Article

Fatty acid composition of selected roes from some marine species

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Abstract

Fifteen roes from different marine fish species available in Spain were analyzed in order to determine their fatty acid (FA) composition, especially the eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) contents. Roes from Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda), European squid (Loligo vulgaris), cuttlefish (Sepia spp.), lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and gonads of male Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) reached EPA + DHA amounts higher than 30% of the total FA, and among them, roes from lumpfish, European hake and salmon provide different FA type ratios that could make them adequate as dietary sources of EPA and DHA.

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... Female fish roes (the egg-laden ovary) are highly valued gourmet products, generally consumed raw, frozen, or as salted, boiled, canned, and smoked products [1][2][3]. The salted and semi-dried mullet (Mugil spp.) ovary product is produced in numerous world countries. ...
... Bottarga, the salted and semi dried mullet roe, is a rich source of health beneficial n-3 PUFA (mainly EPA and DHA) and is recognized as a food product with nutritional and nutraceutical properties [1][2][3][4][5][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Mullet bottarga, in the Mediterranean countries, is usually added grated to pasta (generally spaghetti) or consumed cut into thin slices together with artichokes, fennel, and extra virgin olive oil. ...
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A taste component is implicated in the oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids and free fatty acids seem to be involved in fatty food recognition. Bottarga, the salted and semi-dried ovary product of mullet (Mugil spp.), is a rich-fat food. A comparative sensory assessment of different commercial bottarga samples was performed in insect and human models in relation to their lipid composition. The bottarga attractant effect to Ceratitis capitata was assessed by behavioral tests. The subjective odor and taste perception of bottarga samples was investigated in human determining the rate of pleasantness, familiarity, and intensity dimensions using the 7-points Likert-type scale. Bottarga samples showed similar lipid profiles, but differences emerged in total and free fatty acid levels. Significant differences were observed in the attractant effect/acceptability of samples to medflies, negatively correlated to their total and free fatty acids. Insect female exhibited the ability to select among bottarga samples based on their visual and olfactory properties. In the human model, a potential contribution of free fatty acid amount in the pleasantness and familiarity dimensions of taste of bottarga samples was evidenced. Women exhibited a greater ability than men to select bottarga samples based on their better olfactory perception. Our results increase the knowledge about this outstanding product with nutritional and nutraceutical properties.
... 8,9 Fish and fish oils represent the main dietary sources of n-3 PUFA, 8,10,11 but also eggs of aquatic organisms, generally referred to as 'roes', are excellent sources of these bioactive compounds. [12][13][14] Fish roes, amply consumed throughout the world raw or as salted, smoked, or boiled products, have nutritional value and nutraceutical properties due to their oil and protein content, [12][13][14][15] therefore fish roes and fish roe processing byproducts represent an alternative source for food industry and oil based nutraceutical production. ...
... 8,9 Fish and fish oils represent the main dietary sources of n-3 PUFA, 8,10,11 but also eggs of aquatic organisms, generally referred to as 'roes', are excellent sources of these bioactive compounds. [12][13][14] Fish roes, amply consumed throughout the world raw or as salted, smoked, or boiled products, have nutritional value and nutraceutical properties due to their oil and protein content, [12][13][14][15] therefore fish roes and fish roe processing byproducts represent an alternative source for food industry and oil based nutraceutical production. ...
Article
BACKGROUND The Sardinian food delicacy “bottarga” is the final product of a number of treatments (salting and drying) on the ovaries of mullet (Mugil spp) and represents an important natural source of n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n‐3 PUFA) with nutraceutical properties. During the salting process of mullet roes to obtain bottarga, huge amounts of waste salt are generated, rich in residual ovary material. RESULTS We evaluated the lipid composition (main lipid components and fatty acids) and bioactivity of oil obtained from the ovary material separated from waste salt (waste salt oil). Oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 (SFE‐CO2), an environmentally friendly separation technique. The lipid composition of waste salt oil was determined by ¹³C NMR spectroscopy and reversed‐phase HPLC‐DAD/ELSD chromatography. The oil was characterized by a relatively high level of n‐3 PUFA (122 ± 7 g kg‐1 of oil), and these beneficial health compounds were mainly present in the form of wax esters. Waste salt oil showed a marked cytotoxic effect (MTT assay) in cancer B16F10 melanoma cells, with a slight cytotoxic effect in normal cells (3T3 fibroblasts). Waste salt and its derivatives (salt oil and residual material after oil extraction) were also tested for the attractant effect and acceptability to insects (Ceratitis capitata ) to gain preliminary information about their potential application for animal supplementation. CONCLUSION The results qualify waste salt as a potential resource for veterinary dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceutical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Produkty otrzymywane z ikry ryb (głównie jesiotrowatych) uważane są za cenne źródło kwasów tłuszczowych PUFA [45]. Skład chemiczny ikry, w tym zawartość tłuszczu, zależy od czynników osobniczych i środowiskowych [10,19,20,35,40,64]. Ulega on zmianie na różnych etapach rozwoju ikry, co związane jest z przemianami fizjologicznymi zachodzącymi w niej i potrzebami energetycznymi [5,7,39]. ...
... 2. W tłuszczu z ikry dorsza atlantyckiego stwierdzono najmniejszy udział SFA (13 %) i PUFA (36 %), a największy -MUFA (ok. 50 %) [40], chociaż inni badacze podają ok. 50-procentowy udział PUFA w tłuszczu ikry tego gatunku [17] -podobną jak w tłuszczu tkanki mięśniowej ryb żyjących w wodach zimnych [59]. ...
... The resulting DHA-and EPA-ethyl esters are finally used in Table 2. Content (mg ·100 g −1 biomass) of eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5n3 (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6n3 (DHA) in some of the industrially available marine products and by-products and their sources. [98] Marine by-products European anchovy (liver) Engraulidae Engraulis encrasicholus 840 1738 [92] Pacific white shrimp (cephalothorax and cuticle) ...
Article
Lipids from marine organisms are a source of molecules of high nutritional significance, like polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants. The incorporation of these molecules into the human body is possible mainly through the intake of fish and fish oil-based food. This review covers some of the health benefits and biochemical aspects of nutritional lipids, the available marine resources for the production of PUFAs and antioxidants, and the most used methods for the extraction and identification of these natural lipid molecules in the lab and in the industry. Emphasis is put on the use of residual biomass from fisheries to obtain these interesting products and the consequent improvement of the sustainability of the fish industry.
... The salted FR is called caviar and marketed as seafood. The FR is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids [1] . Esposito et al. highlighted the impact of dietary factors in erectile dysfunction (ED) [2,3] . ...
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method was optimized and applied to profile the major esterified fatty acids in eight lyophilized fish roe species and three marketed fish oil capsules. The method was able to separate efficiently 36 standard fatty acids as methyl esters using Teknokroma fused silica capillary column, 60 m×0.25 mm×0.2 μm. However, only 20 major esterified fatty acids were determined in fish roe and fish oil samples. The total amount of esterified fatty acids in salmon wild oil, salmon cold water oil and cod liver oil capsules were 235.5, 145.8, and 195.5 mg/g, respectively. However, the total amount of esterified fatty acids in fish roe species ranged from 40 to 61 mg/g. The quantitation data were treated with statistical principal component analysis, and showed a characteristic score value for each type of fish roe. Each type of fish roe showed a characteristic content profile of 20 major esterified fatty acids. The highest concentration of esterified omega-3, was found in salmon fish roe (15.34 mg/g) and Mosa fish roe (13.15 mg/g). The maximum amount of esterified α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were found in salmon wild oil (7.73 mg/g), salmon fish roe (6.09 mg/g), and Mosa fish roe (11.00 mg/g), respectively. The developed method was found to be applicable for qualification and characterization of fish roe and fish oil.
... The salted FR is called caviar and marketed as seafood. The FR is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids [1] . Esposito et al. highlighted the impact of dietary factors in erectile dysfunction (ED) [2,3] . ...
... It is also noteworthy that when consumed, these fatty acids are also passed to the offspring. Hence, the roe of marine animals, such as the roe of lumpsucker, hake and salmon, is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids (Rincón-Cervera et al. 2009). Similarly, unsaturated fatty acid content of the egg yolk was increased when hens were fed with 3 g/kg Spirulina in their diet (Sujatha and Narahari, 2011). ...
Article
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Cyanobacteria have appeared on the primordial Earth over three billion years ago and still thrive in most habitats. These photosynthetic microbes have remarkable genetic plasticity and variability and have evolved an amazing arsenal of biochemical pathways that exert defence mechanisms and produce metabolites unique to them. By forming plastids, endosymbiont cyanobacteria contributed to the development of plants. Algae, the simplest plants, thrive in similar habitats and face the same challenges of the ever changing environment as cyanobacteria; and they have maintained similarity to them, with respect to production of unique metabolites and utilizing unique pathways. The exploration of these natural compounds and the biochemical pathways leading to their production provide excellent tools in fighting some major challenge that mankind needs to face in our days. In this contribution we briefly list the benefits that the genetics of these microbes and the produced compounds can offer, with emphasis on possible medical relevance. We mention applications in basic science, industry and agriculture, and list the potentials in medical drug development, therapy and nutrition of some enzymes, polysaccharides, polyphenols, pigments, peptides and lipids, among others, in the current state of the world-wide research on the topic. Acta Biol Szeged 59(Suppl.2):203-224 (2015)
... Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AG-PICL) de la familia omega-3, eicosapentaenoico (20:5, EPA) y docosahexaenoico (22:6, DHA) son ampliamente conocidos por sus efectos benefi ciosos para la salud humana. A ambos ácidos grasos se les atribuye un papel fundamental en la regulación de numerosos aspectos de la función cardiovascular incluyendo infl amación, enfermedad arterial y coronaria y anticoagulación (1,2,3). Además, al DHA se le asocia con el desarrollo y función del sistema nervioso y visual y con efectos prometedores sobre la función cognitiva en pacientes con enfermedades neurodegenerativas (4). ...
Article
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Healthy benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA) are widely known. They are available in food from marine origin, being fish the main dietary supplier. However, taking into account the international dietary guidelines, fish consumption is very low in Chile and other countries. For this reason, food industry is recently focusing on stearidonic acid (18:4, SDA), a C18-omega-3 fatty acid available in the oil extracted from certain plant species, and that acts as an EPA and DHA precursor in the human metabolism. Metabolic conversion rate of SDA into EPA is much higher than that of -linolenic acid (18:3, ALA), which is the main omega-3 fatty acid in terrestrial plant sources. SDA supplementation provides several beneficial effects for human health according to the evidence. This paper describes such effects and the potential of some wild plants as SDA supplier.
... Previous research provides some information concerning the moisture and lipid contents of roes corresponding to different hake species. Thus, fresh Merluccius hubbsi roes provided 67 g and 6.6 g 100 g -1 of moisture and lipid contents, respectively (Méndez et al., 1992); while fresh Merluccius merluccius and Merluccius mediterraneus provided 73.5 g and 63.2 g 100 g -1 , respectively, for moisture contents (Rincón-Cervera et al., 2009). Such results can be considered as relatively similar to the ones obtained in the present study. ...
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The present research addresses the quality loss in two different ready-to-eat (RTE) seafoods. With this aim, chemical and microbiological parameters were measured in tuna lasagne (TL) and hake roe foods which were refrigerated (4°C) for up to 35 and 71 days, respectively. Both foods showed a significant lipid oxidation (peroxide and interaction compound formation) development with storage time, which was especially marked in the case of the TL product, which also underwent an important lipid hydrolysis development. Both RTE products showed a low microbial development, no matter how much time had elapsed since the expiration dates; thus, low total viable count scores and volatile amine formation were attained while the presence of pathogen microorganisms was not detected. In view of the current increasing consumer demand for high quality refrigerated foods, the assessment of lipid damage related to nutritional and sensory values is recommended when fish-based RTE products are encountered. Se estudió la pérdida de calidad de dos productos marinos elaborados (lasaña de atún, TL; huevas de merluza) conservados en refrigeración (4 °C) durante 35 y 71 días, respectivamente. Ambos alimentos mostraron un desarrollo importante de la oxidación lipídica (formación de peróxidos y compuestos de interacción) durante el periodo de conservación, siendo mayor en el caso de TL; asimismo, el producto TL experimentó un importante desarrollo de hidrólisis lipídica. Sin embargo, ambos alimentos experimentaron un desarrollo bajo en microorganismos mesófilos y aminas volátiles; por otra parte, no maniferstaron presencia de microorganismos patógenos a lo largo del periodo de conservación, a pesar de sobrepasar el tiempo de caducidad. De acuerdo con la creciente demanda de nuevas preparaciones de alimentos refrigerados de calidad alta, se recomienda el estudio de las alteraciones lipídicas en elaboraciones basadas en alimentos de origen marino debido a su fuerte relación con la pérdida de calidades sensorial y nutricional.
... Depending on the position of the double bonds, PUFAs can be classified in two different families: n-3 and n-6. PUFAs from the n-3 family have been reported to be effective to prevent and protect against certain diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes and several inflammatory processes [1,2]. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are precursors of hormone-like compounds, the eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), which are involved in many important biological processes in the human body [3]. ...
Article
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a well-known dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in marine fish and organisms whose beneficial effects for human health are widely reported. However, supplying of food containing DHA is currently becoming critical due to the overexploitation of fisheries worldwide. Consequently, searching for alternative sources of DHA is a relevant issue nowadays. Viscera from cultured fishes is considered a by-product by the fishery industry and therefore discarded after fish processing. In this work, viscera from farmed marine fish (Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax) and also oil extracted from such by-products have been studied to assess their suitability as DHA sources by obtaining their fatty acid profiles. Viscera oil was used as source for DHA purification by a simple and easily scalable chromatographic method. As a result, a highly purified DHA fraction (>99.0% DHA on total fatty acids) was obtained.Practical applications This DHA concentrate obtained from viscera oil could be potentially used with alimentary or pharmaceutical purposes due to its lower cholesterol content compared with other known marine sources and also because only safe and legally allowed food-grade solvents have been used throughout the whole process. This way, by obtaining a high added-value product, a revaluation is given to fish by-products which are usually discarded.
... The most widely recognised and valuable caviare is made from sturgeon harvested from the Caspian Sea, but caviares from other fish like catfish, salmon, lumpfish, flying fish, herring, mullet and cod are also consumed worldwide ( Lapa-Guimar~ aes et al., 2011). However, the roes of other existing marine species are also edible (Rinc on Cervera et al., 2009). Although there are reports on the fat contents of whiting roes, no report exists regarding to FA profile of this species caught from Black Sea. ...
Article
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Whiting is a commercially important fish species of the world. This study demonstrates monthly variations in lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents of muscle, liver and roes of Black Sea whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus. Significant changes occurred in lipid contents between months (P 0.05) with the highest values representing in liver 33.8–64.5%. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all groups were higher than total saturated and monounsaturated FAs with significant variations between months (P 0.05). The highest PUFA of muscles, livers and roes were 60.0, 45.9 and 50.9%, respectively. The main FA was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of muscle tissue and roes, while oleic acid was the major FA in livers. Although about 164–357 g in muscle tissue or 224–392 g of whiting roe are necessary to consume to cover 1 g day−1 of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+DHA for a healthy diet, only as low as 5.5–10.0 g of liver would be enough to cover the same amount of daily EPA+DHA requirement. The results indicated that whiting livers constitute a rich and underexploited source of polyunsatured FAs. Furthermore, the results may aid further research on the nutritional studies, the physiology and stock management of whiting species.
... In this sense, it has bees described that the phytoplankton -the primary producers in the marine alimentary chain -biosynthesize higher LCPUFA amounts when water medium reaches lower temperatures (Bergé and Barnathan, 2005;Body and Vlieg, 1988). In this sense, a previous observation has been made in the FA composition of roes from European hake and Mediterranean hake (Rincó n Cervera et al., 2009). ...
Article
Fish livers (FLs) constitute a rich and underexploited source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Unfortunately, FLs are usually discarded when fish are processed in industrial factories for human consumption, thus the nutritional possibilities of LCPUFAs of FLs is wasted. Nevertheless, these organs might be used as a cheaper source of LCPUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acids (AA, 20:4n-6). In the present work, the FA profiles of FLs of 12 fish species commonly consumed in southern Spain have been determined. The output of the analyses showed that the total FA in FLs ranged between 10.8% in European anchovy to 70.0% in great weaver. FLs from shortfin mako yielded the most unsaturated oil, showing also the higher amount of LCPUFAs (51.4%) and n-3 LCPUFAs (46.3%). FLs from great weever and European anchovy were characterized by a high LCPUFA content. All species show a good n-3/n-6 ratio, with blue whiting (10.2) at the top of the range. Saturated FAs (SFAs) reached the highest amounts in European pilchard (35.8%) and axillary seabream (35.5%), while Mediterranean hake showed the higher amounts of monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (50.2%), although LCPUFA content was also noticeable in this species. A remarkable characteristic of FLs confirmed in this work is that this organ constitutes a rich source of n-3 LCPUFA, especially of EPA and DHA.
Chapter
Fish roe is considered as a highly valuable flavor food in international and domestic markets. Several types of roes from different fish species have been processed into shelf-stable products. Processed fish roe products are available in different forms, including refrigerated or frozen caviar from sturgeon, lightly salted roe (popular as black caviar) from beluga, osetra, and imperial. Physicochemical characteristics such as size, color, proximate composition, fatty acids, antioxidants (vitamins and carotenoids), as well as microbiological profiles of fish roe and its processed products are important since these factors will influence the quality and consumer perceptions of the products. Consumer demand for natural and nutritious processed fish products is gaining more attention, which drives opportunities to add commercial value and improve the functionality of unprocessed roe. Therefore the development of technologies to characterize compounds, including physicochemical properties and other microbiology attributes from fish processing by-products is relevant and brings great value. This chapter will contribute to building a current frame of the scientific knowledge on the roe processing and compositional changes, helping to support future developments in this important by-product of the fish processing industry.
Chapter
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Dietary recommendations have been made for n-3 fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve nutrient adequacy and to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a large body of evidence from epidemiologic and controlled clinical studies. The n-3 fatty acid recommendation to achieve nutritional adequacy, defined as the amount necessary to prevent deficiency symptoms, is 0.6-1.2% of energy for ALA; up to 10% of this can be provided by EPA or DHA. To achieve recommended ALA intakes, food sources including flaxseed and flaxseed oil, walnuts and walnut oil, and canola oil are recommended. The evidence base supports a dietary recommendation of approximately 500 mg/d of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. For treatment of existing cardiovascular disease, 1 g/d is recommended. These recommendations have been embraced by many health agencies worldwide. A dietary strategy for achieving the 500-mg/d recommendation is to consume 2 fish meals per week (preferably fatty fish). Foods enriched with EPA and DHA or fish oil supplements are a suitable alternate to achieve recommended intakes and may be necessary to achieve intakes of 1 g/d.
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The roe lipid fatty acids of Baltic herring, roach, perch, burbot and rainbow trout were quantitatively studied by capillary-GLC. The composition of roe fatty acids remain fairly stable during the fish maturation. The fatty acid profiles are very similar in various fish roes though differences exist in the relative amounts of individual components. On average perch and burbot have longer chain lengths and higher unsaturation degrees in their roe fatty acids compared to the other species. Variations in the fatty acids can be related to the roe lipid compositions and apparently also to the diet of the parent fish.
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We undertook a systematic evaluation of the lipid, protein, calorie, and fatty acid composition in 35 species of fish, shellfish and molluscs commonly consumed throughout the four seasons of the year in Andalusia, Spain. Using a portion of muscle tissue the following were measured in each study unit: total lipids (extraction using Folch's method and gravimetry), protein concentration (Kjehldal's method), total calories (direct calorimetry), and composition of fatty acids (gas chromatography). The lipid, protein, and different fatty acid concentrations found are presented in table form. There was a high degree of inter-species variability in the concentration of lipids and the various fatty acids. There was also a high degree of intra-species seasonal variability in some cases. The relative proportion of fatty acids was not independent of the total concentration of lipids, independently of the season studied. This systematic study of a large group of species shows that the cataloguing of fish as 'white' or 'blue' depends especially on the time of year they are captured. For example, in spring the mackerel (Scomber scombrus), a fish considered traditionally to be 'blue' (fatty), has the same lipid concentration as the dover sole (Solea vulgaris), commonly considered to be 'white' (little fat), and the sea pike (Merluccius merluccius) has a higher lipid concentration in autumn than the jack mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Even greater differences existed when the fish were classified according to their richness in n-3 fatty acids. These differences in the total lipid concentration and the composition of fatty acids, as well as the inter-relations between them, may, under certain circumstances, be important for the calculation of dietary calories and nutritional values, and may explain the differences found between the various tables of food composition, as well as the divergent results in epidemiological studies on the association between fish in diets and various diseases, such as diabetes or ischaemic cardiopathy.
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This review describes (from both the animal and human literature) the biological consequences of losses in nervous system docosahexaenoate (DHA). It then concentrates on biological mechanisms that may serve to explain changes in brain and retinal function. Brief consideration is given to actions of DHA as a nonesterified fatty acid and as a docosanoid or other bioactive molecule. The role of DHA-phospholipids in regulating G-protein signaling is presented in the context of studies with rhodopsin. It is clear that the visual pigment responds to the degree of unsaturation of the membrane lipids. At the cell biological level, DHA is shown to have a protective role in a cell culture model of apoptosis in relation to its effects in increasing cellular phosphatidylserine (PS); also, the loss of DHA leads to a loss in PS. Thus, through its effects on PS, DHA may play an important role in the regulation of cell signaling and in cell proliferation. Finally, progress has been made recently in nuclear magnetic resonance studies to delineate differences in molecular structure and order in biomembranes due to subtle changes in the degree of phospholipid unsaturation.
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Low intakes or blood levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA + DHA) are independently associated with increased risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD). In randomized secondary prevention trials, fish or fish oil have been demonstrated to reduce total and CHD mortality at intakes of about 1 g/day. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) composition reflects long-term intake of EPA + DHA. We propose that the RBC EPA + DHA (hereafter called the Omega-3 Index) be considered a new risk factor for death from CHD. We conducted clinical and laboratory experiments to generate data necessary for the validation of the Omega-3 Index as a CHD risk predictor. The relationship between this putative marker and risk for CHD death, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD), was then evaluated in several published primary and secondary prevention studies. The Omega-3 Index was inversely associated with risk for CHD mortality. An Omega-3 Index of > or = 8% was associated with the greatest cardioprotection, whereas an index of < or = 4% was associated with the least. The Omega-3 Index may represent a novel, physiologically relevant, easily modified, independent, and graded risk factor for death from CHD that could have significant clinical utility.
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Crude lipid and fatty acid composition from liver, intestine, roe, milt and flesh of spawning and non-spawning Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) were examined to determine the relative effects of spawning on the nutritional value of herring. Depletion of lipid due to spawning condition was significant (P<0.01) in all organ tissues and flesh of spawning herring. The lipid content ranged from an average of 1.9 to 3.4% (wet weight basis) in different organ tissues of spawning herring, to 10.5 to 16% in non-spawning fish. The fatty acid profile exhibited many differences in the relative distribution of individual fatty acids among organ tissues and between the two fish groups. Oleic acid (C18:1n-9), a major monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) found in all tissue lipids, decreased significantly (P<0.01) in spawning fish. The two monoenes, C20:1n-9 and C22:1n-11, occurred at high concentrations in the flesh but at only minor proportion in the digestive organs and gonads. Spawning herring also had significantly (P<0.01) higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content in the organ tissues, particularly in the milt and ovary, with docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA) having the greatest proportion. Among the n-6 fatty acids, only C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6 occurred at notable amounts and were present in higher proportions in spawning fish. We concluded that although relatively higher n-3 fatty acid content was found in the organ lipids of spawning herring, they are not an energy-dense prey food source due to the fact that both flesh and gonads contain a very low amount of lipid.
Gibney: Nutrition, physical activity and health status in Europe: An overview
M. J. Gibney: Nutrition, physical activity and health status in Europe: An overview. Public Health Nutr. 1999, 2(3a), 329– 333.
Agence Française de Securité Sanitaire des Aliments (AFSSA): The Omega 3 Fatty Acids and the Cardiovascular System: Nutritional Benefits and Claims
Agence Française de Securité Sanitaire des Aliments (AFSSA): The Omega 3 Fatty Acids and the Cardiovascular System: Nutritional Benefits and Claims. AFSSA, Paris (France) 2003.
The Omega 3 Fatty Acids and the Cardiovascular System: Nutritional Benefits and Claims
Agence Française de Securité Sanitaire des Aliments (AFSSA): The Omega 3 Fatty Acids and the Cardiovascular System: Nutritional Benefits and Claims. AFSSA, Paris (France) 2003.