Article

Music, music videos, and wear out

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Abstract

Repeated exposure to a music video was found to forestall wear out relative to repetitive exposure to the music only. Susceptibility to wear out in the case of the music video was further reduced by eliminating the closure associated with the story told by the video. The level of positive cognitive responses was posited as a mediator to help explain the observed results. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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... The authors find that the need for variety is so strong, that consumers will even choose less preferred songs over preferred songs for the sake of variety. Such satiety may be forestalled by offering a more multisensory product, such as music video instead of just music (Goldberg et al. 1993). ...
... Also, pop music video as opposed to just pop music (cf. Goldberg, Chattopadhyay, Gorn, and Rosenblatt 1993) may less wear out for both auditory and visually dominant consumers as it addresses both modalities. ...
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Marketing arts and entertainment is a challenge. Consumers may buy the same groceries every week, but when it comes to arts and entertainment, people usually want something different from last time. The result: a vast, constantly changing choice of books, cd's, movies, performances and shows to meet this need for variety and novelty. But how do you help consumers find their way in this plethora of options? Who do you approach when you have a new performance to sell every night, but don't want to inundate your customers with direct mail? How do you compose attractive subscription packages that help you get a head start in filling the house? Since recently, many cultural organizations have new, advanced transaction data systems that record individual buying histories. Modern theater box office systems link a customer id and address with each transaction; library loan systems track the borrowing behavior of patrons to ensure the timely return of books; and in The Netherlands, the visiting behavior of National Museum Card holders is logged electronically on central servers to aid reimbursement to participating museums. We show how these transaction data may help in understanding who likes what: what types of arts and entertainment consumers are there and what types of products do they like? Armed with such insights, marketers may be more effective in composing the right subscription packages, in selecting the right direct mail prospects or in designing the right presentation for the abundance and variety of choice.
... We utilized various machine learning methods to measure four sets of control variables relating to persuasion, following prior research. These are controls to account for (1) audial features of the video (e.g., Goldberg, Chattopadhyay, Gorn, and Rosenblatt, 1993), (2) linguistic features of the spoken verbal content (Pennebaker et al., 2015), (3) project-level characteristics (Li et al., 2019) and (4) visual elements (Liu et al., 2018;Li et al, 2019). ...
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Voiceover narration is a production technique commonly used in reward-based crowdfunding videos. We posit that in these videos, hearing more narrator voices describing the crowdfunding product can systematically influence consumers' attention and processing of the message, thereby facilitating persuasion. We employed a multi-method approach, including experimentation, natural language processing, text mining, and machine learning. Results across four studies-including real-world datasets and controlled experiments-show that the effect (1) has consequential, economic implications in a real-world marketplace, (2) is more pronounced when the message is easier to comprehend, and (3) is more pronounced when consumers have the capacity to process the narrated message. Substantive and theoretical implications are discussed.
... For example, mood-congruent music could be utilized by artistic directors to heighten emotional impact or clarify the meaning of ambiguous scenes in a visual story, while mood-incongruent music could be used to convey subtler meanings such as irony [5]. Although comparatively little work has been done to investigate the way visual information influences the interpretation of music content, empirical findings suggest that music videos help maintain listener's interest when songs are relatively ambiguous [20]. Both perspectives hint at how the construction of a meaningful narrative is an important component of the way we consume media. ...
Preprint
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Although media content is increasingly produced, distributed, and consumed in multiple combinations of modalities, how individual modalities contribute to the perceived emotion of a media item remains poorly understood. In this paper we present MusicVideos (MuVi), a novel dataset for affective multimedia content analysis to study how the auditory and visual modalities contribute to the perceived emotion of media. The data were collected by presenting music videos to participants in three conditions: music, visual, and audiovisual. Participants annotated the music videos for valence and arousal over time, as well as the overall emotion conveyed. We present detailed descriptive statistics for key measures in the dataset and the results of feature importance analyses for each condition. Finally, we propose a novel transfer learning architecture to train Predictive models Augmented with Isolated modality Ratings (PAIR) and demonstrate the potential of isolated modality ratings for enhancing multimodal emotion recognition. Our results suggest that perceptions of arousal are influenced primarily by auditory information, while perceptions of valence are more subjective and can be influenced by both visual and auditory information. The dataset is made publicly available.
... Several studies have examined the interaction between the two sensory sign systems of sound and visuals and how these interactions can contribute to enhanced meaning making in cinema and other narrative visual media. The comparatively lesser volume of studies on how visuals can alter the meaning of the music listening experience has predominantly been confined to musical (Cassidy & Sims, 1991;Emmett, 2002), narrative (Björnberg, 1994), emotional, and technical semiosis in music videosi.e., studies on the effect of visuals on the musicality of the video have analyzed, among others, how evaluators judged the quality of the musicianship highly in the presence of actual performance videos of the musicians in a music video (Cassidy & Sims, 1991); studies on the narrative functions of visuals as secondary signs analyze how the visuals enhance the visual appeal of the music video and the song's intended meaning by prolonging the musical signification (Goldberg et al., 1993) "even after the sound has faded away" (Filimon, 2013, p. 25). Studies such as Boltz et al. (1991), Cohen (2001), Geringer et al. (1997), Juslin & Sloboda (2001), and Juslin & Västfjäll (2008), among others, have analyzed through neurocognitive audience analysis how visual stimuli affect the emotional response of evaluators to the music and the overall music perception with the nature of the visuals being iconically 4 related to the perceived nature of music. ...
Article
The present study analyzes the influence of culturally charged visuals on the perception of music in Karnatik music videos. The study, using semiotic theories of Umberto Eco and Roland Barthes, argues that Karnatik music videos, through decades of media practice, have invested a considerable degree of mythico-cultural connotations on certain kinds of visuals—visuals of nature and Hindu iconography. The study asserts that these videos presuppose a “model reader” or the rasika, who has access to certain cultural subcodes that lets these visuals “signify” the quasi-religious identity of Karnatik music. Through a commutation test, the article analyzes the perceptional change brought about in the semiosis of these music videos by the mere substitution of “neutral” visuals with contrasting visuals.
... Im Gegenteil: Als Bumerang-Eff ekt verstärkt sich der negative Eindruck. Videoclips können keine Präferenzen erzeugen, sondern lediglich als Präferenzverstärker dienen sowie durch Hinauszögern des Abnutzungseff ekts für eine länger andauernde Attraktivität der Songs sorgen ( Goldberg et al., 1993). Ich vermute, dass die hier fehlenden drei Sätze weggefallen sind, weil es Überschneidungen zu anderen Buchkapiteln gibt, die ebenfalls die Themen "Werbung für Musik" und "Musik in der Werbung" behandeln. ...
Chapter
In Filmen und Videospielen gerät Musik oft zur nebensächlichen Begleitung; bei Videoclips und Musikfilmen ist sie dagegen die Hauptsache. Durch historisch gewachsene Möglichkeiten des Zusammenspiels von Bildern, Erzählungen (Narration), Geräuschen und Musik in verschiedenen Medien und Kontexten ergeben sich vielfältige Wirkungspotentiale, die für verschiedene Forschungsrichtungen interessant sind. Gestaltung und Platzierung von Hintergrundmusik haben Konsequenzen für Aufmerksamkeitshaltungen, steigern die Prägnanz der Wahrnehmung und modulieren empathische Reaktionen in Bezug auf die Protagonisten einer Narration. Leitmotive bauen neue Inhalte im Langzeitgedächtnis auf, während Musikklischees schon vorhandene abrufen. Bilder zu Musikstücken unterstützen dagegen strukturelle Qualitäten, genretypische Images sowie die Bewertung der Performances.
... Much attention has been paid in advertising and consumer psychology literatures to the impact o f estimated prevalence on behavior, attitude change, or affective arousal. Work on concepts such as the so-called wear-in or wear-out o f an advertisement or the impact o f repetition on degree o f liking illustrates this focus (Goldberg, Chattopadhyay, Gom, & Rosenblatt, 1993;Greenberg & Suttoni, 1973;Stewart, 1999). Less empirical work in this arena, however, has documenting the more fundamental relationship between general environmental prevalence and encoded exposure levels among a corresponding population, perhaps reflecting the kinds o f assumptions we discussed in the opening paragraphs o f this chapter. ...
Article
One construct that is useful when discussing media effects is the notion of encoded exposure, described here as a retrievable memory trace in an individual. Based on past research, encoded exposure to electronic media content should be associated with a variety of predictors on multiple levels of conceptualization, including variables related to the environmental prevalence of media content in question, individual media use, interest, processing ability and tendency, conversation with others, and formal content features. Past work also suggests that an explicitly multilevel model of encoded exposure including such predictors should be more useful than single-level prediction efforts alone. ^ This volume describes and validates a recognition-based measure of encoded exposure developed as part of an evaluation of a national health communication effort, namely an antidrug mass media campaign sponsored by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy. In order to test a multilevel model of encoded exposure, this study assesses three types of data. The National Survey of Parents and Youth, administered by Westat and the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication to a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents, contributed both the encoded exposure measure and a variety of other individual measures. Television gross rating point estimates from the campaign provided environmental prevalence indicators. Lastly, electronic copies of campaign television advertisements also were a rich source of data concerning formal content features. ^ Not all hypothesized predictors garnered significant coefficients in the final analyses. As hypothesized, nonetheless, a multilevel model of encoded exposure (including significant individual-level predictors and significant content-level predictors) found strong support among a sample of U.S. adolescents with regards to television content from the campaign. In short, encoded exposure appears to be both related to individual-level variables, such as media use and conversation with others, and a function of content-level variables, such an environmental prevalence and formal features related to the depiction of time and space.
... These findings are consistent with the proposition of Geringer, Cassidy and Byo [14], in which video with narrative plots helps to enhance the intensity of emotion. Another interpretation of this observation may be referred to Goldberg's study, in which video stimuli with narrative plots could suppress the trend of losing interests when enjoying music [22]. The EEG spectral analysis of MV also supports the above findings: the significantly greater gamma power during narrative MV was consistent with the findings of Müller et al. that emotion processing enhance gamma power in frontal scalp areas [23]. ...
Conference Paper
This present study aims to gain insights of how listeners feel about Chinese pop music and music video (MV) by examining music-induced emotion through subjective, physiological and regional brain activation measurement. This study focused on how the following aspects influence emotion: a) mode (major, minor, pentatonic), b) rhythm (firm vs. flowing), c) MV (narrative, live performance, parody). The results suggest that Chinese traditional pentatonic mode elicits sublime feelings, corresponding to lower HRV and less frontal-parietal beta power difference. Emotion elicited by major/minor mode is predictable according to discovered mode-emotion pattern from previous studies. As for the effect of MV on emotion, previous studies concerning emotion induced by narrative and live performance MV can be extended to Chinese pop MV. Extreme positive emotion and corresponded beta power spectrum are distinctive emotion cues for parody MVs. We also noted that firm rhythm in Chinese pop music is associated with high arousal level, while flowing rhythm may induce sublime feelings. This study indicates that musical features (audio) and music video styles (visual) in Chinese pop music can elicit different emotions. Emotion measures such as psychological ratings, HRV and EEG power spectral analysis should be comprehensively considered when interpreting listeners’ emotion.
... Adams, 1994), increase cognitive elaboration (e.g. Goldberg et al., 1993), and aid performance on perceptual and memory tasks (e.g. Geringer et al., 1996Geringer et al., , 1997. ...
... Although this debate is unresolved, there is evidence indicating that videos can help to prevent "wear out"-becoming tired of a song due to excessive exposure. Goldberg, Chattopadhyay, Gorn, & Rosenblatt (1993) investigated this phenomenon and found that videos are most likely to maintain listeners' interest when songs are relatively ambiguous and open to multiple interpretations. More generally, the concept of music videos leads one to ask, in what ways might visual information influence music perception and appreciation? ...
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Previous research has demonstrated that musical soundtracks can influence the emotional impact, interpretation, and remembering of visual information. The present research examines the reverse relationship and whether visual information influences the perception and memory of music. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with affectively ambiguous tunes paired with visual displays varying in their affect (positive, negative) and format (video, montage), or a control condition (no visual information at all). After each, participants were asked to provide a set of perceptual ratings that evaluated different melody characteristics and qualities of the visual displays. Results showed that both the affect and format of visual information differentially influenced the way a melody was perceived. Experiment 2 extended these findings by revealing that the affect of visual displays distorted melody recognition in a mood congruent fashion. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for audiovisual processing.
... The results of this study show that subjects tend to prefer the styles that they are familiar with. In line with previous research that investigated the effect of familiarity on musical preference (Goldberg et al., 1993;Brentar et al., 1994), the results of this study may be beneficial to music educators who need to use unfamiliar materials (for example, non-western music*/ as shown in this study) in the classrooms to increase students' exposure. Some ways to achieve this could be conducted through repeated listening (Hargreaves, 1984) or special programmes (Price, 1988) to raise the level of familiarity among students. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between selected listener variables and musical preference of young students in Singapore. Based on the Leblanc 198223. LeBlanc , A. 1982. An interactive theory of music preference. Journal of Music Therapy, 19(1): 28–45. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references model, gender, age, race, musical training and familiarity were chosen as independent variables. The data collected showed that musical preference was also influenced by other variables such as tempo, dynamics, timbre, melody, function of music, musical style and rhythm. Results revealed no significant differences in musical preference by age and musical training. However, there were significant differences in the musical preferences of participants by gender, race and familiarity. Practical implications for teachers are discussed.
... There was also a positive relationship between time for which television was watched and repetitive advertisements i.e. as the time period for which television is being watched increases the chances of viewer being exposed to same advertisements again a and again increases. This was in agreement with results of studies conducted by Pechman and Stewart (1988) and Goldberg et al. (1993). They found a positive relationship between zapping and advertising exposure, Siddarth and Chattopadhyay (1998), also found a U-or J-shaped relationship between repeated exposures to an advertisement and the probability of zapping. ...
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As globalization becomes ever more prominent, the role of media and advertising is increasing. Ideally for large multinationals that have the resources to take advantage of globalization there exists a larger “market” to which products can be sold. To create and sustain their market, these multinationals companies use aggressive advertising strategies. Television is a aggressive advertising media for these companies. In India television advertising has been expanding throughout the 1990s. Close on the heels of multinationals, domestic companies are also using television as a media to reach the Indian masses. As a result, the number of television commercials is increasing. With this the frequency and time of advertising pods, in a program, are also increasing. This competition between the program content and advertising pods is known as “clutter”. This advertising clutter and has led to companies questioning the efficiency of the medium of communication, in terms of reducing the competitive rivalry and creating a brand impression. This paper aims at understanding this relationship between advertising clutter and multiple activities a viewer might be involved in i.e. polychronic use of time: as proposed by Kaufman and Lane (1994). The study concludes that Indian youth exhibit mental nomadship rather than channel or physical nomadship, at current levels of advertising. Furthermore, channel nomadship has a significant relationship with the person who has control over the remote and the time for which the television is being watched. Physical nomadship has a significant relationship with age, gender and education level. Finally, mental nomadship was related to gender and education level. The study also has important implications for managers.
... For high prior experience/low motivation contexts, a large number of repetitions were needed, and, finally, for low prior experience/low motivation, a low number of exposures was found to be adequate. Goldberg et al. (1993) found that repeated exposure to a music video was found to forestall "wear out," relative to repetitive exposure to the music only. Furthermore, Malaviya, Meyers-Levy, and Sternthal (1999) found that for ad repetition, persuasion was more likely when repetition of an ad and its context were complementary in stimulating item-specific and relational processing. ...
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The first issue of Psychology & Marketing was published in 1984. The journal was conceived as a forum for academics and practitioners in psychology, marketing, and related fields to engage in an exchange of scholarly information. The raison d'être of the journal was to bring psychologically sophisticated information and methodologies to bear on all aspects of marketing theory and practice. This review analyzes the performance of Psychology & Marketing from several perspectives, and includes data comparing its performance to the performance of other journals. Looking back over the last 25 years of its history, it seems fair to conclude that Psychology & Marketing has clearly delivered on its tacit promise of effectively building the knowledge base of marketing through psychology-based insights. Looking forward, it seems reasonable to anticipate that the journal's well-established track record in terms of diversity in the content, research design, and methodologies of its published articles will continue to stand as a welcome and refreshing distinction from other journals covering comparable domains of study. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Streaming music videos on the internet is an increasingly popular music listening activity that has remained virtually unexplored within music psychology. Studies of the role of music in film, as well as empirical research investigating the influence of audio-visual media and memory, have shown that visual information can have a profound effect on how music is perceived and remembered. The current study aimed to create a framework for understanding music video (MV) experiences by finding out when and why individuals choose to engage with this form of media, how these experiences contribute to the perception of musical meaning and influence affective outcomes, and whether these effects carry over to subsequent listening experiences. An online questionnaire study was designed, and data were collected from 34 participants with a mean age of 22.4 years (SD = 2.79). Abductive analysis of the qualitative data was conducted based on theories derived from topical areas of music psychology research. A framework was devised which illustrates MV listening experiences over four temporal stages: Intention, Attention, Reaction, and Retention (IARR). The IARR framework provides novel insights into MV listening experiences and outcomes by shedding light on how extra-musical information can have a long-term influence on the perception of music's meaning and affective quality.
Thesis
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Hintergrundmusik wird in verschiedenen audiovisuellen Medienformaten häufig und meist mit einer ganz bestimmten Intention eingesetzt. Ziel dieser Dissertation war es, durch eine umfangreiche Aufarbeitung bisheriger Forschung Faktoren zu ermitteln und empirisch zu testen, die beeinflussen, dass Hintergrundmusik in audiovisuellen Medienformaten prognostizierbar die ihr zugesprochenen Funktionen erfüllt. Als interdisziplinärer Forschungsgegenstand bedarf Hintergrundmusik eines möglichst ausgewogenen Blickwinkels, der Musik- und Medienkontext-Spezifika (und deren potentielle Interaktionen) gleichermaßen berücksichtigt. Um Hintergrundmusik als komplexem audiovisuellen Stimulus in empirischer Forschung gerecht zu werden, spielen zudem auch praktische Implikationen eine große Rolle. Diese Herausforderungen berücksichtigend wurde die Wirksamkeit von Hintergrundmusik in fünf Studien im Kontext von drei verschiedenen Medienformaten untersucht. Da Werbung, Film und informationsvermittelnde Medienformate (wie Dokumentationen und TV-Magazine) die drei Kernfunktionen von Medien – Persuasion, Unterhaltung und Information – repräsentieren, sollte auf Grundlage dieses Dreiklangs die Bandbreite potenzieller Wirkungen von effektiv eingesetzter Musik und von Faktoren, die ihre Wirkung beeinflussen, möglichst umfassend (wenn auch sicher nicht vollständig) abgebildet werden. Über alle Medienformate hinweg kann als wichtiger, die Wirksamkeit von Hintergrundmusik verstärkender Einflussfaktor eine Kongruenz, d.h. eine intuitiv wahrgenommene Passung von Musik und Medienkontext ausgemacht werden, die durch eine sorgfältige Abstimmung der Spezifika von Musik und Medienformat auf emotionaler, auf assoziativer und auf struktureller Ebene erreicht werden kann. Findet diese Anwendung, kann Musik systematisch die Wirksamkeit von Werbespots steigern (Studie 1 und 2), gezielt Bedeutung vermitteln und dadurch die Wahrnehmung und Interpretation von (deutungsoffenen) Filmszenen prägen (Studie 3 und 4) oder unter bestimmten Bedingungen das persuasive Potenzial eines informationsvermittelnden Medienformats steigern und so die Meinungsbildung der Rezipierenden (zumindest kurzfristig) beeinflussen (Studie 5). Die Arbeit verdeutlicht wie mittels interdisziplinärer Perspektivierung und der Beachtung praktischer Implikationen bereits etabliertes Wissen verstetigt und neue Erkenntnisse zur Verwendung und Wirkung von Hintergrundmusik für Wissenschaft und Medienpraxis abgeleitet werden können – inklusive eines Ausblicks auf daraus resultierende Potenziale für zukünftige Forschung. Although it is frequently used and is highly valued in practice, background music in different audio-visual media formats has shown a broad spectrum of ambiguous results in previous empirical research. This research project aimed to identify and empirically test factors that are relevant for predicting music’s effects in audio-visual media formats. Background music used in different media formats should be handled as an interdisciplinary and complex research object. Accordingly, specifics of music and media context (and their potential interactions) should be equally considered. Moreover, when dealing with a complex audio-visual stimulus in empirical research, external validity and practical implications are crucial. Considering these challenges, the effectiveness of background music was investigated in five studies in the context of three different media formats. Advertising, film, and non-fictional media formats (such as documentaries and TV magazines) represent the three core functions of media—persuasion, entertainment, and information. Therefore, a broad range of background music’s potential effects and factors influencing its impact should be displayed in these diverse media formats. The most important influencing factor enhancing background music’s effectiveness is the intuitively perceived congruence of music and media context. It can be achieved by carefully matching the specifics of music and media format on an emotional, semantic, and structural level. Music that can be considered congruent on these levels can systematically increase TV commercials’ effectiveness (Studies 1 and 2). It can convey specific meaning and shape the perception and interpretation of an ambiguous film scene (Studies 3 and 4). Under certain conditions, congruent background music also increases the persuasive potential of a non-fictional media format and can influence the recipients’ opinions (study 5). This research project illustrates how already established knowledge can be strengthened, and new insights into the use and effects of background music can be derived for science as well as media practice when background music—an interdisciplinary and complex research object—is handled competently.
Chapter
This book focuses on the growing body of empirical research investigating the cognition of musical multimedia, with an emphasis on temporally organized auditory and visual structures. ‘Multimedia’ commonly refers to audiovisual presentations in film, television, video, interactive gaming, computer interfaces, and on the Internet. The term ‘empirical’ refers to the process of collecting data from human participants via systematically designed experiments. Such empirical research provides a framework for understanding the relationships between music, sound, and image in multimedia contexts. The international collection of contributors represents eight countries and a range of disciplines including psychology, neuroscience, musicology, media studies, film, and communications. Each chapter includes a comprehensive review of the topic and, where appropriate, identifies models that can be empirically tested. Part I presents contrasting theoretical approaches from cognitive psychology, philosophy, semiotics, communications, musicology, and neuroscience. Part II reviews research on the structural aspects of music and multimedia, while Part III focuses on research related to the influence of music on perceived meaning in the multimedia experience. Part IV explores empirical findings on a variety of real-world applications of music in multimedia including entertainment and educational media for children, video and computer games, television and online advertising, auditory displays of information, and the impact of surround sound, showing how theory and practice intertwine in various examples of multimedia. Part V includes a final chapter that consolidates emergent themes and concludes with the value of broadening the scope of research to encompass multisensory, multidisciplinary, and cross-cultural perspectives to advance our understanding of the role of music in multimedia.
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The authors review the two-factor elaboration model of message repetition effects and report a study of the model's applicability to new product advertising. The study findings do not support the hypothesized inverted-U relationship between repetition and attitude toward a novel commercial and product. However, the underlying processes of learning, tedium arousal, and elaboration were observed. Viewer knowledge and commercial length did not moderate these processes.
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Though most observers acknowledge that consumers make inferences among product attributes, the influence of such inferences on product evaluation is much less clear. Study respondents evaluated products for which information on one of two attributes was systematically omitted. A general model is built to estimate the directional effect of inferences on product evaluation. The effect of inferences to a missing attribute is statistically significant and in the expected direction. In one case, the marginal value of the remaining attribute (price) reverses in sign because of an inference. Thus, inferences are theoretically important and a potentially troublesome issue in the modeling and measurement of consumer choice processes.
Article
Although the concept of moderator variables has been used extensively in marketing-related studies, much confusion persists as to how they are defined and identified. To alleviate this confusion, the authors present a typology of moderator variables with a framework for identifying their presence and type. Simulated data are used to illustrate and validate the proposed framework.
Article
Although the concept of moderator variables has been used extensively in marketing-related studies, much confusion persists as to how they are defined and identified. To alleviate this confusion, the authors present a typology of moderator variables with a framework for identifying their presence and type. Simulated data are used to illustrate and validate the proposed framework.
Article
Though most observers acknowledge that consumers make inferences among product attributes, the influence of such inferences on product evaluation is much less clear. Study respondents evaluated products for which information on one of two attributes was systematically omitted. A general model is built to estimate the directional effect of inferences on product evaluation. The effect of inferences to a missing attribute is statistically significant and in the expected direction. In one case, the marginal value of the remaining attribute (price) reverses in sign because of an inference. Thus, inferences are theoretically important and a potentially troublesome issue in the modeling and measurement of consumer choice processes.
Article
A consumer's prior evaluation of an advertised brand is hypothesized to moderate the effectiveness of humor in advertising. Further, cognitive responses are hypothesized as mediators of the impact of humorous ads on brand attitude. The results support the hypothesized moderator role of prior brand evaluation: when prior evaluation of the advertised brand is positive, a humorous ad is more effective than its nonhumorous counterpart in changing consumer attitudes and choice behavior. When consumers have a negative prior attitude, the opposite is true: a humorous ad is less effective in changing consumer attitudes and choice behavior than its nonhumorous counterpart. The results also support the conceptualization of cognitive responses as mediators of the impact of humorous advertisements on brand attitude.
Article
The authors examine two concerns that have emerged in research involving the attitude toward the ad (Aad) construct. The first pertains to conceptualization and measurement. Drawing on recent social cognition and consumer research, the authors propose a distinction for cognitive evaluation and affective reaction as separate dimensions of Aad. Empirical evidence is provided that supports the meaningfulness of this distinction in advertising-response data. The second concern involves processing set and its implications for the external validity of Aad research. The results suggest that processing individuals under disguised versus nondisguised "sets" will influence the nature of their affective versus cognitive responses to an ad.
Article
The authors review the two-factor elaboration model of message repetition effects and report a study of the model's applicability to new product advertising. The study findings do not support the hypothesized inverted-U relationship between repetition and attitude toward a novel commercial and product. However, the underlying processes of learning, tedium arousal, and elaboration were observed. Viewer knowledge and commercial length did not moderate these processes.
Article
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis, derived from dissonance theory, that the more effort subjects exerted to attain the conclusion to a syllogistic argument the more they would come to agree with that conclusion. Three experimentally manipulated levels of effort were created by varying the number of preliminary syllogisms subjects had to solve in addition to finding the conclusion to the final set of premises, the assertion that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. Two levels of commitment to the belief that cigarette smoking does not cause lung cancer were defined by dividing subjects into those who smoked and those who did not. Attitude change scores indicated that the amount of effort expended was directly related to the amount of attitude change for smokers, but that nonsmokers in the three effort conditions did not differ in the amount of attitude change evinced. The data were interpreted as the result of dissonance reducing effort justification, but several alternative explanations are discussed. Also, the authors note the relevance of these findings of the question of whether it is best for a communicator to state his conclusion or leave it as an implication to be drawn from his premises by the audience.
Article
Offrant un environnement, une experience, une ambiance et un ton, les clips videos ont donne corps a une tension fondamentale dans la culture «jeune» americaine: le sentiment d'instabilite qui alimente la quete d'achats de biens de consommations et celle de l'appartenance
Article
Aux Etats-Unis les adolescents passent en moyenne plus de deux heures par jour devant des videoclips. Les raisons qu'ils donnent sont differentes de celles habituellement invoquees par les amateurs de television ou les melomanes: il s'agit de «comprendre reellement» ce que le compositeur de la chanson, mise en scene par le videoclip, a «voulu dire»
Chapter
HYPOTHESIZES THAT MERE REPEATED EXPOSURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO A STIMULUS OBJECT ENHANCES HIS ATTITUDE TOWARD IT. BY "MERE" EXPOSURE IS MEANT A CONDITION MAKING THE STIMULUS ACCESSIBLE TO PERCEPTION. SUPPORT FOR THE HYPOTHESIS CONSISTS OF 4 TYPES OF EVIDENCE, PRESENTED AND REVIEWED: (1) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF WORDS AND WORD FREQUENCY, (2) THE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTALLY MANIPULATED FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE UPON THE AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF NONSENSE WORDS AND SYMBOLS, (3) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN WORD FREQUENCY AND THE ATTITUDE TO THEIR REFERENTS, AND (4) THE EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTALLY MANIPULATED FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE ON ATTITUDE. THE RELEVANCE FOR THE EXPOSURE-ATTITUDE HYPOTHESIS OF THE EXPLORATION THEORY AND OF THE SEMANTIC SATIATION FINDINGS WERE EXAMINED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/36105/2/b1377231.0001.001.pdf http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/36105/1/b1377231.0001.001.txt
Article
The cognitive effects of advertising repetition are examined by considering the impact of three levels of TV commercial exposure within a one-hour program. Attitudes and purchase intentions were not affected by message repetition, although cognitive responses became more negative as exposure frequency increased. The relationship between cognitive responses and the message acceptance measures was relatively constant across the three exposure levels.
Article
An experiment investigated the relation between inference and persuasion. Subjects were exposed to an ad in which presence or absence of conclusions and level of involvement were manipulated orthogonally. Omitted conclusions were more likely to be inferred spontaneously in high than in low involvement conditions. Further, when conclusions were omitted and high involvement made spontaneous inference formation likely, brand attitudes were more favorable and accessible than attitudes formed in low involvement conditions. Brand attitudes based on spontaneous inferences were as favorable and more accessible than attitudes formed in explicit conclusion conditions. The effects of motivation and effort on inference are discussed.
Article
"The effects upon opinion change of having the communicator draw the appropriate conclusion from material he had presented were compared with those produced when the drawing of the conclusion was left to the audience… . Over twice as many S's changed their opinions in the direction of the position advocated by the communicator when the speaker drew the appropriate conclusion than when the drawing of the conclusion was left to the audience." This relationship was studied as a function of the interacting variables: (1) confidence in the communicator, (2) intellectual ability, and (2) personality traits possessed by members of the audience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Benson and Hedges: Enough to wonder
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How to Advertise SAS User's Guide: Procedures (Version 5 Edition Identification and analysis of moderator variables The adolescent audience for music videos and why they watch
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