). Under the experimental conditions in our study, feed intake rate significantly increased when 3% of each test protein ingredients (FM, FPH, SqM or CN) was added to the bland control feed. ...
... Therefore, rapid and inexpensive testing of a wide range of potential protein ingredients, or other phagostimulants, is possible. Unlike feed tests incorporate an ingredient or stimuli into a complete feed composed of a number of other ingredients (Smith et al., 2005;Suresh and Nates, 2011), our assay incorporated ingredients into a bland feed, which minimized influences from other feed ingredients that may contain compounds that could potentially confound the feeding response. ...
Article
A simple bioassay that quantifies feed intake as an estimation of relative attractability of feeds containing different ingredients in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is described. Fish meal (FM), fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), squid meal (SqM) and casein (CN) were assessed at the same dietary level for their relative influence on feed intake rates of Litopenaeus vannamei. A bland diet containing 92% whole wheat grain meal, 6% diatomaceous earth and 2% alginate with a known low attractability was used as the standard control or base diet. Ingredients were added to the bland base control diet at a level of 3% as fed. Shrimp were stocked into 80 L glass tanks (n = 20 per tank) in a recirculating aquaculture system. Tanks were randomly assigned to one of five diet treatments (3 tanks/treatment). Experiments measuring the attractability of each feed were conducted twice daily at 0900 h and 1330 h over a five day period. For each experiment, 40 feed pellets (ca. 1 g) corresponding to the assigned treatment were provided to each tank. To calculate the rate of feed intake, pellets remaining in each tank were counted at six minute intervals for a seventy-two minute period. Differences in rate of feed intake among diets were evaluated using Cox Regression Analysis. This attractability assay required only small amounts of ingredients and incorporated ingredients into a bland feed, which significantly reduces the influence from other ingredients or compound in the pellets. All of the test protein ingredients, especially SqM, in the feeds significantly increased the feed intake rate. The diet containing SqM was consumed at a significantly higher rate than those containing casein and FM but not FPH. FPH and CN containing diets were not significantly different but consumed at a higher rate than the diet containing FM. Results of these trials indicate that the presence of certain ingredients can increase feed intake, thereby increasing nutrient availability of the diets. This reported method to determine feed intake of diets containing certain ingredients may be considered as a valid method to estimate attractability for shrimp in culture.
... The efficacy of krill meal, other animal meals, or other chemicals as chemostimulatory additives is often evaluated using growth rate as a measure (e.g. Harpaz, 1997;Felix and Sudharsan, 2004;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2011;Suresh et al., 2011). However, this metric does not allow parsing out the underlying mechanisms, such as enhancement of consumption or direct nutritional effects due to the quality of ingested protein or other nutrients, which is important in designing better additives. ...
... They might improve attractability by stimulating appetitive phases of behavior, such as arousal, search initiation, and locating the food. They also might improve palatability and thus affect the consummatory phase, thereby enhancing ingestion (Holland and Borski, 1993;Lee and Meyers, 1997;Samocha et al., 2004;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Suresh et al., 2011). Studies on effects of feed additives on ingestion have largely focused on end-of-experiment outcomes for groups of animals, such as total amount of food eaten by a group, and usually have not included behavioral observations of individual animals and quantification of their ingestive behavior over a feeding trial, such as changes in their handling of food and changes in their rate of consumption over feeding bouts. ...
... Previous work investigated the use of marine animal additives to improve the performance of feed pellets high in plant material in the commercial aquaculture of shrimp. These studies showed that marine animal additives can improve feed performance by two means, both of which can lead to faster growth: i) enhancing attractability by stimulating appetitive phases of behavior such as arousal, search initiation, and locating the food; and ii) enhancing palatability and thus increased consumption (Holland and Borski, 1993;Lee and Meyers, 1997;Samocha et al., 2004;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al., 2011). Our study demonstrated these effects as well, but went further by identifying the mechanisms underlying the enhanced attractability and palatability. ...
... Either freeze-dried hydrolysate meals or extracts of natural organisms like squid, scallop, krill, worms, or mussel could be viewed as attractants to enhance dietary palatability (Akiyama et al., 1984;Hartati and Briggs, 1993;Hernández et al., 2011;Kader et al., 2012;Nagel et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2005). A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that fish hydrolysate can be used as protein supplements, attractants and palatability enhancers in aquatic animal feeds (Aksnes et al., 2006;Anggawati et al., 1990;Bui et al., 2014;Hernández et al., Aquaculture 465 (2016) ...
... Hence, it has been recommended that research into the area of attractants and palatability enhancers or supplements to enhance growth performance in plant-based diets should receive more attention in future years (Browdy et al., 2007;Gatlin and Li, 2008). Marine feedstuffs including fish meal, fish oil, squid meal, krill meal, fish soluble, and various protein hydrolysates are well known to be highly palatable to various aquatic animals (Barrows and Hardy, 2000;Carr and Derby, 1986;Derby et al., 2016;Harpaz, 1997;Holland and Borski, 1993;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Suresh et al., 2011). In fish, several previous studies have demonstrated the protein hydrolysates from byproducts of marine sources would provide the beneficial effects in Goldfish Carassius auratus L. (Szlaminska et al., 1991), Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Carvalho et al., 1997), Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Infante et al., 1997). ...
... Likewise, results of Trial 3 (Table 8) confirmed that there are no significant differences regarding growth performance with the similar basal diet supplemented with 6% Squ or squid meal. Protein hydrolysates as an attractant in crustacean have been assessed with ambiguous or marginal results: improvements in growth in Pacific white shrimp (Anggawati et al., 1990;Córdova-Murueta and Garcıá-Carreño, 2002;Floreto et al., 2001;Hernández et al., 2011) or giant tiger prawn P. monodon, (Anggawati et al., 1990), while no significant effect of growth were observed in giant tiger prawn (Hartati and Briggs, 1993;Smith et al., 2005). This phenomenon is attributed to many factors such as the supplemental level, variation of quality for protein hydrolysates (different amino acids profile etc.), the different diet formulation (re-pelleted commercial feed, practical diet, or semi-purified diets), and different rearing period and conditions as well as different species. ...
... Among different feeding effectors commercially used in shrimp feeds (betaine, hydrolysates, squid and crustaceans), crustacean and krill meal are the most efficient drivers of feed intake in tiger shrimp (Smith et al. 2005). Moreover, krill meal increases the number of pellets eaten by whiteleg shrimp in a concentration-dependent manner by promoting longer, rather than faster consumption (Derby et al. 2016). ...
... The growth-enhancing activity is partly explained by the supply of inorganic elements and nutrient balance having positive influence on feed intake. A growth factor is present in the insoluble protein portion in crustacean-derived ingredients (Smith et al. 2005, Williams et al. 2005). Juvenile tiger shrimp grow 20 percent faster on feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal (Smith et al. 2005), while growth of shrimp increased from 0.58 g/wk with a basal diet to 1.22 g/wk with diets containing krill meal (Williams et al. 2005). ...
... A growth factor is present in the insoluble protein portion in crustacean-derived ingredients (Smith et al. 2005, Williams et al. 2005). Juvenile tiger shrimp grow 20 percent faster on feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal (Smith et al. 2005), while growth of shrimp increased from 0.58 g/wk with a basal diet to 1.22 g/wk with diets containing krill meal (Williams et al. 2005). Krill meal enhances culture performance of juvenile whiteleg shrimp fed a soy protein concentrate-based diet containing only 5 percent fishmeal (Sá et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In shrimp farming, increasing attention is given to Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) living in the Southern Ocean to improve yield and stress resistance without increasing production costs. Krill is a shrimp-like swarming pelagic crustacean, which is used as a feed additive in diet formulations, mainly in the form of a high-protein krill meal. Krill meal is a feed attractant and shrimp growth accelerator. Krill meal is a sustainable and pure alternative to fish meal consisting of around 11% omega-3 phospholipids. Shrimp inefficiently produce phospholipids and depend on dietary addition for building membranes, fat storage/transport and resisting to adverse growing conditions. Dietary phospholipids increase the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides and omega-3 fatty acids from the digestive tract to the hepatopancreas and over the hemolymph to tissues. The feed attractants in krill meal improve growth performance of shrimp fed normal, but also vegetable or poultry protein-rich diets and the omega-3 phospholipids may improve energy transport and stress sensitivity.
... Responses to feeding effectors (term suggested by Smith et al. (2005), for chemoattractants, starters and stimulators) either natural, purified or synthetic compounds have been widely studied on marine shrimp because of its relevance in the understanding of feeding behavior of these crustaceans (Huang et al., 2005;Sánchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Ali et al., 2007;Grey et al., 2009). Chemoreceptors in crustaceans in general are sensitive to low molecular weight water soluble chemicals such as: aminoacids, ammonia quaternary compounds, nucleo-tides and biogenic amines (Lee & Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al., 2006). ...
... Responses to feeding effectors (term suggested by Smith et al. (2005), for chemoattractants, starters and stimulators) either natural, purified or synthetic compounds have been widely studied on marine shrimp because of its relevance in the understanding of feeding behavior of these crustaceans (Huang et al., 2005;Sánchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Ali et al., 2007;Grey et al., 2009). Chemoreceptors in crustaceans in general are sensitive to low molecular weight water soluble chemicals such as: aminoacids, ammonia quaternary compounds, nucleo-tides and biogenic amines (Lee & Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al., 2006). ...
... Chemoreceptors in crustaceans in general are sensitive to low molecular weight water soluble chemicals such as: aminoacids, ammonia quaternary compounds, nucleo-tides and biogenic amines (Lee & Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al., 2006). It is known that ingredients of aquatic animal origin (such as soluble meals of mollusks and crustaceans), are rich in these compounds and therefore, they act as excellent attractants (Smith et al., 2005;Ali et al., 2007). In the other hand, non-aquatic animal sub-product meals such as: poultry sub-products meals and blood meal show lower levels of those compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work evaluates the attractant and palatable potential of six ingredients of animal origin in longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles in a Y type maze system. Ingredients were pelletized for the first bioassay and included in neutral gelatin (in wet base) in the second bioassay. The ingredient to evaluate was placed in one of the Y-maze arms, allowing the free movement of prawn for 15 min. On both bioassays, attractability was evaluated by quantifying the time required for the first prawn to enter the region where the feed was found and the total of prawns which entered that region. In the second bioassay, also evaluated the palatability quantifying the time for the first prawn to have contact with the ingredient, the total of prawns which had contact with it and the time they remained feeding. No significant differences were obtained between treatments in the first bioassay. Significant differences were found in the second bioassay showing that pork meal, fish meal, feather meal and shrimp meal have greater attractability due to the number of prawns attracted, results also show significant differences in palatability, where fishmeal, shrimp meal and pork meal stimulating a higher number of organisms and promoting a longer consumption time.
... The authors found that shrimp growth increased curvilinearly from 0.95% per day in a basal diet to 1.66% and 1.68% in diets that contained 15% shrimp head meal (SHM) and 15% whole-dried krill meal (KRM). Similarly, Smith et al. (2005) reported that juvenile tiger shrimp grew about 20% faster on feeds containing crustacean meal or KRM. In the whiteleg shrimp, L. vannamei, Córdova-Murueta and García-Carreño (2002) found that a krill hydrolysate enhanced shrimp growth, when it replaced 3, 5, and 15% of the total dietary crude protein (CP) of a commercial feed. ...
... Marine chemoattractants selected for this study were chosen based on previous studies, where they have shown their ability to elicit a positive feeding response in marine shrimp (P. monodon, Cruz-Suárez et al. 1987;Fox, Blow, Brown, & Watson, 1994;Aquacop and Cuzon, 1989;Smith et al., 2005;Williams et al., 2005;L. vannamei, Cruz-Suárez et al. 1987;Córdova-Murueta & García-Carreño, 2002;Nunes et al., 2006;L. ...
... The diet with 3% KRM remained the most effective in the increase of shrimp final BW and yield and in the reduction of FCR in L. vannamei. The ability of KRM in stimulating feed ingestion and growth performance in penaeid shrimp is corroborated by other studies conducted with both P. monodon and L. vannamei (Sá et al., 2013;Sabry-Neto et al., 2017;Smith et al., 2005;Williams et al., 2005). However, there was scarce information with regard to its performance relative to other marine raw materials with stimulatory feeding properties. ...
Article
This study compared the feed preference and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to chemoattractants. A diet with 3% fishmeal was supplemented with either 3% salmon meal (POS), 3% soy protein concentrate (NEG), 3% krill meal (KRM), 3% squid meal (SQM), 3% shrimp head meal (SHM), 3% shrimp meal (SM), 3% squid liver meal (SLM), or 5% liquid sardine hydrolysate (SAH). Shrimp with a body weight (BW) of 0.99 ± 0.08 g were stocked at 100 animals/m2 in 56 tanks of 1 m3 and fed 10 times daily for 74 days. Feed preference was evaluated by feeding shrimp of 10.87 ± 1.82 g in excess twice a day for 10 days in two separate feeding trays allocated in 50 tanks of 0.5 m3. Survival reached 93.3 ± 5.80% and was unaffected by supplementation. Final BW was the highest for shrimp fed the KRM‐supplemented diet (11.97 ± 0.93 g), followed by POS (11.11 ± 0.77 g) and SQM (11.01 ± 1.17 g). Diets SHM, SM, SLM, and NEG showed a lower shrimp BW than POS, but were not statistically different among them. Shrimp fed the SAH diet achieved the lowest BW (10.06 ± 1.02 g). The highest gained yield was obtained with diets KRM and POS. No statistical difference was observed in shrimp yield among other diets. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was achieved with shrimp fed KRM (1.31 ± 0.05) when compared to diets SHM (1.47 ± 0.05), SAH (1.47 ± 0.07), and SLM (1.45 ± 0.17). Two‐by‐two comparisons indicated that shrimp preferred SHM and KRM, except when these were compared to SQM and SLM. No difference in feed preference was found between diets with SQM and SLM. SAH was the least preferred raw material in all comparisons. Results indicated that KRM acts as a powerful feeding effector and growth enhancer in fishmeal‐challenged diets for whiteleg shrimp. A dietary supplementation with 3% KRM is more effective than the same dose of any other chemoattractant evaluated.
... Estes resultados assemelham--se aos de Harpaz (1997), o qual registrou um aumento de 17% no ganho de peso de juvenis de Macrobrachium rosenbergii a partir da adição de 6 mL de uma solução de betaína--HCl (10 --3 M) introduzida nos tanques de cultivo. Smith et al. (2005), por sua vez, comprovaram que juvenis de Penaeus monodon apresentaram ganho de peso significativamente maior com rações que continham 5% de atrativos à base de farinha de crustáceos (23,01 %.semana --1 ) ou de krill (23,58 %.semana --1 ), em relação aos camarões alimentados com uma ração desprovida de atrativos. À semelhança, Córdova--Murueta & Garcia--Carreño (2002) registraram um aumento de 34% no ganho de peso semanal de juvenis L. vannamei quando estes tiveram sua ração suplementada com 3% de farinha de lula, e aumento de 31,5 e 33 %.semana --1 quando a ração foi aditivada com 9% de farinha de peixe e de krill, respectivamente. ...
... À semelhança dos resultados obtidos no presente estudo, Smith et al. (2005) demonstraram que o aumento do nível de inclusão de 1 para 5% de atrativos alimentares provenientes de farinha de crustáceos ou de krill numa ração composta principalmente por proteínas vegetais, provocava melhora no desempenho zootécnico de P. monodon. Contrariamente, Felix & Sudharsan (2004) concluíram que o aumento do nível de 0,5 para 1,5% de uma mistura entre o aminoácido glicina e betaína causava uma tendência a decréscimo no ganho de peso de juvenis M. rosenbergii; muito embora esses níveis exibissem um efeito positivo quando comparados a uma ração controle desprovida da mistura. ...
... Hartari & Briggs (1993) e Penaflorida & Virtanen (1996), por exemplo, constataram que a inclusão de níveis mais elevados de aditivos alimentares não resultava em aumento do consumo alimentar de juvenis de P. monodon, muito embora melhorasse o crescimento. Do mesmo modo, Smith et al. (2005) demonstraram que o aumento do nível de inclusão de estimulantes alimentares, constituído por farinha de lula, numa ração para juvenis de P. monodon, provocava um decréscimo no consumo alimentar e um aumento no peso dos animais. ...
Article
Full-text available
O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a utilização da biomassa de Artemia franciscana como aditivo alimentar no cultivo laboratorial do camarão marinho Litopenaeus schmitti. Durante 30 dias, os camarões (n=20) foram alimentados com ração comercial revestida com 3 diferentes níveis de biomassa de A. franciscana, correspondentes a 1, 3 e 5% da quantidade de ração ofertada. As variáveis temperatura, pH, salinidade, luminosidade, NH3 e NO2- da água foram monitoradas. Como critérios de avaliação foram determinados o ganho de peso absoluto (GPA), o ganho de peso relativo (GPR), a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR) e o consumo alimentar aparente (CAA) dos camarões. Adicionalmente, a estabilidade da ração física da ração e o teor de umidade da biomassa de A. franciscana foram aferidos. Os resultados relativos à estabilidade física da ração demonstraram que passadas 2 h de imersão, 80,9 ± 0,39% de seu conteúdo permaneceu íntegro. Por sua vez, o teste de umidade da biomassa indicou que 7,49 ± 0,19% de peso de A. franciscana representa a massa corpórea que revestiu as partículas de ração. Ao fim do experimento, o desempenho dos animais quanto ao GPA, GPR e TCR foi melhor nos tratamentos aditivados com maior percentual de biomassa. Já o CAA não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas (P >0,05) nos diferentes tratamentos. Os resultados desse estudo indicam que a adição de biomassa congelada de A. franciscana adulta à rações comerciais, em níveis correspondentes a 1, 3 e 5% da oferta diária de ração, aumenta o ganho de peso de juvenis de L. schmitti.
... The feed containing chicken feather meal at 20 and 35% had lower attractability and palatability. Smith et al. (2005) found that shrimp response to increasing doses of feeding effectors varied from one ingredient to another. While shrimp responded positively to increasing inclusion of krill from 1 to 5% by increasing feed consumption, they negatively responded to increasing inclusion of squid meal. ...
... L-alanine, L-serine) acted as feeding stimulants for red seabream Chrysophyrys major (Goh and Tamura, 1980) and Tilapia (Johnsen and Adams, 1986), as well as nucleotides and nucleosides, sugars and other hydrocarbons. Smith et al. (2005) attributed the enhanced growth of juvenile Peneaus monodon to krill meal and krill hydrolysate included in the diet as a rich source of small peptides and free amino acids. Protein hydrolysate produced from tuna viscera also improved pellet stability, attractability and palatability of diets without fishmeal resulting in improved feed intake of giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Sae-alee and Tantikitti, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Treated chicken feather meal with 20, 35 and 50% replacement of fish meal (20, 35, 50 CHF), algal meal with 20 and 35% replacement of fish meal (20, 35 AM) and control diet (CNL) were tested for attractability and pa-latability to juvenile gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Biochemical analysis of the ingredients revealed that treated chicken feather meal (CHF) had high levels of amino acids (AA), and high levels of protein whereas, AM and CNL had high levels of amino acid compositions (AA) except protein content for AM. The biochemical profile of CHF was only moderately superior to that of CNL. Algal meals (20% and 35%) were more attractable and palatable than the control whereas, 20, 35 and 50% CHF were not attractive. The 20 and 35% CHF were not palatable while 50% CHF was more palatable than CNL, 20 and 35% CHF. Attractability and palatability of treated chicken feather meal and algal meal to juvenile seabream were fairly consistent with the biochemical profile of the formulated diets.
... Crustaceans in general and shrimp in particular get attracted to food through chemo-attractants (Smith et al., 2005) recognized by the chemoreceptors situated all over their body, thus limiting the visual function of the eye. There are many substances (chemical) that leach out from the food that serve as the attractants triggering the chemoreceptors to recognize food. ...
... But the response decreased as the squid level increased (140g and 230g per kg). In con-trast, Smith et al. (2005) observed that there was little benefit in including squid meal in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) diet. However, squid elicited positive response as feed attractant in tiger shrimp in the present study, though it is less than the response elicited by FMP and CMP. ...
Article
Full-text available
Three feed materials, fish meat (from oil sardines) paste, squid mantle paste and clam meat (Meritrix sp.) paste, and three chemical compounds, trimethyl amine, trimethyl amine oxide, and dimethyl sulphone were evaluated for their attractant and growth promoting properties for Penaeus monodon. The materials were individually incorporated in a semi-purified diet consisting of casein (40%) and gelatin (10%), fish oil (6.0%) and bread flour (33%) along with vitamins, minerals, filler and binder at specific levels ; while the natural materials were included each at 0.5% (on dry matter basis), the other compounds were incorporated at 0.01% level. The shrimp approached the diet containing dimethylsulphone (DMS) in the quickest time of less than 5 minutes on an average, followed by the diet with trimethylamine oxide (TMO) in 7.2 minutes. These are followed by trimethyl amine (TMA) to which diet the shrimp approached and picked up in 14.2 minutes. Among the natural materials tested, the diets containing fish meat paste (FMP), clam meat paste (CMP) showed better attractant property. The results showed that the materials tested elicited positive response as feed attractants with varying degree. The results also showed that DMS and TMO seem to possess the highest attractant property to the shrimp. Consumption of diet increased with feed additives, compared to the control diet with TMO and DMS diets recording the highest consumption. The feed additives tested also resulted in growth enhancement of shrimp.
... Considering the importance of chemical signals during the development of crustaceans, it might be assumed that the incorporation of attractants to food would allow individuals to find potential food in a shorter period of time, increasing the possibility of ingestion (Mendoza et al. 1997). It has been demonstrated that squid meal acts as a stimulant, increasing food consumption in Homarus gammarus (Mackie & Shelton 1972), Penaeus stylirostris and P. setiferus (Fenucci et al. 1980), P. monodon (Smith et al. 2005), and Litopenaeus vannamei (Nunes et al. 2006). Similarly, shrimp protein hydrolysates stimulate feed consumption in C. quadricarinatus (Arredondo-Figueroa et al. 2013). ...
... Although crayfish have polytrophic feeding habits (Saoud & Ghanawi 2013), this study showed that squid protein extract in the tested concentration range did not increase the attractiveness of feed to Cherax quadricarinatus. This result disagrees with other studies on Pleoticus muelleri, Homarus gammarus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, P. setiferus and P. stylirostris (Mackie & Shelton 1972, Fenucci et al. 1980, Díaz et al. 1999, Smith et al. 2005, Nunes et al. 2006) even though the SM and the method for incorporating it into the experimental feed were the same across all studies. However, these other studies were performed on marine crustaceans (lobsters and shrimp), whereas this study is the first to test the effectiveness of SM as an attractant for a freshwater decapod. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical stimuli in crayfish have been extensively studied, especially in the context of social interactions, but also to a lesser extent in relation to food recognition and the physiological response of digestive enzymes. This is particularly important in commercial species in order to optimize the food supplied. The first objective of this study was to determine whether incorporation of squid meal (SM) in food (base feed, BF) acts as an additional attractant for Cherax quadricarinatus and, if so, the concentration required for optimal effectiveness. Incorporation of SM was evaluated through individual and group behavioral tests. The second objective was to analyze the effect of food availability on behavior and level of digestive enzyme activity after short-term (48 h) and long-term (16 d) starvation periods. To assess the effect of either starvation period, 3 different treatments were conducted: no feed (control), available BF, and BF present but not available. Individual and group behavior showed no differences among treatments with different percentages of SM inclusion in BF. The time spent in chambers with different percentages of SM was similar in all treatments. Levels of amylase activity and soluble protein, as a function of food availability after a short- or long-term starvation period, were not altered. Digestive enzyme activity was not affected after 2 d of starvation in response to the treatment. However, change was observed in enzymatic profiles after juveniles were deprived of food for 16 d. The main responses were given by lipase, protease and trypsin activity. Based on previous studies and the present results, we propose a hypothesis for a possible regulation of the digestive and intracellular lipase activities depending on food availability.
... Considering the importance of chemical signals during the development of crustaceans, it might be assumed that the incorporation of attractants to food would allow individuals to find potential food in a shorter period of time, increasing the possibility of ingestion (Mendoza et al. 1997). It has been demonstrated that squid meal acts as a stimulant, increasing food consumption in Homarus gammarus (Mackie & Shelton 1972), Penaeus stylirostris and P. setiferus (Fenucci et al. 1980), P. monodon (Smith et al. 2005), and Litopenaeus vannamei (Nunes et al. 2006). Similarly, shrimp protein hydrolysates stimulate feed consumption in C. quadricarinatus (Arredondo-Figueroa et al. 2013). ...
... Although crayfish have polytrophic feeding habits (Saoud & Ghanawi 2013), this study showed that squid protein extract in the tested concentration range did not increase the attractiveness of feed to Cherax quadricarinatus. This result disagrees with other studies on Pleoticus muelleri, Homarus gammarus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, P. setiferus and P. stylirostris (Mackie & Shelton 1972, Fenucci et al. 1980, Díaz et al. 1999, Smith et al. 2005, Nunes et al. 2006) even though the SM and the method for incorporating it into the experimental feed were the same across all studies. However, these other studies were performed on marine crustaceans (lobsters and shrimp), whereas this study is the first to test the effectiveness of SM as an attractant for a freshwater decapod. ...
... Se sabe que una elevada cantidad de harina de soya le confiere un efecto poco atrayente y antipalatable al alimento, lo que daña la conversión alimenticia (Webster et al., 1992;Sudaryono et al., 1995;Mendoza et al., 1999;Smith et al., 2005). Consecuentemente, se decidió valorar el empleo de ingredientes estimuladores del consumo. ...
... Los beneficios de la harina de cabeza de camarón han sido reconocidos por varios autores (Cruz-Suárez et al., 1993;Cuzon et al., 1994;Smith et al., 2005). Se ha planteado que este 69 ingrediente mejora la atracción hacia el alimento y palatabilidad del mismo (Hertrampf y Farooq, 2001), contribuyendo a minimizar el tiempo de exposición del alimento en el agua, las pérdidas de nutrientes y mejorando la eficiencia de alimentación (Tacon et al., 2000). ...
... The shells presented the following essential amino acids: methionine, arginine, threonine, tryptophan (is deleted in the method used), histidine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine, valine, and phenylalanine. Of these, methionine and lysine are essential for aquatic species (Li, Mai, Trushenki, & Wu, 2009;Mach et al., 2010;Smith, Tabrett, Barclay, & Irvin, 2005). Besides the high protein content, it has an amino acid composition suitable for human consumption. ...
... al. 2003;Oliveira Cavalheiro et. al. 2007;Shahidi & Synowiecki, 1991;Smith et al., 2005) and than hard shell crab lump and claw (Benjakul & Suttipan, 2009), while the ash content is similar. However, the lipid content of snow crab shells (17.1% dw) was higher (Benjakul & Suttipan, 2009;Heu et al., 2003;Manu-Tawiah & Haard, 1987;Naczk, Williams, Brennan, Liyanapathirana, & Shahidi, 2004;Oliveira Cavalheiro et al., 2007;Ramamohanrao, Kallapur, & Narasubhai, 1983;Shahidi & Synowiecki, 1991), and thus it can be used as a feed for aquatic species. ...
Article
The snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) shells have potential important economical and industrial applications due to theirchemical composition. They have a high content of protein (34.2% dw) and essential amino acids; they also have fat (17.1% dw), with a high proportion of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. About 28.5% dw corresponds to ash (calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium are the major minerals). The mean concentrations of vitamin E, astaxantin, and β-carotene were 23.3, 9.49, and 0.2 mg/100 g dw, respectively. Results presented in this study indicate that snow crab by-products may serve as excellent nutritional components for future applications in the health and food sectors.Los caparazones del cangrejo de las nieves (Chionoecetes opilio) pueden tener aplicaciones industriales y económicas potencialmente importantes debido a su composición química. En su composición destaca el elevado contenido en proteínas (34,2% ms) y aminoácidos esenciales, en lípidos totales (17,1% ms), con una elevada proporción de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω3, en cenizas (28% (ms), principalmente calcio, fosfatos y magnesio. La concentración media de vitamina E es de 23,3 mg /100 g ms, de astaxantina 9,49 mg /100 g ms, de β-caroteno 0,2 mg /100 g ms. El alto contenido en nutrientes, puesto de manifiesto en este estudio, indica que los productos de desecho del cangrejo de las nieves pueden ser utilizados como productos de alto valor añadido para su aplicación en suplementación de dietas para alimentación humana y acuicultura.
... The rationale of unknown nutrients and bioactive compounds that promotes shrimp growth have been investigated for years. Some of the key ingredients and additives responsible for these "unknown growth factors" in shrimp nutrition include fishmeal, invertebrate meals, marine hydrolysates, algae, and microbial biomass products (Cruz-Ricque et al., 1987Guillaume et al., 1989;Cordova-Murueta and Garcia-Carreno, 2002;Smith et al., 2005;Williams et al., 2005;Glencross et al., 2014Glencross et al., , 2015Glencross et al., , 2020Simon et al., 2019). Although some advances have been made the entire mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. ...
... Although some advances have been made the entire mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. Attempts to explain it have focused on feed attraction and palatability, balance and bioavailability of nutrients, improvement in digestion and absorption, postpandrial nutrient balance, and gut microbiota (Cruz-Ricque et al., 1987Guillaume et al., 1989;Smith et al., 2005;Glencross et al., 2014Glencross et al., , 2015Glencross et al., , 2020Simon et al., 2019). The squid factor, as defined by Guillaume et al. (1989), is the enhanced growth in shrimp fed squid without a robust explanation of its functions. ...
Article
Although Litopenaeus vannamei is the most produced and researched shrimp species worldwide, there are no published studies evaluating the use of the microbial biomass, Novacq™, in L. vannamei feeds. This study investigated the effects of supplementing Novacq™ at 100 g kg−1 in practical and commercial feeds in postlarvae 12 (PL 12) and juvenile white leg shrimp. Three experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, PL12 were fed for 21 days with a Control, Novacq™ or Commercial feed. The Novacq feed was equal in PL12 performance to the Commercial diet and superior to the Control (final individual weight = 0.169, 0.167 and 0.087 g; percentage weight gain = 8014, 7956 and 4091% for Novacq™, Commercial and Control feeds, respectively). No statistical differences in survival, coefficient of variation and daily feed offered were observed across dietary treatments. In Experiments 2 and 3 the performance of juvenile shrimp fed practical and Commercial feeds supplemented with Novacq™ for 42 days, respectively. In Experiment 2, Novacq™ feed outperformed the Control feed by improving survival (89 vs. 51%), final individual weight (7.4 vs. 3.5 g), weight gain (7.1 vs. 3.2 g), and percentage weight gain (1997 vs. 898%). In Experiment 3 supplementing Novacq™ into the Commercial feed improved performance (final individual weight = 6.4 vs. 5.5 g, weight gain = 6.0 vs. 5.1 g, and percentage weight gain = 1712 vs 1443%) and reduced the coefficient of variation (19 vs 53%). Shrimp fed feeds containing Novacq™ also displayed numerically reduced daily feed offered and estimated feed conversion ratio values in comparison to the other dietary treatments. Whole-body composition was similar across dietary treatments. In summary, supplementation of Novacq™ in practical and Commercial feeds improved growth and efficiency of PL12 and juvenile shrimp suggesting its validity as a useful feed additive in the nutrition of white leg shrimp.
... Shrimp culture plays an important role in aquaculture and is among the fastest growing sectors of global seafood aquaculture with production levels that have stabilized at 3.5 million tons since 2012 (FAO, 2016). Hence, evaluating the application of krill meal in shrimp culture is important, but most studies have only focused on its use to enhance growth or promote feed intake (Nunes, S, & Sabry-Neto, 2011;Smith, Tabrett, Barclay, & Irvin, 2005). ...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary replacement fish meal supplemented with freeze‐dried powder of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (FDPE) on the growth performance, molting, and fatty acid composition of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (initial weight 1.27 ± 0.09 g). Four diets containing 0% (S0 group), 10% (S10 group), 20% (S20 group), and 30% (S20 group) FDPE were used in the present study. At the end of growth trial, the final body weight, weight gain rate, and specific growth rate in the S10, S20, and S30 groups were higher than those in the S0 group. The shrimp in the S10 and S20 groups exhibited better molting synchronism than those in the S0 group. The astaxanthin content in the hepatopancreas from the shrimp in the groups supplemented with FDPE was significantly higher than that in the S0 group (p < 0.05) and increased as the FDPE content in the feed increased. The shrimp in the S10, S20, and S30 groups had a higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in the hepatopancreas than those in the S0 group. The sum of EPA and DHA in the muscles from the shrimp in the S0 group was lower than that in the other groups. These results indicate that the dietary inclusion of 10%–20% FDPE can be used as practical diets in L. vannamei farmed under a clear water system.
... It has been reported that the quantities of leaching observed to be high in acetate, exhibiting 100% in 30 min (da Silva et al. 2013). The attractability of diet stimulates shrimp to initiate feeding and continue feeding (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Nunes et al. 2006;Derby et al. 2016) and ultimately leads to enhanced growth performance (Smith et al. 2005;Suresh et al. 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the effect of acidifying the diet of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon on its growth and feed efficiency by supplementing coconut sap vinegar CSV) or sugar cane vinegar (SCV) or their 1:1 combination. Three hundred and sixty post larva shrimps (average initial weight of 0.01g) were randomly distributed into 12 50-L plastic containers. Four experimental diets, namely, control diet, 2% CSV, 2% SCV and 2% CSV+SCV were fed to groups of shrimps. After 90 days, all shrimps fed with diets containing vinegar exhibited significantly higher final average body weight (FABW), weight gain (WG), feed intake, specific growth rate (SGR), and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed the control diet. Attractability tests showed that the CSV and CSV+SCV diets attracted significantly the highest percentage of shrimps after 10 min of feed placement. Survival rate was not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the vinegars tested could be used as growth enhancers in shrimp and that the combination of coconut sap and sugar cane vinegars supplemented to the diet resulted in the best growth and feed efficiency as well as attracted the most percentage of shrimps. Produced by the AquacultureHub non-profit Foundation the IJA is an open-access, scientific journal, published on http://www.aquaculturehub.org/group/israelijournalofaq uaculturebamidgehija To read papers free of charge, please register online at the above website. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden. 2 dela Calzada et al.
... As to crustacean diets, Anggawati et al. (1990), Córdova-Murueta and García-Carreño (2002), Floreto et al. (2001) and Hertrampf and Piedad-Pascual (2000) found that Litopenaeus vannamei and Homarus americanus fed diets supplemented with fish protein hydrolysates showed an increase in growth. However, Smith et al. (2005) have reported that practical feed formulations for the Black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, which contain significant amounts of terrestrial protein and relatively low levels of marine ingredients, do not require additional ingredients, since they observed that addition of 20 g kg − 1 of fish hydrolysates to a basal feed containing low levels of other attractants did not elicit an increase of the daily feed intake or of shrimp growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 52–54% of the total weight of tuna fish is discarded as waste during canning. This waste can be stabilized through lactic acid fermentation to form a partially hydrolyzed, protein-rich product that is enriched with microbial biomass. The product can be used as an additive to improve the nutritional value of the terrestrial protein ingredients that are included in shrimp feed formulations. The objective of this research was to study the capacity of tuna by-product protein hydrolysates (TBPH) to improve the quality and digestibility of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) diets that contain porcine meat meal (PMM). The six experimental diets were isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) and isoenergetic (18.4MJkg−1): the first contained PMM as the main protein source; four diets containing 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0% TBPH as one of the protein dietary sources. The sixth was supplemented with 10% commercial tuna by-product meal (TBM). The diets were tested for 6 weeks in triplicate tanks, each with 10 juvenile shrimp (initial body weight of 1.6g). There were no significant differences in total feed intake among treatments, but the shrimp fed diets supplemented with 5% TBPH had significantly greater weight gain (8.6g), a better feed conversion ratio (1.3), and a higher specific growth rate (5.1%day−1) than those fed diets with greater amounts of TBPH or the basal diet (one-way ANOVA tests). A broken line model revealed maximum growth of the shrimp fed 4.4% TBPH. The increased performance was attributed to the positive effect of TBPH, which provided additional attractants and improved the overall protein digestibility and amino acid profile of the diets. Thus, TBPH provided a significant nutritional benefit that positively affected the growth performance of shrimp.
... amino acids (e.g. alanine, arginine, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, serine and taurine) and Bet, the derivative of amino acid, shares the same composition with glycine so that it could also be used as feed stimulant, had been found to be effective on Penaeus monodon, and the mixture of amino acids and Bet could be more effective (Coman et al. 1996). Smith et al. (2005 reported the by-products of Values are means AE SD (n = 4). Values within the same line with different superscript letters are significantly different as determined by ANOVA (P < 0.05). RWG, relative weight gain; SGR, specific growth ratio; FCR, food conversation ratio; FI, feed intake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Article
The feeding trials were carried out with freshwater crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to evaluate the three feed stimulants betaine (Bet), squid extract (SE) and squid meal (SM) upon fish meal (FM) diets or biofeed (BF) diets in which FM were partially replaced by BF. Results showed the three feed stimulants had no significant effect on growth. By the relative concentration of markers in the faeces and diets, the preference for each diet was estimated, and the best stimulant was the mixture of Bet, SE and SM. As FM replaced by BF increased, added with the mixture, the relative weight gain showed an increasing trend, but decreased significantly by 30% replacement. With the substitution increasing, trypsin activities increased, whereas decreased too upon 30% substitution. Less than 30% replacement, there was no significant effect on muscle proximate composition, intestine amylase activities and serum haemocyanin contents, except the drop of lipid. The results indicated that the mixture of Bet, SE and SM could perform well as a feed stimulant. And with the addition of the mixture, FM in the diet could make about no more than 20% saving without any adverse effects.
... Floreto et al. (2001) used krill hydrolysate to enhance the acceptance of soybeanbased feeds for the American lobster, Homarus americanus, and found that soybean could provide almost 90% of the dietary protein with no adverse effects on growth relative to feeding mussels. Smith et al. (2005) attributed the enhanced growth of juvenile Peneaus monodon in their studies to krill meal and krill hydrolysate being included in the diet as a rich source of small peptides and free amino acids. Protein hydrolysate produced from tuna viscera was also found to improve pellet stability and attractability and palatability of diet without fishmeal which result in improved feed intake of giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Sae-alee and Tantikitti, 2008) However, the size of the pellet in relation to the size of the animal and perhaps the texture of the feed may be considerably important to maximize feed consumption and to minimize feed wastage (Sheppard et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal's past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.
... The addition of small quantities of stimulating compounds can improve feed intake and, as a consequence, boost the animal's growth, survival and feed e⁄ciency (Carr 1988). Previous studies with penaeid shrimp have demonstrated that shrimp meal, krill meal (Smith,Tabrett, Barclay & Irvin 2005); ¢sh soluble protein and bivalve mollusk biomass supplemented with synthetic amino acids (Nunes, Sa Ł , Andriola-Neto & Lemos 2006) show high attractiveness for these animals. Therefore, the best attractiveness results for marine shrimps were obtained only with products of animal and marine origin. ...
Article
The present work aimed at studying the growth performance and feeding preference of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles fed on diets supplemented or not with Spirulina meal. Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (3.89 ± 0.25 g) were stocked for 72 days in 28 round 500‐L tanks at 44 shrimp/tank (77 juveniles/m2). The diets were supplemented with 0.5% of a commercial feed attractant (C25 and C50) or with Spirulina meal (S25 and S50). In C25/S25 and C50/S50 there were reductions of 25% and 50% in fishmeal inclusion level respectively. In a further study, two feeding trays with different diets were allowed to shrimp at the same moment and they were located in opposite walls of the tank. The feed remains in each feeding tray were collected and weighted to calculate the dry feed remains. The weekly growth rate of shrimp fed on S25 (0.89 ± 0.03 g) was not significantly different from those fed on C25 (0.89 ± 0.01 g). The attractiveness experiment showed that S25 was preferred significantly more by shrimp than C25. In conclusion, Spirulina meal added at 0.5% in a complete diet for L. vannamei juveniles, with 14% of Peruvian fishmeal, has proved itself as a nutritionally efficient feeding attractant.
... diet FM100C+). Also, although squid meal is known to act as a potent feeding effector for both Penaeus mondon and L. vannamei (Smith et al. 2005;Nunes et al. 2006b), the use of whole squid meal alone in diets without HMTBa was not effective in stimulating a higher shrimp feed intake. Huai et al. (2010) evaluated the growth effect of commercially available synthetic amino acids in diets for L. vannamei over a 70-day culture period. ...
Article
This work evaluated the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei to low fish meal diets supplemented with 2‐hydroxy‐4‐(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBa). A basal diet with 150.0 g kg−1 of anchovy fish meal was designed. Two positive control diets were formulated to reduce fish meal at 50% and 100% with 1.0 and 2.0 g kg−1 of MERA™ MetCa (calcium salt with 84% HMTBa activity), respectively. Two nearly equivalent diets acted as negative controls, without HMTBa supplementation. A total of 50 clear‐water tanks of 500 L were stocked with 2.22 ± 0.19 g shrimp under 70 animals m−2. Shrimp survival (92.3 ± 5.1% and 81.4 ± 8.0%), yield (808 ± 12 and 946 ± 17 g m−2) and FCR (2.17 ± 0.19 and 3.12 ± 0.37) showed no differences among diets after 72 or 96 days, respectively. A significantly higher shrimp body weight and weekly growth were observed for those fed with the basal diet or diets supplemented with HMTBa compared with non‐supplemented ones. This study has shown that L. vannamei growth, body weight, survival, yield and FCR were supported by HMTBa supplementation when 150.0 g kg−1 of fish meal was replaced by soybean meal and other ingredients, at 50% and 100%.
... In J. edwardsii juveniles, previous studies have reported very similar apparent dry matter intake across a wide range of formulated diets, but also fresh mussel, varying from 2% BW day À1 in small juveniles (2-7 g wet weight) to 1% BW day À1 in larger juveniles (13-20 g wet weight; Crear et al. 2000Crear et al. , 2002Thomas et al. 2003;Tolomei et al. 2003;Ward et al. 2003a;Simon & Jeffs 2008, 2011. A similar apparent intake (1% BW day À1 ) was also recorded for P. cygnus juveniles (2-7 g) fed a dry pellet (Johnston et al. 2007), which is much lower than the daily food consumption of other cultured crustacean such as penaeid shrimps (for instance, 5% BW day À1 in Penaeus monodon; Smith et al. 2005b). It was demonstrated that J. edwardsii juveniles cannot achieve high levels of feed consumption on formulated feeds due to a small foregut capacity (2-3% of body weight), expansion of the feed post-immersion and post-ingestion, lengthy foregut filling time (1-2 h) and clearance time (10 h), combined with a slow gut throughput time (34-42 h) and appetite revival (>18 h) (Simon & Jeffs 2008;Simon 2009a). ...
Article
The development of cost-effective and nutritionally adequate formulated feeds is a key step for developing sustainable technologies for new aquaculture species. There has been many research effort for over 30 years on feed development for spiny lobsters, but amazingly, poor performance of formulated feeds remains one of the major obstacles to progressing commercial aquaculture of these crustaceans. This is partially due to a lack of information on how spiny lobsters digest and assimilate formulated feeds. The aim of this review is to integrate recent information on the digestive physiology of spiny lobsters to identify areas where further studies are needed for advancing to more physiologically tailored formulated feeds. Increasing the efficiency of mechanical and chemical digestion is imperative for better digestion of formulated feeds. This is likely to be achieved by improving feed format, reducing the particle size of ingredients, using digestible binders, preprocessing or selecting more soluble macronutrients and supplementing feeds with additives such as pH buffers, emulsifying agents and/or exogenous enzymes. Future research needs to adopt a holistic approach for investigating the digestive processes in spiny lobsters by focusing on digestion as well as downstream processes. The protein-sparing effect of lipids and carbohydrates on spiny lobster metabolism is of a particular significance as the spiny lobster metabolism is strongly directed towards the use of protein. This review provides important insights, practical solutions and key research directions to improve both our understanding of spiny lobster digestive physiology and the performance of formulated feeds for spiny lobsters.
... Delayed acclimation to those diets with increased incorporation of AFP by the shrimp in the beginning of the trial might have resulted in the reduced growth rate of shrimp in these treatments. Reduced feed intake in the absence of feeding effectors have been reported by Smith et al. (2005) who have demonstrated that the shrimp were capable of discriminating between a feed containing low levels of ingredients recognized for their stimulatory characteristics. Paripatananont et al. (2001) reported that the feed intake by shrimps was not different at 0, 25 or 50 % fishmeal (FM) substitution by soy protein concentrate (SPC), but was significantly decreased at 75 and 100 % of substitution levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of diets, formulated by inclusion of an Aspergillus niger fermented product (AFP) as fish meal substitute, for Penaeus monodon post-larvae was determined. AFP was derived by solid state fermentation (SSF) of a mixture of soybean flour, wheat flour, groundnut oil cake and sesame oil cake in the ratio of 4: 3: 2: 1 respectively for 96 h. The feeding trial was conducted in post-larvae stocked @10 animals in circular perspex tanks containing 40 l of water with five dietary treatments each with three replicates for 52 days. The diets containing graded levels of AFP substituting 0, 50, 150, 250 and 350 g kg -1 of fishmeal were fed to the post-larvae. Data on the growth performance and nutrient utilization efficiency were recorded from the feeding trials. Results showed that the post-larval shrimp fed diet containing 150 g kg -1 AFP exhibited significantly better (p<0.05) growth rate (14.79 mg d -1 post-larva -1), feed conversion ratio (1.62), protein efficiency ratio (1.64) and apparent protein utilization (25.39) than the other diets. The diet with 350 g kg -1 AFP showed the best apparent protein digestibility (87.74 %), apparent fat digestibility (97.95 %) and apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient (77.09 %) among the test diets. The results of the present study suggest that AFP can be used to improve the digestibility of nutrients and that partial replacement of fishmeal is possible in P. monodon post-larval diets under optimum rearing conditions.
... Generally, the Similarly, L-alanine, L-glutamic acid, L-arginine and absorption or ingestion rate of aquafeeds by cultured fish glycine are also highly water soluble and diffusible species has not been thoroughly quantified and compound, like betaine and have been reported to have researched and thus need to be well established in fish dietary attractant properties. According to [23], proteinnutrition. On the other hand, adoption of a reliable and rich ingredients of marine origin, such as fishmeal and cost-effective method to quantify the ingestion rate in squid meal contain these substances which are feeding cultured fish species need to be given more attention in effectors for shrimp. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of feed additives as natural growth promoters has received considerable attention in the aquaculture industry. Besides, the utilization of antibiotics, antioxidants, feed stimulants, feed colourants as well as the use of hormones has been well established by several authors. However, the absorption or ingestion rate of the widely used feed additives by cultured fish species has not been thoroughly quantified and researched in fish nutrition while on the other hand; further investigation needs to be focused on the nutritional effects of the commonly used feed additives in the aquaculture industry. In spite of the growing interest and success obtained using feed additives as supplements in farmed fish diets, several physical anomalies or alterations in the normal development of farmed fish species have been reported by several authors. The present review therefore emphasizes on new areas of further research to improve growth, feed utilization, absorption or ingestion rates and disease resistance in cultured fish species fed feed additives. Special emphasis is focused on the elucidation of the biochemical contents and dietary supplementation levels of feed additives by cultured fish species which has received relatively little attention in the aquaculture industry. The development of a cost-effective new natural source of antioxidant; the development of algal meal-based diets as feed additives; adoption of a reliable and cost-effective method to quantify the absorption or ingestion rate in cultured fish species as well as the utilization and adoption of acidifiers consisting of organic acids and their salts as a potential replacement for antibiotic growth promoters are recommended as real and achievable research goals for future.
... El crecimiento, engorda y sobrevivencia de los camarones durante las seis semanas del experimento fue constante y de acuerdo a lo que reportan otros autores como Tomás et al. (2005). Por otro lado, la sobrevivencia en los camarones fue alta en los tratamientos con alimento y su diferencia fue mínima (Smith, 2005;Cho et al. 2005), con un promedio en los tratamientos de APL1 , APL2 y testigo de 86.7, 92.1 y 81.0 % respectivamente, siendo de esta manera mínima la mortandad de los organismos, sobre todo en el caso de los camarones alimentados con APL2 de proteína de lombriz, aunque contrario a lo que reporta Hernández (1997), donde menciona que la mayor sobrevivencia se da en los organismos alimentados con niveles altos de proteína. ...
Article
Full-text available
El cultivo del camarón en el estado de Sinaloa es una de las principales actividades en la región, ya que genera una gran cantidad de empleos como de divisas cada año. La alimentación del camarón es una parte esencial para tener una producción sana. Como un acercamiento inicial al crecimiento del camarón en agua de baja salinidad se probaron dos fórmulas a base de proteína animal en el alimento del camarón, con un 40% (APL1) y 20% (APL2) de proteína de lombriz, un alimento comercial y otro sin alimento suplementario. Los parámetros físico-químicos del agua no tuvieron una influencia directa en el comportamiento del camarón. Después de seis semanas de experimento, los camarones alimentados con el alimento comercial tuvieron un aumento en peso 20% más alta que aquellos alimentadas con la proteína de lombriz. No hubo diferencias significativas entre tallas entre el alimento con 40% proteína y 20% proteína con respecto al alimento comercial (P ≥ 0.05). Sin embargo, los camarones alimentados con proteína de lombriz tuvieron una mortandad menor. El uso de la proteína de lombriz es una opción para mantener densidades altas de camarón cultivados en agua de baja salinidad.
... Such variations are mainly due to the water chemical composition, but also to the location of minerals in the crustacean exoskeleton (Raabe et al. 2005;Bosselmann et al. 2007). Therefore, L. dubia shells represent an interesting source of mineral elements (especially CaCO 3 ) in aquaculture (Smith et al. 2005). For instance, Toppe et al. (2006) showed that a high ash dietary based on Cancer pagurus shells, could increase feed intake and promote growth of Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758 without affecting feed efficiency. ...
Article
Full-text available
This work is the first study on biology and biochemistry of Libinia dubia on the Mediterranean Sea as well as socio-economic impacts of this spider crab proliferation on artisanal fishing activities along the Tunisian coasts. Morphometric characteristics of 913 spider crabs collected in 2016 within the Gulf of Gabès in Tunisia were examined. A sexual dimorphism was observed concerning the body, chelar propodus and abdomen form and sizes. Crab’s carapace width ranged from 22.7 to 89.1 mm and from 4.02 to 74.5 mm, for males and females, respectively. The sex ratio was male biased (M: F = 1: 0.92). Local Ecological Knowledge surveys revealed a decline in fishermen’s income of 72% due to crab invasion (damages of fishing nets and catches, decrease of working days and catch yield). Socio-economic impacts of Libinia dubia can be reverted into profits by using crab exoskeleton (shells) for feeding and for bioactive molecules extraction. They are mainly composed of ash (71% of the dry weight dw), chitin (from 14.66% to 15.13% dw), crude proteins (11%) and fats (between 0.49% and 0.86%) with no sex difference for all studied parameters (p > 0.05). Exoskeletons are largely composed of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus with heavy metals contents (Pb and Cd) under the detection limits (0.04 ppm).
... The results of the present study showed that the hydrolyzed protein from tuna by-products can reduce the deficiency of several amino acids in SBM-based diets. Besides their nutritional function, the free amino acids in TBS are chemoattractants (Smith et al. 2005), so they enhance the attractability and ingestion of the diets, positively affecting the feed efficiency. This suggests that the incorporation of TBS resulted in an increase in the digestibility of the whole diet. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the use of tuna by-product silage (TBS) in diets based on soybean meal (SBM) for the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). A fish meal-based diet (FM) was compared with six isonitrogenous formulations (35% crude protein) containing increasing dietary levels of TBS (14.9%, 29.8%, 44.7% or 59.6%) replacing 0% (TBS0), 25% (TBS25), 50% (TBS50), 75% (TBS75) or 100% (TBS100) respectively, of the protein derived from SBM. A diet containing tuna by-product meal (TBM) as the sole protein source and a commercial feed as reference were also included. Each diet was tested in triplicate over 41 d using 70-L fiberglass tanks in a closed recirculating system. Each tank was stocked with 10 juvenile shrimp (mean initial weight 1.09 g). Shrimp fed diet TBS25 grew as well as those fed diets with 100% of the protein from FM. The growth differences were mainly attributable to differences in the nutritional quality of diets. Whole-body composition was significantly affected by diet. The broken-line regression model using thermal growth coefficient data allowed us estimate that the maximum inclusion level of TBS in shrimp fed the SBM-based diet was 26.31%. In order to reduce the cost of shrimp feed, the ratio of 75% and 25% of SBM:TBS proteins seems to be the best inclusion for juvenile shrimp. Received 05 Jan 2017 accepted 17 Apr 2017 revised 02 Apr 2017
... Such variations are mainly due to the water chemical composition, but also to the location of minerals in the crustacean exoskeleton (Raabe et al. 2005;Bosselmann et al. 2007). Therefore, L. dubia shells represent an interesting source of mineral elements (especially CaCO 3 ) in aquaculture (Smith et al. 2005). For instance, Toppe et al. (2006) showed that a high ash dietary based on Cancer pagurus shells, could increase feed intake and promote growth of Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758 without affecting feed efficiency. ...
Article
Feeding habits of the invasive spider crab Libinia dubia from the Mediterranean Sea were studied in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia) using the frequency of occurrence and points methods. The population was sampled at least monthly between November 2015 and October 2016. Stomach contents of 384 specimens were analysed. Results indicate that L. dubia is an herbivorous species exhibiting clear preferences for algae (ALG) and Magnoliophyta (MAG) (62.03%, 7.13 points and 59.36%, 5.3 points respectively) although Echinodermata (ECH), Porifera (POR), Cnidaria (CNI), Mollusca (MOL), Polychaeta (POL), Crustacea (CRU) and fish (FIS) were accidentally consumed along with Bryozoa (BRY), sediment (SED), and unidentifiable materials (UNM). The diversity of ALG ingested was studied in detail: Chlorophyceae were found in 87.93% of stomachs containing ALG and contributed most of points to the stomach contents (4.18 points) followed respectively by Phaeophyceae (81.03%, 2.27 points) and Rhodophyceae (40.95%, 0.68 points).Very low Vacuity Index was recorded (VI = 2.6%). Ingested items varied significantly with regard to the season (Chi-square test, χ2calculated = 87.86 > χ2theoretical = 7.81, df = 3, p < 0.05) and crab size (χ2calculated = 14.25 > χ2theoretical = 5.99, df = 2, p = 0.026). Insignificant differences were registered by studying Carapace Width-Stomach Weight (CW-SW) relationships (T-test, tcalculated < ttheoretical, p > 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis test was applied so that the composition of crab diet among groups could be compared (H = 1.1, df = 3, p = 0.77).
... In the present study, the three fish meals were relatively similar in proximate composition, except Peruvian FAQ fish meal with lower lipid content (8.89%), fish meal protein was well digested by juvenile P. monodon, which was higher than those reported for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei [20,31]. Nutrient composition, quality and digestibility of amino acids in fish meals varies with the freshness and type of the raw ingredients and processing during manufacture [32]. According to other previous published research, fish meals used as an ingredient in feeds for shrimp should have at least 85% digestibility protein, contain <150 g/kg -1 ash, and dried at low temperatures to ensure good protein bioavailability and reduce nitrogen wastes that pollute the shrimp farms and outflow water [33]. ...
Article
Nutritional values and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), protein (APD), energy (AED) and amino acid (AAAD) of ten feedstuffs were determined for juvenile shrimp, which included Peruvian steam fish meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal, local fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, shrimp head meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, wheat flour and brewer’s yeast. A reference diet and test diets that consisted of a 70:30 mixture of the reference diet to test feedstuff were used with 0.01% Yttrium oxide as an external marker. The eleven diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile Penaeus monodon (mean initial weight 1.13 g ± 0.02 g) for 56 days. After the 56-day trial, the highest and lowest values of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of shrimp were found in shrimp head meal and cottonseed meal diet treatments, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was in the range of 1.25-1.65. Peruvian steam fish meal and shrimp head meal diet treatments had the lowest FCR and cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal diet treatments had the highest FCR. The ADMD of diets is in the range of 63.52% to 80.07%. The values of ADMD in shrimp head meal and wheat flour diets (77.58% and 80.07%) were significantly higher than that in other diets (P<0.05). APD, AAAD and AED differed greatly among feedstuffs, from 82.2% to 110.5%, 88.26% to 103.37% and 64.5% to 97.6%, respectively. ADMD for the shrimp head meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal and wheat flour were excellent (over 90%), while brewer’s yeast had lowest value of ADMD (under 60.52%). Peanut meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal and brewer’s yeast had the lowest average AAAD (~90%). The average AAAD of Peruvian steam fish meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal, local fish meal, soybean meal and shrimp head meal were nearly similar (95% to 99%). Wheat flour had the highest average AAAD (106%). In terms of ADMD, the most digestible ingredients were, in descending order, shrimp head meal, Peruvian FAQ fish meal, Peruvian steam fish meal, local fish meal for the marine feedstuffs; soybean meal and wheat flour are more preferable for P. monodon feed compared to other plant feedstuffs such as peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal.
... Squid meal is currently added in shrimp diets to enhance palatability [16], and contains up to 1% to 3% free amino acids on a dry matter basis [3,17]. Krill oil is often used in shrimp diets to enhance palatability in combination with marine proteins [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marine feed ingredients derived from cephalopods (e.g., squid) and crustaceans (e.g., krill) are commercially used to improve the palatability of shrimp diets. Increase in global demand for shrimps has resulted in overfishing of these marine organisms and is a matter of concern. Insect protein hydrolysate could be a sustainable alternative for the possible replacement of these marine feed ingredients. During this study, four formulations: diet A (control: not containing any palatability enhancer), diet B (containing squid meal and krill oil), diet C (containing 1% insect protein hydrolysate), and diet D (containing 2% insect protein hydrolysate) were tested for (1) time required by first subject to begin feeding (time to strike) and (2) palatability in Litopenaeus vannamei. Additionally, the chemical composition of all four diet formulations was also analyzed. Results indicate that all diets had similar crude composition. The major essential amino acids in all diets were leucine and lysine, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid was the major omega-3 fatty acid in all diets. There were no significant differences between the mean time to strike for all the tested formulations. Palatability of tested formulations was found in the following order: diet D > diet C > diet B = diet A (p < 0.05), indicating that addition of squid meal and krill oil has no effect on palatability in comparison to control, whereas inclusion of insect protein hydrolysates significantly improves the palatability of formulations. Palatability enhancement potential of insect protein hydrolysate could be attributed to the high free amino acid content and water solubility in comparison to squid meal.
... Specialized literature on dietary attractants and stimulants for marine shrimp is scarce. Smith et al. (2005) examined squid, crustacean and krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates and a betaine product as stimulants in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 ) diets. P. monodon showed a significantly greater preference for feeds containing crustacean or krill meal. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tomatoes are known to be the richest source of glutamic acid and aspartic acid which give the "Umami flavor". In this study, tomato pulp incorporated prawn feeds and control were subjected to feeding stimuli experiments in post larvae of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (De Man, 1879) in a "Y-maze" tank. The Mean reaching time was measured as 701.4 ± 52.11 sec, in experiments with control while the same in test feeds T1 and T2 were only 278.7 ± 25.2 and 39.95 ± 3.68 sec, respectively. ANOVA results revealed a significant difference between the three treatments (f= 100.02, p<0.001). The results revealed that tomato pulp could be considered as a feed attractant for prawn feeds owing to the high content of glutamic acid in tomato. Its use can sustainably reduce feed costs besides increasing the feed consumption.
... Because extrinsic factors can be manipulated, current aquaculture research has focused on managerial aspects such as encouraging the feed consumption by incorporation of feed attractants which in turn improve the survival and shorten the production intervals. The feed attractants are specific compounds or ingredients added to the feed to enhance the diet palatability and consequently, its acceptability by fish (Smith, Tabrett, Barclay, & Irvin, 2005). As a result of the improvement in the diet acceptability, the fish can adapt earlier to artificial dry diet during the weaning period and attain a higher overall feed consumption and growth rate (Tandler, Berg, & Mackie, 1982;Kolkovski, Arieli, & Tandler, 1997;de Oliveira & Cyrino, 2004;Gaber, 2005). ...
Article
A 30-days experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of four chemo-attractants viz. DL-alanine, betaine, L-tryptophan (TRP) and inosine monophosphate (IMP) in the diet of Ompok bimaculatus during fry rearing. Fifty numbers of fifteen days weaned fry (0.0739±0.008 g; 2.32±0.06 cm) were stocked into each aerated aquariums (30.0 x 15.0 x 15.0 cm) following a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of five treatments including control with three replicates each. Five iso-nitrogenous purified diets were prepared including four treatment diets with attractants (2%) replacing the cellulose and fed to the fishes twice a day. The highest growth was observed in the treatment fed with betaine supplemented diet followed by inosine monophosphate whereas, no significant difference was observed among control, DL-alanine and L-tryptophan supplementation. The highest survivability was found in L-tryptophan supplemented diet (48.66±2.4%) followed by betaine, DL-alanine, control and lowest was found in inosine monophosphate treatment (32.00±2.0). It has also observed that there was significant difference (P>0.05) in survival between L-tryptophan and betaine supplemented diets fed groups. It is concluded that the dietary tryptophan supplementation could be a promising aquaculture management strategy for carnivorous fish as it showed significantly better survival without affecting the growth. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey.
Chapter
Antarctic krill has been fished commercially in the Southern Ocean since the 1970s and has been consistently the largest fishery, by tonnage, in the region since then. The fishery has seen changes in the nations involved, with early catches dominated by vessels from the USSR, Japanese vessels in the middle years and, more recently, most of the catch has been taken by vessels from Norway. A variety of products have emerged from the fishery with early efforts aimed at human consumption but latterly, the bulk of the catch has been used as high-end aquaculture feed with a small but valuable fraction being used to produce krill oil. The fishery has been managed by the international Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources which recognised the potential threat to the marine ecosystem through krill harvesting and which has implemented a precautionary approach to management of the fishery. Currently the fishery catches approximately 300,000 tonnes annually, all from the South Atlantic, where the precautionary catch limit has been set at 5.6 million tonnes. The fishery and its management regime will face challenges in the future with the emergence of new technologies, increased catches by new entrants and environmental changes.
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that crustacean feed attractability has an enormous importance, because the consumption, quality and feed conversion rate can be improved, by reducing the time of residence pre-ingestion and the leaching of nutrients. For this reason, different protocols and methods has been developed to measure feed attractability. This study evaluated the use of maze type Y, and rectangular systems to determine the attractant power of a commercial feed on longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum. The Y type maze system without barriers, and with three different types of barriers (with or without access to the area where a commercial feed) was evaluated. Ten prawns were placed in the acclimation chamber of the system at 28°C for 60 min before the start of the experiment. To start the test, commercial feed (20% of prawn biomass) was placed into the system feeding area, then the acclimation chamber was open to allow for the free prawn movement, evaluating the feed attractability by measuring the time for the first "hit", total number of hits, and the number of prawns which entrances to the feeding area during 15 min. Similar tests were performed with a rectangular type maze system, comparing the atractability results obtained in both systems. The results presented here highlight the importance of the genus behavior and the selection of protocols and systems, as well as the materials used in its maze system construction, for attractability testing in M. tenellum.
Article
Full-text available
An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaea podocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg -1 [T2]) in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g -1) and glutamine (3.36 mg g -1) the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2) compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.
Article
Abstract A protocol for testing feeding stimulants on Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is described. Thirty-five rectangular tanks (55 L volume) served as the test system into which ten 5–6 g shrimp were stocked. Every tank contained two bowls, each of which contained either 25 feed pellets of a Reference Diet or Test Diet (consisting of the Reference Diet with one test ingredient added). After 1 h, the difference between the number of pellets consumed of the Test Diet and the Reference Diet was used as the Response. Each of the four Test Diets contained a different salmon hydrolysate made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry (included at 50 g/kg). A fifth commercial shrimp diet was also tested. Each Test Diet was tested against the Reference Diet over a 4-d period in seven replicate tanks. The data were subjected to a one-way ANOVA and a confidence interval for each treatment response was calculated. The confidence interval was used to assess the test ingredient as a feeding stimulant. Treatment means were compared using Tukey's test (α = 5%). All the hydrolysates tested were found to act as feeding stimulants.
Article
Limited food consumption has been identified as a possible reason for the poor growth in spiny lobsters raised on dry formulated diets. Food intake was determined for different sized juveniles (20–80 g) of the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, fed either fresh mussel flesh or a dry formulated diet for 0.5–5.0 h every 48 h. In addition, the foregut capacities of lobsters of various sizes were measured to relate food intake to foregut fullness. Food intake was relatively rapid on both diets (1 h) and reached mean dry matter threshold values (mean satiation rations) that were related to foregut capacity. Foregut capacity increased linearly with body weight (BW; 10–110 g) and restricted dry matter intake of lobsters to an average of 0.8–1.2% BW regardless of diet. Both wet and dry diets, when fed in equal amount of dry matter, were found to have similar wet weights in the foregut after ingestion. Allowing lobsters more time to feed (2 to 5 h) had no significant effect on mean dry matter intake because the foregut filled to maximum capacity within 1 h. The results suggest that /. edwardsii juveniles have a small foregut capacity (2.5–3% BW) that limits food intake when diets are fed every 48 h. There appears to be no advantage in dry matter intake by providing the nutrient‐dense dry formulated diet of this study compared with mussel flesh. Formulated diets would need to be fed more frequently and be highly digestible if they are to deliver sufficient nutrition to maximise growth for commercial aquaculture.
Article
The attractiveness of various protein sources of 16 feed ingredients was determined in juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) by using reinforced acrylic tank composed of three equally divided rectangular attracting chambers and an acclimatization chamber. Thirty fish were held in the acclimatization chamber at a time and tournament comparison of feed ingredients was applied to evaluate attractiveness. Jack mackerel (JM) (40.0%), sardine (SM) (33.3%), Pollack (PM) (40.0%), shrimp (SHM) (36.7%), mussel meal (40.0%) and oyster (43.3%) meals achieved the highest feeding attractiveness to rockfish in the 1st through 6th preliminary test, respectively. JM (40.0%), SHM (36.7%), squid meal (SQM) (33.3%), SM (40.3%), PM (40.0%) and PM (36.7%) achieved the highest feeding attractiveness to fish in the 7th through 12th preliminary test, respectively. Among the top five feed ingredients showing high attractiveness to rockfish, JM achieved higher attractiveness than PM and SHM in the 1st trial. In the 2nd trial, attractiveness of JM to rockfish was higher than SM and SQM. SM achieved higher attractiveness to rockfish than SQM, but not different from PM throughout the 30-min observation in the 3rd trial. The strongest feeding attractant response of rockfish was observed in JM, followed by SM, SQM, PM, and SHM, in order among various feed ingredients.
Article
P. monodon juveniles were fed krill meal (KM), krill hydrolysate (KH), whole squid (SQ), and the microbial biomass, Novacq™ (NQ), at 10% inclusion, in practical fishmeal and soybean meal based diets. Diets were fed to apparent satiation as well as restrictively pair-fed (~60% of control diet satiation) for 6 weeks to examine the effects of the test ingredients and feed restriction on shrimp growth, feed efficiency, digestive enzyme activity, nutritional condition, and gut microbiota. All diets when fed to satiety significantly outperformed the control diet, with shrimp fed NQ 87%, SQ 73%, KH 41% and KM 38% larger than shrimp fed the control diet. NQ fed shrimp had the best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and significantly improved retention efficiency (RE) of dietary lipid (RETL), protein (RECP) and gross energy (REGE). SQ significantly promoted feed intake over control and KM fed shrimp, but neither KM, KH nor SQ improved RETL, RECP or REGE. While there was little change in the apparent digestibility (AD) of each diet, the apparent biological value (ABV) of lipid (ABVTL), protein (ABVCP) and gross energy (ABVGE) were significantly improved by inclusion of NQ; and ABVTL and ABVGE were significantly improved by addition of SQ. Feed restriction had a stronger effect on hepatopancreas digestive enzymes and gut microbiota than addition of any feed ingredient. Total protease activity was positively correlated with feed efficiency, including FCR, RETL and REGE. Shrimp fed to satiety tended to have high levels of Vibrio whereas those on the restricted ration tended to have higher levels of bacteria in Rhodobacteracaea, Flavobacteriales and Bacteroidales. We conclude that shrimp are more efficient in using digested dietary macronutrients for growth when whole squid and Novacq™ are provided, due to improvements in feed intake and post-absorptive processes. Feeding restriction was shown to be a useful strategy to improve P. monodon feeding efficiency, digestive capacity and modulate gut microbiota, however it reduced the scope for shrimp growth especially on high performing diets. Novacq™ was more effective than some of the known invertebrate meals and a more environmentally sustainable growth and nutrient utilisation promoter for shrimp.
Article
River crab (RC) meal (Procambarus clarkii) and marine crab (MC) meal (Chaceon affinis) were tested as a partial replacement for fish meal in diets for red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), and their effects on growth performance, fish proximate composition and skin colouration were evaluated. Red porgy were fed during 165 days with five diets. High-quality fish meal diet was used as a control diet (CD). Protein of fish meal in the control was replaced by increasing the dietary levels of protein derived from RC and MC by up to 10% and 20% of each of them (RC10, RC20, MC10 and MC20). Fish fed on MC20 showed the highest values in feed intake, weight gain and growth (%). No differences were found in FCR and protein efficiency ratio among the treatments. Inclusion of both crab meals in diets significantly decreased the lipid content in whole fish compared with the control animals. On the other hand, no differences in muscle composition were found between the diets. Feeding both crab meals resulted in colour improvement compared with that of the control fish, with better hue values for the RC meal group than those for the MC meal group. The crab meals tested in the present study are suitable as a partial replacement for fish meal in diets for the red porgy, with the MC meal improving growth and both crabs meals improving skin colour, with further improvements in skin colour produced in fish-fed diets containing the RC meal.
Article
There is an increasing recognition within the aquaculture industry that understanding the behaviour of farmed animals can help provide solutions to feeding problems. However, most studies have focused on finfish production, with fewer behavioural studies on feeding processes in commercially produced crustaceans. More than 60% of crustacean aquaculture is attributed to the production of penaeids, particularly the Pacific white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone). The profitability of the Pacific white-leg shrimp for aquaculture stems from its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and its fast growth at high densities. However, there are significant setbacks within their farming. In particular, while they can move rapidly to take food pellets, they can be slow to consume them leading to food wastage and subsequent economic losses for the industry. Understanding shrimp behaviour provides a starting point for refinements to feeding practices. Here, we review the different influences on shrimp behaviour which are likely to influence productivity such as individual-level effects (e.g. moulting, sex), environmental influences (e.g. photoperiod, conspecific presence) and water quality (e.g. salinity, temperature). Although work on feed management has been conducted, providing information on nutrition, feeding frequency and schedules, here we demonstrate that such advances must be accompanied by behavioural approaches to allow the development of optimal feeding efficiencies and to support the continued growth of the crustacean aquaculture industry.
Article
In the present study, we isolated the lactic acid bacterium strain SC-01 from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) intestine. Using conventional and molecular methods, we identified the bacterium as Enterococcus faecium, and found it had the function of feeding attractant and could inhibit the development of Vibrioparahaemolyticus (zone of inhibition: 14mm). The attractant effect of its fermentation broth is significantly better than that of the chemical attractant trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) (P <0.05), and is equivalent to that of dimethyl-beta-propiothetin (DMPT) based on the feeding behavior of shrimp. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis suggested that inosine-5’-monophosphate (IMP) may be a component of the attractant. A biosecurity evaluation revealed a negative result in hemolytic assays, and no shrimp mortality was resulted from SC-01 fermentation broth challenge. Feeding trials (60 days) indicated that the SC-01 fermentation broth (viable counts: 5.7×109 cfumL−1) could improve feed intake, weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR), and decrease the count of Vibrio sp. in the intestine of shrimp.
Article
An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaeapodocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2]) in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1) and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1) the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2) compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.
Article
Introducción La nutrición está representada por las actividades que desarrollan los seres vivos para incorporar a su organismo la materia orgánica que necesitan para vivir, satisfacer sus exigencias nutricionales, crecer sanos y reproducirse. Los notables logros alcanzados en la acuicultura han permitido percibir la gran incidencia que la nutrición y la salud de los animales tiene sobre el potencial productivo y económico de las granjas acuícolas. Una dieta deficiente puede provocar diversas patologías, por lo que la selección del alimento a utilizar es fundamental y ésta depende del sistema de cultivo empleado, la talla, peso y exigencias nutricionales del animal a alimentar, entre otros. Actualmente diversas instituciones desarrollan dietas especificas para cada especie, área y época del año, utilizando nuevos ingredientes de menor costo, diversos aditivos naturales y promotores de crecimiento, bacterias probióticas, estimuladores inmunológicos y enzimas digestivas que promuevan mayor crecimiento, resistencia a enfermedades y supervivencia e impacto ambiental menor. Todo lo cual, unido a mejores prácticas de manejo de ese alimento, también contribuirán a reducir los efectos contaminantes de los efluentes sobre las condiciones ambientales en ecosistemas adyacentes. Para un manejo del alimento de forma eficiente es necesario la comprensión de aspectos biológicos de las especies en producción, de los procesos químicos y biológicos que controlan la calidad del agua y del fondo, y de un monitoreo continuo de los reservorios que genere suficiente retroalimentación para la toma de medidas y ajustes oportunos según las condiciones específicas de cada área o granja.
Article
Current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified canola oil (MCO) with enhanced levels of omega 3 fatty acids, to replace menhaden fish oil (MFO) in practical diets (36% protein and 8% lipid) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In first two trials, the basal diet containing 100% MFO was incrementally replaced by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MCO, which clearly demonstrated the potential of using MCO as a replacement for up to 75% of the supplemented MFO in poultry meal‐based diets. In the third trial, two series of diets were evaluated including fishmeal‐based diets replacing MFO by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MCO and three poultry meal‐based diets with 100% MFO, 75% MCO and 75% MCO supplemented with 4% hydrolysed salmon by‐product meal (HSM) as an attractant. In conclusion, no significant differences in performances of shrimp between diets were noted indicating no palatability issue in poultry meal‐based MCO diet and confirmed the efficacy of replacing 100% MFO by MCO in a low fishmeal diets and up to 75% in poultrymeal‐based diets without compromising the growth of shrimp.
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilização do hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha como atrativo na alimentação do Rhamdia quelen. No experimento 1, foram utilizados os seguintes atrativos alimentares: 1. extrato aquoso de músculo de tilápia-do-Nilo (controle positivo); 2. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com baixo grau de hidrólise (GH); 3. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH; 4. hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH diluído (10% da concentração) e 5. controle usando somente água destilada. Após jejum de 48 horas, o comportamento foi registrado em vídeo por um período basal de dois minutos e por mais 18 minutos após a inoculação do atrativo. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e 20 repetições. O experimento 2 foi realizado para avaliar a capacidade do hidrolisado proteico de estimular a ingestão de alimento em juvenis de jundiá. Para isso, foram confeccionados pellets de ágar contendo ou não hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha. Os peixes foram avaliados individualmente e tiveram um período de adaptação de sete dias. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste de proporção de Goodman (1964). A inoculação dos hidrolisados com alto e baixo GH aumentou o tempo de movimentação dos barbilhões. O hidrolisado com alto GH diluído proporcionou os mesmos resultados que o hidrolisado com baixo GH , mas as médias não diferiram das obtidas para a água destilada (controle negativo) e do extrato de músculo. O incremento na movimentação de um lado para outro do aquário foi maior (P<0,05) para os hidrolisados com alto e baixo GH. No experimento 2, a proporção de peixes que ingeriu os pellets contendo hidrolisado proteico de resíduo de sardinha com alto GH foi maior (P<0,05) em relação aos que ingeriram os pellets contendo água destilada. O hidrolisado proteico foi eficiente para estimular o comportamento associado à alimentação em juvenis de Rhamdia quelen.
Article
The attractiveness of crude feed ingredients to olive flounder and effects of including feed ingredients showing strong feeding attractiveness in extruded pellet (EP) on performance of fish were determined. Four types of experimental EP were prepared to evaluate the effects of feed ingredient manipulation on performance of fish. Five per cent anchovy meal component of the control diet was substituted with an equal amount of jack mackerel meal, sardine meal and hydrolysed fish meal to create the JM, SM and HFM diets respectively. The diets were prepared in commercial form as EP. Jack mackerel meal produced the strongest feeding attractant responses of olive flounder, followed by sardine meal and hydrolysed fish meal. The greatest weight gain, feed consumption and condition factor (CF) were observed in fish fed the JM diet, followed by fish fed the SM, HFM and control diets, in that order in the 8‐week feeding trial. The dietary manipulation of feed ingredients performed in this study showed that the inclusion of ingredients with strong feeding attractiveness improved feed consumption and eventually accelerated the growth performance and CF of the fish.
Article
Full-text available
Dry peas of mixed Canadian prairie varieties which were commercially obtained and processed to provide a variety of meals were evaluated in practical shrimp feeds. Whole and de-hulled peas were pin milled to produce raw flours. A portion of these meals were processed to produce whole extruded and de-hulled extruded meals. Additionally, a portion of the whole pea meal was processed by infrared cooking to produce a micronized meal. The five meals were evaluated in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory conditions. The first experiment was designed to estimate apparent protein and energy availability of the various meals. Using a practical reference diet, the meals were substituted using a 70:30 ratio to produce the test diets. Based on contrasts, both extruding and micronizing the pea meals resulted in significant improvements in both apparent protein digestibility and apparent energy digestibility values. Apparent energy digestibility values for the various ingredients expressed as percentage ± SD were: whole raw, 72.3 ± 8.1; whole extruded, 86.0 ± 8.9; de-hulled raw, 88.4 ± 4.4; de-hulled extruded, 94.4 ± 10.0; whole micronized, 94.1 ± 10.2. To evaluate the response of shrimp to the diets containing pea meal, two 7-week growth trials were conducted in the laboratory using a practical diet formulated to contain 360 g kg−1 protein and 90 g kg−1 lipid. In the first growth trial the shrimp had a mean initial weight of 0.66 g and six test diets were evaluated that included the basal diet and five diets for which the pea meals were included in the diet at 250 g kg−1 dry weight replacing whole wheat. In the second growth trial the shrimp had a mean initial weight of 1.1 g and only the whole raw and whole extruded meals were evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 g kg−1 inclusion in the diet. At the conclusion of the first growth trial weight gain ranged from 718 to 862% and at the conclusion of the second growth trial weight gain ranged from 394 to 502%, with no significant differences or discernible trends observed as a result of the various dietary treatments. Based on the observed results, the continued evaluation of feed peas as a potential ingredient of shrimp feeds is warranted. Additionally, if feed peas are suitably priced, commercial producers are encouraged to evaluate feed peas as an alternative protein and energy source.
Article
Diets low in animal but high in plant protein were enhanced with a chemoattractant FinnStim (FS), a betaine/amino additive. These were fed to juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in three tank experiments. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (35% protein) and isocaloric. In run 1, where soybean meal was used as the plant protein source (33%), graded levels of FS (0 to 2.0%) were added to the basic mix (B). Shrimp fed the diet with 1% FS had a significantly (α=0.05) higher weight gain than the other treatments and a feed conversion ratio (FCR) which was higher than B and B+2% FS but not significantly different from the other FS levels. However, survival, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake were similar. In run 2 diet palatability, which may be affected by plant protein, was considered. Diets with a lower soybean meal content (18%) and 16% papaya leaf meal, with and without 1% FS, were tested. A higher weight gain and SGR were obtained for shrimp fed FS but survival, feed intake and FCR were not significantly different from those without FS. In run 3, where leaf meal was increased to 25%, shrimp fed 1% FS yielded a significantly better weight gain, SGR, feed intake and FCR, but survival rates were not significantly different. FS did not increase feed intake but may have caused faster feed consumption, resulting in less feed disintegration and nutrient loss. It could also have acted as a stimulant and counteracted the palatability problem of the 25% leaf meal diet. However, much of the response was evidently caused by the physiological role of betaine as methyl donor and osmoprotectant.
Article
This study aimed at determining the optimal lipid:carbohydrate and protein:energy ratios for growth and survival of juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Two experiments were performed using completely randomized designs in semi-closed recirculating water systems. Juveniles of 0.4–0.8 g in weight and 4.0–5.5 cm in length stocked at a density of 80 individuals m− 2 were fed semi-purified diets. The first experiment determined optimal lipid:carbohydrate using isonitrogenous (35%) and isocaloric (330 kcal 100 g− 1) diets with five lipid:carbohydrate ratios: 4:39, 7:32, 9:25, 14:18 and 16:12 (% wt/wt). The lipid:carbohydrate ratio of 7:32 gave the highest growth rate (P < 0.05), while survival rates of shrimp in all other diet groups were similar but less. Thus, optimal lipid:carbohydrate ratio for the juvenile tiger shrimp was ≈ 1:4.6. In the second experiment, optimal protein:energy (P:E) ratio was studied using five protein levels (25%, 30%, 35%, 40% and 45%) with a fixed lipid:carbohydrate ratio of 1:4.6. Nine diets containing energy content (203–459 kcal 100 g− 1) with protein:energy ratio (63–171 mg protein kcal− 1) were formulated. Shrimp fed the diet containing 33–44% protein and an energy content of 223–371 kcal 100 g− 1 had a significantly higher growth rate than those fed the other diets (P < 0.05). A regression analysis indicated that an optimal P:E ratio for optimal growth and survival of juvenile tiger shrimp was 150 and 146 mg protein kcal− 1 respectively. This diet contained 33–44% protein and had optimal energy of 263–331 kcal 100 g− 1.
Article
A study was conducted to obtain a measure of the potency of some potential and commercially used feeding attractants for Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Behavioural trials monitoring the feeding response of the shrimp were used to gauge the attractant qualities of the substances. A growth trial recording the feed intake, feed assimilation, growth, food conversion and survival rates of the shrimp was used to assess further the feeding stimulant properties of the substances. Replicate groups of juvenile shrimp were fed semi-purified diets containing 1·5% by weight of a range of potential feeding attractants. In the behavioural trial, diets containing taurine and a yeast extract were found to be significantly preferred to the control and all other diets. However, none of the substances appeared to act as potent feeding stimulants, producing statistically similar feed intake and assimilation rates to the control diet. However, taurine and an amino acid mixture designed to mimic a clam extract promoted the best performance of the attractants tested in terms of growth rate and feeding efficiency. Overall, the behavioural response of the shrimp to the feeding attractants was found to show similarities to the effects of attractant supplementation of feed on subsequent ongrowing performance, but not significantly so.
Article
A feeding bioassay which uses agar discs was developed for evaluating chemosensory stimuli influencing ingestive behavior in Penaeus vannamei. Agar disc hardness and preventing the shrimp from placing their mouthparts directly onto the stimulus discs were important aspects of the bioassay design. The palatability assay required only small amounts of stimuli, was suitable for rapid screening of a wide variety of compounds, and was independent of factors such as texture or size of feed pellets. The most effective stimulus tested was shrimp-head offal extract, indicating the best use of this material may be as a flavorant rather than as a source of nutrients. Greatest biological activity was in the < 1000 M.W. fractions of the extracts.
Article
Though some protein sources like squid and protein hydrolysates are assumed as growth enhancers for shrimp, little is known about the biochemical basis of this phenomenon. Low, heat-dried squid (Dosidicus gigas) (SQ) and two commercial protein hydrolysates from fish (FH) and krill (Euphasia sp.) (KH) were assayed in feeding trials with Penaeus vannamei. Feeds were prepared with the tested proteins at 3%, 9%, and 15% of the total crude protein. A total of nine experimental feeds plus a commercial one as control (C32) were tried. Additionally, digestibility in vivo and in vitro was evaluated. Survival was not different among groups. Weight gain of shrimp and total and specific proteolytic activity for trypsin and chymotrypsin were affected by type and quantity of supplemented protein. In vivo and in vitro digestibilities were also influenced by the source and quantity of the protein supplement. Shrimp fed feed with FH at 3% protein supplementation grew more than those fed with higher supplementations. Groups fed SQ had similar results as those fed FH, and gained more weight when fed the lowest SQ quantity. SDS-PAGE showed a large concentration of small peptides in SQ, which may explain results similar to FH. KH enhanced shrimp growth at all supplementations and had a lower degree of hydrolysis (DH) than FH. SQ also demonstrated good growth performance, but better at the lower supplementation, probably because of the presence of small peptides and possibly free amino acids from protein hydrolyzed by endogenous enzymes in the squid mantle. We conclude that hydrolyzed protein is a good supplement for shrimp feeds, but it must meet specific requirements for adequate assimilation.
Article
The feeding strategy used in the commercial culture of shrimp can have a significant impact on pond water quality and hence growth, health and survival of the shrimp, as well as the efficiency of feed utilization. These factors contribute to the profitability of production and to the environmental impact of shrimp farming. The effect of four different feeding frequencies (3, 4, 5 and 6 feedings day−1) on the growth and survival of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and water quality was studied in an 8-week growth trial. The shrimp were held in 20×2500-l outdoor tanks containing water and sediment from a shrimp pond. The water management and aeration strategies were designed to simulate a shrimp pond system. The shrimp (initial weight of 5.6 g) were stocked at a density of 25 animals m−2 and fed a widely used, commercial pelleted feed, with all the feed being placed on feeding trays. The uneaten feed on the feeding trays was removed at specific time intervals so that in all treatments, the shrimp had access to the feed for 12 h day−1. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences due to feeding frequency on growth rate (1.4±0.08 g week−1), feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.0±0.27) or survival (84±7.6%) of shrimp. Similarly, the water quality parameters (total N, ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, dissolved organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, phosphate, chlorophyll a, oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, turbidity) were not different among treatments. The results suggest that there is no benefit from feeding P. monodon more frequently than 3 times day−1 when using a feed that is nutritionally adequate and has high water stability. Therefore, it may be possible to reduce feeding frequency in commercial shrimp ponds without adversely affecting water quality, shrimp growth rate and survival, thereby improving farm profitability.
Article
Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (Ph. D.)--Texas A & M University, 1986. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-75). "Major subject: Nutrition."
Feed attractants and stimulants in practical feeds for blue shrimp L. stylirostris and freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii Supplement of various attractants to a practical feed for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius
  • R Mendoza
  • J Montemayor
  • C Aguilera
  • J Verde
  • G Rodriguez
  • Usa Murai
  • T Sumalangcay
  • A Piedad-Pascual
Mendoza, R., Montemayor, J., Aguilera, C., Verde, J. & Rodriguez, G. (2001) Feed attractants and stimulants in practical feeds for blue shrimp L. stylirostris and freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. In: Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts (Devor, R. ed), p. 433. World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Murai, T., Sumalangcay, A. & Piedad-Pascual, F. (1983) Supplement of various attractants to a practical feed for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Fish. Res. J. Philipp., 8, 61–67.
The nutri-tional response of two penaeid species to various levels of squid 271 Efficacy of ingredients to stimulate shrimp feed intake
  • J L Fenucci
  • Z P Zein-Eldin
  • A L Lawrence
Fenucci, J.L., Zein-Eldin, Z.P. & Lawrence, A.L. (1980) The nutri-tional response of two penaeid species to various levels of squid 271 Efficacy of ingredients to stimulate shrimp feed intake............................................................................................. Ó 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Aquaculture Nutrition 11; 263–272 meal in a prepared feed. Proc. World Mariculture Soc., 11, 403– 409.
Chemoattraction and feeding sti-mulation
  • P G Lee
  • S P Meyers
Lee, P.G. & Meyers, S.P. (1997) Chemoattraction and feeding sti-mulation. In: Crustacean Nutrition (D'Abramo, L.R., Conklin, D.E. & Akiyama, D.M. eds), pp. 292–352.
Utilization of plant proteins by warmwater fish
  • Usa La
  • C Lim
  • W G Dominy
World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Lim, C. & Dominy, W.G. (1991) Utilization of plant proteins by warmwater fish. In: Proceedings of the Aquaculture Feed Processing and Nutrition Workshop, 19–25 September 1991, Thailand and Indonesia (Akiyama, D.M. & Tan, R.K.H. eds), pp. 80–98.