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Psychological ownership within the job design context: Revision of the Job Characteristics Model

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Abstract

In this paper, we offer a theoretical modification to the Hackman and Oldham (1975) Job Characteristics Model by integrating research on the psychological aspects of job design with emerging theory on psychological ownership. We develop the connection between job design and (a) the motives facilitating psychological ownership, (b) the routes through which psychological ownership emerges, and (c) the individual-level outcomes (e.g., emotional, attitudinal, motivational, and behavioral) that result from an employee's psychological ownership of his or her job. Our work covers several previously ignored positive and negative effects. We conclude by positioning psychological ownership as a plausible substitute for other proposed mediating psychological states in the job design–employee response relationship. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The skills variety can be defined as the various skills required in order to perform job in better manner due to occupied with many skills from soft to hard skill (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). Similarly, the job requires all necessary skills in order to perform in better manner in the banking sector (Oldham & Fried, 2016;Pierce et al., 2009). The employee should have to spend a great time and efforts for developing new skills for higher employee performance with completion of task within time frame (Li et al., 2020). ...
... The past many studies have been conducted which confirmed the positive relationship between task identity and employee performance and job involvement (Pierce et al., 2009;Chen and Chiu, 2009). The Brown et al;(2014) also suggested positive role of task identity for better predication of psychological ownership to employee performance. ...
... The work autonomy believes that the employees should be empowered in terms of tools, deadlines and method to perform certain job or task within organization (Gardner & Pierce, 2016;Pierce et al., 2009). Therefore, the control over the job can develop a psychological ownership of work and that owners will be reflective from outcome of job (Lu et al., 2021;Gardell, 1977;Chen & Chiu, 2009). ...
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The objective of present study determines the role of work characteristics on employee performance in banking sector of Hyderabad, Pakistan. The primary data is collected from top five banks as suggested Stated Bank of Pakistan. The middle level employees are requested to fill the voluntary filled the self-administrative printed questionnaire during working hours of bank. Total 220 printed questionnaires were distributed among only 190 found reliable for data analysis while data cleaning process and for the analysis Smart PLS 3 is used. Findings of this study revealed that the three independent variables including skills variety, task significance and autonomy have positive and significant impact on dependent variable employee performance in banking sector of Hyderabad, Pakistan. In addition, two independent variables such as task identity and feedback have positive and insignificant impact on dependent variable employee performance in banking sector of Hyderabad, Pakistan. However, the skills variety is found to more positive and significant impact on employee performance because higher beta value with respect to other independent variables. Based on authors knowledge this is the first study which conducted in this regard of work characteristics and employee performance in banking sector of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Moreover, banking sector Hyderabad, Pakistan should improve the feedback system in their respective banks as suggested by this study.
... Job crafting includes improving job resources and challenges, allowing employees to produce desired job characteristics that affect the employee experience of psychological ownership (Brown et al., 2014;Pierce et al., 2009). Psychological ownership is a powerful construct for understanding employee motivation and positivity, eliciting favorable work behaviors such as voice and helping (e.g., Dawkins et al., 2017). ...
... Ownership is rooted in three motives: efficacy, self-identity, and belongingness (Avey et al., 2009;Pierce et al., 2001). Proactively crafting their jobs, employees invest time and effort resources into their jobs, experience confidence and control over work, and experience efficacy (Brown et al., 2014;Pierce et al., 2009). Job crafters customize the job such that the product of their work reflects themselves, further anchoring part of their self-identity within the job. ...
... Regarding the criteria in our model (Figure 1), employees feeling ownership of their jobs will show fewer withdrawal behaviors, because psychological ownership is a form of attachment predicting favorable work attitudes and actions (Avey et al., 2009;Dawkins et al., 2017;Pierce et al., 2009), including becoming more engaged at work and thereby exhibiting less withdrawal behavior. Turnover intention is defined as the cognitive processes of thinking about whether to, how to, and when to leave the employing organization, and it often precedes actual turnover (e.g., Konovsky & Cropanzano, 1991;Shore et al., 1990); absenteeism, on the other hand, is a more temporary withdrawal from the organization, commonly exhibited by missing a This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
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Based on the job demand-resources framework, we developed and tested a serial mediation model where employees’ political skill predicts their withdrawal behaviors and subjective well-being, with job crafting as a first mediator, and job-based psychological ownership and perceived stress as second mediators. Full-time U.S. employees (n = 322) in a variety of industries participated in a four-wave survey, spanning 3 months. Structural equation modeling with alternative model tests supported a model in which political skill predicted employees’ job crafting behavior, which in turn, helped promote job-based psychological ownership and reduce stress. Subsequently, job-based psychological ownership uniquely and negatively predicted two withdrawal behaviors (turnover intentions and absenteeism), and perception of stress uniquely and positively predicted two well-being outcomes (physical symptoms and psychological strains), while controlling for job autonomy, leader–member exchange, social desirability, and negative affectivity. In an alternative model test, however, perceived stress had a stronger and broader effect on the outcomes than psychological ownership did. There were no direct effects of political skill on the four criteria, highlighting the role of mediation. Overall, the present study illuminates a relationship between political skill and job crafting that can predict employees’ dedication to remain in the organization and their health.
... The skills variety can be defined as the various skills required in order to perform job in better manner due to occupied with many skills from soft to hard skill (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). Similarly, the job requires all necessary skills in order to perform in better manner in the banking sector (Oldham & Fried, 2016;Pierce et al., 2009). The employee should have to spend a great time and efforts for developing new skills for higher employee performance with completion of task within time frame (Li et al., 2020). ...
... The past many studies have been conducted which confirmed the positive relationship between task identity and employee performance and job involvement (Pierce et al., 2009;Chen and Chiu, 2009). The Brown et al;(2014) also suggested positive role of task identity for better predication of psychological ownership to employee performance. ...
... The work autonomy believes that the employees should be empowered in terms of tools, deadlines and method to perform certain job or task within organization (Gardner & Pierce, 2016;Pierce et al., 2009). Therefore, the control over the job can develop a psychological ownership of work and that owners will be reflective from outcome of job (Lu et al., 2021;Gardell, 1977;Chen & Chiu, 2009). ...
... Staff. It might also be important to consider outputs in the light of the extended version developed by Humphry et al. (23). Recent studies critique its level of consideration of context and engagement (23) and this might be critically examined in future work. ...
... It might also be important to consider outputs in the light of the extended version developed by Humphry et al. (23). Recent studies critique its level of consideration of context and engagement (23) and this might be critically examined in future work. There are some challenges around the evidence for perceived meaning of autonomy and meaningfulness as mediators (52)(and some have suggested that work engagement might be a better mediator between job characteristics and performance (53). ...
... (19) (20) (21). The extended JCM adds that motivation, contextual features including values and social factors are important(22) (23). Applying the JCM (24) to analyse workload may reveal aspects of staff job roles affected by organisational change (such as OC implementation). ...
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Background Online Consultation (OC) was previously promoted by the NHS to solve primary care workload challenges. Its implementation was sped up during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workload effects are widely debated. Using a job design perspective may enhance understandings of workload effect. Aim To qualitatively interrogate the workload experiences of primary care staff involved in OC implementation using Job Characteristics Model (JCM) enabling: clearer understanding of the primary care staff psychological experiences; and recommendations informing the design of digital implementations and continued use. Design & setting A qualitative interview study of GP practices using online consultation within South-West England. Method 13 participants representing 7 practices completed JCM based semi-structured telephone interviews. An abductive theoretically driven thematic analysis was completed using NVIVO software. Results Participants experienced qualitatively different tasks pre and post implementation of OC, and adapted differently to this. Differences included: contact modality change, some administrative staff feeling removed from patient contact; and in perceived autonomy, some GPs valuing increased workload control. Variation in workload experience was affected by job role, and practice context, form of and rationale for implementation. Use of a psychological model (the JCM) allowed clearer consideration of the effects of change, as well as OC on workload. Conclusion Psychological theory may be helpful in interpreting workload effects of technology implementation such as OC. Designing change to include consideration of: technology effects, psychological experiences, differences across roles, individuals and practice contexts may be important, for technology implementation and evaluation of its workload effects.
... Scholars and practitioners are concerned about psychological ownership because it predicts employee performance (Atatsi et al., 2021;O'driscoll et al., 2006;Peng & Pierce, 2015;Pierce et al., 2003Pierce et al., , 2009Pierce & Rodgers, 2004;Van Dyne & Pierce, 2004), productivity (Pierce & Rodgers, 2004) and financial performance (Wagner et al., 2003). Psychological ownership refers to the state in which individuals feel as if the target is owned partly or fully owned by them (Pierce et al., 2001). ...
... Skill variety refers to the extent to which a job requires a variety of activities, in relation to the use of a number of different skills and talents (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). If a job requires various skills, individuals need to utilise a broad range of skills and talents (Pierce et al., 2009). As a result, employees need to spend more time, effort and affection on completing that job than on simple tasks (Li et al., 2020). ...
... There are numerous studies testing and conforming the relationship between task identity and understanding the work and job envolvement (Chen & Chiu, 2009;Pierce et al., 2009). Pierce et al. (2009) propose that task identity predicts job-based psychological ownership. ...
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This study aims to examine how work characteristics influence employee performance through the mediating role of job-based psychological ownership in a developing country. The research employed 432 Vietnamese employees from 10 manufactories located in three regions of Vietnam: The North, the Middle and the South of Vietnam. The results reveal that job-based psychological ownership mediates four relationships between task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, and in-role performance. Unexpectedly, skill variety, the remaining work characteristic considered here, does not impact job-based psychological ownership, meaning that here the mediating role of job-based psychological ownership does not exist. This paper concludes with discussions and recommendations for Vietnamese businesses.
... Psychological ownership as a cognitive-affective concept related to the state of feeling an owner of a specific "target", which can be defined as any object of attachment [1], was developed in the organisational context and confirmed through multiple research as a positive resource for impacting human performance in organizations, e. g. employee attitudes, leadership, job satisfaction and job design [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. Scholars have proposed that psychological ownership emerges because it satisfies three basic human motives, i. e. self-enhancement (i. ...
... This is "my" data.) or affective (e. g. "I feel as owner."). Furthermore, psychological ownership has been conceptualised by different authors as a construct comprising of five dimensions, i. e. sense of responsibility, sense of self-identity, sense of belongingness, sense of accountability and self-efficacy [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. These five dimensions were defined by [2] as follows: ...
... This research is a follow-up study to similar studies conducted in 2012 [9] and in 2014 [16]. The study shows that self-regulated learning is affected by psychological ownership and perceived control of the learning environment according to the Antecedent-Consequences-Model of psychological ownership proposed by [2], [3], [4], [5]. ...
Article
Theory and research show that psychological ownership has an important impact on how individuals engage, react to change and invest themselves into activities. Drawing on the theory of psychological ownership and self-regulated learning, this study explores the role of psychological ownership for selfregulated learning in context of technology-enhanced learning in four courses at two universities in Germany and Spain. We employ a research model which explains the route from perceived control of the learning environment to psychological ownership and from psychological ownership to self-regulated learning, drawing on previous research in Personal Learning Environments. We examine differences in learning designs and explore how these may be related to different perceptions of control and ownership. This study helps to apply and extend the theory of psychological ownership to the field of technology-enhanced learning with focus on e-portfolio practices in higher education while providing practical insights for creating and implementing learning designs which promote learner control, ownership and self-regulated learning.
... With open-plan offices-including activity-based environments-there are mixed results, especially regarding effects on productivity and satisfaction with the work environment (e.g., de Croon et al., 2005;Engelen et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2016;Rolfö et al., 2017), as well as autonomy and job satisfaction (e.g., Danielsson & Bodin, 2008;Lansdale et al., 2011). A recurring theme in studies on open-plan offices has also been the vital role of perceived privacy and psychological ownership (Gerdenitsch et al., 2018;Pierce et al., 2009;Seddigh et al., 2014). In the following sections, we delve further into these two concepts. ...
... Psychological ownership-a person's sense of something being "theirs" (Pierce et al., 2001)-is of significance in an organizational context due to being positively related to variables such as employee performance and job satisfaction (Pierce & Jussila, 2009). ...
... In the present study, the measure of psychological ownership only concerns the physical work environment. Psychological ownership has also been studied with regard to employee job tasks (Pierce et al., 2009). Taking a broader view might help understand the role of psychological ownership in different work environments. ...
Article
The increasing popularity of activity-based work environments has led to concerns regarding lower employee privacy and psychological ownership. Using a longitudinal field survey, we attempt to capture how implementing an activity-based work environment impacts perceived privacy and psychological ownership—and potential employee adjustment over time. We further consider employee attitude towards activity-based work as a moderator. Consistent with past results, our findings indicate that implementing activity-based work environments can negatively affect employee privacy and psychological ownership. We do not find support for differences between short-term and long-term effects. However, employee attitude towards activity-based work emerges as a potentially important moderator that may offset the adverse effects of activity-based work environments. Implications of these findings for organizations and directions for future research are discussed.
... Frequently, the path to improving work experiences has been through enhancing the core work characteristics identified in the Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) and its extensions (Grant & Parker, 2009;Humphrey et al., 2007;Parker et al., 2017), such as task variety, job autonomy, task significance, task identity, and feedback. Considerable evidence shows that these work characteristics do indeed enhance important aspects of employees' work experience, such as the extent to which employees feel a sense of ownership (e.g., Pierce, Jussila, & Cummings, 2009) and see work as meaningful (e.g., Tims, Derks, & Bakker, 2016). Beyond these core work characteristics, scholars have also focused on work characteristics that cause psychological strain (e.g., job demands; Karasek, 1979) and relational work characteristics that promote employees' sense of social connection (e.g., contact with beneficiaries of the work; Grant, 2007). ...
... In the work design literature, work experiences are theorized to be intermediate outcomes that drive ultimate outcomes such as job performance (e.g., Pierce et al., 2009;Tims et al., 2016). ...
... The enriching models of work design, such as the job characteristics model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) and its more recent extended versions (e.g., Parker, Wall, & Cordery, 2001), have dominated explanations of the positive impacts of job design. Even new theories emphasizing the relational aspects (Grant, 2007;Parker, 2014) or temporal aspects (Cummings et al., 2009;Spreitzer et al., 2017) of jobs have followed suit in terms of their focus on enrichment. Scholars have called for new job characteristics and mechanisms that extend beyond these models because they cannot completely explain the dynamism of jobs in all situations (Parker, Ohly, Kanfer, Chen, & Pritchard, 2008;Parker, 2014). ...
... Also, the core job dimensions set was extended with goal setting and organizational climate. The final model with the additions described above is presented in Fig. 2 Among other modifications of the JCM, the work of Pierce et al. [15] on the psychological ownership within the job design context is of the great importance with regard to the ESOP's theoretical structure. According to Pierce et al., core job dimensions lead to the "routes to" psychological ownership and then to the psychological ownership of the job, which is the critical psychological state in the revised JCM. ...
... According to Pierce et al., core job dimensions lead to the "routes to" psychological ownership and then to the psychological ownership of the job, which is the critical psychological state in the revised JCM. The revised model also replaces the original personal and work outcomes with the ones originating from the psychological ownership theory [15]. CORE Psychological ownership seems to be an important organizational phenomenon with a significant impact on an organization's performance. ...
... The second path leads from Core Job Dimensions, through Psychological Ownership to Psychological Ownership Effects. This path corresponds to the psychological ownership-based revision of the JCM proposed by Pierce et al. [15]. This path is shared with the second possible starting point in the model, which is Employee Ownership. ...
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The article deals with the importance of ESOPs (employee stock option plan) for the motivation of key employees of companies producing and publishing computer games. The conducted literature review led to the identification of a motivation model that explains how ESOPs can affect the motivation of employees in this industry. An analysis of the available studies on the importance of ESOPs for employee motivation revealed the existence of at least one key success factor of ESOPs—psychological ownership. The empirical study includes an ESOP analysis of five computer game companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in terms of changes in the dynamics of employee productivity caused by an ESOP. One of the most important discoveries is the relationship between productivity and the structure of the ESOP, in particular the percentage of company shares that were offered to its participants.
... It is also very likely that employees who are considering, planning, discussing, and deciding on strategic and tactical issues regarding the well-being of their organisation will develop a strong sense of conscientiousness and emotional attachment to their company, resulting in a higher degree of value-based commitment (cf. related theoretical considerations by O'Driscoll, Pierce, & Coghlan, 2006;Pierce, Jussila, & Cummings, 2009). ...
... With respect to EO, IPD partially mediates the positive effects of EO on job/work satisfaction, job involvement/work motivation, and value-based commitment. Although the available studies suitable for a meta-analysis did not allow us to include employees' sense of psychological ownership, the findings correspond with the weight of IPD, job complexity, or decision autonomy within the psychological ownership framework (see O'Driscoll et al., 2006;Pierce et al., 1991Pierce et al., , 2009). The significant mediator effects mentioned all represent partial and not full mediations. ...
Article
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Our meta-analytic review investigates how employee participation in democratic enterprises is related to psychological outcomes. We gathered 60 studies through a systematic literature search of quantitative field studies (published between January 1970 and May 2017) and extracted 138 effect sizes related to three indicators of organisational democracy (OD) and 15 psychological outcomes. The overall findings suggest that employees’ individually perceived participation in organisational decision making (IPD) had a stronger relation to job satisfaction (ρ = .25), job involvement/work motivation (ρ = .36), prosocial work behaviours (ρ = .24), civic and democratic behaviours (ρ = .21) and perceived supportive climate (ρ = .44) than the other two OD indicators: structurally anchored employee participation (SAEP) and employee participation in collective ownership (EO). This was not the case for valuebased commitment: the relations of SAEP (ρ = .40), EO (ρ = .34), and IPD (ρ = .46) with commitment were nearly equal. Mediation analyses indicated that IPD partially mediated most of the effects of SAEP and EO on the outcomes mentioned. The cross-sectional database and a small number of studies for some of the outcomes are the main limitations of this study.
... Notwithstanding the unique benefits of PO in the literature, there is a dearth of knowledge on the processes through which employees develop their sense of ownership feeling (Bernhard and O'Driscoll, 2011;Brown et al., 2014;Pierce and Rodgers, 2004), and also in the context of FBs. Evidence from extant literature suggests that, with the exception of a few studies (Bernhard and O'Driscoll, 2011;Brown et al., 2014;Mayhew et al., 2007;Pierce et al., 2009) which explored job design and job complexity as antecedent variables of PO, majority of the studies examined PO as either an antecedent (Broekaert et al., 2018;Pittino et al., 2018;Ramos et al., 2014;Sieger et al., 2013) or a mediator or moderating (Mayhew et al., 2007;Sieger et al., 2011;Zhu et al., 2013) variable. Brown et al. (2014) contends that this phenomenon limits the understanding and ability to suggest means to increase and reinforce a sense of ownership in the work environment. ...
... Scholars unanimously agree that FBs are significantly different from non-FBs (Jorissen et al., 2005;Westhead et al., 2001;Zahra and Sharma, 2004). Bernhard and O'Driscoll (2011) advocate for researchers to explain how employees develop psychological ownership in FBs from the earlier approach using work/job design and job complexity (Brown et al., 2014;Mayhew et al., 2007;Pierce et al., 2009). The study therefore investigates how counterproductive work behaviour and organisational performance may account for psychological ownership in family hotels. ...
Article
Purpose This paper examines the mediating process of enhancing employees' psychological ownership among family hotel employees. Design/methodology/approach A total of 1,005 employees from 197 budget-to-three-star family hotels took part in the study by completing an either self-reported or interviewer questionnaire. The respondents were selected using a convenient sampling technique. A partial least square structural equation was used to analyse the data. Findings Work engagement and organisational performance were shown to significantly predict psychological ownership, except for counterproductive work behaviour. Both counterproductive work behaviour and organisational performance were found to predict psychological ownership. Finally, the relationship between (1) counterproductive work behaviour and psychological ownership and (2) organisational performance and psychological ownership is mediated by work engagement. Practical implications Replication of this model in different countries and other work settings is highly recommended for cross validating the reported findings in this study. The study emphasises the need for family hotel owners to create a conducive work environment devoid of conditions that promote counterproductive work behaviour among employees and encourage them to engage in higher productivity. Originality/value This study appears to be one of the first to have investigated a model linking counterproductive work behaviour, performance to psychological ownership through work engagement in the family hotel context.
... Notwithstanding the unique benefits of PO in the literature, there is a dearth of knowledge on the processes through which employees develop their sense of ownership feeling (Bernhard and O'Driscoll, 2011;Brown et al., 2014;Pierce and Rodgers, 2004), and also in the context of FBs. Evidence from extant literature suggests that, with the exception of a few studies (Bernhard and O'Driscoll, 2011;Brown et al., 2014;Mayhew et al., 2007;Pierce et al., 2009) which explored job design and job complexity as antecedent variables of PO, majority of the studies examined PO as either an antecedent (Broekaert et al., 2018;Pittino et al., 2018;Ramos et al., 2014;Sieger et al., 2013) or a mediator or moderating (Mayhew et al., 2007;Sieger et al., 2011;Zhu et al., 2013) variable. Brown et al. (2014) contends that this phenomenon limits the understanding and ability to suggest means to increase and reinforce a sense of ownership in the work environment. ...
... Scholars unanimously agree that FBs are significantly different from non-FBs (Jorissen et al., 2005;Westhead et al., 2001;Zahra and Sharma, 2004). Bernhard and O'Driscoll (2011) advocate for researchers to explain how employees develop psychological ownership in FBs from the earlier approach using work/job design and job complexity (Brown et al., 2014;Mayhew et al., 2007;Pierce et al., 2009). The study therefore investigates how counterproductive work behaviour and organisational performance may account for psychological ownership in family hotels. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper examines the relationships between citizenship fatigue, organisational- and job-based psychological ownership and family management among family hotel employees in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach A total of 479 workers took part in the study by completing either a self-reported questionnaire or an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The hotels and respondents were selected using purposive and convenience sampling techniques, respectively. IBM SPSS version 21 and partial least squares structural equation model were used to process and analyse the data. Findings Citizenship fatigue was found to be a negative predictor of organisational- and job-based psychological ownership. Additionally, job- and organisational-based psychological ownership were positively predicted by family management. Furthermore, family management positively moderates the relation between citizenship fatigue and organisational- and job-based psychological ownership. Originality/value This study appears to be one of the first to have investigated a model linking family management, citizenship fatigue and psychological ownership in the family hotel context.
... It is the feeling that something belongs to you. Organizational outcomes, including work motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organization-based self-esteem, and work performance, depend on an individual's sense of personal PO (Pierce et al., 2009). Possession leads to the proactive intention of a person to preserve and strengthen his/her owned object; it is linked to the distinct organizational citizenship behavior of team members to safeguard and strengthen their possessions (Van Dyne & Pierce, 2004). ...
... Therefore, they demonstrate that normative theory and NAM yield an appreciation of the mediating role of MN. In addition, the findings indicate that PO, OS, and green behavior at home contribute considerably to eco-friendly work behavior (H1e-H1f-H1g), supporting prior pro-environmental behavior literature, which states that these variables can be introduced into a model to explain this complex behavior better (Chang et al., 2012;Ouellette & Wood, 1998;Pierce et al., 2009;Van Dyne & Pierce, 2004). ...
Article
Although the interplay among moral norms (MN), organizational support (OS), psychological ownership (PO), past green behavior, and green practice behavior (GPB) has been investigated separately in the hospitality and tourism literature, such investigations have been analyzed with the assumption of symmetrical perspective. This research provides additional information by applying both the symmetrical and non-symmetrical paradigms with an innovative methodological approach called the integrated generalized structured component analysis with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). A survey with 277 respondents indicates that MN, OS, PO, and past green behavior can collectively and efficiently explain variations in GPB at work. Results from fsQCA identify four different combinations of configurations that can shape employees’ behavior to perform green practices at work. In addition, MN is identified as a core factor and confirmed to be an indispensable condition to the occurrence of GPB. Moreover, this study tests and confirms all core tenets of complexity theory. Also, we address the potential sub-additive bias by relying on the perspective of the factor measurement model.
... p. 299). The PO construct has been used in organizational research as a predictor of workplace motives, attitudes and behaviors (Jussila et al., 2015;Pierce et al., 2009) and may thus provide a lens through which we could understand employees' attitudes toward women in management. ...
... Organizational studies investigating PO indicate that this concept is an antecedent to or a mediator of the relationship between other positive organizational behaviors and outcomes, such as organizational commitment, OCB, job satisfaction and extra-role behaviors (Mayhew et al., 2007;Pierce et al., 2009;Vandewalle et al., 1995). Recently, looking at it from a different angle, studies have pointed out the "dark side" of PO (Cocieru et al., 2019). ...
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the individual factors that directly and indirectly favor (or hinder) employees’ attitudes toward women in management. Two sides of psychological ownership (PO), promotion-focused and prevention-focused PO, are studied as having a direct effect on employees’ attitudes toward women in management. Past and future temporal focuses are examined as possible antecedents to the sides of PO, and as indirectly affecting employees’ attitudes toward women in management. Design/methodology/approach Survey questionnaires were collected from 230 MBA and related program students who were currently working and enrolled in one of six different universities in Ethiopia. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to validate all measurement scales, and structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses using Mplus software. Findings Employees with promotion-focused PO and employees with prevention-focused PO had a favorable and unfavorable attitude, respectively, toward women in management. In addition, a future temporal focus had a significant positive effect on promotion-focused PO, and a past temporal focus had a significant positive effect on prevention-focused PO. Overall, this mediation model showed that promotion-focused PO partially mediates the relationship between future temporal focus and attitudes toward equal opportunity for women managers, whereas prevention-focused PO fully mediates the negative relationship between past temporal focus and attitudes toward women in management. Practical implications This study provides new insight for organizations by showing how employees’ temporal focus explains their side of PO and how that affects their reaction toward women in management. Originality/value A new mechanism for revealing gender inequality in organizations is introduced. Moreover, the relationship between temporal focus and PO is discovered. This study is novel in providing an understanding of the antecedent to and effect of prevention-focused PO, which are largely overlooked in extant research.
... To elaborate, given that a company's purpose renders it a force for good for its stakeholders, it confers on its sustainability efforts, which is also stakeholder-oriented, a clarity and significance (Pierce et al., 2009) that it lacks when it is articulated in the face of a shareholder value creation goal. By explicating the firm's contribution to society, purpose renders sustainability an issue that employees are likely to view as worthier of ownership with the promise of greater job and even life meaningfulness. ...
... Why might this be so? First, research in organizational behavior points to specific job characteristics, such as autonomy and participative decision making, as drivers of a perceived sense of control, producing in turn greater job and organizational ownership (Pierce et al., 2009). Perceived control, which fulfills the need for efficacy as noted above, is the perception that one is able-through ability, resources, and opportunities-to realize desirable outcomes through one's own actions (Liu et al., 2012). ...
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This paper examines the effects of employees’ sense that they work for a purpose-driven company on their workplace sustainability behaviors. Conceptualizing corporate purpose as an overarching, relevant, shared ethical vision of why a company exists and where it needs to go, we argue that it is particularly suited for driving employee sustainability behaviors, which are more ethically complex than the types of employee ethical behaviors typically examined by prior research. Through four studies, two involving the actual employees of construction companies, we demonstrate that purpose drives the sustainability behaviors of employees by causing them to take psychological ownership of sustainability. In addition, we show that the sustainability-enhancing effect of purpose is stronger when employees perceive that they have higher autonomy in enacting their sustainability actions and for those employees for whom being moral is more central to their sense of self.
... 3.1 Effect of the fulfillment of psychological needs on psychological ownership Autonomy implies that individuals have the freedom and flexibility to perform their work and contributes to an increased sense of psychological ownership (Pierce and Cummings, 2009). The fulfillment of the need for autonomy is also linked with the achievement of the goal APJML of self-control. ...
... The fulfillment of the need for relatedness exerts a positive influence on psychological ownership. Pierce and Cummings (2009) state that being able to control one's actions and achieve goals by owning them brings a feeling of efficiency and pleasure. It is reasonable to expect that completing specific tasks in a virtual brand community can generate a sense of self-efficacy and self-fulfillment. ...
Purpose Users' knowledge sharing provides valuable resources for brand community participants and is, therefore, critical for the viability of virtual brand communities. Drawing from both self-determination theory (SDT) and psychological ownership theory, the paper aims to investigate the impact of fulfillment of three basic psychological needs on brand users' knowledge-sharing behavior and examines psychological ownership as a mediator. Design/methodology/approach Survey data consisting of 316 valid responses were collected from users of Huawei Pollen Club Community. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the reliability and validity of measures, and hierarchical linear regression and bootstrapping were used to test all hypotheses. Findings Fulfillment of the need for autonomy, relatedness and competence in a virtual brand community boosts users' psychological ownership and has a positive influence on their knowledge-sharing behavior. Furthermore, psychological ownership partially mediates the relationships between the fulfillment of psychological needs and knowledge-sharing behavior. In addition, the authors found that when users participate in more offline brand activities, the positive impact of the fulfillment of the need for relatedness on psychological ownership is strengthened, while the positive impact of the fulfillment of the need for autonomy on psychological ownership is weakened. Originality/value The paper contributes to the existing literature by exploring the relationships between fulfilling users' three basic psychological needs and their knowledge-sharing behavior through the mediating role of psychological ownership. The authors also provide insight into how offline brand activities interact with the fulfillment of psychological needs in virtual brand communities.
... Unlike routinized jobs, complex jobs provide employees with more opportunities to explore, exercise control, and be responsible for outcomes (Pierce et al., 2009), generating positive states of vigor, dedication, and absorption (i.e., work engagement). Job complexity satisfies individuals' desire to learn and achieve at work since complex jobs offer the kinds of opportunities and internal rewards they value. ...
... Job complexity satisfies individuals' desire to learn and achieve at work since complex jobs offer the kinds of opportunities and internal rewards they value. Specifically, complex jobs are more malleable and accessible in making changes and employees are encouraged to consider alternative solutions to handle them (Pierce et al., 2009). Thus, employees are more likely to invest more of themselves (e.g., their resources, time, and efforts) into the job (Brown et al., 2014). ...
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This study examined the different ways in which job complexity influences employees’ job crafting. Specifically, we draw on conservation of resources (COR) theory to hypothesize that job complexity is positively related to approach crafting via work engagement (i.e., resource gain process). At the same time, job complexity may also induce employees to engage in avoidance crafting (i.e., resource loss process) as employee energy resources are depleted. Our data consist of 251 employees working in Macau. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus software to test the proposed hypotheses. Our findings confirm that job complexity has differential effects on approach and avoidance crafting through work engagement and energy depletion. These findings highlight the importance of costs and benefits of job complexity and the importance of resources in the employees’ job crafting process. We discuss the practical implications for modern organizations in which complex jobs are prevalent.
... Psychological ownership is "the state in which individuals feel as though the target of ownership or a piece of that target is theirs" (Pierce et al., 2003, p. 86). Scholars consider psychological ownership as an important construct in shaping the employees' responses toward organizations (Pierce et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2021). It is associated with pride and responsibility, and encourages employees to exhibit behaviors which are not part of their official contract (Van Dyne and Pierce, 2004). ...
... Moreover, organizational managers need to improve employees' psychological ownership by creating a supportive organizational culture (Kong and Kim, 2017). For example, it is possible to delegate authority (Pierce et al., 2001) or to redesign the job (Pierce et al., 2009) to increase psychological ownership. ...
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Interpersonal helping behaviors i.e., voluntarily assisting colleagues for their workplace related problems, have received immense amount of scholarly attention due to their significant impacts on organizational effectiveness. Among several other factors, authoritarian leadership style could influence helping behavior within organizations. Furthermore, this relationship could be mediated by workplace stressor such as rumination, known as a critical psychological health component leading to depressive symptoms, hopelessness and pessimism. In the meantime, less research attention has devoted to probe the crucial role of psychological ownership, which can buffer the adverse effects of authoritarian leadership upon rumination. Building on conservation of resources theory, this study investigates the adverse impacts of authoritarian leadership on employees' helping behaviors through mediating role of rumination, and also examines the moderating effect of psychological ownership between the relationship of authoritarian leadership and rumination. The data were collected from 264 employees in education and banking sectors and the results show: (i) authoritarian leadership has adverse impacts on helping behavior, (ii) rumination mediates the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' helping behaviors, and (iii) psychological ownership moderates the positive relationship between authoritarian leadership and rumination. This study concludes that authoritarian leadership has adverse impacts upon helping behavior, which needs to be controlled/minimized. The findings are of great significance for managers, employees, and organizations in terms of policy implications. The limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
... Although organizational citizenship behavior is a well-established indicator of extra-role behaviors, alternative measures, such as stewardship (Davis et al. 1997), servant leadership (e.g., Greenleaf 1977), and organizational commitment (e.g., Allen and Meyer 1990), may be applied to examine whether they will yield different results. Similarly, it is crucial to better understand the negative consequences of psychological ownership (e.g., escalation of commitment, etc.) on employees' positive behaviors (e.g., Pierce et al. 2009) and how perceived ownership feelings are interpreted by external stakeholders when they notice them, for which a signaling theory might be useful perspective (Spence 1973;Tao-Schuchardt et al. 2023). ...
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Organizational citizenship behavior is a highly sought-after outcome. We integrate insight from the psychological ownership perspective and agency theory to examine how the juxtaposition of informal psychological mechanisms (i.e., ownership feelings toward an organization) and formal and informal governance mechanisms (i.e., employee share ownership, agency monitoring, and peer monitoring) influences employees' organizational citizenship behaviors. Our empirical results show that psychological ownership has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior. Contrary to the common belief that informal and formal mechanisms complement each other, we find that the positive influence of psychological ownership on organizational citizenship behavior is more pronounced when employee share ownership and agency monitoring is low compared to high. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
... It has been speculated that additional mechanisms can influence the pathway from job crafting behaviours to employee attitudes in addition to the widely studied personenvironment fit variables. One such variable can be PO (Tsai, 2021), examined through the lens of the JD-R model by Pierce et al. (2009). PO is a positive resource (Avey et al., 2009), enabling employees' well-being (Avey et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2021). ...
Article
The coronavirus pandemic has put the spotlight on employee happiness and well-being. Employees’ job satisfaction in a post-COVID-19 scenario is a vital concern for academics and organizations. It is a crucial research question to decipher if employees can proactively rise to challenging job demands and achieve job satisfaction. Also, though the role of job crafting has been studied as an antecedent of job satisfaction, it has not been examined in alliance with job-based psychological ownership (PO). Taking note of this, this study examines the mediating role of job-based PO between seeking challenging job demands (SCJD) and job satisfaction (JS). The study contributes to the growing understanding of post-pandemic employee JS. It provides preliminary empirical evidence of the enabling roles of job-based PO and proactive job crafting in achieving JS. Data for the study were collected from Information Technology (IT) and IT enabled Services (ITeS) sector employees in India using online questionnaires. One hundred eighty-four solicited responses were included in the data analysis and analysed using SPSS and AMOS. Results establish that employees SCJD experience higher job satisfaction. The mediating effect of PO on the association between SCJD and JS has been found. The results have both practical and theoretical implications. This study provides evidence of the beneficiary aspect of proactive employee behaviour. Managers can adopt mechanisms to enable job crafting and ownership. JS can be enhanced by raising the levels of PO and proactive crafting undertaken by SCJD to further learning opportunities at work. Limitations of the study have been discussed.
... Whereas motivations influence employees' "want to do", and resources affect employees' "can do". Traits of humble leadership, such as appreciating employees' strengths, publicizing employees' merits and helping employees to affirm their process of development (Owens and Hekman, 2012), help to improve the perception of work value and meaning, enhance employees' intrinsic motivation (Pierce et al., 2009), thus motivating employees' boundary spanning behavior. Additionally, employees may make mistakes or even fail in boundary spanning activities. ...
Article
Purpose This paper examined the mediating role of boundary spanning behavior and the moderating effects of traditionality linking humble leadership and employee creative performance from the perspective of Social Exchange Theory (SET) to reveal the behavioral mechanism and boundary condition regarding the influence of humble leadership on creative performance. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 276 employees and the supervisors from 8 companies in China was taken using two-wave data. Findings The results indicated that humble leadership was positively related to employee creative performance, and boundary spanning behavior partially mediated the relationship between humble leadership and employee creative performance. Traditionality strengthens the mediation process when traditionality is high. Practical implications These findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for the domains of humble leadership and boundary spanning behavior. For example, human resource (HR) departments can recruit leaders with high humility and cultivate team leaders through systematic training programs about self-awareness, openness and self-transcendence; team leaders should encourage employees to participate in boundary spanning activities and hiring managers select employees with high traditionality to synergize with leader humility. Originality/value Based on the SET, this paper explored the behavioral mechanism between humble leadership and creative performance and enriched the prior research, which is from the cognitive or emotional view, and further answered the question “what are the employees' behavioral responses when they confront the humble leadership”.
... This dichotomy has been adopted by a number of authors (Belschak & Hartog, 2010;Conchie, 2013;Curcuruto et al., 2015;Curcuruto & Griffin, 2018;Curcuruto et al., 2019;Qiang et al., 2020) and is now the dominant view in the field. There are several mechanisms or key determinants of employee engagement in SCBs, for example, psychological ownership of safety promotion (Curcuruto et al., 2016;Gagné & Deci, 2005;Parker et al., 2010;Pierce et al., 2009), affective commitment to others (Ribeiro et al., 2021), perceived control (Frese & Fay, 2001;Parker et al., 2010), and anticipation orientation (Hollnagel et al., 2012;Weick & Sutcliffe, 2007). ...
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There is considerable overlap between the concepts of culture and social identity. Here, in the context of organisational safety culture, we investigate the extent to which social identity processes can inform our understanding of organisational culture on safety citizenship behaviour. We test this relationship via two different social identity processes: (1) individuals’ organisational identity (a classically individual-level conceptualisation of social identity); and (2) individuals’ perceptions of others’ organisational identities (meta-identity; a social identity framing of culture). Safety culture survey data from 1,427 air traffic workers were analyses using a simple holdout cross-validation approach for model testing. We find that both identity processes mediate the link between safety culture and safety behaviour. The data also demonstrate that the strength of indirect effect of safety culture on safety citizenship via meta-identity is stronger with increasing levels of organisational identity. Moving forward, safety culture research and interventions may benefit from taking a social identity lens to understanding their culture (e.g. developing identity for safety and safe practice), which has implications for safety behaviour. Consideration of meta-identity has implications for behaviour change initiatives, as individuals who perceive strong group commitment in other group members may be more influenced by interventions that leverage group norms.
... For example, consumers might feel excessive feelings of ownership of objects which may lead to hoarding behavior (Chu, 2018). In other work related to ideas, an owner of an idea may solicit input from others to enhance their idea (Baer & Brown, 2012), or they may resist sharing their idea to retain sole ownership (Brown & Robinson, 2007) and reject other's attempts to contribute to their ideas (Dirks et al., 1996;Koo et al., 2022;Pierce et al., 2009). Dirks et al. (1996) find that critiques that result in changing an idea by refining it or by eliminating aspects of it (i.e., subtractive changes) are resisted as it is a reduction of the self and perceived as a loss. ...
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Research on psychological ownership is prevalent in the consumer domain. This article details the theoretical core of psychological ownership, integrating research in consumer psychology and marketing. The underlying motivations behind psychological ownership are also considered as well as the antecedents and consequences of feeling ownership. This article discusses how consumers signal and infer a sense of ownership, acknowledging that the characteristics of the target of ownership vary greatly to include physical targets as well as those that are intangible. Research is discussed on the lifecycle of ownership considering the formation, perception, and eventual dissolution of psychological ownership. The authors note various avenues for future research in psychological ownership with the aim to spur research in consumer psychology and feelings of ownership.
... Hackman and Oldham (1974) proposed the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) based on the idea that the task itself is key to employee motivation. The model has been applied to a diverse range of studies in business and work settings (DeVaro et al., 2007;Pierce et al., 2009;Smrt and Nelson, 2013;Blanz, 2017;Simonet and Castille, 2020). The model proposes three dimensions: job characteristics, psychological outcomes and work outcomes. ...
Article
In this paper we present the experiences of high-tech entrepreneurs who have become employees in high-tech companies. The entrepreneurs in this study are all hybrid entrepreneurs who returned to full-time employment and continued to engage in what we define as 'side-hustles'. An emerging, albeit small, body of literature around the term side-hustle uniquely captures the combination of, often informal, entrepreneurial activity performed alongside a foundation of full-time employment. Fifteen interviews were conducted online during July and August 2020. Our analysis of the interviews supports the development of a typology of entrepreneurial employees. Specifically, our findings indicate that there are three types of employees who engage in side-hustles: transient, reluctant, and autonomous entrepreneurial employees. Each of the three types engage with side-hustles differently, depending on their background, motivations for returning to employment and their entrepreneurial mindset. The typology can be used to compare differences in attitudes and abilities towards employment. We also provide insights into managerial implications in relation to the supports needed to recruit, engage and retain entrepreneurs as employees. This is an important issue because treating employees who engage in side-hustles as a homogeneous group may result in a misunderstanding of the diversity of impacts that they have on an organization. Published in: International Review of Entrepreneurship
... Prior research has investigated how people begin to assume themselves as owners of an object and how they assimilate that object within the selfdomain. For PO development in employees, three sources have been identified [3]. e first is "control," where one feels like the owner of the objects over which one has control. ...
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This research work investigates the association between psychological ownership and innovative behaviour with knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing as mediators. The latter variables are presented as focal antecedents of preventive and promotive psychological ownership. To conduct the study, a theoretical framework was proposed, and data was collected from professionals working in complex management systems in Pakistan. The analysis revealed that knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing can exist simultaneously, and psychological ownership can evoke both positive and negative feelings in employees, which poses a challenge for the management. The results illustrate that psychological ownership has significant associations with knowledge hiding, knowledge sharing, and innovative behaviour. Consequent theoretical contributions and important managerial implications are discussed at the end.
... In introducing the concept of EMW, Aguinis and Glavas (2019) noted that EMW can act as a mediating variable of job characteristics and the extent to which it plays this role leads to positive outcomes for employees, for their organizations, and for external stakeholders. Similarly, Pierce et al. (2009) found that EMW could influence CJC and OUT, but not primarily in terms of providing jobs with more meaningfulness, but rather in terms of allowing independent operations in complex and rich jobs. This supports Astrauskaite et al. (2015), who described the autonomy factor of the Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model as the freedom and discretion of employees in deciding on how to carry out their own work. ...
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Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between core job characteristics (CJC) and personal work outcomes (OUT), as well as the roles of experienced meaningfulness of work (EMW) and experienced responsibility for outcomes of work (EROW) in mediating the CJC–OUT relationship. Specifically, this study attempts to examine the effectiveness of CJC in improving EMW and EROW and to shed light on the roles of EMW and EROW in enhancing the OUT of employees in the Northern Cyprus hotel sector. Methods: This study adopted a quantitative approach to collect and analyze the data from 420 tourism stakeholders in Northern Cyprus hotel sector. A partial least squares (PLS) technique using Smart-PLS was applied to test the direct relationships within the research model and determine any mediating effects. Results: The analysis revealed strong support for meaningfulness of work and experienced responsibility for outcomes of work acting as partial mediators in the relationship between core job characteristics and personal work outcomes. Moreover, core job characteristics was found to have a reasonable direct effect on personal work outcomes, experienced meaningfulness of work, and experienced responsibility for outcomes of work. Conclusion: The current study points to the importance of including experienced meaningfulness of work and experienced responsibility for outcomes of work as mediating variables to understand better the relationship between core job characteristics and Personal work outcomes. Several theoretical and practical implications are included before pinpointing the directions of potential future studies that makeup on the evidence-based argument regarding the results of this study. Lastly, top management in hotel sector would benefit from job redesign because the results demonstrated that the core job characteristics have a positive effect on their work outcomes.
... Contrarily, if schools do not provide rewards to teachers, it increases the chance of withdrawal from work or reduces their teaching motivation (Bakker et al., 2003). Pierce et al. (2009)'s study reported that job demands, along with time pressure, can cause job-related negative emotions and mental pressures. Muala (2017) applied the JD-R model in a news agency setting, which showed that high job demands, and low job resources could cause job stress (i.e., one type of negative job engagement outcome) among journalists in the news organisations Up-to-date, scholars are also highly interested in modifying and extending the JD-R model by inviting other relevant factors to become more suitable for the specific research context. ...
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Job engagement is defined as one's enthusiasm and involvement in his or her job. Individuals who are profoundly engaged with their job are motivated by the work itself. They will, in general, work harder and more productively than others and are bound to create the outcomes that their clients and organisation need. Although existing empirical studies have provided evidence that perceived organisational support (POS) and supportive leader behaviour can significantly predict job engagement, the effect of organisational listening on employee job engagement is still under researched. Guided by the Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) model, this study proposed that organisational listening is a vital predictor of job engagement. We analysed whether organisational listening holds a more substantial statistical power than perceived organisational support and supportive leader behaviour as job resources. We conducted an online survey that involved 207 employees from a Malaysian IT management consulting company. After analysing the survey data through multiple regression analysis, the results showed that organisational listening was a significant predictor of job engagement. Besides, organisational listening showed an incremental validity above and beyond perceived organisational support and supportive leader behaviour in predicting job engagement. These findings suggest that employees become engaged in their job when they believe that the leader incorporates values and action to listen accurately and is supportive. Implications in theoretical and practical perspectives were discussed.
... Psikolojik sahiplenmenin çalışanların tutum ve davranışlarını etkilediğini (Wagner, Parker, & Christiansen, 2003;Van Dyne & Pierce, 2004;O'driscoll, Pierce, & Coghlan, 2006;Han, Chiang, & Chang, 2010;Bernhard & O'Driscoll, 2011;Avey, Wernsing, & Palanski, 2012;Kaur, Sambasivan, & Kumar, 2013;Sieger, Zellweger, & Aquino, 2013;Zhu, Chen, Li, & Zhou, 2013), bireysel çıktıları arttırarak örgütsel performansa olumlu katkılar sağladığı, iş tatminini, örgütte kalma niyetini, örgüt esaslı öz saygıyı, olumlu rol davranışlarını (Bernhard & O'Driscoll, 2011;Kaur, Sambasivan, & Kumar, 2013), ekstra rol davranışlarını ( Van Dyne & Pierce, 2004;O'driscoll, Pierce, & Coghlan, 2006;Bernhard & O'Driscoll, 2011;Liu J., Wang, Hui, & Lee, 2012;Zhu, Chen, Li, & Zhou, 2013), bilgi paylaşımı davranışını (Han, Chiang, & Chang, 2010), yeni teknoloji veya sistemlerin benimsenmesini (Pare, Sicotte, & Jacques, 2006;Barki, Pare, & Sicotte, 2008); içsel motivasyonu, iş tatminini, kalite performansını, devamlılığı arttırdığı; tükenmişlik ve sapkın davranışları azalttığı görülmüştür (Pierce, Jussila, & Cummings, 2009 ). ...
... Hypothesis 2: Organizational identification positively mediates the relationship between mindful leadership and self-spirituality Relationship among mindful leadership, cohort difference, and selfspirituality Mindful leadership affects self-spirituality positively (Namasivayam et al., 2014). Pierce, Jussila, and Cummings (2009) posited that organizational belonging and agglomeration (Graham & Jones, 2019) are both mediators in the relationship between their performances and self-spirituality. Christian and Ellis (2011) posited that when employees' self-control capitals were depleted, they would relate to unethical behavior, e.g., orally endangering others, emotional exhaustion (Charoensukmongkol & Puyod, 2022;Charoensukmongkol & Suthatorn, 2018). ...
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This paper aims to examine the effect of mindful leadership on employees' self-spirituality, and the mediating effect of organizational identification, and the moderating effect of cohort differences in machinery companies. This study collected data from three different periods. The result demonstrated that organizational identification mediated between mindful leadership and employees' self-spirituality, which boosted to deliver the peculiarity and attractiveness of their hardworking regarding personal capability. Besides, larger cohort differences negatively moderated between mindful leadership and employees' self-spirituality, and vice versa. The main dedication is the application of critical surveys depending on important supportive elements in the associated territory.
... Interestingly, another study found that employees who exhibited lower levels of supervisor-rated (Chen, Hui & Sego, 1998). Such employees lack a high-quality relationship with their immediate line manager and may as a result be less psychologically attached to the organization (Pierce, Jussila, & Cummings, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to discuss the effectiveness of the role model approach in community dialogue session to initiate self-reflection among young fathers for changing the traditional fatherhood practices to prevent violence at the household in rural Bangladesh. Using the qualitative method of data collection the research evaluate a community dialogue mechanism involving fathers who have children aged between 0 to 5 years and who got the opportunity to interact with the ‘role model’ fathers. The first part of the paper discusses about the background and context of organizing the role model mechanism and the community dialogue session. This section describes the role model mechanism that works as a process to persuade the fathers in the community dialogue session. Here the paper gives a brief account of the role model fathers who have successfully challenged the traditional harmful fatherhood norms and therefore contributed to women empowerment. The second part gives specific case studies on fathers who participated in the community dialogue session and became motivated and participated in the care work at the household level. The third part of the paper discusses the outcome of the fathers participating in the care work in relation to violence prevention and the practice of good parenting techniques at the household level. The paper ultimately concludes role model techniques together with the community dialogue session would ultimately challenge the traditional ideology of fatherhood and resist the enactment of violence at the household level.
... Anderson and Agarwal (2010) demonstrated that psychological ownership toward computers increases users' intention to protect them by means of antivirus software or firewalls. Other scholars observed that individuals with feelings of ownership over their ideas resist sharing them with colleagues (Webster et al. 2008) and seek to retain exclusive control over them (Choi and Levine 2004;Pierce et al. 2009). These behaviors appear because of emotional distress from losing control over objects that individuals perceive to own (Bartunek 1993) and the feeling of loss of pleasure (Heidegger 1967). ...
Article
The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly transforming the way we work, live, and travel. IoT devices collect, store, analyze, and act upon a continuous stream of data as a by-product of everyday use. However, IoT devices need unrestricted data access to fully function. As such, they invade users' virtual and physical space and raise far-reaching privacy challenges that are unlike those examined in other contexts. As advanced IoT devices, connected cars offer a unique setting to review and extend established theory and evidence on privacy and data sharing. Employing a sequential mixed methods design, we conducted an interview study (n=120), a survey study (n=333), and a field experiment (n=324) among car drivers to develop and validate a contextualized model of individuals' data sharing decisions. Our findings from the three studies highlight the interplay between virtual and physical risks in shaping drivers' privacy concerns and data sharing decisions-with information privacy and data security emerging as discrete yet closely interrelated concepts. Our findings also highlight the importance of psychological ownership, conceptualized as drivers' feelings of possession toward their driving data, as an important addition to established privacy calculus models of data sharing. This novel perspective explains why individuals are reluctant to share even low-sensitivity data that do not raise privacy concerns. The psychological ownership perspective has implications for designing incentives for data-enabled services in ways that augment drivers' self-efficacy and psychological ownership and thereby encourage them to share driving data. These insights help reconcile a fundamental tension among IoT users-how to avail the benefits of data-enabled IoT devices while reducing the psychological costs associated with the sharing of personal data.
... While our study showed that middle-managers' PO alone may not be sufficient to encourage IWB, ownership feelings are nevertheless important determinants of not only AOC, but also other pro-organisational attitudes such as job satisfaction (Mustafa, Mansilla, & Gibson, 2021b) and engagement (Ramos et al., 2014). Given that such attitudes are desirable in organisations, senior managers may seek to encourage their middle-managers' PO through empowering and giving them opportunities to exert control over the work that they perform (Pierce, Jussila, & Cummings, 2009). This can be achieved through enriching middle-managers' jobs via job redesign to provide them with more control and autonomy in their roles or by giving middle-managers' opportunities to participate and become more involved in senior-level decision-making process. ...
Article
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Middle-managers' innovative behaviours are considered an essential determinant of firm-level innovativeness. While prior research has traditionally focused on the contextual determinants of middle-managers' innovative work behaviour (IWB), research regarding individual-level determinants continues to remain scant. Particularly lacking is research which explores how middle-managers' ownership feelings influence their IWB. This study investigates whether middle-managers' affective commitment mediates the relationship between their psychological ownership and their IWB. Data are collected from 110 middle-managers – supervisor dyads in a large Malaysian IT organisation. Findings from this study contribute to enhancing our understanding of the individual-level determinants of middle-managers' IWB.
... In this study, solvers' psychological ownership refers to users' sense of ownership towards a particular online crowdsourcing community (Pirkkalainen et al., 2018). Solvers' feelings of ownership generated by engagement in crowdsourcing activities are analogous to employees' job-based psychological ownership during work (Pierce et al., 2009). Therefore, the concept of solver psychological ownership was developed based on that of employees' psychological ownership, which has been frequently addressed in the offline context (Ramos et al., 2014). ...
Article
Crowdsourcing has attracted significant attention from organizations seeking to capture new ideas and solutions, finance new projects, and obtain market feedback about product concepts. The success of online crowdsourcing communities relies on the engagement of solvers that participate in crowdsourcing activities. In line with the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, this study aims to examine the relationships between the dimensions of perceived interactivity, relationship quality, psychological ownership, and solver engagement. The resulting relationships are examined using both symmetric (PLS-SEM) and asymmetric (fsQCA) approaches, applying survey data from 423 active solvers on two online crowdsourcing communities, Epwk.com and Zbj.com. PLS-SEM identified that high levels of perceived interactivity increased relationship quality. In contrast, the influence of perceived responsiveness on psychological ownership was not statistically significant. Finally, relationship quality and psychological ownership significantly influences solver engagement. The fsQCA results reinforced the PLS-SEM findings and revealed five alternative causal configurations that are sufficient for higher levels of solver engagement.
... Work ownership refers to a condition in which one feels an aspect of one's work has become an extension of the self (Belk, 1988). Previous research has demonstrated that work ownership could promote role-enhancing behavior such as protective or defensive behavior toward owned subjects and organizational citizenship behavior (Avey et al., 2009;O'Driscoll et al., 2006;Pierce et al., 2009). Additionally, Parker et al. (2010) found that work ownership encourages employees to perceive a broader role orientation through which employees take responsibility for activities and problems beyond their current tasks. ...
Article
Research has demonstrated that the safety climate is a robust predictor of safety behaviors and workplace incidents. However, previous studies primarily focused on safety climate as a whole and overlooked distinct configurations of safety climate dimensions as well as their antecedents and outcomes. The present research examined safety climate profiles with 2421 remote workers on 183 teams. In addition, this study investigated the roles of leader–member exchange and psychological ownership as antecedents of safety climate profiles and whether safety climate profiles were associated with work engagement and safety behaviors. Latent profile analysis revealed five safety climate profiles: group-focused, conflicted, organization-focused, comprehensive, and outstanding. Results also showed that low leader–member exchange was associated with membership in group-focused and organization-focused profiles rather than comprehensive profiles, while low ownership was associated with an increased likelihood of membership in the group-focused profile compared to the comprehensive profile. Furthermore, only the organization-focused profile was associated with undesirable levels of engagement and safety behaviors, in contrast to a comprehensive profile. This study contributes to the safety climate literature by identifying safety climate profiles and their implications in remote worker teams. The findings call for the fine-tuned assessment and analysis of safety climate for effective workplace safety promotion.
... Numerous authors have to date attempted to explain the psychological ownership with social identity (e.g. Psychological ownership may be examined as an important antecedent to behavioural outcomes (Pierce/Jussila/Cummings 2009;Brown et al. 2014;Peng/ Pierce 2015). In this sense, it may be stated that employees' psychological ownership is related to their feeling of emotional ownership of their work, tasks, and responsibilities (Avey/Wernsing/Palanski 2012). ...
Article
Drawing on the findings from a serial moderated mediation model, this study aims to expand prior research by investigating the interaction between paternalist leadership and employee task performance. Study also aims to test the indirect effects of perceived person-organization fit and psychological ownership on the relationship between paternalistic leadership and employee task performance, through serial mediation models. Furthermore, the moderating role of organizational size in direct and all indirect relations between paternalistic leadership and task performance, through five different models is tested. Sample consists of 1,652 employees from various industries in İstanbul, Turkey. Hypothesized relationships were tested through structural equation modelling. The findings demonstrated the significant positive direct relationship between paternalistic leadership and employee task performance. Psychological ownership mediated the relationship of paternalistic leadership and task performance while person-organization fit had no mediating effect. Practical implications and further recommendations are also discussed.
... Sahiplenme duygusu hisseden bireyler hedefe daha fazla değer verme, onu daha çok önemseme gibi bir eğilim gösterirler. Ancak artan psikolojik sahiplenmenin üretim karşıtı, olumsuz veya zararlı davranışlara neden olacağını da kabul etmek gerekir ve bu husus konuyla ilgili literatürde ifade edilmektedir(1,9,10,13,14,74,79,86,95). Psikolojik sahiplenmenin "karanlık tarafı" olarak adlandırılan bu durum nedeniyle daha fazla psikolojik sahiplenmeye sahip bireyler, kendilerine ait olduğunu düşündükleri şeyleri korumak için saldırgan davranışlarda bulunmaya, savunmacı ve bölgeci davranışlar göstermeye daha meyilli olabilirler. ...
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It has been suggested that with the help of psychological ownership, which is defined as a state of mind, a feeling that one has ownership over material or intangible targets, even if it is not legal ownership, individuals who do not have legal ownership can develop a sense of ownership towards their jobs and organizations. In recent years, many academic studies emphasize the importance of psychological ownership towards the job and the organization, and state that psychological ownership will be a potential predictor of employees' attitudes and behaviors. In this context, the relationship between psychological ownership and job satisfaction and the intention to quit has been frequently the subject of research. Although it has been proposed that feelings of excessive ownership may increase the stress level of employees, there has been no empirical research to prove this proposition until now. In addition, the relationship between psychological ownership and attitudes towards organizational change has been expressed in many studies since the time when the psychological ownership theory was put forward. Although it has been stated again as a proposition in many studies that psychological ownership may have different consequences such as resistance to change or support for change, and that psychological ownership may have the potential to explain why individuals support or oppose organizational change initiatives, there is no empirical study on this subject. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between psychological ownership and attitudes towards change and their effects on some job attitudes and job results. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the outcomes of psychological ownership phenomenon in the context of organizational change. In particular, it was aimed to investigate the links between psychological ownership and attitude towards change and job satisfaction, job stress and intention to quit among healthcare workers. For this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to healthcare professionals in nine public hospitals, one university hospital and one private hospital in Ankara. In the questionnaire, validity-tested scales adapted to Turkish in various academic studies in the literature were used to measure the psychological ownership of healthcare workers, attitude towards change, iv job satisfaction, job stress and their intention to quit. When the survey results were analyzed, it was found that psychological ownership positively affected attitudes towards change and job satisfaction, and negatively affected job stress and intention to quit; it was also determined that attitudes towards change play a mediator role in the relationship between psychological ownership and job satisfaction. In addition, some important findings were obtained between the demographic questions asked to the participants within the scope of the survey and our research variables, which were considered to contribute to the literature.
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İNOVASYON VE YIKICI İNOVASYON , PAZARLAMA Innovation And Disruptive İnnovation, Marketing
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The purpose of the work is to obtain analytical and numerical solutions to the problems of calculating the stress-strain state of elastic reinforced circular and annular plates, shells of rotation of various geometric shapes, as well as combined shell structures.
Article
Introduction. Awareness of oneself and one's position in various spheres of economic relations (as a person who satisfies one's own material and consumer needs) is an urgent problem due to the changeable norms and rules of economic life in the economy under reform, especially during the war. This problem appears all the more important in adolescence, when a person, who acquires the first experience of independent economic decisions, gets a legal right to work. Aim. To investigate the peculiarities of self-knowledge in the sphere of economic relations as a key aspect of the development of adolescents' economic self-determination in the modern economy. Methods. M. Semenov's Attitude Towards Money, N. Dembytska and O. Lavrenko's questionnaire for studying peculiarities of teenagers' economic self-determination. Results. The authors found out the regularities and peculiarities of economic self-determination of teenager high-school and university students. The process of self-knowledge in economic relations among adolescents is characterized by a tendency to complicate the semantic structures of economic consciousness from early to late adolescence as well as by a tendency to form a positive property identity. Conclusions. Self-reflection and self-awareness as an economic agent in adolescence plays a central role in the successful initiation and formation of the individual's position in the consumption, employment and property relations.
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Одним із напрямів діяльності пенітенціарного психолога є диференційований підхід у наданні індивідуальної допомоги засудженим під час відбування покарання в місцях позбавлення волі. Особи, які перебувають в установах виконання покарань, мають багато різноманітних класифікаційних ознак і поділяються на «умовні групи» (категорії) профілактичного обліку з метою здійснення персоналом соціально-виховного та психологічного впливу на засуджених у процесі їх виправлення та ресоціалізації. Однією із таких категорій є засуджені, до яких за рішенням суду була застосована ст. 20 «Обмежена осудність» Кримінального кодексу України (далі – КК України). Обмежена осудність – поняття доволі нове в юридичній практиці України. На даний час, ми зустрічаємо у науковій літературі статті, дисертації, що намагаються розкрити: історичний контекст формування поняття «обмежена осудність»; правову сутність цього терміну; механізми та наслідки правового застосування обмеженої осудності; кримінально-правове та психологічне значення і проблеми розмежування неосудності від осудності та обмеженої осудності; вплив формування поняття «обмежена осудність» на розвиток судово-психологічної експертизи; досвід застосування «обмеженої осудності» в судочинстві різних країн світу; медичні аспекти та критерії обмеженої осудності в межах комплексної судової психолого-психіатричної експертизи. В психологічній літературі ми можемо виділити дослідження В. Марчак щодо емоційних станів і процесів як ознак «обмеженої осудності [1]. Але, у той же час, ми не знайдемо будь-яких соціально-психологічних досліджень щодо обмежено осудних осіб, які відбувають покарання в установах виконання покарань. Відповідно статті 20 «Обмежена осудність» Кримінального кодексу України, кримінальній відповідальності підлягає особа, визнана судом обмежено осудною, тобто така, яка під час вчинення кримінального правопорушення, через наявний у неї психічний розлад, не була здатна повною мірою усвідомлювати свої дії (бездіяльність) та (або) керувати ними. Визнання особи обмежено осудною враховується судом при призначенні покарання і може бути підставою для застосування примусових заходів медичного характеру [2]. Ця стаття Кримінального кодексу України напряму вказує на наявність у засудженого психічних розладів. Таким чином, пенітенціарний психолог повинен брати до уваги цей факт при плануванні індивідуально-психологічних заходів у процесі відбування покарання засудженим з обмеженою осудністю. Ці заходи включають психодіагностичну, психопрофілактичну та психокорекційну роботу з даною групою осіб.
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A field investigation of 337 employees and their immediate superiors tested the mediating role of empowerment in relations between job characteristics, leader-member exchange (LMX), team-member exchange (TMX), and work outcomes. The meaning and competence dimensions of empowerment mediated the relation between job characteristics and work satisfaction. The meaning dimension also mediated the relation between job characteristics and organizational commitment. Contrary to prediction, empowerment did not mediate relations between LMX, TMX, and the outcome variables. Rather, LMX and TMX were directly related to organizational commitment. In addition,TMX was directly related to job performance. These findings suggest that work satisfaction is explained largely by job characteristics (through empowerment) but that LMX and TMX combine with job characteristics and empowerment to explain variation in organizational commitment and job performance.
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The dimensionality of the original Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and a revision were investigated. Factor analyses of two data sets identified six dimensions underlying the original JDS. Five of the factors correspond to the pattern expected for the JDS items; the sixth was identified as a measurement artifact. Five of the JDS items were subsequently rewritten to eliminate the artifact. The revised survey was administered to employees of a printing company (N = 134) and the a priori five-factor solution was obtained with no artifact factor. Scale–factor correlations were also computed. The resulting coefficients suggest that the revised JDS scales are measuring their underlying constructs with reasonable accuracy. As a result of the measurement artifact in the original JDS, it is recommended that the revised JDS should be used in future research concerned with task characteristics. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Developed a taxonomy of job design approaches from the literature, including (1) a motivational approach from organizational psychology, (2) a mechanistic approach from classic industrial engineering, (3) a biological approach from work physiology and biomechanics, and (4) a perceptual/motor approach from experimental psychology. The Multimethod Job Design Questionnaire (MJDQ) was developed reflecting these approaches. A corresponding taxonomy of job outcomes was developed, and hypotheses were generated about relationships between job design approaches and outcomes. A field study of 121 jobs, 215 19–63 yr old job incumbents, and 23 27–58 yr old supervisors was conducted using this instrument. Results show that the MJDQ was reliable and that most hypotheses were supported. Jobs that scored high on the Motivational subscale had employees who were more satisfied and motivated, rated higher on job performance, and exhibited less absenteeism. Jobs high on the Mechanistic subscale had higher utilization levels and lower training requirements. Jobs high on the Biological scale required less physical effort, produced fewer aches and pains, and resulted in fewer medical incidents. Jobs high on the Perceptual/Motor scale were less likely to produce accidents, errors, stress, and work overload and required fewer mental demands. Sample items are appended. (113 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Territorial feelings and behaviors are important, pervasive, and yet largely overlooked aspects of organizational life. Organizational members can and do become territorial over physical spaces, ideas, roles, relationships, and other potential possessions in organizations. We examine how territorial behaviors are used to construct, communicate, maintain, and restore territories in organizations. We then go on to discuss the organizational consequences of these behaviors, including their effects on organizational commitment, conflict, preoccupation, and individual isolation.
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We propose that organizations use a new framework of workday design to enhance the creativity of today's chronically overworked professionals. Although insights from creativity research have been integrated into models of work design to increase the stimulants of creativity (e.g., intrinsic motivation), this has not led to work design models that have effectively reduced the obstacles to creativity (e.g., workload pressures). As a consequence, creative output among professionals in high-workload contexts remains disappointing. In response, we offer a framework of work design that focuses on the design of entire workdays rather than the typical focus on designing either specific tasks or very broad job descriptions (e.g., as the job characteristics model in Hackman et al. 1975). Furthermore, we introduce the concept of “mindless” work (i.e., work that is low in both cognitive difficulty and performance pressures) as an integral part of this framework. We suggest that to enhance creativity among chronically overworked professionals, workdays should be designed to alternate between bouts of cognitively challenging and high-pressure work (as suggested in the original model by Hackman et al. 1975), and bouts of mindless work (as defined in this paper). We discuss the implications of our framework for theories of work design and creativity.
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Analysis of data from 797 residents of university housing cooperatives demonstrated that psychological ownership was positively related to extrarole behavior. In addition, mediated regression analysis supported the hypothesis that the relationship between psychological ownership and extrarole behavior was mediated by organizational commitment. Furthermore, psychological ownership was superior to satisfaction in predicting extrarole behavior. The article concludes with a discussion of potential managerial implications and recommendations for future research.
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People develop feelings of ownership for a variety of objects, material and immaterial in nature. We refer to this state as psychological ownership. Building on and extending previous scholarship, the authors offer a conceptual examination of this construct. After defining psychological ownership, they address "why" it exists and "how" it comes into being. They propose that this state finds its roots in a set of intraindividual motives (efficacy and effectance, self-identity, and having a place to dwell). In addition, they discuss the experiences that give rise to psychological ownership and propose several positive and negative consequences of this state. The authors' work provides a foundation for the development of a comprehensive theory of psychological ownership and the conceptual underpinnings for empirical testing.
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Hackman and Oldham (1976) originally proposed their Job Characteristics Theory as a three-stage model, in which a set of core job characteristics impact a number critical psychological states, which, in turn, influence a set of affective and motivational outcomes (see Figure 1). Interestingly, most subsequent research has omitted the critical psychological states, focusing, instead, on the direct impact of the core job characteristics on the outcomes (i.e., a two-stage model). Meta-analytic data from the thirteen studies that have investigated the full, three-stage Job Characteristics Model was used as input into a structural equations modeling analysis (Viswesvaran & Ones, 1995) to examine competing versions of the Job Characteristics Model and to determine the importance of the critical psychological states. Results suggest that, while the two-stage model demonstrates adequate fit to the data, information on the critical psychological states is important for both theoretical and practical reasons.
The construct validity of scores on Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment scale was examined. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from a sample of 160 nurses showed substantial support for Spreitzer's four empowerment dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. In contrast to Spreitzer's findings, the results of this study indicated that self-determination is a precursor of impact. This finding was cross-validated with data from a subset of the same sample 1 year later, after implementation of a job redesign program. In addition, results from structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated job characteristics to relate differentially to the empowerment dimensions, providing evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the four empowerment dimensions. Finally, this study found that the four empowerment dimensions differentially related to organizational commitment and career intentions, providing evidence for the predictive validity of the Empowerment scale scores.
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Building upon the observation that individuals feel ownership toward a variety of targets, we suggest that under certain conditions, organizational members can develop feelings of ownership toward the organization and various organizational factors. We define psychological ownership, identify its "roots" and the primary "routes" through which it develops, and propose certain organizational outcomes. We discuss the conceptual distinctiveness of psychological ownership from a set of related constructs and suggest some theoretical and managerial implications of our theory.
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At the core of the ethological concept of territoriality lies the place we call home. We personalize and defend this territory, and it in turn provides us with security, stimulation, and identity. It is a basic reference point for the structuring of space and the focus of spatial activity. Though not invariably so, home is usually a physical space, there being a general Western preference for a single-family dwelling. Home can fully be appreciated only by journeying, but as a psychic space, home is inevitably changed by the experience of the journey.
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A model is developed that explicates one process through which employee ownership operates, leading to a set of social-psychological and behavioral effects. Where the formal ownership system is operationalized such that it leads to psychological ownership, a bonding or integration of the employee-owner with the organization occurs. It is through these processes that employee ownership exercises an influence upon group and individual outcomes. A set of antecedent and moderating variables to the operation of the formal ownership system is identified.
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The construct validity of scores on Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment scale was examined. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from a sample of 160 nurses showed substantial support for Spreitzer’s four empowerment dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. In contrast to Spreitzer’s findings, the results of this study indicated that self-determination is a precursor of impact. This finding was cross-validated with data from a subset of the same sample 1 year later, after implementation of a job redesign program. In addition, results from structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated job characteristics to relate differentially to the empowerment dimensions, providing evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the four empowerment dimensions. Finally, this study found that the four empowerment dimensions differentially related to organizational commitment and career intentions, providing evidence for the predictive validity of the Empowerment scale scores.
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The mediating role of the critical psychological states (CPS) in the job characteristics model was examined in two studies. Using Baron and Kenny's (1986) approach for examining mediation hypotheses, results from Study 1: (1) supported the hypothesized linkages between the core job dimensions and the CPS, and between the CPS and attitudinal outcomes; (2) provided no support for the hypothesis that all three CPS must be experienced to maximize internal work motivation; (3) supported the present authors' hypothesis that the CPS would explain significant amounts of outcome variance beyond the core job dimensions; and (4) supported the present authors' hypothesis that the CPS are partial rather than complete mediator variables. Using causal modeling analysis and another sample, results from Study 2 provided the strongest support for a job characteristics model that allowed the core job dimensions to have direct and indirect effects on personal and work outcomes, further supporting the Study 1 finding that the CPS were partial mediator variables. The general discussion centered on the implications the present findings have for future job characteristics model research.
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A test of the complete Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976, 1980) was conducted, with particular emphasis on the little-investigated mediating and moderating effects specified by the model. Three hundred lower level managers provided questionnaire data. Results indicated that the model's psychological states generally mediated the relationship between job characteristics and outcomes. However; the correspondence between the job characteristics and the states was not precisely that specified by the model, all states were not needed to predict most outcomes, and common method variance was a concern. Moderator effects due to personal characteristics, context satisfaction, and petformance-reward contingencies were observed at several locations in the model, a number in an opposite direction from that predicted by the model.
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This study explored a potential mediating role of psychological ownership (of the job and the organization) in the relationship between levels of work environment structure and employee responses, in a diverse sample of 239 New Zealand workers and their managers. It was reasoned that low levels of work environment structure permit employees to exercise more personal control, have greater knowledge (of their job and organization), and invest themselves more extensively into their work. Hence, less structured work environments are more conducive to the development of feelings of psychological ownership for the job and organization than are more highly structured work environments that allow less personal control. Results from this investigation suggest that psychological ownership (especially feelings of ownership for the organization) mediates the relationship of work environment structure with employee citizenship behaviors and organizational commitment.
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Developed and tested a conceptual framework specifying the conditions under which jobs will facilitate the development of internal motivation for effective performance. Ss were 62 supervisors and 208 telephone company employees who worked on 13 different jobs. Primary independent variables were (a) a measure of strength of desire for the satisfaction of higher order needs (e.g., obtaining feelings of accomplishment, personal growth); and (b) descriptions of jobs on 4 core dimensions (variety, autonomy, task identity, feedback). It was predicted and found that when jobs are high on the 4 core dimensions, employees who are desirous of higher order need satisfaction tend to have high motivation, have high job satisfaction, be absent from work infrequently, and be rated by supervisors as doing high quality work. A number of supplementary analyses are reported. (48 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The author provides a general overview of psychological aspects of the meaning of work. What work provides: as a source of identity, autonomy, relationship outside the family, purpose in life, income and security; and how the loss of same has fundamental consequences for one's life, is discussed briefly. Work, population demographics, and public policy; work and development; work, society, and general perceptions are also discussed. Contributions of Industrial and Organizational Psychology to research into the lives of employees are said to encompass the areas of selection and training, and motivated behaviors. The author opines that the importance and scope of work and working careers, the ecological validity of work tasks as a basis for generalizations to other activities, and the interesting contradictions between well-done research in organizational behavior and social and social-cognitive research belie the validity of the argument that Industrial and Organizational Psychology is not a basic area of human behavioral research. This recognition could do much to change the nature of the field and its place in the panoply of the behavioral sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study replicated Campion and Thayer's (1985) research, which drew from many disciplines (e.g., psychology, engineering, human factors, physiology) to demonstrate four approaches to job design and their corresponding outcomes: motivational approach with satisfaction outcomes, mechanistic approach with efficiency outcomes, biological approach with comfort outcomes, and perceptual/motor approach with reliability outcomes. This study extended the research in five ways. First, it used an expanded sample of 92 jobs and 1,024 respondents from a different industry. Second, a self-report measure was developed and evaluated, because many jobs cannot be analyzed observationally. Third, method bias was addressed by not finding evidence of priming effects, by demonstrating strong relationships even when within-subject bias was avoided, and by relating job design to independent opinion survey data. Fourth, reliability of aggregate responses was demonstrated, and relationships at the job level of analysis were larger than at the individual level. Fifth, neither individual differences in terms of preferences/tolerances for types of work nor demographics moderated job design–outcome relationships. It was concluded that different approaches to job design influence different outcomes, each approach has costs as well as benefits, trade-offs may be needed, and both theory and practice must be interdisciplinary in perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Flow is a state of peak enjoyment, energetic focus, and creative concentration experienced by people engaged in adult play, which has become the basis of a highly creative approach to living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)