Is Business Mistreating America's Model Minority?

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Business institutions are expected to treat customers of diverse backgrounds without bias. This study explores the relative satisfaction of Asians following service episodes at fast food establishments in the United States as compared to non-Asians. The study findings indicate Asians are less satisfied with both the personal service and the service settings in which fast food is provided them. The causes for the differences identified remain unclear. The results may bring to light a need to place greater emphasis on enabling businesses to become more culturally competent in terms of this growing minority group within the United States.

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... The methodology used for the collection of the primary data is then outlined. In the findings section, customer ratings are reported based on statistical differences found while controlling for the possible effects of customer age, gender, education, and ethnicity/race, for such have been reported to influence customer satisfaction ratings (Gagliano and Hathcote, 1994; Tucker and Adams, 2001; Gilbert, 2003). The concluding section addresses the study limitations, managerial implications, and recommendations for further research. ...
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Purpose : This paper seeks to identify service satisfaction measures that can be used across industries. Design/methodology/approach : The paper attempts to identify empirically core characteristics of customer satisfaction ratings across six industries based on the ratings of 10,835 respondents within the USA. The industries included are banking and finance, retail, government, grocery stores, hospitality/sports, and restaurants. Findings : The paper finds that banking and finance and hospitality/sports entertainment were rated highest by their patrons. Those dealing with government, general retail and moderately priced fast food restaurants received lower service satisfaction ratings. Differences were also found among respondent characteristics (i.e. age, gender, education and ethnicity/race). Research limitations/implications : The study sample was selected from organizations readily available to the research team. Future studies based on systematic random samples would enhance the generalizability of the findings. Originality/value : The results provide a basis from which cross industry benchmarking and the identification of best practices can be captured and used by practitioners.
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The interplay between individualist and collectivist orientations, ethnic identity, and beliefs about stereotypes was explored among Asian Americans. The authors proposed four components of Asian American Identity: feelings of interdependence with family, a sense of connectedness to heritage and tradition, a belief that achievement would reflect well on one's family and group generally, and an awareness of structural barriers and racism. A sample of 162 Asian American university students perceived stereotypes about Asian Americans as focusing primarily on school achievement and secondarily on social attributes. Although rarely engaging in strategies to avoid being academically labeled, students engaged in strategies to avoid labeling in other domains. Students varied in their valuation of the model minority label, with those high in Asian American Identity, collectivism, and work ethic more likely to view the label positively.
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Examined cultural differences in assertiveness by using a social learning analysis to better articulate the influence of cultural variables. Differences in self-reported assertion responding between Asian and Caucasian-Americans were assessed across 9 different situations, and the differences were related to prior experiences, expectancy outcomes, or self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that assertion differences among Asians and Caucasians are situationally specific, with most differences occurring in interactions with strangers. Ethnic differences in self-efficacy paralleled those found for self-reported assertive responding. Compared to Caucasians, Asians tended to experience greater anxiety and guilt, regardless of whether or not they reportedly were less assertive. Implications for counseling Asian-Americans using different assertion interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous longitudinal studies of personality in adulthood have been limited in the range of traits examined, have chiefly made use of self-reports, and have frequently included only men. In this study, self-reports (N = 983) and spouse ratings (N = 167) were gathered on the NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1985b), which measures all five of the major dimensions of normal personality. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses on data from men and women aged 21 to 96 years showed evidence of small declines in Activity, Positive Emotions, and openness to Actions that might be attributed to maturation, but none of these effects was replicated in sequential analyses. The 20 other scales examined showed no consistent pattern of maturational effects. In contrast, retest stability was quite high for all five dimensions in self-reports and for the three dimensions measured at both times in spouse ratings. Comparable levels of stability were seen for men and women and for younger and older subjects. The data support the position that personality is stable after age 30.
Although "valuing diversity" has become a watchword, field research on the impact of a culturally diverse workforce on organizational performance has not been forthcoming. Invoking a resource-based framework, in this study I examined the relationships among cultural (racial) diversity, business strategy, and firm performance in the banking industry. Racial diversity interacted with business strategy in determining firm performance measured in three different ways, as productivity, return on equity, and market performance. The results demonstrate that cultural diversity does in fact add value and, within the proper context, contributes to firm competitive advantage.
This study investigates (1) how immigrant consumers change their media consumption when they move across cultural boundaries and (2) whether media exposure relates to consumers' acculturation of the new social norms. A total of 938 respondents from four sample groups including Hong Kong residents, long-time and new Hong Kong immigrants to Canada and English-speaking Caucasian Canadians responded to a predesigned questionnaire. It was found that while the immigrant groups did not increase their total media consumption, their consumption across different media types followed both assimilation and ethnic affirmation models. This acculturation process seemed to be affected by immigrants' original media consumption behavior and language ability. Media exposure was found to relate significantly to immigrants' acculturation of the new social norms after influences due to personal characteristics were removed.
The relationship between the sense of personal control and psychological well-being is well established, but this association may be specific to Western cultures. In this study we examine the relationship between Asian culture and the sense of personal control, and the impact of perceived control on depression and anxiety among Asians and non-Asians. Using the World Values Survey and the combined responses of four surveys in the United States, we find that Asian Americans and Asians in Asia (Japan, South Korea, China, and India) both report lower levels of perceived control than non-Asians. Furthermore, the sense of personal control has less of an impact on psychological distress for Asians. Findings are interpreted in terms of Asian collectivist values. Compared with individualistic Western cultures, Asian cultures emphasize selfless subordination to family and community, which may decrease levels of personal control. Furthermore, the dictates of collectivist cultures are such that high levels of personal control among Asians may be a norm violation. For this reason, high levels of perceived control may be associated less strongly with psychological well-being for Asians.
This literature review note attempts to review and import from Asian American studies into organizational behavior key aspects of the Model Minority Thesis literature as it relates to workforce diversity. The supportive and critical perspectives on the Model Minority Thesis are explored. On the supportive side, it is argued that Asian Americans are a Model Minority: too successful to be considered a disadvantaged minority. Supporters want other minority groups to emulate Asian Americans and to eliminate affirmative action. Critics disaggregate the statistics used by proponents and find a bimodal distribution; some Asian Americans are economically well off but run into a glass ceiling, whereas others are disadvantaged.
While most companies acknowledge the importance of making diversity a business consideration, diversity is often not a top business priority. Other business initiatives that present more compelling, factual evidence of payback on investment win out over diversity initiatives, which seem to offer less predictable and tangible benefits. As a result, many human resource executives revert to the argument that "it's the right thing to do" and trust that management will back their suggestions to promote a diversity-friendly work environment, then wonder why nothing happens or why well-intended initiatives fail. The presentation of a solid business case increases the likelihood of obtaining the leadership commitment and resources needed to successfully implement diversity initiatives.
This paper develops a concise customer satisfaction survey instrument to help organizations measure satisfaction with their services. A seven-stage process was used to develop the instrument. Following pilot studies, a preliminary instrument of 24 items was administered to consumers of a variety of business firms and government agencies providing service to customers or clients. After further analysis, a revised instrument was developed consisting of 18 statements. Additional analysis and further purification led to an even more parsimonious final version of the customer satisfaction survey, employing nine statements in two factors; satisfaction with the personal service (SatPers) and satisfaction with the service setting (SatSett). Organizations could use the scale internally to identify their strengths and weaknesses, as well as measuring their customer satisfaction.
This monograph provides a philosophical framework and practical ideas for improving service delivery to children of color who are severely emotionally disturbed. The monograph targets four sociocultural groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans). The document emphasizes the cultural strengths inherent in all cultures and examines how the system of care can more effectively deal with cultural differences and related treatment issues. In dealing with cultural differences, there is a need to clarify policy, training, resources, practice, and research issues, and cultural competence should be viewed as a developmental process. Five elements contributing to a system's, institution's, or agency's ability to become more culturally competent are identified: value diversity, cultural self-assessment, consciousness of the dynamics of cultural interaction, institutionalization of cultural knowledge, and development of adaptations to diversity. Cultural competence must be developed at the policymaking, administrative, practitioner, and consumer levels. Service adaptations developed in response to cultural diversity may impact on intake and client identification, assessment and treatment, communication and interviewing, case management, out-of-home care, and guiding principles. Planning for cultural competence involves assessment, support building, facilitating leadership, including the minority family and community, developing resources, training and technical assistance, setting goals, and outlining action steps. (Approximately 170 references) (JDD)
In 1989, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held a series of roundtable conferences to learn about the civil rights concerns of Asian Americans within their communities. Using information gathered at these conferences as a point of departure, the Commission undertook this study of the wide-ranging civil rights issues facing Asian Americans in the 1990s. Asian American groups considered in the report are persons having origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. This report presents the results of that investigation. Evidence is presented that Asian Americans face widespread prejudice, discrimination, and barriers to equal opportunity. The following chapters highlight specific areas: (1) "Introduction," an overview of the problems; (2) "Bigotry and Violence Against Asian Americans"; (3) "Police Community Relations"; (4) "Access to Educational Opportunity: Asian American Immigrant Children in Primary and Secondary Schools"; (5) "Access to Educational Opportunity: Higher Education"; (6) "Employment Discrimination"; (7) "Other Civil Rights Issues Confronting Asian Americans"; and (8) "Conclusions and Recommendations." More than 40 recommendations for legislative, programmatic, and administrative efforts are made. Many of these suggestions would benefit all minority groups in the United States. Four tables present statistical findings, and an appendix contains supplemental correspondence and fact sheets. (SLD)
The success stereotype of Asian Americans is examined in terms of three major research questions. (1) What factors account for the vicissitudes of the dominant group's perception of Asian Americans since 1850? (2) To what extent is the current success image of Asian Americans true? (3) How would such a model minority image affect Asian Americans, the other minorities, and majority Americans? The first question is addressed by historical data, and the second and third questions are answered by analyses of census data supplemented by other empirical data on Asian Americans. Factors accounting for the changes of the dominant group's image of Asian Americans are found to be primarily situational, and our analyses in the light of the principle of earnings equity indicate that the success image is largely a myth due to labour market disadvantages and other related social problems. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed in the conclusion.
contrasts the values Asian groups share that distinguish them collectively from Euro Americans / Asian values are high-context and, for example, emphasize relationships with people, while Euro American values are medium low-context and, in contrast, focus less on individuals and more on objective facts / the philosophies and religions of Confucianism in particular and also Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam have widely influenced Asian lives, relationships, worldviews, and values as well as adaptation and integration into the American society (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The components of assertiveness assessed by the College Self-Expression Scale were analyzed in 150 Asian-American and 135 Caucasian college student populations. A significant difference in full-scale assertion scores indicated lower levels of overall assertion in the former sample, although sampling differences could have augmented the difference. Sources of the difference in mean scores were examined by the factor analyses and post hoc comparisons of derived subscales. Results are consistent with value differences between Asian-American and Caucasian college students. Limitations, counseling implications, and strategies for developing culturally relevant assertion training are discussed. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Like its predecessor—which awakened the therapeutic community to the varying assumptions, needs, and biases of culturally different clients—this updated and revised "Second Edition" opens new doors and lays the groundwork for exciting new directions. While the overall approach has remained the same, there is heightened emphasis on the damaging effects of political and racial biases inherent in the mental health field and on the need for developing culture-specific communication/helping styles for culturally different clients. Also highlighted are the key issues of ethnic and racial identity formation and culturally specific concepts of the family and their relationship to counseling. "Counseling the Culturally Different" moves from the theoretical to the practical in three sections covering: Issues and Concepts—provides a conceptual framework with which to view the complex interplay of values, expectations, and social and political forces in the counselor-client relationship and the practice of cross-cultural counseling in public schools, mental health agencies, industries, and correctional institutions. Counseling Specific Populations—guidelines and detailed methods for counseling specific minority groups (including African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans). Critical Incidents—a series of case vignettes portraying typical issues and dilemmas. Combining a sound conceptual framework for multicultural counseling with proven therapeutic methods for specific groups, "Counseling the Culturally Different, Second Edition" prepares students, like no other text in the field, for the rigors of counseling in the "real world." At the same time, as a source of enlightenment and guidance for professionals, it has been proven to make a difference in clients' lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The increased ethnic diversity of the U.S. population and especially the rapid growth of Asian American markets make it critical to assess the importance of developing marketing strategies specifically targeted to these particular ethnic market segments. These circumstances naturally call for an investigation of differences and similarities among various segments within the market to examine whether undifferentiated or diferentiated target marketing is necessary to reach various Asian American subgroups. This study examined the decision-making patterns for purchasing social clothes of three major Asian American consumer groups (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). Results showed that the three groups display distinct reference group influence, media influence, and store attribute importance and that these patterns differ depending on the level of acculturation. The findings also suggested implications for various marketing and advertising strategies aimed at the three Asian American consumer markets.
Social, academic, emotional functioning and social support of 99 ninth-grade Asian American students were investigated using standardized measures. When compared to 404 ninth-grade Caucasian adolescents who had attended the same school, Asian American students exhibited less delinquent behavior and performed better academically. However, they were significantly more isolated, more depressed and anxious, less apt to be involved in after school activities or seek help for their problems, and internalized their social problems. Also, they had fewer role models and less social support, underscoring the psychosocial and emotional plight of Asian American adolescents and the dire need to establish proactive outreach programs.
IN ORDER THAT ASIAN AMERICANS BE MORE ADEQUATELY PROVIDED WITH MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO: (1) have a thorough educational campaign over a long period of time to help Asians overcome their negative prejudices against mental illness, (2) devise culturally relevant diagnostic techniques, and (3) have treatment consonant with the cultural backgrounds of the patients and befitting the role expectations of the patients. It is likely that even with an excellent educational campaign, appropriate diagnoses, and culturally sensitive treatment methods, the first patients we will see will be those most seriously and chronically disturbed, probably when the family feels no longer able to cope with their psychotic behavior. We hope that subsequently, through the educational campaign and also through the outreach efforts of the Asian Mental Health Clinic, Asian Americans who are not psychotic but who want relief from psychosomatic symptoms, tension, depression, or help with family or marital problems will apply.
In a Chinese sample of 208 the Big Five personality traits profile was compared for 104 assertive and 104 nonassertive students. While assertiveness was associated with higher scores on Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness, Nonassertiveness was associated with greater scores on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Implications of the findings for cross-cultural counselling were highlighted.
The literature of the past two decades on Japanese-American culture, behavior, and mental health services and issues is reviewed. Counseling and psychotherapy with these clients are then discussed, taking into account traditional Japanese cultural values, with particular emphasis on verbal and nonverbal factors affecting therapeutic approaches and communication.
Using data on the characteristics of 1043 physicians who graduated from a medical school in Korea, the authors analyze the effects of immigrant status, gender, and year of graduation on their choice of medical practice specialty. The specialty areas are categorized into 2 groups, "core" and "periphery," on the basis of the reported median income of practitioners in each specialty. The results of log-linear model analyses indicate that female physicians are more likely to immigrate to the United States than male physicians, although the general trend of immigration does not notably change over time. In the main equation, immigration status shows a significant peripheral effect as immigrant physicians are much more likely to practice in peripheral areas than their home-staying counterparts. Gender status is also found to have a significant peripheral effect. When these Korean immigrant physicians are compared with the US-educated physicians in regard to their areas of practice, the same pattern of peripherization is observed among the immigrants. The findings suggest that, despite their secular image of "success," immigrant professionals in the United States carry on the same kind of marginal economic activities within the professional labor market as unskilled immigrant workers do within the nonprofessional labor market.
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