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Nutrient composition of black (African) velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Wild) seed and pulp from Nigeria



Fruits of Black (African) velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Wild), separated into pulp and seed, were analyzed for proximate composition, selected inorganic ions and vitamin C. Significant differences (P > 0.001) were observed in the values of moisture (5.9 and 4.9), organic matter (97.5 and 98.2), dry matter (94.1 and 95.1), crude protein (15.7 and 4.2), crude fat (5.4 and 2.6), ash (2.5 and 1.8), crude fiber (6.6 and 2.2) and total carbohydrate (70.6 and 86.6) for seed and pulp, respectively. Expectedly, the level of ascorbic acid was significantly (P > 0.001) higher in the pulp (35.7 mg/100g) than in the seed (6.4 mg/100g). Varying levels of selected inorganic ions were also detected. The black velvet tamarind is potentially a good source of nutrients for human food and animal feed.
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... This may be due to differences in species and geographical location and may be an indication that Z. mauritiana contain low fat content and its consumption may have less or no effect on the health risk mentioned above. Crude fibre promotes the growth of beneficial intestinal micro-flora and accelerates ulcer-healing process by increasing the secretion of gastric mucus which protect the gastric mucosa of the lining of the intestine (Achoba et al., 1992, Monterio et al., 2014. In addition, it is known that high intake of fibre reduce the risk of colon cancer (Dawczynski et al., 2007). ...
... The ash content of food sample gives an insight into the mineral composition and is an index to measure nutritionally important mineral content of the food sample (Achoba et al., 1992) Nnamani et al., 2009. The ash content of about 6% of the sample of Z. mauritiana mesocarp investigated (Table 1) shows that it compares favourably with S. Innocua (Monkey Seed) (Bello et al., 2008, Hassan et al., 2014. ...
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This study evaluated the nutritional value of ziziphus mauritina fruit (mesocarp) and its effect on the growth of experimental animals. Proximate analysis of the mesocarp was carried out using standard methods. The fat content were analysed using GCMS, carbohydrate content were analysed using carbohydrate Digestibility assay and the protein content were determined using amino acids profile analysis. The mesocarp of Zizphus mauritiana was dried and added to standard commercial feed (mesocarp: commercial feed) at 0% (0:100), 20% (20:80), 30% (30:70), 40% (40:60) and 50% (50:50) respectively and were fed to albino rats to evaluate the effects on growth performance of the animal. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrate (55.00 ± 0.24%), crude fat (5.13 ± 0.02%), crude protein (17.50 ± 0.32%), crude firbre (11.40 ± 0.04%), ash content (6.27 ± 0.31%) and moisture (4.70 ± 0.25%). The amino acids profile reveals the presence of essential amino acids with leucine (5.60 g per 100 g sample) as the most abundant and tryptophan (0.74g/100g sample) as the least concentrated while the non essential amino acids present in the sample reveals cystine as the lowest (1.09 g per 100 g sample) and glutamic acid is the most concentrated and abundant non essential amino acid with 10.00 g per 100 g sample. GCMS analysis of the crude fat reveals the presence of hexanoic acid, hepta-2,4-dienioc acid, hexadecanioc acid(palmitic acid), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid,(Linolelaidic acid), 11,14,17-Eicosatrienoic acid, octadecanoic acid (Stearic acid), Din -octyl phthalate (1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dioctyl ester) while the carbohydrate digestibility assay reveals resistant starch (1.64 mmol/L per 100mg) and digestible starch (18.81 mmol/L/ 100mg) of the sample. The sum of the RS content and DS content gives the total starch of 20.44 mmol/L per 100 mg of the sample. Protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed efficiency ratio and consumption index analyses showed that there is no significant difference in all the blends of the feed samples used. The effect of mesocarp of ziziphus mauritiana fruit on growth exhibit low growth performance and this is corroborated by the profiles of the major component of the fruit which consist mainly of non-essential biomolecules which can improve growth.
... The crude fat obtained from this study shows that the Pulp had the highest percent crude fat (4.92%) when compared to the Seed (2.18%) and Shell (1.20%). However, these values are also in close agreement with the ones reported by Achoba et al. [24] on the nutritional composition of velvet tamarind (seed and pulp) 5.4% and 2.6% respectively. Fibre plays a vital role in providing roughages that aid digestion and also helps to lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases. ...
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Velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) is a wild fruit commonly grown and consumed in northern part of Nigeria. However, this study aimed at investigating the proximate, mineral, vitamin C and antioxidant potentials of velvet tamarind (seed, pulp and shell) using standard analytical procedures. The result of the proximate analysis showed that the pulp recorded highest percent crude protein (18.34%) and crude fat (4.92%) which also contributed to its highest calculated metabolizable energy (1536.43 KJ/100g) in the study while percentage moisture (7.67%) and carbohydrate (75.60%) were found to be highest in seed, and the shell were found to be highest in terms of crude fibre (10.47%) and ash contents (6.82%) respectively. The result of the mineral analysis revealed highest concentrations of Zn (6.30 ± 0.01 mg/100g), Ca (370.01 ± 0.08 mg/100g), and Mg (200.01 ± 0.04 mg/100g) in the pulp while highest concentrations of K (486.24 ± 2.10 mg/100g), Na (73.68 ± 0.03 mg/100g), and Fe (4.70 ± 0.01 mg/100g) were found in the seed. The vitamin C content was found to be highest in the seed (32 ± 0.05 mg/100) which also resulted to its higher antioxidant activity compared to the pulp and the shell. However, based on the results obtained, it could be inferred that velvet tamarind (shell, pulp and seed) are good sources of nutrients especially the pulp and the seed and could serve as natural antioxidant if incorporated in human diet.
... mg/100 g (65 wheat flour: 30 bambara groundnut: 5 tamarind flour and 100% wheat flour). The observed increase was attributed to high calcium content of both bambara groundnut (260mg) and velvet tamarind (49mg/100g) as reported by Abu-Salem and Abou-Arab, (2011) and Achoba et al, 1992) respectively. Calcium is essential for proper bone and teeth formation (Li et al., 2016). ...
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The increasing nutritional awareness of consumers has necessitated investigations into the incorporation of nutrient dense underutilized crops such as Bambara groundnut and velvet tamarind into baked products. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of different proportions (80:15:5, 75:20:5. 70:25:5, 65:30:5) of wheat, bambara groundnut, velvet tamarind composite flours for cake production with 100% wheat flour as the control. The functional properties of the composite flours were evaluated and the cakes were analyzed for physical, proximate, mineral and sensory properties using standard methods. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the bulk densities and swelling index between the composite flours (up to 25% substitution) and the control. The water absorption capacity (WAC), gelatinization temperature and time of the flour samples increased (0.85 to 1.10 %, 69.50 to 80 o C and 1.47 to 12.41s respectively) with increase in bambara groundnut flour substitution. Likewise the weight of the cake samples while the height and oven spring reduced with increase in bambara groundnut flour. The protein, ash, calcium, sodium and potassium content of the cake samples increased (7.69 to 12.70%, 1.99 to 2.36%, 20.50 to 31.30 mg/100g, 216.79 to 278.36 mg/100g and 548.55 to 836.92 mg/100g respectively) with inclusion of bambara groundnut and tamarind flour. The sensory properties of the cake samples were adversely affected by inclusion of bambara groundnut and velvet tamarind however they were still acceptable. The study concludes that production of cake from wheat/bambara groundnut/ velvet tamarind composite flour enhanced the nutrient content of the product and hence should be encouraged.
... Pharmacologically, it is a good diuretic, it is able to bind the toxins and optimize urine excretion in the kidney, therefore preventing the kidney stones disease. It is also able to treat ulcer, eye diseases, jaundice, respiratory and inflammatory disorders such as asthma, allergy, bronchitis etc [31][32][33][34][35] . It is used locally to prevent abortion of pregnancy. ...
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Black Velvet Tamarind (BVT) is a famous edible fruit with multiple therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the secondary metabolites and evaluate the medicinal activities of the seed extract of the plant in order to scientifically report its possible medicinal applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The pulverized seed was extracted with methanol/ethylacetate (2:1) and the concentrated extract was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated using galvinoxyl and 2,2ʹ-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assays while the antibacterial activity was determined by agar-well diffusion method. From the GC-MS analysis, Twenty (20) organic compounds were identified in the seed extract, accounting for 99.3% of the identifiable components in the seed extract, and the main constituents were:4-O-methylmannose (40.46%), 9,9-dimethoxybicyclo[3.3.1]nona-2,4-dione (12.30%), palmitic acid (10.00%), nitroisobutylglycerol (8.60%), simiarenol (4.77%) and methyl-α-d-mannofuranoside (4.70%). The extract also contained some notable therapeutically active phenolic compounds such as dihydrochavicol (3.60%), p-chloro-m-cresol (0.67%) and p-vinylguaiacol (0.1%). The seed extract possesses significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant (IC50 and AAI) properties; for galvinoxyl assay (30.00-34.00%), 5.0 and 8.4 and DPPH assay (86.78-90.57%), 6.0 and AAI of 6.7, respectively. The result showed that the antioxidant properties of the seed extract of BVT increased in dose-concentration manner due to the synergetic activity of secondary metabolites present in the seed extract. This study showed that the seed of BVT possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial potential and it might be useful against ROS and RNS induced disorders. The seed of BVT can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidant. The extract has high inhibitory effects at different concentrations (1000-250 µgml-1 ) on Enterococcus faecalis (30 mm) and Serratia marcescens (15 mm) isolated from clinical samples. The susceptibility of Gram positive and negative bacterial strains to the seed extract was due to the synergic activities of the secondary metabolites in the seed extract, most especially the phenolic compound and the terpenoids. This study showed that the seed extract of BVT has medicinally bioactive phytochemicals that may be useful in the formulation of food preservatives or drug supplements and treatment of bacterial infections
... The highest ash content value was observed at 'about-to-ripe' Spondias mombin fruit juice, while a steady increase in ash content was recorded for 'about-to-ripe' fruit juice with increasing rate of loading (5, 10 and 15 kg) at shaft speed of 120 rpm. Although the values for ash content obtained fluctuate, this inconsistency in the values may be due to inmature fruits mixed up with samples used for processing (Achoba et al., 1992). ...
Full-text available
The effect of processing conditions such as machine shaft speed, loading and level of ripeness of the Spondias mombin fruit on quality (i.e moisture, ash, fibre, fat and protein contents) of juice extracted were investigated in this study using a newly designed juice extractor for Spondias mombin fruit. The moisture content of the extracted juice was observed to initially decrease as the shaft speed increased from 120 to 130 rpm and then increased with increase in shaft speed from 130 to150 rpm. Increase in loading from 5 to 15 kg per time increased the moisture content of the juice at different shaft speeds. As the shaft speed and rate of loading per time increases, the ash content of the juice also increases. Increase in shaft speed also increased the fibre, fat and protein contents of the juice. The effect of the processing conditions considered indicates that separate and interactive effects of the three factors on the qaulity parameters of the juice were significant (p<0.05). Keywords: Hog plum, Ripeness, Machine, Processing, Juice, Quality
... Phenolases have also been implicated in the resistance of plants against various micro-organisms, and this resulted to lesser infestation and contamination of the fruits by many species of fungi, (Namrod and Montgomery, 1973). Achoba et al, (1992) analyzed fruits of Dialium guineense Wild for proximate composition, selected inorganic ions and ascorbic acid. Arogba et al, (1994), also reported that the edible pulp of Dialium guineense fruit is sweet but acidic (P H 3.3), relatively poor in protein and oil, and fairly low level of ascorbic acid. ...
Full-text available
Isolation and identification of fungi associated with pre and post-harvest soft rot of the fruits of Dialium guineense was carried out. Investigated also is the proximate analysis and the mineral composition of the fruit pulp, and the effect of the fungi isolated on these food and mineral nutrients. The fungi isolated from the fruits included: No fungus was isolated from the fruit collected from the field. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus japonicum Penicillium chrisogenum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium italicum, Penicillium notatum, Asergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus and ochraceus were isolated from the post-harvest fruits. The result of the proximate analysis and investigation of the mineral composition of the fruit pulp showed that carbohydrate, protein, Ash, lipid, vitamin A, vitamin C and minerals such as calcium, phosphorus iron, sodium, zinc, magnesium, lead, cupper, and nitrate were contained in the fruits. With the exception of moisture and ash, the food value of the apparently healthy fruit pulp was higher than that of the infected. Also the value of the mineral nutrients in the healthy fruit except potassium was higher in the apparently healthy fruit pulp.
... The moisture content of D. guineense was low. This value was closely related to the values reported by Adepoju [32] and Achoba et al. [33]. The low moisture content was indicative of its high dry matter content, high resistance to enzymatic or microbial attack and indicative of long life. ...
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-The standardisation of the leaf, stem, and root of Dialium guinnense has been undertaken. The macroscopy, microscopy as well as the transverse section of these parts were studied. The preliminary phytochemical analysis, analytical standards and chemomicroscopical analysis of these parts were also determined. The macroscopical features of the morphological parts showed that the surface of the leaf is green with an entire margin and lanceolate-oblong shape and pubescent. The stem bark has a hard texture and is usually dark grey-brown to black in colour. The root which is light brown in colour consists of a long branched tapped root with a dense mass of superficial feeder roots. The result of the powdered microscopic analysis showed the presence of non glandular unicellular trichomes ,tracheid fibres, epidermal cells, prism of calcium oxalate, starch granules, paracytic stomata in the leaf; fibres with bordered pitted vessels, single fibre, prism of calcium oxalate crystals, cork cell in the stem and bundles of fibres with borderered pitted vessels, prism of calcium oxalate crystals, cork of thin walled cells, sclereids, unicellular non glandular trichome in the root. The transverse section of the leaf revealed the presence of cuticle, epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, vascular bundle; the stem revealed the presence of cork cambium, cortex, vascular bundles, secondary xylem and pith and the root revealed the cork, cortex, vascular bundle and pith. The phyochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, saponins, flavaonoids and steroids. Tannins were found in the leaf and stem while resin was found in the leaf alone. Oil and acidic compounds were absent in all the plant parts tested. The percentage values obtained for analytical standard of the leaf were 7.50, 1.83, 1.32, 1.65, 10.00, 10.00, and 0.25 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively; the stem values were, 4.75, 1.48, 1.40, 1.42, 20.00, 10.00, and 0.15 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively and the root were 5.00, 1.53, 1.60, 1.40, 10.00, 20.00 and 0.95 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively. Chemomicroscopical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, calcium oxalate crystals, cellulose, starch, secretory cells and ducts, Suberized wall and fibres. The data obtained from this study can be used in standardisation of Dialium guineense L. and preparation of the monograph for its possible inclusion in the Pharmacopoeia.
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his study determined mineral value and antioxidant activity of Senegal fruits for contributing to improving healthy diet and preventing some chronic dis- eases. Mineral element contents of Dialium guineense, Landolphia heudelotti, Mangifera indica, Cyperus esculentus and Saba senegalensis, which are widely available and consumed, were studied. The results by ICP-OES spectrophoto- metry after acid mineralization showed highest levels of (per 100 g fruits), cal- cium (158 mg), potassium (1018 mg), magnesium (532 mg), zinc (26 mg) with juice of Landolphia heudelotti fruit pulp. Mangifera indica pulp is richer in so- dium (89 mg), phosphorus (556 mg), sulphur (384 mg) and silicon (110 mg). Dialium senegalensis pulp is richer in iron (23 mg) and manganese (19 mg). Lyophilized Cyperus esculentus rhizomes analyzed by atomic absorption spec- trophotometry gave highest concentrations of (per 100 g fruits), calcium (2550 mg), potassium (11,843 mg) and magnesium (7669 mg) but sodium content (22 mg) is lower. In vitro antioxidant activity evaluation with the DPPH radical showed for 10 mg/ml concentration, highest inhibition percentage for Saba se- negalensis 4.03%, followed by Landolphia heudelotti and Dialium guineense, which were significantly similar 2.29% and 2.20% respectively, Mangifera indi- ca 1.7% and finally Cyperus esculentus 0.5%, but much lower compared to the ascorbic acid equal to 96.32% used as a reference.
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This study was carried out to isolate, and identify post-harvest fungi on the fruits of Dialium guineense, and the control of the fungi using leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum. This study is further carried out to analyse the nutrient values of the fruit. The fungi isolated from the fruits include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus japonicum. The leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum has a higher control effect than the leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citratus. At 600mg/ml, Aspergillus flavus was totally controlled by the use of the leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus, while the control of Aspergillus niger, was achieved at the concentration of 700mg/ml of both plant extracts on the pulp coat, and 900mg/ml of Ocimum gratissimum and 1000mg/ml of Cymbopogon citratus on the pulp of the fruits. There are significant differences between the rate of growth of fungi on the fruits protected with leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum, therefore a dynamic growth control is achieved at 600mg/ml on the pulp coat and 800mg/ml on the pulp of the fruit using both plant extracts. The proximate analysis of the nutrient value of this fruits revealed that carbohydrate, protein, Ash, lipid, vitamin A, vitamin C and minerals. Such as calcium, phosphorus iron, sodium, zinc, magnesium, etc are contained in the fruits. However fungi control of infection could be achieved using plant extracts, washing and drying the fruits to reduce the moisture level and storing the fruit in a dry environment.
This review concerns three legume trees (family Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae) from West Africa, namely Detarium microcarpum, Parkia biglobosa and Dialium guineense, and illustrates their nutritional value and therapeutic properties. These species are an important source of nutrition for West African populations, but their agricultural exploitation is still incomplete. The survey was conducted on Scopus, Web of Science, and Medline, using scientific and common English names of the species as keywords and then selecting papers related to nutritional and medicinal properties. Main food products are fruit pulp and seeds, though leaves can also be used. Most relevant dietary features are high protein, vitamin, and micronutrient contents. Various therapeutic and nutritional benefits of these plants have been documented by ethnobotanical and experimental studies, stimulating an interest for their possible use as functional food or drug sources. Most studied medicinal properties include antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities of D. microcarpum, cardiovascular protective and antidiabetic activities of P. biglobosa, and bilharzia-preventing molluscicidal activity of D. guineense. Phytochemical characterizations have revealed potential sources of active drugs, such as D. guineense saponins and D. microcarpum diterpenes. Scientific results support popular uses of these legume trees, indicating a prominent nutritional and health value.
Levels of ascorbic acid intake of 106 subjects during dry and rainy seasons were investigated. These subjects were made up of 41 children of 2–4 years, 40 children of 5–9 years and 25 adults of 55–75 years. Daily ascorbic acid intake was estimated from chemical analysis of food consumed over a period of 14 days in either of the two seasons. The mean ascorbic acid intake for children of 2–4 years old was 33·42 mg/day during the dry season and 48·01 mg/day during the rainy season; for children of 5–9 years old it was 48·96 mg/day in the dry season and 64·44 mg/day during the rainy season while for aged people of 55–75 years the ascorbic acid intake was 38·25 mg/day in the dry season and 52·07 mg/day in the rainy season. Higher levels of ascorbic acid were generally consumed in the rainy season than in the dry season. Children of 5–9 years consumed more ascorbic acid during both seasons than any other age group. Rural subjects had higher ascorbic acid intake than sub-urban and urban subjects. The most common source of ascorbic acid was vegetables. The diets of the subjects under study provided marginal ascorbic acid all year round with maximum supply during the rainy season.
Varying levels of selected inorganic ions were also detected. i'he black velvet tamarind is potentially a good source of nutrients for human food and animal feed A study of the ascorbic acid intake of children and aged people in selected rural, sub-urban and urban locations in northern Nigeria
  • References Abalaka
  • J A Akanya
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Varying levels of selected inorganic ions were also detected. i'he black velvet tamarind is potentially a good source of nutrients for human food and animal feed. REFERENCES ABALAKA, J.A., AKANYA, H.O. and GARBA, S.A. 1990. A study of the ascorbic acid intake of children and aged people in selected rural, sub-urban and urban locations in northern Nigeria. Food Chem. 35, 23-30.
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