Article

A morphometric study of species delimitation in Sternbergia lutea (Alliaceae, Amaryllidoideae) and its allies S. sicula and S. greuteriana

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Abstract

The morphological chararacters used to differentiate the species Sternbergia lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng., Sternbergia sicula Tineo ex Guss. and Sternbergia greuteriana Kamari & R.Artelari were found not to possess discrete or consistently different states during an attempt to produce an electronic multi-access key to the genus. Thus, variation in floral and leaf morphology in the three species was further explored to re-evaluate taxon limits using herbarium specimens and statistical methods, including principal components analysis (PCA) and elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA). This confirmed that variation was continuous between the three species. Sternbergia sicula and S. greuteriana are sunk into S. lutea and a revised description provided. It is suggested that cultivar status is the most appropriate rank for the cultivated forms of the S. lutea complex. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 158, 460–469.

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... Other taxonomists reported that the differences were not profound and did not support any separation into two taxa. This is the case of molecular and morphometric studies by Açik et al. (1997), Gage & Wilkin (2008), and Gage et al. (2011). ...
... The analysis of plastids and nuclear sequences on the molecular level showed limited divergence in S. lutea and S. sicula, (Açik et al. 1997, Meerow et al. 2006, Gage et al. 2011. It has been suggested that cultivar status was the most appropriate classification for the cultivated forms of the S. lutea complex according to morphological characteristics (Gage & Wilkin 2008). The results of this study do not support this finding. ...
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Anatomy of leaf cross sections, karyological studies, and nuclear DNA content analysis by flow cytometry were carried out on the six Sternbergia species from Turkey: S. candida (endemic to the country), S. clusiana, S. colchiciflora, S. lutea, S. sicula and S. vernalis. In karyological analysis, number and morphology of the somatic chromosomes, the ploidy level and karyotype formula of the specimens used in the study were investigated in detail. The measurements of somatic chromosomes were calculated with formula of the relative variation in chromosome lenght (CVCL) and mean centromeric asymmetry (MCA). According to the results of this study, there are two different basic chromosome numbers. i.e. x = 10 (S. candida, S. clusiana, S. colchiciflora and S. vernalis) and x = 11 (S. lutea and S. sicula). Results of karyotype analysis corroborated results of previous studies. The smallest chromosome length was measured as 3.05 μm in S. clusiana while the longest length of 20.89 μm was observed in S. sicula. This is the first study reporting nuclear DNA content results for Sternbergia. Based on results of the nuclear DNA content analysis, there is a great variation within the genus in the interspecific level as 2C DNA content varies between 54.03 and 80.42 pg among the species investigated in the study. Anatomical features of the leaves were good taxonomic markers, especially concerning their palisade cells, ribs, cuticle, laticifer canals, vascular bundles, crystals, stomatal index, and stomata structure. Analytical drawings were presented. Six noteworthy leaf characters were quantified, organized in a data matrix, and analysed with UPGMA methods. In conclusion, cytological characteristics of the Sternbergia species together with their leaf features proved to be quite useful in identification and therefore can provide more clarity for taxonomic revision of the genus.
... He discovered that they in fact formed a single morphological entity and hence all belonged to one species. Gage and Wilkin (2008) used EFA on the outlines of tepals (elements of the outer part of a flower, such as petals and sepals) of three closely related species of Sternbergia to investigate whether they really formed distinct morphological entities. Clark (2009) used linear measurements of bracts, specialized leaf-like organs, in a study of Tilia using selforganizing maps, and Huang, De-Shuang, Du, Quan, and Guo (2006) analyzed bark texture using Gabor filters and radial basis probabilistic neural networks. ...
... They identified both geographic variation between collection sites and also identified intermediate forms of specimens, suggesting various hybridizations had occurred. As mentioned earlier, work by Wilkin (1999), Gage and Wilkin (2008) used morphometric analysis to identify species boundaries. ...
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Plants are of fundamental importance to life on Earth. The shapes of leaves, petals and whole plants are of great significance to plant science, as they can help to distinguish between different species, to measure plant health, and even to model climate change. The growing interest in biodiversity and the increasing availability of digital images combine to make this topic timely. The global shortage of expert taxonomists further increases the demand for software tools that can recognize and characterize plants from images. A robust automated species identification system would allow people with only limited botanical training and expertise to carry out valuable field work.We review the main computational, morphometric and image processing methods that have been used in recent years to analyze images of plants, introducing readers to relevant botanical concepts along the way. We discuss the measurement of leaf outlines, flower shape, vein structures and leaf textures, and describe a wide range of analytical methods in use. We also discuss a number of systems that apply this research, including prototypes of hand-held digital field guides and various robotic systems used in agriculture. We conclude with a discussion of ongoing work and outstanding problems in the area.
... An effective method for detecting morphological variations is morphometry, widely used in various disciplines including systematics (Asmussen et al., 2006;Gage and Wilkin, 2008;Goldman et al., 2004;Henderson, 2006) along with multivariate methods. An advantage of morphometry is objectivity in data handling, especially when many variables are involved (Manly, 1994). ...
... The illustration from Clusius (1601: 164) and the herbarium specimen at UPS completely agree with the protologue and with the current application of the name (Webb 1980, Mathew 1983, 1984, Kamari & artelari, 1990, artelari & Kamari 1991, Morales & Castillo 2004, Gage & Wilkin 2008, aedo & Morales 2013, while the specimen at l (with barcode l 0052816 and No. 897.324-58) agrees with the protologue, but represents material identifiable as Sternbergia lutea cv. 'angustifolia' and may be confused with S. sicula Tineo ex Gussone (1845: 811) [S. ...
Article
The genus Sternbergia Waldstein & Kitaibel (1804: 172) (Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.) consists of 8 species, most of them having yellow flowers and autumnal flowering (Mathew 1983, Kamari & Artelari 1990, Artelari & Kamari 1991). The genus is distributed from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus, North Persia and mountains of Central Asia (Webb 1980, Mathew 1983). Sternbergia lutea (Linnaeus 1753: 292) Ker-Gawl. ex Sprengel (1825: 57) is a bulbous perennial plant with leaves up to 15 mm wide, subentire to minutely crenulate, appearing before or during anthesis, scape 4–10 cm at anthesis, the upper part not concealed, hypanthial tube (2–)5–8 mm, obconical, perianth-segments 4–15 mm wide, linear to oblong-elliptical (Webb 1980, Morales & Castillo 2004, Gage & Wilkin 2008, Aedo & Morales 2013), it is distributed from S. Europe, North Africa to W. Asia (Webb 1980, Conti et al. 2005, Aedo & Morales 2013). This plant is cultivated since ancient times as ornamental, but its cultivation is not very common (Morales & Castillo 2004). Sternbergia lutea was described by Linnaeus (1753: 292) in the genus Amaryllis Linnaeus (1753: 292), and the name A. lutea was previously typified by Kamari & Artelari (1990: 375) and Morales & Castillo (2004: 124) in both cases from the same specimen preserved at LINN, Herb. Linn. No. 416.1. However, this specimen is not original material, and therefore these two designations could be considered as neotype (Art. 9.7 of the ICN, McNeill et al. 2012). However, as exist Linnaeus’s original elements, according to Art. 9.12 of the ICN, the lectotype must be chosen from among these elements.
... These different numbers of species highlight the complexity of species delimitation in Sternbergia, especially within S. lutea complex. For some authors, the lack of phylogenetic resolution (Gage & al., 2011), combined with the absence of morphological characters with diagnostic value (Gage & Wilkin, 2008), supports the idea that both S. sicula and S. greuteriana are conspecific with S. lutea, forming a species complex. For other authors, the morphology based on stable criteria -verified in natural, as well as in cultivated specimens (Kamari & Artelari, 1990;Pasche & Kerndorff, 2002;Peruzzi & al., 2008;Tison & Delaigue, 2010)-justify the recognition of 3 species in the complex. ...
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Sternbergia is a genus containing mostly remarkable autum flowering taxa within Amaryllidaceae. Its distribution ranges from the Mediterranean region through the Irano-Anatolian region to Caucasus and Central Asia. In Flora of Iraq, the information about the occurrence, habitat, and distribution of its species is outdated or incomplete. The main aim of this study has been to contribute with new data from the field in order to update its status in the Kurdistan Region. Botanical field surveys were mostly carried out between 2013 and 2015 in autumn and spring. The main result of this study has been the occurrence of 3 species of Sternbergia: S. colchiciflora, which is reported in this study for the first time for the Kurdistan Region and therefore for Iraq; S. clusiana, which has been rediscovered in Iraq; and S. vernalis, which has been found again in the Berwarya Mountains, after being considered a lost species in Iraq over the last 80 years. These 3 observed species occur in the mountains of Amadiya District, making this area the richest territory for Sternbergia in the country. Due to certain factors that currently threaten their natural habitats, they are rare species and could be regarded as potentially endangered at regional level according to the IUCN criteria.
... En contradiction avec les résultats précédents, Gage & Wilkin (2008) arrivent, par biométrie, à la conclusion que le complexe de S. lutea s.l. n'est pas dissociable et se ramène donc à une seule espèce. ...
... Sternbergia lutea is a species native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia. It is known from Spain, through the south of France, Italy, the Balkans, Greece and across North Africa east from Morocco extending into Asia as far as the Caucasus and Iran (Gorshkova 1935;Wendelbo 1970;Webb 1980;Davis and Stuart 1984;Gage and Wilkin 2008). This range is somehow artificially extended by cultivation and introduction as an ornamental plant. ...
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The paper presents new records for 28 vascular plant species from 14 Eurasian countries. Five taxa (Catabrosa capusii, Poa albertii, Poa intricata, Poa pseudoaltaica, Poa sergievskajae) are reported from Kazakhstan, three (Ranunculus pseudomonophyllus, Ranunculus smirnovii, Ranunculus turczaninovii) from Mongolia, three (Panicum barbipulvinatum, Stipa eriocaulis, Tragopogon pratensis subsp. minor) from Poland, three (Euphorbia subtilis, Corydalis grubovii, Thymus callieri) from Russia, two (Atriplex ornata, Corispermum dutreuilii) from Afghanistan, two (Orobanche grenieri, Ranunculus mongolicus) from Kyrgyzstan, two (Erigeron annuus, Sternbergia lutea) from Tajikistan, two (Orobanche baumanniorum, Orobanche kotschyi) from Turkey, one (Polygonum subaphyllum) from China, one (Orobanche bartlingii) from Georgia, one (Rubus slavonicus) from Germany, one (Cenchrus spinifex) from Montenegro, one (Rubus canadensis) from Slovenia and one (Bolboschoenus yagara) from Switzerland. For each species, synonyms, general distribution, habitat preferences, taxonomy with remarks on recognition and differentiation of the species from the most similar taxa occurring in a given country as well as a list of recorded localities (often far from the previously known areas) are presented.
... El análisis multivariado representa una herramienta útil para abordar esta problemática. Así lo muestran los trabajos sobre especies de diferentes familias de plantas como: Alliaceae (Gage y Wilkin, 2008), Boraginaceae (Peruzzi y Passalacqua, 2008), Brassicaceae (Salariato, Zuloaga y Al-Shehbaz, 2012), Bromeliaceae (De Faria, Wendt y Brown, 2010;Pinzón, Ramírez-Morillo y Fernández-Concha, 2011), Cactaceae (Baker, 2006;Sánchez, Arias y Terrazas, 2013), Hedwigiaceae (De Luna y Gómez-Velasco, 2008), Lamiaceae (Otieno, Balkwill y Paton, 2006), Leguminosae (Estrella, Aedo y Velayos, 2009;Egan, 2015;Fritsch, Schiller y Larson, 2009;Mascarenhas, Silveira y Paganucci, 2014;Pometti, Cialdella, Vilardi y Saidman, 2007), Lentibulariaceae (Domínguez, da Silva, Panfet-Valdés y de Miranda, 2014), Myristicaceae (Janovec y Harrison, 2002), Oleaceae (Hong-Wa y Besnard, 2014), Orchidaceae (Pedersen, 2010;Ponsie, Johnson y Edwards, 2009), Plantaginaceae (Sosa, Panseri y Dematteis, 2012), Poaceae (Gonzalo, Aedo, Nickrent y García, 2012;Harrison y Hebda, 2011), Potamogetonaceae (Kaplan y Marhold, 2012), Rosaceae (Joly y Bruneau, 2007), Sapindaceae (Pierre, le Moguédec, Lowry y Munzinger, 2014), Simaroubaceae (Schrader y Graves, 2011), Solanaceae (Fajardo, Castillo, Salas y Spooner, 2008) y Violaceae (Hodálová, Mered'a, Mártonfi, Mártonfiová y Danihelka, 2008). En estos casos, el análisis morfométrico permitió determinar con objetividad los límites entre complejos de especies, incluso en casos de hibridación o poliploidía, dando testimonio del valor que posee este método para solucionar diversas situaciones que la práctica taxonómica tradicional resuelve con dificultad. ...
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... These different numbers of species highlight the complexity of species delimitation in Sternbergia, especially within S. lutea complex. For some authors, the lack of phylogenetic resolution (Gage & al., 2011), combined with the absence of morphological characters with diagnostic value (Gage & Wilkin, 2008), supports the idea that both S. sicula and S. greuteriana are conspecific with S. lutea, forming a species complex. For other authors, the morphology based on stable criteria -verified in natural, as well as in cultivated specimens (Kamari & Artelari, 1990;Pasche & Kerndorff, 2002;Peruzzi & al., 2008;Tison & Delaigue, 2010)-justify the recognition of 3 species in the complex. ...
... Floral characters are here analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Canonical Variant Analysis (CVA), Discriminant Analysis (DA), and Cluster Analysis (CA) in a four-step approach for detection of the most informative characters (James & McCulloch, 1990;Henderson, 2006). These methods offer sufficient sensitivity to differentiate floral shape variation, and have been used in recent morphometric studies (Naczi et al., 1998;Borba et al., 2002;Henderson, 2004Henderson, , 2006Gage & Wilkin, 2008;Costa et al., 2009;Pinheiro & Barros, 2009;Sharma & Pandit, 2011;Castelo & Galetto, 2013;Dom ınguez et al., 2014;Renner et al., 2013;Rodrigues et al., 2013;Menezes et al., 2014). Using previously recognised qualitative characters, the current study attempts to establish morphological limits among entities assigned to U. sect. ...
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Thesis
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PAST: palaeon-tological Statistics software package for education and data analysis IUCN Red List Categories: Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission
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