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Classical conditioning and celebrity endorsers: An examination of belongingness and resistance to extinction

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Abstract

Three studies attempt to better explain how celebrities are used effectively as conditioned stimuli in the associative learning process. Study 1 establishes that direct affect transfer can occur using celebrities via conditioning. Study 2 suggests that celebrity conditioning will be more effective when there is an appropriate fit (belongingness) between the celebrity and the product endorsed—also known as the match-up hypothesis. Finally, Study 3 examines whether attitudes toward brands paired with celebrities are resistant to efforts to extinguish them using extinction procedures. The findings suggest that conditioning with celebrities yields brand attitudes that are robust and enduring. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... Product endorsements Product endorsements are embedded in the theory of classical conditioning (Till et al., 2008), which states that consumers create a connection between a conditioned stimulus (an endorser) and an unconditioned stimulus (the endorsed product) (Shimp et al., 1991;Till et al., 2008). When a company uses a product endorsement, it leverages an endorser's positive characteristics, so an endorsement's effectiveness largely depends on the endorser's individual set of meanings (Choi and Rifon, 2012;McCracken, 1989). ...
... Product endorsements Product endorsements are embedded in the theory of classical conditioning (Till et al., 2008), which states that consumers create a connection between a conditioned stimulus (an endorser) and an unconditioned stimulus (the endorsed product) (Shimp et al., 1991;Till et al., 2008). When a company uses a product endorsement, it leverages an endorser's positive characteristics, so an endorsement's effectiveness largely depends on the endorser's individual set of meanings (Choi and Rifon, 2012;McCracken, 1989). ...
... Moreover, the study shows that endorsers' influences on consumers' purchase intentions is mediated by their attitudes toward the advertisement and the endorsed brand. Therewith, it supports the theory of classical conditioning (Lee et al., 2017;Till et al., 2008), according to which endorsers' characteristics are transferred through consumers' perceptions of the endorsement and the endorsed brand to the sphere of consumers and increase their intentions to purchase the endorsed product (Erdogan and Baker, 2000;McCracken, 1989). Endorsers' indirect influence on consumers' purchase intentions supports Lafferty and Goldsmith's (1999) argument that attitude toward the endorsed brand plays an important role in determining an endorsement's effectiveness. ...
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As the superiority of sports celebrities’ endorsements has been questioned, the purpose of this study is to identify various types of endorsers’ direct and indirect effects on consumers’ purchase intentions. Empirical data were collected from 240 useful responses to an online experiment, and research hypotheses were tested using (moderated) serial mediation analyses. The study’s findings indicate that an endorser has a positive influence on consumers’ purchase intentions through their perceptions of the advertisement and the endorsed brand. A moderated serial mediation analysis finds differences in the four types of endorsers analyzed. A sports celebrity is the most effective type of endorser in increasing consumers’ purchase intentions, whereas endorsements by company managers and peer consumers, while also positive, are less effective in influencing advertising outcomes. An expert’s endorsement is comparable to that of a manager but not significant. The generalizability of the study’s findings is limited because of a restricted data sample, the use of fictitious endorsers, and the limited number of product categories and brands analyzed. The study systematically analyzes the behavioral influence of four types of endorsers on consumers’ purchase intentions, mediated by their perceptions of the advertisements and the endorsed brand. The results of this analysis extend the current state of endorsement research, indicate that endorsements should be integrated into companies’ marketing strategies, and provide marketing professionals practical guidance on which type of endorser is most effective in influencing advertising outcomes.
... Specifically, small sample sizes and p values close to a significance level of .05 may suggest the presence of p-hacking as observed effects under these two conditions may be false positives when the null hypothesis is true (Simonsohn et al., 2014b). In fact, some studies in the celebrity endorsement literature rely upon small sample sizes (e.g., Chen, Lin, & Hsiao, 2012;Till et al., 2008) and statistically significant p values close to .05 (e.g., Maronick, 2006;Pease & Brewer, 2008). ...
... Some studies manipulated celebrity endorsement through asking participants to view an advertisement that features a celebrity who is endorsing a product (e.g., Pease & Brewer, 2008). On the other hand, some other studies adopted the "forward conditioning procedure" to manipulate celebrity endorsement in which only the images of the focal product and the focal celebrity were shown to the participants instead of an advertisement (e.g., Miller & Allen, 2012;Till et al., 2008). Participants were instructed to view a slide show presenting multiple pairings of an image of the focal product followed by a picture of the focal celebrity (conditioning trial), along with randomized images of the fillers (i.e., filler celebrities/brands, abstract paintings). ...
... On the other hand, viewing too many images may cause fatigue among participants (Till et al., 2008). In the forward conditioning procedure, multiple conditioning trials plus several filler images often include dozens of pictures. ...
Article
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Celebrity endorsements have long been used as a promotional tool in marketing communication. However, literature has documented inconsistent findings on the effects of celebrity endorsements compared to no endorsement or noncelebrity endorsements, suggesting a close examination about the reliability and robustness of celebrity endorsements is needed. This study conducted a p-curve analysis among two sets of published studies based on different comparison groups (celebrity endorsements vs. no celebrity endorsement; celebrity endorsements vs. noncelebrity endorsements) to investigate if both sets of studies contain an evidential value. The significantly right-skewed p curve suggests that both sets of published studies have some integrity. However, the studies that compared celebrity endorsements with no celebrity endorsements showed low statistical power. Theoretical and methodological implications for celebrity endorsement research were discussed.
... Warlop, 1993), and purchase intent (Allen & Madden, 1985;Till & Busler, 2000). Likewise, a wide variety of stimuli have been used in advertising, including celebrity endorsers (Chen et al., 2013;Till, Stanley, & Priluck, 2008), music (Gorn, 1982;Schemer et al., 2008), humor (Allen & Madden, 1985), and valenced imagery (Kim et al., 1998;Wilson & Till, 2011). ...
... This is despite prior associative learning research that found valenced stimuli influence brand attitudes (Grossman & Till, 1998;A. A. Mitchell, 1986;Till et al., 2008). The second set of stimuli Wilson and Till (2011) used were billboard environments projecting characteristics that either matched or did not match the salient product attributes of the advertised brand. ...
Article
Companies frequently place out-of-home advertisements in locations hoping their brand becomes associated with that environment’s favorable attributes. However, prior research using U.S. subjects suggested that these associative benefits do not actually transfer onto the advertised brand. We faithfully replicate this earlier research using a non-Western sample and find that culturally based communication and cognitive processing models may explain the lack of results in the earlier study and affirmative results in our study. Three experimental conditions are used: single exposure, multiple exposures, and high involvement. We find that a billboard’s external environment does influence brand evaluations but only in the single-exposure condition. A possible explanation for why results were not evident in the multiple exposure and high involvement conditions may be related to the amount of message elaboration across study conditions.
... Celebrity brand endorsements give effective advertisement, because of the most important reason that people follow their favourite celebrity and they want to look, appear, feel and act the way their favourite celebrity does. Not only can celebrity endorsements attract consumers to purchase Asian Journal of Management Applications and Research, 6(1) ISSN 2230 -8679 30 products, but the appeal of statements by celebrities can also affect the consumers' perception about the product/brand image. Different appeal methods result in different advertising effects. ...
... According to Fowles (1996), Advertisers' rationale for hiring celebrities to endorse products is that people consume images of celebrities and advertisers hope that people will also consume products associated with celebrities. An image transfer occurs when an advertisement can establish contingency between the two entities (Till, 1998;Till et al., 2008). ...
Article
This research is aimed to examine the relationship of Celebrity Sources and Brand Image of those products which are being endorsed by such celebrities. Celebrity endorsement advertising aims to achieve a favourable impact on brand image. Primarily, celebrity source models are explored and the impact of all the sources of celebrities like, Attractiveness, Trustworthiness and Expertise are studied in special reference to the distinct impact on Brand Image of the products which the celebrity is endorsing. As the nature of this study is exploratory in nature, some literature are selected on the basis of various traits of celebrities and are critically analysed and a conceptual framework has been suggested. This conceptual research highlights specific success factors to support marketers and advertisers for a better selection of celebrities for endorsements. It also provides a basis for guiding further research beyond the mere celebrity selection decision.
... As emphasized by Hung (2014), studies need to be done in different consumer contexts to further validate how celebrity worship motives impact to evaluate endorsed brand; whereas Sri Lanka is also considered as a transforming context that needs future studies to examine consumer behavioral dynamics against marketing stimulus ( Kumara,2016;Liyanage,2005). Additionally, propositions of examining the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement towards perceived brand evaluation contexts such as brand attitude, brand trust and brand love had been found in recently held studies claiming extended studies on different product categories other than physical goods (Carroll & Ahuvia 2006;Folse, Burton & Netemeyer 2013;Hung, Chan & Tse 2011;Karasiewicz & Kowalczuk 2014;Koernig & Boyd, 2009 ;Till, Stanley & Priluck, 2008;Thusyanthy & Tharanikaran 2015). ...
... Supportively, it refers that consumers associate the network memory which subsequently results perceived associations with the endorsed brand (Keller,2013; Dissanayake, et.al.2017). Further, this study focused to examine how the said perceived effectiveness of celebrity endorsements influence perceived brand evaluation referring to the contexts namely brand attitude (Folse,et.al.,2013;Hung,et.al.,2011;Koernig & Boyd, 2009;Till, Stanley, & Priluck, 2008), brand trust (Agrawal& Kamakura ,1995; Folse,et.al. 2013;Wang et. ...
... Furthermore, in the related research on sponsorship and celebrity endorsements, Mazodier and Merunka [42] uncovered that the perceived fit between the sponsored event and the brand would have a positive impact on brand trust. Similarly, the celebrity advertising programs would be more effective when there is a close fit between celebrities and endorsement products [43][44][45]. In addition, literature on olfactory cues [46] has also reached a similar conclusion that environmental odors that are consistent with the retail environment (for example, the plant aroma in a flower shop) can cast a positive impact on consumer's selection process. ...
... We reveal the internal mechanism underlying the impact of reward types on customers' referral likelihood for green products and illustrate that compared with monetary rewards, the perceived fit between the donation reward and the green product is higher, which, in turn, leads to greater referral likelihood. The findings of the impact of perceived fit in the context of RRP designed for green products are consistent with the conclusions in the fields of brand development [36,37], sponsorship [42] and celebrity endorsement [43][44][45], providing further evidence for the positive effect of fit. ...
Article
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Interpersonal referrals can effectively promote purchases. In view of the low sales of green products, this study introduces the referral reward program into green marketing and investigates the impact of reward type on customers’ referral likelihood for green product. Through a lab experiment with 302 participants in China involved, this study reveals the differential effects of monetary versus donation rewards on existing customers’ referral likelihood. Specifically, compared with monetary rewards, donation rewards are more effective in promoting recommendations. It is also indicated that the perceived fit between the reward and green products partially mediates the relationship between the reward type and referral likelihood. In addition, the relationship between the reward type and perceived fit is moderated by consumers’ green product knowledge. This research not only extends the literature on green marketing and referral reward programs, but also provides feasible suggestions for government and enterprises to promote green products and to improve social wellbeing.
... Celebrity endorsement researchers are one of the highest users of this theory. Notable examples include Kamins, (1990), Mittelstaedt et al. (2000), Till et al. (2008), and Roy and Bagdare (2015). Most of these studies found perceived congruence between a celebrity and a brand to generate more favorable consumer attitudes than an incongruent pair. ...
... Having discussed that, the study finds contradictory evidence to the well-used congruence theory (Kamins, 1990;Mittelstaedt et al., 2000;Roy and Bagdare, 2015;Till et al., 2008). Findings from study 2 indicate that celebrity endorser-destination congruence may not hold good across countries, contrary to Glover (2009). ...
Article
The present study extends research on the role of celebrity endorsements in destination marketing by exploring various facets of the effect of celebrity endorsements in destination marketing on the consumer. More specifically, theories of source credibility, congruence, social identity and consumer cosmopolitanism, are used to build research questions that investigate the relative effectiveness of a celebrity endorsed tourism advertisement vis a vis a generic advertisement and the boundary conditions governing the same such as destination type (local/global), celebrity country of origin and consumer level factors. The research questions are addressed using four experimental studies in sequence. The same four experiments are run in three countries with different socio-cultural backgrounds to enhance generalization, with a combined sample size of 1073 respondents. Major findings suggest that a celebrity endorser is effective for a destination advertisement. Significant cross-country differences were observed in consumer affect depending on the choice of celebrity (local or global) and the destination type (i.e., domestic or international). The effects are also moderated by consumer cosmopolitanism. The study has multiple theoretical and managerial implications.
... Previous research has noted that the perceived fit between the endorser and the promoted product is essential for achieving successful results in the context of celebrity advertising (Kahle and Homer, 1985;Knoll and Matthes, 2017;Zhu et al., 2019). This relationship is also grounded in the match-up hypothesis (Kahle and Homer, 1985;Till and Busler, 2000), which suggests that when there is a high fit between an endorser and an advertised product, a promotional campaign is more persuasive (Kamins, 1990;Ohanian, 1990;Till et al., 2008). On social networks the success of influencers is based on their close relationships with their followers (Dhanesh and Duthler, 2019). ...
Article
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Collaborations between influencers and brands have become increasingly popular in recent years. Previous research has mainly focused on influencer marketing as a commercial action designed to enhance followers' perceptions and reactions toward promoted brands, ignoring the consequences of these promotional actions on influencers' credibility and their relationships with their followers. This research sheds light on the topic by exploring how influencers' promotional actions affect their credibility, and followers' attitudes and behavioral responses toward the influencer (i.e., to continue following, imitate, and recommend them to other users). A study addressed to the followers of a popular influencer was carried out to test the research model. The results showed that perceived influencer-product congruence positively affects followers' perceptions of the credibility of, and attitude toward, influencers, and negatively affects perceptions of paid communication. Followers' perceptions that influencers have been paid to take part in promotional activities harms their credibility; however, credibility is essential for generating positive attitudes toward the influencer. Finally, both perceived credibility and attitude foster positive behavioral responses toward the influencer; influencers must enhance these factors to retain their influencing capacity. This research provides managerial implications for influencers and brands that can help enhance followers’ experiences when exposed to promotions on social media.
... Numerous scholars have argued that celebrity-brand congruence is a determinant of endorsement effectiveness (e.g., Till et al., 2008;Till & Busler, 1998, 2000. Notably, Choi and Rifon (2012) argued that congruity enhances ad attitude while Kahle and Homer (1985) showed that congruity increases the trustworthiness of communication. ...
Article
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Finding a fitting endorser has proven to be one of the most delicate and critical tasks of influencer marketing. This research explores the relevance of the congruency of the influencer personality with (1) brand personality and consumers' (2) actual/(3) ideal selves. Additionally, the (4) moderating role of involvement is considered, the impacts on post attitude/belief, brand trust and purchase intention are thereby studied. The novelty of this study lies in the integral examination of the types of congruencies and involvement in the context of influencer marketing as well as the consideration of their impact on the brand‐related variables. Based on an online survey with 547 participants analyzed by means of structural equation modeling in SmartPLS, partly counterintuitive findings were produced. When the involvement level rises, congruence with consumers' actual selves becomes more important. Under low‐involvement conditions, practitioners should pay more attention to influencers' fit with consumers' ideal selves. An adequate fit between brand and endorser is paramount and becomes even more important under high‐involvement conditions. Overall, this study reveals that the three types of congruency and involvement interact in a very unique way in the context of influencer marketing.
... Conditioning provides an explanation for source effects in persuasion. The liking of the source can be conditioned-either through classical or evaluative conditioning-to the topic of the message (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993;Till et al., 2008). ...
... Accroding to Silvera and Austad (2004), celebrities enable their image to transfer to the product and brand. The process will make the consumer developed positive feelings to the products or brand will later will affect the purchase intention (Till et al., 2008). McRobbie (1994) reported that, the characters of the TV drama, music, and magazine are models of Generation Y. ...
... Research has shown that endorsers with a positive reputation can increase rating and product evaluation of the company's product and can increase the financial performance in the longer run [8,9]. Research has proved that celebrity endorsement is proven tool and is used extensively by many leading brands all over the world [10].Celebrity endorsements help builds positive reputation, brand recognition, purchase behavior, brand recall and advertisement effectiveness [11]. Although previous research shows that consumers and viewers believe in the motives of celebrity endorsers but this trend seems to vary. ...
Article
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In today’s environment, it has been noticed that the major part of a company’s capital is spend on advertisement of their products. The present study tries to investigate the ethical problems that are found in advertisements. The objective of this study is to evaluate ethical issues, ethical misconducts in celebrity endorser’s and ethical problems in content and message of advertisements. The data was gathered through questionnaire from 12 universities of twin cities i.e. Islamabad and Rawalpindi of Pakistan. The SPSS software is used to conduct reliability, validity and regression analysis. The results of study reveal that advertising messages ethics and advertising appeal have significant relationship with advertising effectiveness. The statistical result also showed that there is significant effect of advertising message with advertising effectiveness. The findings of study reveal that celebrity endorser’s ethics have insignificant effect on advertising ethics. From the result of this study it is shown that among Pakistani younger segment, there is little value of what celebrity endorser own past is and they are more inclined towards what are they selling. The results of advertising appeal and advertising message shows that people rejects the current practices of Pakistani media and advertisers and they are of the opinion that marketer and advertiser should be more ethical and follow the cultural values of Pakistani society.
... classical conditioning, that is pairing a well-liked celebrity with a brand, in order to positively affect the brand attitude(Till et al., 2008). ...
... classical conditioning, that is pairing a well-liked celebrity with a brand, in order to positively affect the brand attitude(Till et al., 2008). ...
... Previously Till, Stanley and Priluck (2008) had seen that, celebrity endorsement leads to positive approach towards the endorsed brand as it can affect both perceived quality and distinctiveness of the brand (Dean, 1999). ...
... Friedman and Friedman (1979) emphasized the benefits of celebrity endorsements in the communication research. In addition, numerous commercial marketing and communication-based studies have linked endorsements with attitude towards products (Till, Stanley, and Priluck 2008), sales (Crutchfield 2010; Elberse and Verleun 2012), word of mouth (Bush, Martin, and Bush 2004) and brand equity (Spry, Pappu, and Bettina Cornwell 2011). However, recent research has emphasized evaluating endorser and its significance from a novel perspective. ...
Article
Though extant literature has investigated the role of brand endorsers in political marketing and communication research, few studies have investigated the causal relationships between brand endorsers, political party brand personality, and voter behaviour. The present study addresses this gap by investigating the relationship between brand endorsers, brand personality, brand preference, and brand equity in the political marketing context, by adhering to the meaning transfer model. The results reveal that political brand endorsers have a significant effect on political party brand personality. In addition, political party brand personality has a significant influence on the political brand preference and political brand equity. The brand personality of a political party has a partial mediating role on the relationship between brand endorsers, brand preference, and brand equity. The results of the study further describe the partial moderating role of political party type on the relationship between political party brand personality, political brand preference, and political brand equity. The paper has significant marketing and communication implications for political parties. The study is undeniably significant as it is centred on India, an emerging Asian economy whose political parties, leaders, and their strategies invite direct comparison with those of developed economies.
... (Carroll, 2009;Felix and Borges, 2014;Nicolau and Santa-María, 2013;Seno and Lukas, 2007;Till et al., 2008 Keller, 1990;青木,1995;Keller, 1993;洪,2011) 。本研究においても、これまでの研究 での議論の内容に基づいて、製品カテゴリーを問 わず企業が既に確立されたブランドを、他の製品 やカテゴリーに使用することをブランド拡張と定 義して研究を進めることとした。 ...
Article
This study discusses how athlete endorsement may facilitate a non-sports brand’s extension into a sports-related product category. We investigate the effect of athlete endorsement on consumers’ intention to purchase the new sports-related products offered by the non-sports brand in the context of the UNIQLO-Kei Nishikori endorsement partnership. We propose that a brand-congruent athlete endorser will enhance consumers’ perceived brand-extension fit, which in turn leads to a higher purchase intention. Moreover, the positive effect of endorser-brand fit on brand-extension fit should be attenuated, i.e., negatively moderated, by consumers’ brand familiarity. A total of 387 usable responses from Japanese aged above 18 were collected via the Internet. Despite insufficient evidence for the negative moderating effect of brand familiarity, SEM analyses confirmed that brand-extension fit fully mediated the effect of endorser-brand fit on consumers’ purchase intention. Our findings suggest athlete endorsement contributes to a nonsports brand’s successful extension into sports-related product category.
... Previous studies (Kahle & Homer, 1985;Kamins, 1990;Kamins & Gupta, 1994;Kanungo & Pang, 1973;Solomon, Ashmore, & Longo, 1992;Tingchi Liu & Brock, 2011;Tingchi Liu, Huang, & Minghua, 2007) have considered only physical attractiveness of the endorser as a key factor in the match-up process. On the other hand, Friedman and Friedman (1979), Ohanian (1990), and Till, Stanley, and Priluck (2008) have used only celebrity expertise as a match-up dimension. The literature review also shows that Busler (1998, 2000) have used two dimensions, namely, expertise and attractiveness for matching the celebrity and the product. ...
Article
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This research develops a generic framework that matches celebrity associations with various product categories and finds an ideal set of celebrity associations for each product category. Three studies have been conducted for achieving the purpose of the study. Study one identifies associations that consumers link with celebrities and classifies them into thirteen different categories. It also finds a total of 30 products and services that consumers associate with celebrity endorsements. In study two, the respondents are asked if each of the three celebrities is appropriate for endorsing each of the 30 identified products and services. The results support the match-up hypothesis notion that different celebrities are considered appropriate for different product categories. In study three, the respondents were asked to identify the associations that a celebrity should possess for endorsing various product categories. The results reveal that the celebrity associations can be classified into two broad categories—universal associations and product specific associations. Universal associations include the associations which the respondents consider to be essential for all types of products. Product specific associations include the associations that vary in their importance depending on the type of product category. The findings have significant implications for academicians, brand managers and celebrity management companies.
... Most recently, Till, Stanley and Priluck (2008) explained how celebrities are used effectively as conditioned stimuli in the associative learning process. The authors conclude that conditioning with celebrities yields brand attitudes that are robust and enduring. ...
... The success of marketing communication mostly hinges on the consumer's perception of the knowledge and credibility of a celebrity endorser (Spry et al., 2011). Celebrity endorser and endorsed product congruence play a vital role in celebrity featured marketing communication (Fleck et al., 2012;Till et al., 2008). Nataraajan and Chawla (1997) and Till and Busler (2000) focused on the association between a celebrity's image and expertize related to the product. ...
Article
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Purpose Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a celebrity with a brand creates a human image for a brand and helps in personifying its image. The consumer perceives the brand as an individual and relates his personality, as well as the personality of the celebrity with that of the brand. It becomes pertinent for marketers to understand how brand-celebrity personality congruence and brand-consumer personality congruence affect the brand reputation, uniqueness and purchase intentions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the two personality congruence aspects – brand & celebrity personalities and brand & consumer personalities, and their impact on the reputation of the brand and its uniqueness. Further, the paper aims to examine the impact of the brand reputation and brand uniqueness on purchase intentions. Design/methodology/approach The present study uses Aaker’s five-factor personality scale to study the personality congruence effects on brand reputation, brand uniqueness and purchase intentions. The literature review was carried out to categorize factors related to celebrity personality, brand personality and consumer personality. The data for this study was collected through questionnaires from 1,235 respondents. In the first step, congruencies between celebrity, brand and consumer personality were determined. This was followed by a two-stage structural equation modelling for assessing the model fit and testing the hypotheses. Findings From the study results, it is observed that brand-celebrity congruency influences brand reputation and brand uniqueness. However, brand-consumer congruency had an effect only on brand reputation and not on brand uniqueness. Both brand reputation and uniqueness have favourable impact on consumers purchase intentions. Originality/value This study contributes to the existing literature on celebrity endorsement by extending the discussion with personality-based congruence. The research deciphered two aspects of identification, i.e. consumer-brand personality congruence and brand-celebrity congruence. The paper hypothesized the favourable association between brand personality and consumer personality congruence and brand uniqueness. However, it was observed that brand personality-consumer personality identification had an insignificant influence on brand uniqueness. This is contrary to the findings of some studies in the literature. Further investigation of this relationship in the future may add a new dimension to the identification context.
... Most recently, Till, Stanley and Priluck (2008) explained how celebrities are used effectively as conditioned stimuli in the associative learning process. The authors conclude that conditioning with celebrities yields brand attitudes that are robust and enduring. ...
... It occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly associated with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US;De Houwer, 2007). We are confronted with this on a daily basis, particularly through advertising (e.g., a popular celebrity (US) frequently praises a service or product (CS), resulting in improved evaluations of that product, Till et al., 2008). Most contemporary research on evaluative conditioning has focused on the cognitive constraints necessary for its occurrence (for example, see Swedens, ...
Thesis
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Dans ce travail, nous avons souhaité explorer la dimension émotionnelle du conditionnement évaluatif. Nous postulons que celui-ci provient d’un processus de double évaluation, d’une part émotionnelle et d’autre part cognitive. Nous nous sommes focalisés sur l’étude des processus émotionnels à travers la régulation émotionnelle. Pour cela nous avons réalisé trois séries d’études. Dans la première, nous avons mis en évidence que la dérégulation émotionnelle diminuait le conditionnement positif. Dans deux autres études visant à explorer les stratégies de régulation, nous avons observé qu’un mésusage des stratégies engendrait un conditionnement négatif plus fort et un conditionnement positif plus faible. Ces premiers résultats sont appuyés par deux études utilisant la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque comme indicateur des capacités d’autorégulation. Le conditionnement évaluatif paraît associé à la dérégulation émotionnelle à travers des difficultés d’adaptation durant le stress et de récupération post-stress. Enfin, deux études ont essayé d’observer les effets d’un prédicteur de la régulation émotionnelle : la pleine conscience. Dans aucune des deux études nous n’avons trouvé de lien entre la pleine conscience et le conditionnement évaluatif. Nous avons donc pu observer à travers différentes méthodes un lien entre le conditionnement évaluatif et la régulation émotionnelle. Celui-ci est discuté et des pistes de recherches sont envisagées.
... Micu et al., 2009). This positive bias is obtained because consumers' favorable impressions of an attractive model are transferred to other targets linked to the model such as products and ads (Till et al., 2008). Thus, feelings bias or spill over into evaluations, which is also known as the affect transfer hypothesis. ...
Article
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Purpose Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how consumers allocate attention and evaluate products and advertisements on complex webpages when they are casually browsing. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted two experiments to test the causal effects of different degrees of visual complexity on consumer responses to products and advertisements. An eye-tracking experiment ( n = 90) and a follow-up online experiment ( n = 121) were conducted using undergraduate students as participants. Findings Participants formed a global impression from the overall webpage complexity, which spilled over to evaluation of individual elements on the webpage (e.g. product, advertisement). The inverted U -shaped relationships (vs. linear negative relationships) between webpage visual complexity and attitude toward the webpage, products, and advertisements were observed. The focal product was given a consistent level of attention regardless of the complexity level. Practical implications This study provides implications for website organization and design to maximize positive consumer experiences and marketing effectiveness. The findings provide implications for retailers and advertisement buyers. Originality/value This study expanded the knowledge by examining the interplay between individual elements of webpages and the whole webpage complexity when consumers browse visually complex webpages. It is a novel finding that the overall webpage complexity effect spills over to locally attended products or advertisements.
... Research has shown that endorsements are more effective when the images or messages the endorsers carry are congruent with the recommended products [46]. Early studies found that various symbolic meanings a consumer associates with a celebrity are transferred to the product being promoted through endorsement, and then from the product to the consumer through purchase and consumption. ...
Article
Nowadays we face an ever-growing number of people using social media, and Instagram is one of the most popular, where its users are exposed to the content generated by opinion leaders/influencers. The role of influencers has already been acknowledged by both academy and the companies, yet the literature in regard with this topic faces some limitations. At the same time, evidence shows that Instagram is the mostly used platform by influencers/opinion leaders in the fashion industry and influencers/opinion leaders are an important source of impact for their followers. The aim of this paper is to explore the role that influencers on Instagram play in the behavior of consumers. Its main objective is the identification of the impact that some antecedents (stimuli) have on the opinion leadership, as well as the impact that the latter has on the consequent (response) purchase intention of consumers, in the fashion sector in Albania. The research followed a quantitative approach, with a sample of 412 followers of a fashion focused Instagram account (of a non-traditional celebrity), that answered an online questionnaire. The results of the research suggest that opinion leadership impacts the consumer behavioral intentions. In regard with the practical and theoretical implications, this study contributed to a better understanding of the role of Instagram influencers in fashion sector, allowing the enrichment of literature and information in the Albanian environment. The research has also provided evidence that the use of influencers is a successful tool for marketers and companies in the fashion sector.
... As perceived intimacy of consumers with a celebrity is an imaginary relation, the physical attractiveness based on the external image of the celebrity, in comparison with the social and task attractiveness based on the celebrity's personality, is easier to gauge by consumers and is the most widely used factor in predicting the effectiveness of endorsement (Ohanian, 1990). Advertisers use physically attractive celebrity endorsers to give consumers sensory stimulation, creating an atmosphere based on the assumption that consumers believe that if they purchase products endorsed or used by these celebrities, they would acquire similar prized attributes (Till et al., 2008). ...
Article
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This research explored how perceived homophily and reverence of consumers bridge the gap between endorser characteristics and consumer-celebrity para-social interaction (PSI). Online surveys were utilized to collect data from consumers. The results based on structural equation modeling showed that the perceived attractiveness and expertise of a celebrity were separately antecedent to the perceived homophily and reverence of consumers for the celebrity. This in turn allowed consumers to build PSI with the celebrity and led to a positive attitude toward the celebrity-endorsed brand. No differences were found between non-fans and fans of the selected celebrity regarding the confirmed path from celebrity characteristics to consumer brand attitude via PSI and its influencing factors. This work highlighted the significance of consumer-celebrity relations for endorsement effectiveness through proving consumer-celebrity PSI and its drivers as indispensable steps in the endorsement process.
... With a few exceptions (e.g. Costanzo and Goodnight, 2005), prior studies have confirmed that celebrity endorsement has a positive effect on consumers responses such as ad attitude, brand attitude and purchase intention across different formats of advertising (Knoll and Matthes, 2017;Rundin and Colliander, 2021;Kusumasondjaja and Tjiptono, 2019;Till et al., 2008;Pornpitakpan, 2004;Till and Busler, 2000;Erdogan, 1999;Erdogan et al., 2001;Kamins and Gupta, 1994;Kamins, 1990;Lynch and Schuler, 1994;Misra and Beatty, 1990). These consumer responses have been the most widely used dependent variables in marketing communication research in general (Bergkvist and Langner, 2017) and celebrity endorsement research in particular (Choi and Rifon, 2012;Lee et al., 2014;Paul and Bhakar, 2017;Russell and Rasolofoarison, 2017). ...
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... Miller and Laczniak (2011) proposed in their research that the celebrity effect has a positive impact on brand awareness and brand loyalty. Many scholars have also suggested that the celebrity effect on advertising message attitudes (Silvera & Austad, 2004), brand opinions (Till, Stanley, & Priluck, 2008) and consumer buying intentions have a positive effect (Lafferty, Goldsmith, & Newell, 2002). Based on the above literature, this study proposes the following hypotheses. ...
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... Spry et al. (2011) further declared that Celebrity endorsement stimulates advertising effectiveness, brand recall, brand recognition, purchase behaviour and purchase intentions. Research by Till, Stanley and Priluck (2008) indicates that celebrity endorsement can lead to a promising attitude to the brand endorsed. Choi and Rifon (2007) declared that Celebrities could cause parasocial associations, moods of a personal connectedness, notwithstanding the absence of direct interaction with the customers. ...
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This research aims to examine the impact of celebrity endorsement on Political Parties and its influence on electorates to vote for a particular Party’s candidate. The mediating role of Political Brand Credibility (PBC) and Political Brand Equity (PBE) towards Voting Intention (VI) relationships were also examined. The study’s conceptual framework was developed using The Source Credibility, The Associative Network Memory Model, and the Brand Signalling Theory. Primary survey data was collected online and analysed through Structural Equation Modelling. Findings suggest that Endorser Credibility has a direct positive significant relationship with Political Brand Credibility. However, there is no significant direct correlation between Endorser Credibility and Political Brand Equity and Voting Intention. Nevertheless, indirect relationship was established. Findings from the study has proven that the endorsement of celebrities alone does not necessarily influence electorates to vote for political candidates, rather the Credibility of the Party and its Equity play a pivotal role with regards to the Voting Intention of voters. Practically, this study has given us insights into the endorsement of celebrities of political candidates, which the Political Party leaders should consider before bringing on board any celebrity to endorse their candidates. Future research opportunity and limitations were also discussed. (PDF) Assessing the effects of Celebrity Endorsements of Political Parties: An empirical study of Nigerian 2019 Presidential Elections. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353794665_Assessing_the_effects_of_Celebrity_Endorsements_of_Political_Parties_An_empirical_study_of_Nigerian_2019_Presidential_Elections [accessed Aug 10 2021].
... An extensive stream of research in marketing addresses advertising endorsements and drivers for their effectiveness on relevant advertising and brand outcomes (Friedman et al., 1976;Kamins and Gupta, 1994;Till, Stanley, and Priluck, 2008) such as the endorser's characteristics (Kahle and Homer, 1985;Kamins, 1990), message characteristics (e.g., Martin, Wentzel, and Tomczak, 2008;Sengupta, Goodstein, and Boninger, 1997), and the recipient's characteristics (e.g., Atkin and Block, 1983;Kahle and Homer, 1985). ...
... Marketers often adopt this concept to promote their products and services by using particular stimuli to evoke consumers' responses (Wisker, Kadirov, and Bone 2019). Previous studies have utilised this claim for decades; consumers' attitudes formed through classical conditioning are enduring (Han and Ling 2016;Till, Stanley, and Priluck 2008;Wisker, Kadirov, and Bone 2019). In this study, the notion of advertising effectiveness comprises three stimuli; ...
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Although mobile payment has long been introduced worldwide, adopting the system in the retailing industry among baby boomers has been slow. This study aims to examine the effects of emotional appeal, advertising creativity, and perceived value on the intention to use mobile payment among baby boomers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study posits a conditional indirect moderated mediation model whereby trust acts as the mediator and perceived risk as the moderator. An experimental study 3 × 2 (emotional appeal-low versus high; advertising creativity-low versus high; perceived value-low versus high) between-subject design was conducted to test the posited hypotheses. Data was collected from baby boomers in New Zealand who were recruited via two sampling frames, SurveyMonkey Databases and Baby Boomer Community Facebook. The results confirm the proposed model, except for a conditional indirect effect of the emotional appeal on intention to use relationship. The findings extend the concept of socioemotional selectivity and hierarchy of effect theories. ARTICLE HISTORY
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This study addressed the issue of young Malaysian consumers' intention to imitate Korean celebrities' endorsement in advertisements. The researchers specifically focused on the impact of Korean celebrity characteristics and the consumer's individual characteristics on the latter's attitude towards imitating celebrity endorsements and the consumer's intention to imitate. 602 young Malaysian consumers in the Klang Valley participated in this study. The results pointed to celebrity characteristics namely attractiveness and trustworthiness as directly and indirectly significant, whilst credibility and expertise were directly and indirectly not significant predictors on consumer attitude toward imitating celebrity endorsements. In addition, individual characteristics namely self-satisfaction and expression of power were directly and indirectly significant predictors on consumer attitude towards imitating celebrity endorsements. There was also a significant effect on attitude towards imitating celebrity endorsements on intention to imitate. Suggestions for future research are discussed at the end of this paper.
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Half a century of research on celebrity endorsement has led to the advancement of four grand celebrity endorsement theories. Most scholars have adopted the meaning transfer model, proposed 30 years ago by Grant McCracken, as the most appropriate theory to explain effective celebrity endorsements. In this conceptual study, we present a literature search and analysis that finds strong support for the validity of all four grand endorsement theories (source credibility, source attractiveness, match‐up hypothesis, and meaning transfer model) and thus show that each theory constitutes an effective construct for a particular set of endorsements. We argue that, contrary to the assertion in the literature, no single theory is able to holistically explain celebrity endorsements. Only a comprehensive framework comprising all theories can explain the great variety of different celebrity endorsements executed in advertising praxis. Moreover, we present a prescriptive framework that allows marketers to identify the most effective celebrity endorsement strategy based on a product's or brand's value proposition, as we believe traditional product categories are no longer an appropriate concept on which to base an effective advertising strategy.
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Background Along with the rapid development of the Internet, the form of destination marketing is becoming increasingly innovative and diverse. Celebrity endorsement via social media, as an effective marketing strategy, has been widely used by various tourism companies to attract and engage with their customers. Previous studies have investigated the various aspects of such endorsement (e.g. the effect of endorser’s attributes) in different contexts (e.g. Hotel, Restaurant, Airline). However, little research has focused on the influence of the tourists’ parasocial relationship with endorsers on destination marketing. Accordingly, the current study aims to explore the role of parasocial relationships on tourists’ destination attitude and visit intention. Method This study adopted quantitative method and conducted Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) for data analysis. 498 valid questionnaires were collected from Weibo (One of China’s most popuar social media platforms). Results Results suggested that endorser’s credibility positively influenced follower’s parasocial relationship (p<0.001), which in turn positively influenced destination attitude and visit intention (p<0.001). Additionally, the parasocial relationship significantly mediated the relationship between credibility and destination attitude as well as visit intention (p<0.001). Conclusion The emerging trend of celerbity endorsement via live-streaming makes tourism destination marketing more diverse and even effective. Through exploring the underlying mechanism of celebrity endorsement, this study can provide destination marketers with insights about how to build and strengthen the tourist’s attitude and visit intention towards destiantion by developing their parasocial relationships with endorsers. This study also adds to the literature of using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) in tourism and hospiatlity research.
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Anecdotal evidence suggests that a new trend in brand alliance advertising is to include an attention-grabbing cue such as a sex appeal or a celebrity endorsement in the same ad as a brand alliance cue. This trend has received scant attention in the literature. Integrating consumer learning theory and the brand information processing framework, we argue that the attention-grabbing cue competes with the brand alliance cue. Three studies demonstrate that the presence of strong cues such as sex appeals or celebrity endorsers reduces the effect of a brand alliance cue. Stronger cues increase ad liking but distract viewers’ attention from the brand alliance cue. The findings suggest that using sex appeals or celebrity endorsers can interfere with the brand ally assisting customers in evaluating the focal brand. Thus, in the case of brand alliance advertising, “the more, the better” is not always true.
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This study investigated luxury brand celebrity endorsements on social media by focusing on the relationships among three pairs of image congruence (i.e., brand-celebrity, self-brand, and self-celebrity), three constructs of consumer evaluations (i.e., ad attitudes, brand attitudes, and self-brand connections), and two facets of behavioral intentions (i.e., engagement and purchase). This study also examined whether celebrity endorsements' effectiveness differs between brand followers and non-followers. This results showed that image congruence in the self-brand pair positively influenced all three constructs of consumer evaluations. In addition, self-brand connections were significant in predicting both engagement and purchase intentions. There were differences between followers and non-followers concerning the congruence-consumer evaluation-behavioral intention relationship. This study extends the existing literature on celebrity endorsements and provides luxury brands with valuable insights regarding celebrity endorsements on social media.
Purpose This study deployed a bibliometric analysis of 604 academic articles on celebrity endorsement collected from the Scopus database from January 1960 to August 2021 (the first published article dated back to 1976). This study integrated three bibliometric analyses: timeline visualization, co-citation cluster analysis, and historical direct citation analysis. This study conducted a qualitative review to further examine the obtained quantitative results. Design/methodology/approach This study reviewed the existing research on the celebrity endorsement domain. Based on a bibliometric review of existing literature, this study aimed to provide main theoretical roots and research trajectories and propose new research avenues concerning the theory, context, characteristics, and research methodologies adopted within the marketing discipline. Findings The findings revealed that the existing relevant research focused on celebrity endorsement in different periods. The main theoretical roots and research trajectories identified were developed under the influence of primary articles from co-citation analysis and historical direct citation. Research limitations/implications Based on the quantitative bibliometric analysis and a qualitative literature review, this study has provided a comprehensive overview of the current stage of this domain. The study also has underscored an abundance of celebrity endorsement literature and revealed the research topics that require further investigations to theoretically and empirically advance the understanding of celebrity endorsement. Practical implications Some topics were recommended for further research within the theory, context, characteristics, and methodology aspects. Some practical examples and suggestions are also given in the study. Originality/value This study proposed a bibliometric overview of celebrity endorsement in the marketing discipline, especially based on timeline visualization, co-citation cluster analysis, and historical direct citation analysis. Furthermore, this study offered a research agenda for further studies in the marketing discipline.
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This study experimentally examines some situational influences on the formation and consequences of two brand image/personality beliefs, pertaining to fun and sophistication (classiness). It experimentally tests McCracken's (1986) meaning transfer mechanisms and establishes that non-verbalized personality associations of celebrity endorsers on these dimensions do indeed reinforce equivalent consumer beliefs about a brand's fun and classiness benefits, but only if a social consumption context is evoked, and only if the brand image beliefs are appropriate to the consumer schema for the product category involved. Moreover, under these facilitating conditions, such ad-created brand image beliefs have an impact only on brand purchase intentions, and not on brand attitudes. Results have implications for the growing literature on different types of brand imagery associations, as well as for future research on the processing of nonverbal stimuli, the measurement of non-functional brand beliefs, and consumer inference processes.
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This article offers a new approach to celebrity endorsement. Previous explanations, especially the source credibility and source attractiveness models are criticized, and an alternative meaning transfer model is proposed. According to this model, celebrities' effectiveness as endorsers stems from the cultural meanings with which they are endowed. The model shows how meanings pass from celebrity to product and from product to consumer. The implications of this model for our understanding of the consumer society are considered. Research avenues suggested by the model are also discussed. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
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We conducted four experiments to test various properties of classical conditioning in an advertising/consumer behavior context. Experiment 1 demonstrates attitude conditioning at each of four levels of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus pairing. In Experiment 2, latent inhibition due to subject preexposure to the conditioned stimulus is shown to retard conditioning for both 10-trial and 1-trial pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Experiment 3 reveals that forward conditioning of attitudes is superior to backward conditioning. Experiment 4 extends the findings from the first three experiments and serves to counter some of their potential methodological problems. Collectively, these experiments provide an initial response to McSweeney and Bierley's (1984) call for more sophisticated classical conditioning research in consumer behavior.
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This study represents a supportive test of the attractiveness aspect of the “match-up” hypothesis of celebrity/product congruence discussed in depth by Kahle and Homer (1985). The hypothesis implies that the physical attractiveness of a celebrity endorser may only enhance both product- and ad-based evaluations if the product's characteristics “match-up” with the image conveyed by the celebrity. Empirically, it was found that for an attractiveness-related product, use of a physically attractive celebrity (Tom Selleck) was observed to significantly enhance measures of spokesperson credibility and attitude toward an ad, relative to use of a physically unattractive celebrity (Telly Savalas). Alternatively, the physically attractive celebrity was found to have no effect on various spokesperson-, product-and ad-based dependent measures relative to the physically unattractive celebrity for an attractiveness-unrelated product. Implications of these findings for advertising strategy are discussed, and directions for future research are outlined.
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The use of celebrity endorsers is a popular executional device, but it is not without risk. The authors report three studies examining how negative information about a celebrity can affect the brand the celebrity endorses. Using an associative network model of memory as a theoretical framework, they considered four moderating variables: the size of the association set for the brand, the size of the association set for the celebrity, the timing of the negative celebrity information, and the strength of the associative link between the brand and the celebrity. In the first two studies, they used a fictitious but realistic celebrity endorser and in the third they used an actual celebrity. Negative information about a celebrity resulted in a decline in attitude toward the endorsed brand only for the fictitious celebrity. That general relationship was moderated in varying degrees by association set size, timing of the negative information, and the strength of the link between brand and celebrity.
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Remmers' Attitude Toward Any Practice scale was used to measure 133 undergraduates' attitudes toward three practices. Response scales were modified to permit the expression of both agreement and disagreement with each statement. Thus ambivalence scores in addition to traditional attitude scores were provided. Respondents' attitude scores toward each practice were correlated with criterion measures. The obtained coefficients of concurrent validity were considerably higher when they were computed only for respondents low in ambivalence than when computed for the entire sample or for respondents high in ambivalance.
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Subjects with initially extreme or moderate positions (based on a median split) recorded a consonant speech under public, private, or no commitment and later received a strong, mild, or no attack on their position. Extremes were more ego-involved in terms of wider latitudes of rejection, narrower latitudes of non-commitment, and greater resistance to attack, relative to moderates. Commitment had no effect for extremes, suggesting a ceiling effect on changes in the latitudes and resistance to attack for initially high levels of ego-involvement. For moderates, commitment resulted in narrower latitudes of noncommitment, wider latitudes of rejection (greater rejection of discrepant positions), and greater resistance to attack, suggesting that commitment may elevate ego-involvement with the issue. Commitment and ego-involvement may increase the salience of one's attitude position in later situations, thereby increasing the probability of attitudeconsistent behavior.
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This research investigates the role of involvement and need for cognition in influencing contingency awareness in attitude formation. Two experiments examine the nature of favorable attitudes formulated through established classical conditioning procedures. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that awareness influences attitudes toward a conditioned stimulus, particularly under conditions of high involvement and high need for cognition. Experiment 2 suggests that contingency awareness mediates the relationship between inferential belief formation and attitudes and that this effect is stronger under high involvement and high need for cognition. Implications for understanding the role of classical conditioning procedures in advertising are discussed.
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Many advertising campaigns use celebrities to endorse a product but how successful is this approach? Examines the results of recent celebrity endorser studies and explores the implications for managers. Uses Madonna and Christie Brinkley to endorse bath towels, jeans and video cassette recorders; so as to assess the impact of combining endorser and product images. Concludes that the celebrity image, when combined with particular products, tends to be passed on to the product. Shows that a product which lacks a well-defined image can have one created for it through use of an endorser whose image reflects the image which an advertiser wants for that product. Conversely, using a celebrity with the wrong image or “match” will be detrimental to the image of the product.
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Businesses will spend millions of dollars associating their products with athletes through product endorsements. Finding the “best” athlete to make the endorsement is a crucial decision. Several theoretical perspectives suggest that the sport from which the athlete comes may be an important factor in producing a favorable consumer response. In a study conducted to investigate the effects of the type of sport on endorsement evaluations, results indicated that the image of the sport, independent of the athlete, can contribute significantly to the consumer’s response to an endorsement. The image of the sport can enhance, or detract from, the effects of the personality and appearance of the athlete making the endorsement. These findings suggest the managers should consider the sport, as well as the athlete carefully, when picking a product spokesperson.
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An interesting issue little explored in the celebrity endorsement literature is whether or not the activities of a celebrity endorser affect company performance. We examine the impact of Tiger Woods’s tournament performance on the endorsing firm’s value subsequent to the contract signing. We do not find a relationship between Tiger’ss tournament placement and the excess returns of Fortune Brands (parent of Titleist). This is likely due to Titleist being a very small contributor to the total market value of Fortune Brands. We also fail to find a significant relationship for American Express suggesting the market does not view a golfer endorsing financial services as credible. We do, however, find a positive and significant impact of Tiger’s performance on Nike’s excess returns suggesting that the market values the additional publicity that Nike receives when Tiger is in contention to win.
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The use of celebrity endorsers in advertising is wide-spread – as much as 20 percent of all advertising use some type of celebrity endorser. Marketers invest significant dollars in securing the promotional support of well-known individuals. Associative learning principles are presented as a useful framework for understanding how celebrity endorsers can be used more effectively. Principles such as repetition, overshadowing, blocking, belongingness, CS pre-exposure, association set size, and extinction are introduced and linked to specific managerial suggestions for improving the use of celebrity endorsers.
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Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of real and created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and female spokespersons' effectiveness by audience gender. Concludes that celebrities can be used to gain attention and maintain sales, while created spokespersons' effectiveness is in establishing a lifelong link with the product.
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Examines the use of celebrity endorsement in advertising. Reviews the results of a recent study looking at the effect of a celebrity's attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise on product purchase intentions, and of one examining the relevance of physical attractiveness and other symbolic attributes of the endorser in relation to product meaning. Considers implications for marketing managers and concludes that further research is necessary.
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Examined the use of celebrity spokespeople in advertising, focusing on 3 dimensions of source credibility: attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise. Two pilot studies were conducted with 78 college students to compile a list of 4 celebrities and products that would be appropriate for them to endorse. From this information, 4 questionnaires were developed. 542 respondents (aged 18–73 yrs) completed 1 questionnaire. In each case, Ss evaluated celebrities to be significantly different from each other with respect to the 3 dimensions studied. Ss' gender and age had no significant effect on their intention to purchase or on how they evaluated celebrities' credibility. Only the perceived expertise of celebrities significantly explained Ss' intentions to purchase, regardless of whether the product was for personal use or for gift-giving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the impact of celebrity endorsers on alcohol advertising and young audiences. Results obtained with 196 Ss, aged 13–77 yrs, show that the use of famous persons to endorse alcohol products was highly effective with teenagers, while the impact on older Ss was limited. For all age groups, the celebrity figure was perceived as more competent and trustworthy. The image of the product tends to be more favorable when a famous endorser is shown; readers are especially likely to rate the alcohol brand as enjoyable and pleasant. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reports 3 studies that used a total of 195 male and female undergraduates. Exp I showed that shifts in attitude were accompanied by shifts in the recall of the more qualitative rather than quantitative aspects of past behaviors. Exps II and III assessed the effects of recall on Ss' commitment to newly formed attitudes. On the premise that behavior recall is biased so as to be consistent with salient attitudes, it was hypothesized that recall would serve to increase Ss' commitment to their attitudes. In Exp II it was assumed that degree of commitment to an attitude would be reflected in the persistence of the attitude, behavioral intention, and actual behavior. As anticipated, Ss' intentions were more consistent with their attitudes when they had been prompted to recall attitudinally relevant behaviors. However, recall did not affect attitude persistence or actual behavior. In Exp III, commitment was measured by resistance to an attack on an attitude. Ss were more likely to maintain an attitude in the face of an attack if they had been induced to recall attitudinally relevant behaviors. The data support the hypothesis that attitudes can affect recall, which in turn affects commitment to the attitudes. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
summarize research showing that attitudes relatively high in evaluative-cognitive consistency behave the way attitude theorists and researchers expect strong attitudes to behave / discuss evidence suggesting that such attitudes are strong because they are accompanied by a well-organized set of supporting cognitions that mutes the change impact of new counterattitudinal information and that also enables their possessors to actively refute such information / summarize data indicating that evaluative-cognitive consistency is not reducible to other common indicators of attitude strength [addresses] evaluative-affective consistency / it refers to the degree of consistency that exists between people's overall evaluations of attitude objects and the evaluative meaning of the emotions, feelings, moods, and sympathetic nervous system activity they experience in relation to these objects / suggest that simultaneous consideration of evaluative-cognitive and evaluative-affective consistency provides a means of diagnosing the cognitive vs affective basis of people's attitudes, and that knowledge of an attitude's structural basis is crucial to understanding the concept of attitude strength / charts the theoretical and empirical road that led to these ideas (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This aricle examines the matchup hypothesis or the notion that the congruence in advertisements between spokesperson characteristics and product attributes is related to observed variations in source credibility, product evaluations, perceived product gender, and other measures of advertising and communication effectiveness. Schema theory is used to interpret the results of previous inquiries into the matchup hypothesis, and the results of two experiments that provide additional insight into how schema might be changed by a spokesperson/product match are reported. Areas of future research into the matchup hypothesis on schema theory implications are discussed. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This research examines brand alliances, a specific marketing strategy designed to transfer the positive brand equity of two or more partner brands to the newly created joint brand. The study explores how customer-based brand equity (that is, brand equity as seen from the customer's perspective) of partner brands affects consumer evaluations of an alliance brand; how the brand equity of one partner brand affects the other; how customer-based brand equity of the partner brands affects consumers' evaluations of the search, experience, and credence attribute performance of the alliance brand; and how product trial influences such evaluations. Results suggest that merely the act of pairing with another brand elevates consumers' evaluations of the partner brands' customer-based brand equity, and high-equity partners enhance pretrial evaluation of experience and credence attributes that are relevant to the high-equity partner. As hypothesized, product trial moderates the equity value of the alliance partner for experience attributes, and brand equity of the partner brands influences consumer perceptions of the alliance brand's equity. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This study tested the matchup hypothesis regarding choice of celebrity spokesperson by examining the fit or congruence between image type and the product advertised from an Identification and Internalization viewpoint (Kelman, 1961). Spokesperson type (celebrity versus noncelebrity) was varied, aong with congruence between spokesperson image and product (higher versus lower congruence) in a 2x2 factorial design. Results showed that increased congruence for the spokesperson/product combination resulted in the perception of higher believability and attractiveness of the spokesperson and a more favorable product attitude. The implications of these and other findings for advertising and marketing strategy are discussed. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
The present study aimed at obtaining some further support for the hypothesis of a distinction between two basically different kinds of learning in a Pavlovian conditioning preparation: signal-learning and affective-evaluative learning ( and ; and ). In this respect, we conducted an experiment to verify the , and hypothesis that, unlike signal-learning, evaluative conditioning should be resistant to extinction. Mere contingent presentation of neutral with (dis)liked stimuli was sufficient to change the affective—evaluative tone of the originally neutral stimuli in a (negative) positive direction (p<0.0001). A subsequent extinction procedure did not have any influence on the acquired evaluative value of the originally neutral stimuli (p<0.0001). A follow-up study demonstrated that the evaluative discriminations were still present two months after the acquisition and extinction manipulations (p<0.0001). These findings provide full support for the resistance to extinction hypothesis. At a theoretical level, this is considered to be further evidence for the hypothesis that evaluative conditioning is not mediated by the acquisition of propositional—declarative knowledge about stimulus contingencies. Finally, we suggest an intriguing analogy between the evaluative conditioning phenomenon and the ‘laws of sympathetic magic’ (Rozin et al., 1986).
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This paper reports a procedure, like classical conditioning, that produces enhancement of liking for flavors by humans. The procedure is “pairing” of a relatively neutral flavor with sugar (a hedonically positive taste). Specifically, subjects drank 24 small samples of flavor A sweetened and 24 small samples of flavor B unsweetened. They were then tested for their liking for flavors A and B, both sweetened and unsweetened. In three different studies, varying in a number of aspects of stimulus presentations and context, a relative enhancement in liking for flavor A appeared both on the day of exposure and 1 week later. An absolute enhancement in liking of flavor B (a “mere exposure” effect) also occurred in two of the three experiments.
Article
Studied processes by which an attitude is polarized via social interaction in Exp. I. Ss (n = 104 female undergraduates) were led to expect interaction with the same partner or a different partner in 3 future sessions (high or low commitment to future interaction, respectively). All Ss received a communication from the partner which advocated either a less extreme or more extreme position than the S's. Commitment to future interaction facilitated attitude change toward the partner's position regardless of extremity. In Exp. II, with 102 Ss and 38 controls, commitment to a consonant act, manipulated via public or private identification of Ss consonant essay, also facilitated change toward on extreme consonant communication but increased resistance to a discrepant communication. Results suggest that processes related to commitment may provide 1 explanation for the polarization of attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments are used to investigate the influence of conditioning procedures on attention to a conditioned stimulus. In experiment 1, scenes presented in a sequence that is consistent with prescribed conditioning procedures are shown to encourage attention to the advertised brands in subsequent product displays. Experiment 2 suggests that differential attention to conditioned brands can be attributed to the signaling properties the brand acquires as a consequence of conditioning. Evidence from a third experiment raises the possibility that semantic conditioning may be responsible for the effects observed in experiments 1 and 2. The findings suggest that current prescriptions on the use of conditioning procedures may need to be updated. Copyright 1993 by the University of Chicago.