Article

Effects of Family and Friend Support on LGB Youths' Mental Health and Sexual Orientation Milestones

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of social support components and providers on mental health and sexual orientation (SO) milestones of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Data were collected on 461 self-identified LGB adolescents and young adults. Family acceptance and support yielded the strongest positive effect on self-acceptance of SO, whereas friends' support and acceptance yielded the strongest positive effect on disclosure of SO. Family support had the strongest negative effect on youth's mental distress, whereas friends' and family support had the strongest positive effect on well-being. These findings highlight the importance of the daily perceptions of LGB youth within social and familial settings, indicating that both positive and negative aspects of support affect youths' mental health and identity development.

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... Access to supportive adults in school is associated with increased school engagement among LGB youth (Seelman et al., 2015). Acceptance of LGB identity and sexuality-specific support increases self-acceptance, identity disclosure, and well-being, and reduces mental distress and depressive symptoms among LGB young adults (Pollitt et al., 2017;Sheets & Mohr, 2009;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). ...
... A third conceptualization of social support is relationship specific and differentiates between perceived family support and perceived support from friends (Sheets & Mohr, 2009;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Snap et al., 2015). Some scholars contend that support from friends is particularly relevant for LGB youth, as they may turn to peers when rejected by their parents (Mufioz-Plaza et al., 2002;Nesmith et al., 1999). ...
... This is not to say that family support is unimportant. Scholarship highlights associations between family support and acceptance of sexual identity and the well-being of LGB youth (Sheets & Mohr, 2009;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Snap et al., 2015), and it is not uncommon for LGB youth to wish that their relationships with their parents were closer and characterized by more acceptance (Diamond et al., 2011). ...
Article
Introduction Social support is valuable for preventing and mitigating a range of harms among youth, including victimization and negative mental health outcomes. However, social support research has historically centered heterosexual individuals’ needs and experiences. This paper examines how social support is conceptualized by LGB youth. Methods: The present study utilizes in-depth interviews from 20 self-identified LGB individuals between the ages of 18 and 25. Results: Interviews suggest that LGB youth social support includes help with normalizing, processing, and navigating their identity. Conclusions: The data suggest that the support needs of LGB youth are distinct, and understandings of LGB social support need to be couched within heteronormativity, a wider, macro level social phenomenon. Implications for the scholars and practitioners are discussed.
... In contrast, the presence of family support for lesbian and gay individuals has been associated with positive well-being and other healthy life outcomes in additional research (Beals, Peplau, and Gable 2009;Espelage et al. 2019), suggesting that close family relationships may work as an important protective factor in the lives of lesbian and gay individuals. In particular, previous studies suggest that family support significantly reduces distress and negative life experiences among gay men and lesbian women (Eisenberg and Resnick 2006;Feinstein et al. 2014;Hill et al. 2017;Margaret, Schrimshaw, and Hunter 2009;McConnell, Birkett, and Mustanski 2016a;Needham and Austin 2010;Padilla, Crisp, and Rew 2010;Shilo, Antebi, and Mor 2015;Shilo and Savaya 2011;Tabaac, Perrin, and Rabinovitch 2016). Furthermore, family acceptance of gay and lesbian young adults has been related to greater reported self-esteem and better overall general health (Ryan et al. 2009;Shilo and Savaya 2011). ...
... In particular, previous studies suggest that family support significantly reduces distress and negative life experiences among gay men and lesbian women (Eisenberg and Resnick 2006;Feinstein et al. 2014;Hill et al. 2017;Margaret, Schrimshaw, and Hunter 2009;McConnell, Birkett, and Mustanski 2016a;Needham and Austin 2010;Padilla, Crisp, and Rew 2010;Shilo, Antebi, and Mor 2015;Shilo and Savaya 2011;Tabaac, Perrin, and Rabinovitch 2016). Furthermore, family acceptance of gay and lesbian young adults has been related to greater reported self-esteem and better overall general health (Ryan et al. 2009;Shilo and Savaya 2011). Other studies indicate that family support may reduce the risk of sexual identity discrimination and homophobic bullying and victimization (Espelage et al. 2019;Feinstein et al. 2014), though research in this area has been limited. ...
... Additionally and in line with previous literature that highlights the positive impact that family support can have on gay men and lesbian women's lives (Eisenberg and Resnick 2006;Feinstein et al. 2014;Hill et al. 2017;Margaret, Schrimshaw, and Hunter 2009;McConnell, Birkett, and Mustanski 2016a;Needham and Austin 2010;Padilla, Crisp, and Rew 2010;Shilo, Antebi, and Mor 2015;Shilo and Savaya 2011;Tabaac, Perrin, and Rabinovitch 2016), the current project is exploring the potential buffer effect of family support as it fits into NCST. Together, this leads to the following three hypotheses that guide the current project: ...
... Work in samples of LGB and LGBT adolescents and young adults show that social support from various sources are directly associated with lower levels of internalizing symptoms. In such samples, family support (McConnell et al. 2015;Miller et al. 2020;Ryan et al. 2010;Shilo & Savaya 2011;Watson et al. 2019), peer support (Sheets & Mohr 2009;Watson et al. 2019), school support , and support from state-level laws and policies Hatzenbuehler et al. 2010) have each been shown to associated with lower levels of internalizing symptoms. Some studies with LGBT adolescents and young adults have also examined whether social support protects against internalizing psychopathology via the stress buffering pathway-by buffering against the harmful effects of stressful experiences, which are common among LGBT youth (Gordon et al. 2018;Russell et al. 2011;Toomey et al. 2013;Witcomb et al. 2019). ...
... LGBT identity in adolescents and young adults Pariseau et al. 2019;Ryan et al. 2010;Shilo & Savaya 2011;Toomey et al. 2011), very little empirical work tests the potential protective role of gender-related social support in young transgender youth. ...
... The direct associations between higher levels of support and lower levels of internalizing symptoms found here are Fig. 2 The association between victimization experiences and internalizing symptoms at varying levels of peer support Fig. 3 The association between victimization experiences and internalizing symptoms at varying levels of school support Journal of Youth and Adolescence generally consistent with prior work in older samples of LGBT adolescents and young adults Pariseau et al. 2019;Ryan et al. 2010;Shilo & Savaya 2011;Toomey et al. 2011). The present study's finding that higher levels of parent-reported family support for the youth's gender identity is associated with lower levels of internalizing symptoms runs counter to a recent finding in a clinical sample of gender diverse children, which found that higher levels of gender-related parent support were associated with more depression symptoms (Kolbuck et al. 2019), a contrast perhaps attributable to differences between clinical and community samples. ...
Article
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Although increasing numbers of children have socially transitioned to live in line with their gender identities, little is known about factors associated with their wellbeing. This study examines the associations between parent-reported family, peer, and school support for a youth’s gender identity, as well as an objective measure of state-level support, with parent-reported internalizing symptoms in 265 transgender youth (67.2% transgender girls, 32.8% transgender boys), ages 3–15 years (M = 9.41, SD = 2.62). Parents who reported higher levels of family, peer, and school support for their child’s gender identity also reported fewer internalizing symptoms; the objective measure of state-level support was not related to internalizing symptoms. Additionally, peer and school support buffered against the association between gender-related victimization and internalizing symptoms, as reported by parents. This work demonstrates that even among transgender youth with families who supported their transitions, parents see better well-being in their children when they also see more support for the child’s gender identity from family, peers, and schools.
... Gallagher ve Vella-Brodrick (2008) algılanan sosyal desteğin öznel iyi oluşun bileşenlerinden yaşam doyumu ile olumsuz duygulanımı anlamlı bir şekilde yordadığını bulmuşlardır. Cinsel azınlık gruplarına dahil olan bireylerin cinsel yönelim ve/veya cinsiyet kimliklerinin sosyal olarak kabulünün sosyal desteğin önemli bir bileşeni olduğu ifade edilmektedir (Elizur ve Ziv, 2001;Hershberger ve D'Augelli, 1995;Shilo ve Savaya, 2011). Bu azınlık stresi ile ruh sağlığı arasındaki olumsuz ilişkinin destekleyici ebeveynler gibi kişiler arası ilişkiler, ayrımcılık karşıtı okul kuralları gibi politikalar, LGBT çalışmaları yapan kuruluşlar gibi azınlığa özgü baskıların zararlı etkilerine karşı koruma sağlayabilecek mekanizmalar veya alanlar tarafından tamponlanabileceği ileri sürülmektedir (Snapp ve ark., 2015). ...
... Sosyal destek, cinsel azınlık grubuna dahil olan bireylerin deneyimledikleri azınlık stresinin olumsuz etkilerine karşı da koruyucu bir faktördür (Meyer, 2003). Yapılmış olan araştırmalar, LGBT gençler için aile kabülü ile iyi oluş arasında olumlu yönde bir ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir (Doty ve ark., 2010; Elizur ve Ziv, 2001;Shilo ve Savaya, 2011). Amerika'da, LGB ergen ve genç yetişkinlerle yapılan bir araştırmada, aile desteğinin bireyin cinsel yönelimine dair öz kabulünü anlamlı bir biçimde etkilediğini ve iyi oluş üzerinde arkadaş desteğine oranla en güçlü olumlu etkiye sahip olduğu bulunmuştur (Shilo ve Savaya, 2011). ...
... Yapılmış olan araştırmalar, LGBT gençler için aile kabülü ile iyi oluş arasında olumlu yönde bir ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir (Doty ve ark., 2010; Elizur ve Ziv, 2001;Shilo ve Savaya, 2011). Amerika'da, LGB ergen ve genç yetişkinlerle yapılan bir araştırmada, aile desteğinin bireyin cinsel yönelimine dair öz kabulünü anlamlı bir biçimde etkilediğini ve iyi oluş üzerinde arkadaş desteğine oranla en güçlü olumlu etkiye sahip olduğu bulunmuştur (Shilo ve Savaya, 2011). Ayrıca Sheets ve Mohr (2009) biseksüel üniversite öğrencileri ile yapmış oldukları araştırmada, arkadaşlardan ve aileden alınan sosyal desteğin yaşam doyumunu önemli ölçüde yordadığı sonucuna ulaşmışlardır. ...
Article
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This study aims to examine the self-monitoring and happiness levels of LGBT individuals according to their perceived total social support (family, friends, significant others). Snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to access the participants. A total of 296 individuals (86 lesbian, 100 gay, 94 bisexual and 16 transgender individuals) who live in Istanbul and are older than 18 voluntarily participated in the study. The “Revised Self- Monitoring Scale”, the "Oxford Happiness Questionnaire”, the “Multi- Dimensional Perceived Social Support Scale”, and a “Personal Information Form” were employed to obtain the required study data. Data analysis is based on a MANOVA Wilks Lambda (λ) Test as well as Discriminant Analysis Tests. The study results revealed significant differences between the mean self-monitoring and happiness scores of the LGBT individuals according to perceived total social support. The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals with high scores on perceived total social support scores were found to have higher mean scores of self-monitoring and happiness than those with low perceived social support. As a result of discriminant analysis, it was observed that first happiness and then self-monitoring are important for classifying LGBT individuals with high and low perceived total social support. Also, correct classification probability for the analysis was found to be 47.2%. The study results are discussed in the light of the literature
... On the other hand, research is clear on the benefits of disclosure in an accepting family climate. For example, when disclosure is received with family support and acceptance, it is concurrently associated with greater family closeness (Gonzalez et al., 2013), better self-esteem (Ryan et al., 2010), better physical health (Rothman et al., 2012), more positive affect (Shilo & Savaya, 2011), and lower levels of depression (Needham & Austin, 2010) and substance use (Ryan et al., 2010). Taken together, these findings denote the salient role of the family in sexual minority adolescents' adjustment and well-being. ...
... Having a network of individuals who have successfully come out to family facilitates emotional support and encouragement, thereby promoting greater disclosure (e.g., Snapp et al., 2015). Second, positive relationships characterized by support, warmth, and acceptance promote disclosure by providing a sense of trust and security in the relationship (e.g., Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Given that family is a target of disclosure for this systematic review, indicators of positive family relationships and family cohesion were expected to be found in the review. ...
... Table 3 presents results of individual studies regarding predictors of disclosure of sexual identity to family. Regarding sexual orientation, studies using Italian (Pistella et al., 2016), Israeli (Shilo & Savaya, 2011), and diverse ethnic-racial samples (D'Augelli et al., 2005) found that gay or lesbian youth were more likely than bisexual youth to disclose to their family. In contrast, in nine of the 11 studies males and females did not differ in their proportions of disclosure to family (e.g., Salvati et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Sexual minority adolescents’ disclosure of sexual identity to family plays a significant role in their identity development. Studies have identified various predictors of coming out to family, yet these findings have yet to be systematically integrated to identify gaps and directions of future research. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review of predictors of sexual minority adolescents’ and young adults’ disclosure to family about their sexual identity. Drawing upon an existing conceptual model of antecedents of disclosure of stigmatized identities to organize the findings, this review focused on individual characteristics and proximal (e.g., familial and social) and distal (e.g., historical) environmental factors that influence disclosure to family. A total of 35 empirical studies were included. Regarding individual factors, less internalized homonegativity and greater identification of sexual identity promoted disclosure. Among familial and social factors, positive family relationship quality and friend support predicted greater disclosure. Distal environmental factors included differences in the proportion of disclosure by historical periods. The findings highlight the important role of acceptance and visibility of sexual minorities within family and social environments in promoting youth’s disclosure of sexual identity to family.
... or friends (r = − .23 to − .25; Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995;Leserman, Disantostefano, Perkins, & Evans, 1994;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Mintzer (2001, 2003) further found that the negative relationship between a lack of friends' acceptance and LGBQ+ self-acceptance upheld while controlling for a lack of family acceptance (r = − .22). ...
... within their study conducted in Israel, unlike other studies conducted in Israel (r = − .24; Shilo & Savaya, 2011) or the U.S. (r = − .19; Leserman et al., 1994). ...
... While both studies conducted in Israel utilized similar measures and had similar methodological strengths, different findings may have been a consequence of the data being collected from varied samples. For example, Shilo and Savaya (2011) included participants who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and were male or female with an average age of 18 years. Conversely, Mintzer (2001, 2003) only included participants identifying as gay and male, with an average age of 32 years. ...
Article
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Many individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and with other non-heterosexual orientations (LGBQ+) experience stigma, prejudice, and/or discrimination because of their sexuality. According to minority stress and identity development theories, these experiences can contribute to difficulties with self-acceptance of sexuality. Lower self-acceptance is considered a risk factor for adverse mental health outcomes. The current review aims to investigate whether self-acceptance of sexuality is associated with minority stressors or difficulties with mental health in LGBQ+ individuals, as well as whether there are differences in self-acceptance between different sexual orientations. Five bibliographic databases were searched. Thirteen studies were identified which used quantitative methodology to investigate associations between self-acceptance, minority stressors, and/or mental health within LGBQ+ samples, or differences in self-acceptance between different sexual orientations. The results from these cross-sectional studies suggested that lower self-acceptance of sexuality was associated with higher levels of self-reported minority stressors, including a lack of acceptance from friends and family, a lack of disclosure to others, and internalized heterosexism. Lower self-acceptance of sexuality was associated with poorer mental health outcomes, including greater global distress, depression symptoms, and lower psychological well-being. There was no significant relationship with suicidality. Studies also found that LGBQ+ individuals had lower general self-acceptance compared to heterosexual participants, bisexual individuals had lower sexuality self-acceptance compared to lesbian/gay individuals, and lesbian women had lower sexuality self-acceptance compared to gay men. Given the potential importance of self-acceptance for LGBQ+ populations, further research is required with more robust methodology. Self-acceptance could be a potential target in clinical interventions for LGBQ+ individuals.
... A qualidade da relação familiar pode contribuir, também, para a produção de saúde e doença mental nesses grupos (Souza, Baptista, & Alves, 2008), já que a aceitação familiar está relacionada a maiores níveis de autoestima e suporte social, além de estar negativamente relacionada à depressão, abuso de substâncias e ideação suicida entre pessoas LGB (Ryan, Russell, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2010 LGBs que também reportaram maior rejeição familiar quando comparados às pessoas LGB que apresentaram índices menores do mesmo tipo de rejeição (Ryan et al., 2008). Por outro lado, a aceitação familiar está associada a maior autoaceitação da orientação sexual e índices mais altos de revelação da orientação sexual (Shilo & Savaya, 2011), e a maiores níveis de bem-estar (Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Em jovens LGB, a aceitação dos pais parece estar associada ao desenvolvimento de identidades saudáveis (Katz-Wise, Rosario, & Tsappis, 2016). ...
... A qualidade da relação familiar pode contribuir, também, para a produção de saúde e doença mental nesses grupos (Souza, Baptista, & Alves, 2008), já que a aceitação familiar está relacionada a maiores níveis de autoestima e suporte social, além de estar negativamente relacionada à depressão, abuso de substâncias e ideação suicida entre pessoas LGB (Ryan, Russell, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2010 LGBs que também reportaram maior rejeição familiar quando comparados às pessoas LGB que apresentaram índices menores do mesmo tipo de rejeição (Ryan et al., 2008). Por outro lado, a aceitação familiar está associada a maior autoaceitação da orientação sexual e índices mais altos de revelação da orientação sexual (Shilo & Savaya, 2011), e a maiores níveis de bem-estar (Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Em jovens LGB, a aceitação dos pais parece estar associada ao desenvolvimento de identidades saudáveis (Katz-Wise, Rosario, & Tsappis, 2016). ...
Article
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The minority stress (MS) theory argues that social minorities experience specific stressors added to everyday stressors. Individual and contextual factors can function as risk and/or protective factors without compromising the mental health of LGB people. This study aims to present and discuss the theory of MS in LGB individuals through a narrative review. Understanding the occurrence of MS in LGB people can assist in the elaboration of intervention plans, of a clinical or social nature to minimize the effects of prejudice in these situations.
... The minority stress framework and its extensions emphasize the importance of protective factors, such as social support from family, friends, and community (Hatzenbuehler, 2009;Meyer, 2003;Testa et al., 2015). Previous studies have shown that family, friends, and peers are important sources of social support for SGM youth (McConnell et al., 2016;Parra et al., 2018;Poštuvan et al., 2019;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Watson et al., 2019). Support from parents, caregivers, and family can protect SGM youth from developing mental health problems, for example, by affirming and accepting youth's sexual and gender identities (Espelage et al., 2008;Ryan et al., 2010;Simons et al., 2013). ...
... The findings of this study suggest that youth and young adults might benefit from in-person and online informal support, such as peer support or support groups. In addition, supportive friends may help LGB youth with selfacceptance (Shilo & Savaya, 2011) and protect against suicidality (McConnell et al., 2015). In this study, consistent with previous research (Schimmel-Bristow et al., 2018), parents expressed a need for (online) support resources or information about gender diversity and transitioning processes. ...
Article
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Introduction Little is known about whether sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth and young adults with suicidal ideation receive adequate mental healthcare in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to examine healthcare experiences and needs of SGM young adults and how formal and informal mental healthcare can be improved to support SGM youth with suicidal ideation. Methods In 2018 and 2019, qualitative interviews were conducted among (1) SGM young adults with a history of suicidal ideation ( n = 23, age 18 to 35), (2) parents of SGM youth with suicidal ideation ( n = 16), and (3) professionals and volunteers who work with SGM youth ( n = 14). Thematic analysis was used for coding and analyzing the interviews. Results Analyses yielded several themes for all groups of participants. Similar themes related to addressing suicidal ideation and SGM issues were found across the three participant groups. Participants perceived a lack of knowledge among professionals regarding SGM issues and perceived that suicidal ideation was sometimes inadequately addressed. Participants expressed the need for training and information on addressing SGM issues and suicidal ideation for parents and professionals. Conclusions Formal mental healthcare is not yet affirmative of SGM identities. Informal and formal healthcare should be improved to address sexual orientation, gender identity, and suicidal ideation. Policy Implications Findings underpin the need for improving skills and knowledge of mental healthcare professionals to better support SGM youth with suicidal ideation. Parents would benefit from accessible information on SGM-related themes and suicidal ideation.
... Grandparents' support can indeed be significant, contributing to the wellbeing of their LGBT grandchildren no less than that of other family members, such as parents or siblings (Doty et al., 2010;Ryan et al., 2010;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Interviews with homeless youngsters and college students reveal that contrary to their expectations and fear of rejection from the older members of the family, their grandparents were accepting of them, thereby strengthening their social support system (Schmitz & Tyler, 2018). ...
... The most outstanding and moving example of this response was provided by the grandmother who officiated at her granddaughter's wedding with her same-sex partner. Without a doubt, a supporting relationship of this sort affords an LGBT grandchild a safety net and contributes to their health, welfare, and positive adaptation (Doty et al., 2010;Ryan et al., 2010;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Thomeer et al., 2017). ...
... High levels of current parental rejection are associated with higher levels of psychological maladjustment and higher levels of alcohol and drug use, regardless of whether the young person has come out to their families (D'Amico & Julien, 2012). Family support is also positively associated with LGB young adults' sense of well-being and self-acceptance and negatively associated with mental distress (Shilo & Savaya, 2011), but these effects decrease over time as youth move into young adulthood (Mustanski et al., 2011). When considering family support, it is also important to examine relationships other than the parent-child dyad. ...
... Many of the participants described the emotional pain that their families' rejection caused, noting that this pain was difficult to manage in addition to the chaos and uncertainty of housing instability. This finding aligns with themes in the well-established literature about how parental rejection negatively influences the mental well-being of LGBTQ people (D'Amico & Julien, 2012;D'Amico et al., 2015;Needham & Austin, 2010;Ryan et al., 2010;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Although the mental health impacts of family rejection were not the primary focus of this study, young adults in the study did report feeling distress and pain in response to their families' rejection. ...
Article
Objective This study examines the realities of LGBTQ young adults experiencing family rejection, specifically illuminating forms of heterosexist and cisgenderist family rejection and their impact on LGBTQ young adults. Background Extant research indicates family rejection is a driving factor in the overrepresentation of LGBTQ young adults among young adults experiencing homelessness. Method This study analyzed two waves of interviews with 15 LGBTQ young adults. It addressed two research questions: (a) What kinds of heterosexist and cisgenderist rejection do LGBTQ young adults experience from their parents or guardians? and (b) How do LGBTQ young adults react to and experience that rejection? Results Participants reported multiple forms of heterosexist and cisgenderist rejection from their families, including increased heterosexism and cisgenderism in the home after coming out, increased arguments and conflict after coming out, abuse and neglect, silence and avoidance, control and isolation, and revoking young people's access to housing. Participants' responses to these forms of rejection included pain, disconnection from their families, feeling stifled in the home, and the desire to resist. Conclusion These findings illuminate specific forms and manifestations of heterosexist and cisgenderist family rejection and their impact on LGBTQ young adults. Implications Implications for research include further exploration of how family rejection manifests in the families of LGBTQ young adults. Implications for clinical practice include developing tailored outreach and services for young adults experiencing family rejection and housing instability.
... Research has also found that a more secure attachment contributes to increased body satisfaction for youth (Szalai et al., 2017). For gay men in particular, perceived family support has been linked to higher levels of self-esteem, self-acceptance, and positive body image development (Bozard & Young 2016;Detrie & Lease, 2007;Ryan et al., 2010;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Conversely, lack of family support largely contributes to psychological distress as well as lower self-esteem and Through attachment theory, therapists can gain a deeper understanding of how body image and related issues interact with the experiences of gay men (Cook & Calebs, 2016). ...
... self-acceptance (Szalai et al., 2017;McConnell et al., 2016;Ryan et al., 2010;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Given the impact of family relationships and attachment style on body image outcomes, particularly for gay men, attachment-based family therapy theories such as EFFT may be effective in improving body image outcomes for this population. ...
Article
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Gay men report higher levels of body dissatisfaction and negative body image than heterosexual men. These trends are closely linked to cultural pressures, sexual identity development, family relationships, and attachment style. However, despite this link, few therapeutic resources exist that address the unique stressors of gay men struggling with body image and body image-related factors as well as family influence on these stressors. This article outlines an adaptation of Emotionally-Focused Family Therapy (EFFT) for therapists working with gay clients struggling with body image. We address the restructuring of negative interaction cycles related to parental rejection and body image and demonstrate how an enactment intervention can be utilized as a tool for healing.
... Unfortunately, due to the stigmatisation of a minority sexualities, LGB individuals have a greater likelihood of parental rejection which has been shown to increase anxiety, depression, as well as other types of psychological distress (e.g., Kaysen et al., 2014). In this way, acceptance from parents is necessary for healthy development of LGB youth and young adults , with research showing that parental acceptance has a greater impact than that of friends (Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Furthermore, research has suggested that parental response to disclosure (accepting or rejecting) has long term effects into adulthood. ...
... This finding is in line with, and informs, previous research suggesting that family relationships are especially important for well-being in LGB samples . One reason for this may be the family's critical role in shaping early development (e.g., Shilo & Savaya, 2011), particularly in terms of developing a positive LGB identity. It is also consistent with previous research on autonomy support in family relationships within the general population, showing that parents' autonomy support predicts higher levels of self-esteem and lower anxiety in adolescents and young adults (Chirkov & Ryan, 2001;Goldfried & Goldfried, 2001). ...
Thesis
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Autonomy involves a sense that one’s behaviour is authentic, volitional and aligned with inner beliefs. Though extant literature describes the importance of both autonomy satisfaction and autonomy support from others with whom one interacts, little work has been conducted to understand what specific qualities comprise autonomy satisfaction and its support. In other words, we know little of how and why autonomy matters for individuals’ well-being. In two empirical chapters, I describe an understudied aspect of autonomy satisfaction: whether self-expression is congruent (autonomy satisfying) or incongruent (autonomy-thwarting) with the self. Therefore, in a first empirical chapter (Chapter 3), I investigated two types of self-expression: authentic self-expression (that supports autonomy) and inauthentic self-expression (that may undermine autonomy). I developed a new scale to assess these constructs and show they are distinct from, but closely linked with, the internal experience of feeling authentic and that they foster feelings of agency. In Chapter 4, I further examined what happens when people think of in-group others’ undermined self-expression. Specifically, I tested whether vicariously undermining autonomous self-expression can elicit a reactive response to reassert one’s own autonomy through self-expression. In two final empirical chapters, I studied autonomy support from close others within samples of individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB; with transgender and related communities, LGBT+). Disadvantaged individuals, such as those who are LGBT+, are known to have worse well-being than the general population and may benefit more from autonomy support. Therefore, understanding autonomy support for this minority group is an important step in rectifying health disparities. Chapter 5 uses a large pre-existing dataset to analyse the importance of specific components of autonomy support within close relationships in an LGB sample, whilst Chapter 6 further explored the components of autonomy support and their relation to well-being in LGBT+ individuals.
... An extension of this patriarchal social attitude can be seen in the approach to sexual orientation in Israel. On the one hand, Israel boasts a relatively vibrant open gay men community, which enjoys various non-discriminatory laws and regulations (Shilo, Savaya, 2011). On the other hand, Israeli society still contains islands of tradition that can make it difficult for homosexuals to come out of the closet. ...
... It is well established in research conducted on sexual minorities in Western society that they experience 'cultural victimization', which refers to the consequences of living in a heterosexual society, experiencing more victimization than heterosexuals (Katz-Wise, Hyde, 2012; Mahoney Davies, Scurlock-Evans, 2014). Although Israel is characterized by relative openness to its gay men community (Shilo, Savaya, 2011), homosexuals are still exposed to homophobia and negative attitudes towards the way they express their sexual orientation (Eick et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationships between Israeli gender role stereotypes, rape myths toward male and female victims, and social distance from sex crime victims and sex offenders, according to the observer’s sex and sexual orientation (gay men, lesbian women, and heterosexual men and women). The data was collected during the end of 2016 and included 401 Israeli participants. A multivariate analysis of variance, as well as series of Pearson analyses, were used to examine the differences between groups as well as to examine the correlations between research variables. Results broadly conformed to predictions, with men generally more negative than women. However, people with a same-sex orientation endorse more liberal gender role attitudes than heterosexuals. In addition, overall, participants expressed greater willingness to maintain social contacts with victims than with offenders. Nonetheless, only among heterosexuals significant negative correlations between rape myths and willingness to maintain social contacts with victims were found.
... Israel in this regard is similar to the rest of the Western world (Shenkman et al., 2020). Israel boasts a relatively open sexual minority community protected by nondiscrimination legislation (Shechory Bitton & Jaeger, 2020;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Even so, sexual minorities are still considered more vulnerable to psychological distress (Bouris et al., 2010;Shenkman et al., 2020), and are still subjected to mistreatment as a result of their sexual orientation (The association for LGBT in Israel, 2020). ...
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In the context of sexual minorities and the distress they may experience, recent years have witnessed a trend emphasizing the idea that protective factors may curb risk behaviors, while stressing that not all sexual minorities do experience distress. However, protective factors have been studied less frequently than have risk factors. To the extent that protective factors are identified among those at risk for psychological distress and risk behaviors, strategies can seek to address risk by enhancing these protective factors. The current study aimed to expand the knowledge in this area by simultaneously examining protective and risk factors as well as by examining the association between sexual orientation, psychological distress, sense of coherence (SOC), social support (e.g., parental and peer relationships), and alcohol and cannabis use among Israeli young adults. A self-reported questionnaire was distributed to 496 young adults: 254 heterosexual participants and 242 homosexual participants. As hypothesized, participants with a same-sex orientation reported higher psychological distress, lower SOC, a weaker relationship with their parents, and a greater use of alcohol and cannabis than did heterosexual participants. Regression analyses indicated that low SOC, low family support, and low peer support predicted higher psychological distress. However, sexual orientation was not found to predict distress levels among young adults in Israel. Similarly, no associations were found between alcohol and cannabis use and psychological distress. The results are discussed within the framework of resilience factors that can serve as a barrier to distress and to the use of psychoactive substances among young adults in general and sexual minorities in particular.
... That leads directly into my [psychedelic] experiences that we've talked about so far because, like I said earlier, I had complete faith in my friend, and I probably shouldn't have. I probably should've been able to cultivate a certain amount of healthy distance from him to see that he was doing things that was not in his best interest or mine, but I was blinded a little bit by my desire to keep our relationship.Of note is how many elements of this narrative reflect prior research on the potential isolation among youth who express non-normative sexual identities, which can lead to defensive behaviors, including some forms of drug use (e.g.,Mufioz-Plaza et al., 2002;Panfil, 2014;Pilkington & D'Augelli, 2006;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). This excerpt also suggests how the longing for intimate, shared connection may encourage participation in substance ingestion, which in this case is a criminal activity. ...
Article
Psychedelic research is said to be going through a renaissance with widespread public and political attention on psychedelics’ ability to clinically resolve various medicalized issues. The prevailing cultural narrative of psychedelics almost touts it as a panacea when used in regulated, clinical settings under the supervision of a trained guide. While clinical studies are certainly informative, it is important to recognize that most psychedelic use takes place in social settings, not clinical ones. This paper seeks to expand the narrative on psychedelic research by presenting in-depth interview data on a diverse sample of 30 persons who report using psychedelic substances “on their own terms.” Data indicate multiple reasons for initial and subsequent psychedelic use, only some of which comport with the prevailing narrative that psychedelic use decreases ego-inflated pathology while increasing existential awareness. Indeed, while these reasons are cited among some when discussing reasons for continued use, most interviewees report motivations related to curiosity and having fun.
... นอกจากนี ้ ยั งพบว่ าปั ญหาสุ ขภาพจิ ตเหล่ านี ้ มี ความเชื ่ อมโยงกั บการเลื อกปฏิ บั ติ และ ความบี บคั ้ นทางสั งคมที ่ มี ต่ อกลุ ่ มประชากรความหลากหลายทางเพศ (Díaz, Bein, & Ayala, 2006;Warner et al., 2004) จาก การศึ กษาแบบอภิ มาน (meta-analysis) โดย Marshal และคณะพบว่ าเยาวชนกลุ ่ มความหลากหลายทางเพศมี ความเสี ่ ยงสู งกว่ า ต่ อการฆ่ าตั วตายและการเป็ นโรคซึ มเศร้ า (Marshal et al., 2011) (Almeida, Johnson, Corliss, Molnar, & Azrael, 2009;Birkett, Espelage, & Koenig, 2009;Marshal, Burton, Chisolm, Sucato, & Friedman, 2013;Sopitarchasak et al., 2017;Williams, Connolly, Pepler, & Craig, 2005) Fredriksen-Goldsen และคณะได้ เสนอโมเดลการสร้ างเสริ มความเท่ าเที ยมทางสุ ขภาพ หรื อ Health Equity Promotion Model (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014) (Midgley, 2013;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Snapp, Watson, Russell, Diaz, & Ryan, 2015) จากการศึ กษาวิ จั ยในผู ้ ป่ วยโรคมะเร็ งที ่ เป็ นกลุ ่ มความหลากหลายทางเพศพบว่ าคนใกล้ ชิ ดที ่ มี ส่ วนในการสนั บสนุ นผู ้ ป่ วย มากที ่ สุ ดอั นดั บหนึ ่ งคื อเพื ่ อน อั นดั บสองคื อคู ่ ชี วิ ตในขณะนั ้ น และอั นดั บสามคื อสมาชิ กในครอบครั ว (Kamen, Smith-Stoner, Heckler, Flannery, & Margolies, 2015) และพบว่ ารู ปแบบการสนั บสนุ นในลั กษณะของ peer support ในบริ บททางสุ ขภาพมี อยู ่ ด้ วยกั นสามรู ปแบบใหญ่ ๆ คื อ การสนั บสนุ นด้ านอารมณ์ ความรู ้ สึ ก (emotional support) ด้ านข้ อมู ล (informational support) และด้ านการยื นยั น (appraisal support) (Dennis, 2003) นอกจากสมาชิ ...
... Family support, at least to some extent, is protective against the distress and negative consequences of discrimination and social exclusion SGM youth experience in other social environments. Some US studies found that this buffering effect of family support reduces the association between internalised homonegativity and depressive symptoms (Feinstein et al., 2014, Shilo andSavaya, 2011). These results indicate that family acceptance may give affirmation to the young person, even if their sexuality or gender expression is contested by others. ...
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Background: Since the 1990s, there has been a growing corpus of evidence on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Intersex and other Sexual and Gender Minority (LGBTI+) youth. However, most of these studies were conducted in the North America, and it remains unclear whether their findings can be generalised to other countries and cultures. The third goal of the Irish LGBTI+ National Youth Strategy 2018-2020 was to develop the research and data environment to better understand the lives of LGBTI+ young people. This study aimed to draw the landscape of existing research on LGBTI+ youth in Ireland and other European countries, and identify research and data gaps that need to be addressed. Method: Using a scoping review technique, we employed a multi-method search to identify research outputs and databases on LGBTI+ young people in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Identified outputs were screened against pre-set inclusion criteria, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines; then, several types of information were extracted from studies meeting inclusion criteria. We used standardised methods to evaluate the quality of each outputs. Finally, research and data gaps were identified. Results: 4,603 records were found. Following screening, 126 outputs were entered to the analysis. The studies and databases varied largely in method and quality. Important evidence gaps were found on the health and needs of transgender and intersex youth; the sexual health of LGBTI+ youth; and their employment and career opportunities. The predominant ‘victim’ narrative in the vast majority of existing studies need to be balanced with investigating positive predictors of well-being and evidence-based good practice for improving LGBTI+ youth lives. Conclusion: Some areas of LGBTI+ youth lives have a thin or practically non-existent evidence base. Identified research and data gaps need to be addressed by methodologically sound studies.
... Peer Support SAMHSA (2014) highlights how crucial peer support is to helping people heal from trauma. Social and peer supports for LGBTQ+ populations can decrease loneliness and protect against psychological distress (Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Wise et al., 2019). Yalom (1995) described the therapeutic value of group cohesion and mutual aid through socialization and interpersonal learning. ...
Article
People with diverse sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expression are at greater risk for trauma, discrimination, and victimization than heterosexual and cisgender populations. Trauma-informed care (TIC) provides a framework for providing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ +) mental health services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s principles of TIC guide practitioners to create safety, trust, transparency, collaboration, and empowerment in helping relationships, and to ensure that services have cultural and gender relevance. This article first explores the role of trauma in contributing to behavioral health concerns presented by LGBTQ + clients. The application of TIC to mental health counseling and social services for LGBTQ + clients will then be described, with specific suggestions for translating TIC principles into affirmative practice. Through the lens of trauma, clinicians can improve clinical case conceptualization and effective treatment strategies for LGBTQ + clients. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... A supportive family environment is known to be highly desired, particularly for sexual minority people, while it is dependent on parental response to the issue of sexual orientation (Darby-Mullins & Murdock, 2007;Heatherington & Lavner, 2008;Jhang, 2018). Robust evidence has documented the salubrious effects of parental acceptance on sexual minority offspring's mental health and self-acceptance (Elizur & Ziv, 2001;Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995;Rothman et al., 2012;Ryan et al., 2010;Shao et al., 2018;Shilo & Savaya, 2011), highlighting the need for research into its factors and context (Ghosh, 2020). ...
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Introduction Previous research has utilized a typological approach to characterizing intergenerational relationships and exploring their associations with children’s socioemotional outcomes. This study applied this method to Taiwanese gay and bisexual men via a tentative typology constituted by two conditions: co-residence with, and outness to, parent(s). Aside from describing the prevalence of different types of living arrangement, we further examined their links with the internal drivers, filial piety and internalized homophobia, and life satisfaction. Age group difference and the moderation effect of typology on the association between internal drivers and life satisfaction were also investigated. Methods A cross-sectional survey was completed by a sample of Taiwanese gay and bisexual men recruited via Facebook. Besides reporting their co-residence and outness status, respondents also completed the Contemporary Filial Piety Scale, Chinese Internalized Homophobia Scale, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Descriptive statistics, ANCOVA, and moderation analysis were performed for young adults and early middle-aged adults separately. Results While half of the total sample lived with parents, more than half (65.5%) were not out to them. Comparison of categories shows that closeted young adults reported significantly stronger internalized homophobia. Among early middle-aged men, those who were not out to and living with parent(s) reported the highest filial obligations and lowest life satisfaction compared with other groups. Conclusions This study contributes to existing knowledge about various forms of family environments and the ways they are involved in Taiwanese gay and bisexual men’s lives. Implications for the use of this typology in social policy and practice are discussed
... This is highly problematic and counterproductive as familial support for MSM is found to be a protective factor from HIV risk, while family rejection had the opposite effect (Scheibe, Orleyn, Ekström, Bekker, Mcintyre, 2016 Coexisting with rejection is the MSM's perceived acceptance originating from the society and the self. Acceptance and support from MSM's friends yield the strongest positive effect on the individual's disclosure of his sexuality, while support and acceptance from one's family and peers yield the strongest positive effect on the individual's self-acceptance and well-being (Shilo & Savaya, 2011). Such self-acceptance relieved some MSM from their worries on their sexuality, and is also used to combat social rejection. ...
Preprint
Men are primarily responsible for the transmission of HIV because of their participation in risk-taking activities and illicit drug use, while men who have sex with men (MSM) are major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic globally. This study collated the lived experiences of eleven (11) male key informants (KIs) residing in Cebu province, who admit to have had sexual encounter with the same sex at least once in their life. Utilizing a Husserlian phenomenology approach, a researcher-made interview guide was used in individually interviewing the KIs with strict consideration to data privacy. The data gathered were interpreted using reflexivity and were analyzed using the Colaizzi strategy. The lived experience of MSM, as individuals, presented eight paradoxical themes: belongingness, romantic and sexual relationships, predictability, safety, behaviors on sexual initiation, inclination, identity disclosure, and the circumstances preceding an MSM sexual encounter. This paradox shows how MSM are unique from one another, and needs to be simultaneously attached to and separate from the society. Just like any other heterosexual human beings, MSM face various situations in their day to day encounter, which may directly or indirectly impact their behaviors and their health. Both government and non-government organizations (NGO) should raise social awareness on the impact of stigma towards the MSM population, and promote public knowledge about the motivations, risk-taking behaviors and safety practices adopted by the MSM in response to persistent health threats and sexual prejudice.
... In the minority stress literature, social belongingness may buffer against negative health outcomes in homophobic social contexts (Kwon, 2013). Having a sense of social belongingness with families of origin, friends, peers at school and at the workplace, sexual minority friends, and sexual minority communities is associated with healthy psychosocial adjustment (Huffman, Watrous-Rodriguez, & King, 2008;Sheets & Mohr, 2009, Shilo & Savaya, 2011Snapp, Watson, Russell, Diaz, & Ryan, 2015;Watson, Grossman, & Russell, 2019). ...
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Sexual minority emerging adults are more likely to engage in suicidal ideation than their heterosexual counterparts. Experiences of homophobic violence are associated with suicidal ideation. Yet, the specific mechanisms linking homophobic violence to suicidal ideation remain unclear. Entrapment and social belongingness were tested to determine their relevance for understanding the link between homophobic violence and suicidal ideation. A sample of sexual minority Dutch emerging adults (N = 675; ages 18–29, M = 21.93 years, SD = 3.20) were recruited through online platforms and flyers. Homophobic violence was expected to be positively associated with suicidal ideation and entrapment. The association between homophobic violence and suicidal ideation was expected to be indirectly linked through entrapment. We explored whether various sources of social belongingness moderated the path between entrapment and suicidal ideation and whether those sources of social belongingness moderated the indirect effect of homophobic violence on suicidal ideation through entrapment. Results showed that homophobic violence and entrapment were positively associated with suicidal ideation and that family belongingness was negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Homophobic violence and suicidal ideation were not indirectly linked through entrapment. The interaction effect between entrapment and family belongingness was significant, suggesting that, on average, the effect of entrapment on suicidal ideation decreased when family belongingness was high. These results suggest that family belongingness may reduce the association between entrapment and suicidal ideation while adjusting for homophonic violence. Reducing entrapment and improving family belongingness may be useful targets for programs aimed at preventing suicidal ideation among sexual minority emerging adults.
... Higher mean scores reflected higher perceived social support or social undermining. Prior studies have indicated the two subscales' reliability, with Cronbach alphas ranging from .89 for support to .72 for undermining (Abbey et al., 1985;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Vinokur & Van Ryn, 1993). The score of each subscale is calculated by the mean of the sum of each of the questions, with higher scores indicating higher support. ...
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Recognizing adolescence as a period that holds both opportunities and risks, this study tested whether adolescents in Israel flourish, as defined by the ability to attain high levels of well-being. The study’s main aims were to identify components and processes that enable Israeli adolescents to flourish versus those linked to low levels of flourishing. A convenience sample was comprised of 917 adolescents, age 14–18 (M = 16.13, SD = 0.97), including 599 females and 318 males; 582 were Palestinian Israeli and 335 were Jewish Israeli. Native-tongue questionnaires (in Arabic/Hebrew) assessed: peer and family social support and social undermining (Social Support and Undermining Scale); positive and negative affect (PANAS); and the three subscales of flourishing: emotional, social, and psychological (Mental Health Continuum-Short Form). Using structural equation modeling, the main findings revealed that positive affect mediated the link between supportive resources (by family and peers) and adolescents’ flourishing, while negative affect mediated the link between social undermining (by family and peers) and adolescents’ low levels of flourishing. The same pattern emerged in both cultures, although with full mediation for the Palestinian Israeli group and only partial mediation for the Jewish group. Findings emphasized both social support and positive affect as having implications in designing preventive and treatment programs that target individual adolescents and their families.
... Ample findings support minority stress theory (e.g., Bybee et al. 2009;Rogers et al. 2017;Shilo & Savaya, 2011;Wang et al. 2016). Generally this work is limited by reliance on correlational, self-report methodology, which prevents the study of causal links between proposed stressors and health-relevant outcomes and thus hinders the development of targeted interventions to improve the lives of those who experience minority stress. ...
Article
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Minority stress experiences have been linked to sexual minority individuals’ disproportionately high incidence of mental and physical health concerns relative to heterosexuals. However, an absence of experimental methods for manipulating minority stress in laboratory settings limits the potential to draw causal links between minority stress and health outcomes. We describe the development and preliminary validation of a short, novel film-based minority stress induction in 3 studies (N = 686). Study 1 was conducted online with a sample of sexual minority adults and demonstrated the ability of the minority stress induction to induce negative emotional responses. Study 2 compared the induction to a neutral control in a sample of heterosexual and sexual minority adults and showed the induction’s unique emotional impact on sexual minorities. Study 3 used sexual minorities’ qualitative responses to the induction to demonstrate its ability to elicit 5 minority stress themes in sexual minority participants. The 3 studies outline a model for the creation of new experimental stimuli in the sexual minority stress field and highlight the need for testing of new stimuli in numerous samples to establish validity. We also outline a method for evaluating open-response text from participants for minority stress content using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software. These new tools will allow experimental researchers to elicit minority stress in sexual minority participants in a controlled experimental fashion, and in turn may inform future prevention and intervention efforts with this population.
... LGBþ populations. Previous work has shown that social support and acceptance, especially when related to sexuality, can help to mitigate the effects of mental health problems in LGBþ individuals (Shilo & Savaya, 2011). However, this population experiences lower levels of social support and acceptance compared to their heterosexual peers (Needham & Austin, 2010;Williams et al., 2005), and LGBþ individuals are able to provide more sexuality-related support to this population than family or friends (Doty et al., 2010). ...
Article
Background: Social media has become increasingly widespread among young adults, yet its relationship to depression and anxiety may depend on the users’ experiences. For LGB+ individuals, who exhibit disproportionate rates of anxiety and depression, social media may present a unique source of acceptance or of hostility and stress. Methods: This study examined whether sexual orientation (SO) moderated the relationship between social media experiences of acceptance of acceptance and hostility and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Questionnaires assessing depression, anxiety, and social media experiences were completed by 382 young adults from a large Midwestern university at three time points. Results: Significant interactions were observed between SO and social media experiences of acceptance on depression from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. Similar results were found for anxiety from T1 to T2. Higher levels of acceptance on social media predicted lower symptoms of depression and anxiety in LGB+, but not heterosexual, participants. No significant interactions were observed between SO and social media experiences of hostility on depression or anxiety. Conclusion: Social media may serve as an important should of support and acceptance, rather than a source of hostility, that can protect against depression and anxiety in LGB+ individuals.
... Social support consists of individuals' perceptions that they would receive emotional or instrumental assistance from people within their social network when needed. Social support is crucial to coping with minority stressors, and an increased perception of social support among friends has been strongly correlated with well-being among LGBTQ individuals (Shilo and Savaya, 2011). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate YouTube as a venue for social connection among LGBTQ individuals (N = 428). Exposure to LGBTQ YouTubers positively contributed to self-esteem and collective self-esteem (specific to the LGBTQ community). Social connectedness mediated the relationship between exposure to LGBTQ YouTubers and self-esteem, which was moderated by social support and outness. Viewing LGBTQ YouTubers was positively related to social connectedness among participants open about their LGBTQ identities and who reported the lowest social support, but negatively related to social connectedness among those concealing their LGBTQ identities and who reported very strong social support. Open-ended data suggest that entertainment and social connection were the primary motivations for viewing YouTube videos. Results are discussed in terms of minority stress, and the value of social media platforms for social connection with like-others among marginalized populations.
... Entre otras cosas, la investigación ha demostrado que el apoyo social se asocia negativamente con sintomatología depresiva, suicidio y abuso de alcohol (Tabaac et al., 2015). Los estudios se han centrado principalmente en el apoyo familiar dada la importancia de éste para el colectivo LGTBIQ+ (McConnell et al., 2015;Newcomb et al., 2019;Ryan, Russell, Huebner, Díaz y Sánchez, 2010;Shilo y Savaya, 2011). Además, otros autores han demostrado también que el apoyo de amistades y de una persona especial reducen la probabilidad de que las personas del colectivo desarrollen sintomatología depresiva (Shiu, Muraco y Fredriksen-Goldsen, 2016). ...
Article
The present study analyses the moderating effect of different types of social support in the relationship between bullying, cyberbullying and workplace victimization, and internalizing symptoms in LGBTIQ+ individuals. 262 people from LGBTIQ+ collective participated (ages between 18 and 77; M= 29.83, SD= 12.41), who completed measures via Internet of bullying, cyberbullying, workplace victimization, family support, support from friends, support from a special person, and symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. The results showed that support from friends moderated the relationship between bullying and anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as the relationship between workplace victimization and depression symptoms. On the other hand, family support moderated the relationship between bullying and anxiety symptoms. Regarding cyberbullying, none of the types of social support moderated the relationship between cyberbullying and internalizing symptomatology. Findings of this study highlight the moderating role of family and friend support when internalizing symptoms of LGBTIQ+ people who are victims of bullying and/or workplace victimization.
... LGB-related discrimination and social exclusion can increase proximal stressors in the form of poor selfimage, internalized homophobia, fear of rejection, and concealing one's sexual orientation according to Hatzenbuehler's psychological mediation framework [10,11]. Previous studies among youth also provide evidence that family support has a critical role in shaping early LGB identity development [12,13] with sustained effects on mental wellbeing throughout one's adulthood [5]. These studies highlight the importance of family as a locus of LGB minority stress, which in turn can impact LGB sleep outcomes [14]. ...
Article
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Background There is growing evidence that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults experience more sleep problems than the general population. As LGB individuals experience a significantly greater risk of family rejection and low family support, our study investigates the role of family support as a potential determinant of LGB sleep problems over a prolonged period, and whether friend support (i.e. chosen family) can mitigate the effect of low family support. Given the importance of sleep on mental and physical health, study results may help shed light on persistent health disparities across sexual orientations. Methods Our sample included 1703 LGB individuals from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) . Mixed-effect logistic regressions were used to estimate the effect of family and friend support on the development of sleep problems after 24 months while controlling for potential confounders. A modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to measure 1) presence of any sleep problems, 2) short sleep duration, and 3) poor sleep quality. Results Family support at baseline was independently associated with all sleep problems in our study after 24-months: 1 SD increase in family support was associated with a 0.94 times lower risk of sleep problems (95% C.I = 0.90-0.98), a 0.88 times lower risk of short sleep duration (95% C.I = 0.81-0.95), and a 0.92 times lower risk of sleep quality (95% C.I = 0.93-0.98). Support from one’s chosen family (proxied by friend support) did not mitigate the effects of low family support on sleep problems. Conclusions Our study found a consistent effect of family support across all sleep outcomes along with evidence of a persistent effect after 24 months. Our findings point to the importance of targeting family support in designing interventions aimed at reducing LGB sleep problems.
... This understanding may promote mindful identification and coping with symptoms of stress and anxiety, as found in other studies with adolescents [50]. Furthermore, youth gained peer support through group sharing of common experiences, which has been shown to be related to positive mental health and well-being among SGMA [51]. Finally, we found preliminary evidence that P&E moderated the relationship between minority stress experiences and mental health symptoms. ...
Article
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Background Minority stress may lead to poorer mental health for sexual and gender minority adolescents, yet no interventions have been tested through an RCT to address these concerns. Methods We report on an RCT of an intervention—Proud & Empowered—with four high schools. Measures assess the intervention’s impact on mental health symptoms. Results Compared to the control, participants in the treatment condition reported significant differences in minority stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Moderation analyses showed that the intervention significantly moderated the relationship between minority stress and PTSD ( b = -1.28, p = .032), depression ( b = -0.79, p = .023), and suicidality ( b = 0.14, p = .012) symptoms; those in the intervention condition had mitigated relationships between measures of stress and health outcomes compared to those in the control condition. Conclusions Results suggest that Proud & Empowered help reduce mental health symptoms and exposure to minority stressors and build coping strategies. Trial Registration The intervention was registered on clinicaltrials.gov on August 1, 2019 under Trial # NCT04041414 .
... Although previous research points to the protective role of peer support [20,35,36], we did not find a direct association between peer support and positive or negative effect, nor did we find that peer support moderated the association between daily concealment and positive or negative affect. These null findings could be explained by the operationalization of peer support. ...
Article
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Purpose There is a lack of research on the association between identity concealment and mental health among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents and how social support may attenuate this association. Furthermore, research typically neglects the day-to-day variability in concealment experiences of SGM adolescents. Therefore, we examined the association between daily sexual orientation and gender identity concealment and positive and negative affect and the moderating role of family and peer support on this association among SGM adolescents. Methods A 21-day daily diary study among 94 SGM adolescents (mean [M] age = 16.10, standard deviation [SD] = 1.50; 31.9% gender minority; 44.7% youth of color) was conducted. Multilevel regression analyses tested the association between daily concealment and positive and negative affect and a cross-level interaction was used to assess the moderating effects of social supports. Results Daily concealment was associated with higher negative but not with positive affect. Family support was associated with lower daily negative affect but not with positive affect. Peer support was not significantly associated with negative or positive affect. Moderation results indicated that the association between daily concealment and negative affect was significant for adolescents who reported low or average levels of family support but was no longer significant for adolescents who reported high levels of family support. Discussion Daily identity concealment was positively associated with negative affect and this association was attenuated by family support. Future research and interventions should target families to improve the lives of SGM adolescents and to help reduce and eliminate mental health disparities.
... In contrast, institutional inequalities on the grounds of sexual orientation have been found to exacerbate the rate of hate crimes because they promote spaces for bias, discrimination, and violence (Levy & Levy, 2017). Certainly, this line of investigation provides policy makers with valuable information because societal attitudes profoundly matter in the lives of LGB individuals (Ryan et al., 2010;Shilo & Savaya, 2011). However, these studies of public attitudes may have limited capacity to inform LGB-affirmative policies, since they did not collect in-depth accounts of reallife, interpersonal experiences, and are subject to compromised validity because of social desirability and response biases. ...
Article
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In 2019, Taiwan became the first country in Asia to legalize same-sex marriage. Such an historic shift in the legal landscape toward marriage equality in Taiwan presents a timely and unique opportunity to investigate the interplay of a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)-affirmative policy (i.e., marriage equality) and the well-being of LGB people. Existing quantitative studies on same-sex marriage have yielded compelling evidence about its positive effects on LGB individuals’ psychosocial health. However, no research has examined the relational dimension of the effect associated with same-sex marriage policy. Furthermore, a relational focus requires a researcher to solicit narratives from LGB young adults’ significant others (e.g., parents). This research project seeks to address these gaps by addressing whether legalization of same-sex marriage in Taiwan will improve Taiwanese LGB young adults’ relational well-being. Qualitative data were collected from 30 in-depth, dyadic interviews with 15 LGB young Taiwanese adults aged between 18 and 39 years and their parents. Each participant took part in two interviews conducted before and after the passage of the legalization of same-sex marriage, respectively. Transcribed interviews will be analyzed following an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) where we seek insight into a social actor’s inner perceptions in a wider context of social relationships. Multiple measures will be undertaken to ensure study rigor. Findings from this study will add to the evaluative endeavors of marriage equality policy enacted in Taiwan by highlighting relational well-being and the perspectives of LGB young adults’ relevant others.
... Several scholars have already highlighted the importance of adopting an ecological approach in understanding the processes that explain the construction of identity and sexual orientations (Alderson, 2003;Shilo and Savaya, 2011). The ecological approach considers the close connection of internal individual factors as well as the interpersonal and territorial factors involved; the ecological model also facilitates the identification of the factors on which to intervene to improve the conditions of individual well-being as well as the identity processes (Prilleltensky et al., 2001). ...
Article
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The study investigates how the territorial community can influence the individual and social well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) youth and especially the recognition of their feelings and the construction of their own identity as well as their needs to be socially recognized. This research focuses on the experiences of 30 LGB individuals (23 males and 7 females), with a mean age of 25.07 years (SD = 4,578), living in urban and rural areas of Southern Italy. Focalized open interviews were conducted, and the Grounded Theory Methodology, supported by the Atlas.ti 8.0 software, was used for data analysis. The textual material was first coded, and then codes were grouped into five macro-categories: Freedom of identity expression in the urban and rural context, identity construction and acceptance process, need of aggregation and identification with the LGB community, role of the interpersonal relationship in the process of identity acceptance, socio-cultural context, and LGB psychological well-being. The results showed a condition common to the two contexts that we can define as "ghettoization." The young LGB is alone in the rural area due to a lack of places and people to identify with and greater social isolation. On the contrary, although there are more opportunities in the urban area, young people feel stigmatized and ghettoized because "their places" are frequented exclusively by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transexual, queer (LGBTQ) community. The work will extensively discuss the limitations of the research, future proposals, and the practical implications of the results.
... In addition, sexting partner availability and identity were not assessed in the present study and should be examined in future studies, as sexting is more common between romantic partners (Lenhart, 2009). The young age of participants might have restricted the sample of adolescents who sexted and were aware of/out with their sex/gender identity, as older age has been associated with a higher prevalence of sexting (Temple et al., 2014) and disclosure of one's sex/gender identity (Shilo & Savaya, 2011). It is important to note that the number of gender and sexually diverse non-binary adolescents was low, such that the conclusions that can be drawn from the findings concerning this subgroup are limited. ...
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Sexting has become part of the repertoire of adolescents’ sexual behaviors, especially among those who identify as gender and sexually diverse. Whereas body dissatisfaction increases during adolescence and is associated with negative sexuality outcomes, little research has examined how body appreciation may contribute to adolescents’ sexting. The present study examined associations between body appreciation and sexting behaviors, and whether these differed by gender and sexual orientation, using path analysis in a sample of 2904 adolescents (Mage = 14.53; SD = 0.61) comprised of five groups: heterosexual cisgender and gender and sexually diverse boys (heterosexual cisgender = 1193; gender and sexually diverse = 157), heterosexual cisgender and gender and sexually diverse girls (heterosexual cisgender = 1152; gender and sexually diverse = 320), and non-binary adolescents (n = 18). Lower levels of body appreciation were associated with higher sexting frequency in heterosexual cisgender girls and gender and sexually diverse boys. Adolescents preoccupied with their appearance may use sexting for body image-related validation.
... Personal support factors, including parent, teacher and peer support were associated with increased SoSB, though, only parent support was found to be a significant (Shilo & Savaya, 2011); and teacher support was related to lower levels of victimisation and decreased absenteeism . These findings may suggest that support from teachers and peers are significantly, but indirectly, associated with increased SoSB through the variables of mental wellbeing, absenteeism and victimisation; though, further research is needed to clarify these relationships. ...
Thesis
Sense of belonging is a described as a fundamental human need, yet, LGBTQ+ youth typically report lower levels of school belonging than their peers. A systematic literature review of the factors that impact LGBTQ+ youth’s sense of school belonging (SoSB) is presented in chapter one. Fourteen papers were deemed eligible for inclusion and they explored the effects of various factors that fit into seven broad categories: victimisation; school atmosphere; school achievement; personal support; gay-straight alliance (GSA) support; suicide; and other. The review identified victimisation as a strong predictor of lower sense of school belonging for LGBTQ+ pupils and, therefore, highlights victimisation as a key factor to address. Furthermore, support from parents, peers, teachers and GSAs, and a positive school atmosphere, were associated with higher levels of SoSB. Implications for the Department for Education, educational settings and Educational Psychologists are discussed. Chapter two sought to explore the views and experiences of transgender young people in secondary education. Ten interviews were conducted with secondary school-aged transgender participants. Reflexive thematic analysis generated the overarching theme, acceptance and validation. Five main themes were also created: seeking acceptance and validation; receiving acceptance and validation; active rejection and invalidation; passive rejection and invalidation; and consequences of rejection and invalidation. The findings suggest there is a need to foster a sense of acceptance and validation within school environments to fulfil the basic need to belong. Therefore, trans education (for both staff and pupils) is necessary to increase understanding of gender diversity. In addition, changes to the national curriculum, school policies and practices are recommended to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with transgender youth.
Chapter
Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are at a heightened vulnerability for a range of adverse outcomes as a function of the bias and discrimination they face in their social environment. Many of these adverse outcomes, in turn, become added stressors for these individuals. The stressor-mediator-outcome model creates a visual representation of how many SGM persons find themselves embedded in a cycle of adversity. Religious experiences interweave into this cycle, often mediating the relationships between stressors and negative outcomes. The violence of discrimination and internalized stigma is mediated by the influences of religion/spirituality, which alleviate or exacerbate negative outcomes for SGM persons. A secondary cycle, employing the perspective of a parent, addresses the identification of an SGM child as a stressor. Religiosity carries the potential to mediate the resulting parental responses from rejection to acceptance. In the extreme case of child ejection, a sub-cycle of homelessness develops. Homelessness, in turn, becomes a stressor that often results in street violence and victimization for sexual and/or gender minorities. Implications for treatment and recommendations for future research are reviewed in each section of the chapter.
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Background This study focuses on sexual orientation and gender-based differences among Israeli young adult substance use behaviors. In addition, it evaluates young adult perception of substance use and acceptance of substances use by close friends. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 496 young-adults (age: M = 23.14, SD = 2.48), which included 126 heterosexual males, 128 heterosexual females, 131 gay men, and 111 lesbians. Results This study revealed significant sexual orientation and gender differences in all outcomes examined. Significant substance usage differences were found for same-sex orientation as 52% reported cannabis use and 24% reported using other illegal substances during the past 12 months compared to 34 and 6% (respectively) among heterosexuals. Significant gender differences were found, as male participants reported 50% cannabis use and 19% reported other illegal substance use in the past 12 months compared to 35 and 11% (respectively) among females. Additionally, compared with heterosexuals, gay men and lesbians perceived/assessed significantly higher substance usage rates among their close friends and higher levels of substance use acceptance by close friends. Regression models indicated the important role of respondent perceived and acceptance of substance use among close friends. Binge drinking, cannabis use, and other illegal substance use were positively associated with participants’ perceived substance use and substance use acceptance level by close friends, after controlling for gender, sexual orientation, age, and level of education. Conclusions Close friends and community norms can play an important role in shaping substance usage among young adults, especially among gay men and lesbians. The results of the current study highlight the need for developing prevention and harm reduction drug policies for Israeli young adults, especially for gay men and lesbians. Interventions should also focus on young adult peers and community norms related to substance use by professionals in educational, policy-making, and therapeutic contexts.
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Families of choice is an important framework used to think about non-heterosexual people’s attachments. This means the family of origin has received limited attention when theorising their relationships. This group has often been considered in relation to coming out, which centralises the importance of sexuality for understanding kinship ties. This paper extends the limited, but growing scholarship on non-heterosexual people, and their families of origin. It does this by drawing on a larger project on the lives of gay men of South Asian descent, in Australia. Results demonstrate that attachment through blood, shared history, emotions, and obligations, firmly embed gay South Asian men in their families of origin, even when there is disapproval of their sexuality. More broadly, the study resists framing the respondents and findings in culturally essentialist terms, premised on an ‘East’ versus ‘West’ binary. It argues that by resisting such orientalism we can see similarities pertaining to families of origin across different contexts, and in doing so, produce queer scholarship able to speak across divides.
Article
Purpose This study examined sexual minority status on perceived sense of belonging and compared sexual minority students and exclusively heterosexual students as a function of participating in work-integrated learning (WIL). Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional, quantitative design was used with participants grouped by sexual minority status and participation in WIL. Findings Sexual minority students (WIL and non-WIL) reported lower sense of belonging than exclusively heterosexual students (in WIL and non-WIL). Sexual minority students in WIL also reported significantly weaker sense of belonging compared to non-WIL sexual minority students suggesting that WIL presents some barriers to establishing a strong sense of belonging for sexual minority students. Originality/value The findings provide evidence for developing programs to ensure all students are in a safe environment where they can develop and strengthen their sense of belonging regardless of minority status. This is important given that a sense of belonging impacts mental health and overall well-being.
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Article
Disclosure of sexual identity and/or gender orientation is difficult for youth and is associated with elevated adverse health risks, particularly when there is parental rejection. There are limited studies conducted with Hispanic sexual minority youth (HSMY) and their families to understand the disclosure process, how the family unit changes and adapts following disclosure, and the implications for preventive interventions for HSMY and their families. This paper explores the lived experiences of youth and parents throughout the disclosure process. A phenomenological approach was used to interview 15 parent-youth dyads (N = 30) to understand what it means for Hispanic youth to disclose their sexual identity and/or gender orientation. Three themes that best described the experience emerged from the participant interviews; the experience of disclosing included intrapersonal challenges, navigating disclosure, and conceptualizing acceptance. The authors highlight implications for preventive interventions that can help these families undergoing the unique process of disclosure.
Article
The current study utilized data from the Social Justice Sexuality Project to investigate influences on psychological well-being of LGBT+ Muslims (N = 75) in the United States. Specifically, path analyses were used to examine the association between spiritual and religious engagement, LGBT community involvement, outness, and family support with psychological well-being. Control variables included lifespan Islam involvement, age, income, and the age at which the participant came out to themselves. Findings illustrate spiritual and religious engagement, outness, and income were all positively related to psychological well-being. Moreover, individuals who had converted to Islam but were not raised in the faith had significantly lower psychological well-being than those who had a consistent experience with Islam from their childhood until the time of the study. The present investigation provides critical contributions to the study of gender and sexual minorities in the United States and the experiences of currently practicing LGBT+ Muslims and those who were raised Muslim. Clinical implications and future research suggestions are discussed.
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There is little research that details the key contributions of recreation programs that intentionally explore creativity and pleasure in the lives of queer youth. Eighteen 2SLGBTQ youth were interviewed after they participated in a genderplay workshop. Asked about their experiences, youth articulated that they garnered social assets such as access to queer community for the first time. Personal impacts included being able to use drag as a smokescreen to safely express versions of self, experiencing new parts of their personality because they were able to be vulnerable, and figuring out who they were and experiencing the resulting affirmations. Many youths in this study intentionally provoked their boundaries of comfort in an intentional effort of self-exploration. For example, cisgender-identified youth viscerally undertook a personal examination and then confirmed a cisgender identity after having considered other options; a more mature process to come to a gender or sexual identity.
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Health disparities in the sexual minority population may be exacerbated by the loneliness experienced due to minority stress. Using a minority stress framework, this study examined minority stress, protective variables, and mental health as correlates of loneliness in sexual minority individuals in a small metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. Participants (n = 273) were a subsample of sexual minority individuals from a broader sample of LGBTQ adults in the Central Savannah River area who completed a health needs assessment. Bivariate correlations were calculated to assess for degree of significant relationships between loneliness and barriers to health care, minority stress, and mental health. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine the relative importance of the study variables’ associations with loneliness. A multiple regression model found household income, assault victimization, depressive symptoms, and sense of community to be significant correlates of loneliness. Interventions to decrease loneliness in this population will need to consider these interconnected, multi-level influences.
Chapter
Through in-depth interviews, this chapter examines the ways 25 LGB young adults (18-35 years old) used digital technologies as they do emotion work to preserve relationships with heterosexual parents. Findings demonstrate that, with the aid of technology (especially texting, Skyping, social media, YouTube, television, and various informational websites), LGB young adults engaged in personal and interpersonal forms of “preventive” and “palliative” emotion work. The former's aim was to prevent noxious feelings and the latter to preserve familial relationships despite emotional pain. These forms of emotion work allowed LGBs to maintain relationships with their parents, but by privileging the emotional wellbeing of heterosexual parents above those of LGBs. The authors conclude by suggesting that digital technology can be a dual-edged sword. Access to these technologies may allow LGBs to connect with queer communities and to obtain information about queerness, yet utilizing these technologies as a way to preserve familial relationships was an adaptation to--rather than disruption of--heterosexism and homophobia.
Article
This pilot open trial examined the efficacy of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) for Israeli sexual and gender minority (SGM) young adults and their persistently nonaccepting parents. Thirty families received up to 26 weeks of treatment, with parental rejection, parental acceptance, and young adults' attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety assessed at baseline, 8, 16, 24, and 36 weeks (three months post-treatment). Analyses using multilevel growth models revealed that both young adults and their mothers independently reported increases in mothers' acceptance of their young adult's same-sex orientation or noncisgender identity. In addition, young adults reported decreases in both parents' levels of rejection. Also, mothers, but not fathers, reported decreases in their own level of rejection. Finally, young adults reported a decrease in attachment avoidance in their relationships with both mothers and fathers, but not a decrease in attachment anxiety. Importantly, these treatment gains were maintained three months after the end of treatment. Together, these results suggest that ABFT-SGM, a manualized, affirmative, experiential, family-based treatment, may be effective in reducing long-standing parental rejection, promoting parental acceptance, and improving the quality of LGBTQ+ young adults' relationships with their parents. These findings are encouraging in light of the urgent need for efficacious interventions to reduce family generated minority stress and promote safer, more supportive environments for sexual and gender minority people.
Chapter
Through in-depth interviews, this chapter examines the ways 25 LGB young adults (18-35 years old) used digital technologies as they do emotion work to preserve relationships with heterosexual parents. Findings demonstrate that, with the aid of technology (especially texting, Skyping, social media, YouTube, television, and various informational websites), LGB young adults engaged in personal and interpersonal forms of “preventive” and “palliative” emotion work. The former's aim was to prevent noxious feelings and the latter to preserve familial relationships despite emotional pain. These forms of emotion work allowed LGBs to maintain relationships with their parents, but by privileging the emotional wellbeing of heterosexual parents above those of LGBs. The authors conclude by suggesting that digital technology can be a dual-edged sword. Access to these technologies may allow LGBs to connect with queer communities and to obtain information about queerness, yet utilizing these technologies as a way to preserve familial relationships was an adaptation to--rather than disruption of--heterosexism and homophobia.
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In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress— explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.
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The relationship between actual societal reaction (SR) and putative societal reaction (PSR) to homosexuality was investigated in two cultures, Sweden and Australia, which were similar with regard to socio‐economic factors but dissimilar with regard to attitudes toward homosexuality. It was predicted that there would be no correlation between SR and PSR, that there would be differences between the two countries on PSR but not SR, and that these dimensions of societal reaction would be confirmed by factor analysis. One hundred seventy‐six Swedish and 163 Australian homosexual males were administered scales measuring the actual or expected reaction to individuals or classes of individuals. They also responded to questionnaire items measuring acceptance of their homosexuality. Results indicated that there was a different direction of relationship between SR and PSR for each country and that there were significant differences between the two cultures on PSR but not SR, indicating that PSR is probably the critical variable measuring differences in adjustment as a result of societal pressures. PSR was also related to several factors measuring psychological adjustment. The findings have implications with regard to mechanisms underlying societal reaction in homosexual men and their influence on psychological adjustment and the factorial basis of societal reaction and its measurement.
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Three questions regarding social support and social conflict are examined in this article: (a) Which sources of social support are most strongly related to emotional well-being?, (b) What is the relationship between social support and social conflict?, and (c) Which sources of social conflict are most strongly related to emotional well-being? Three versions of a questionnaire were developed and examined with data from 168 undergraduates. Each version was identical except for the source of social support and social conflict the respondent was asked to describe. Respondents were asked how much support and conflict they experienced with respect to either people in your personal life, some one person, or the person closest to you. The theoretical implications of each of these question formats are described. Results indicate that social support and social conflict were not significantly correlated except when respondents were referring to the person closest to them. Social support significantly correlated with affect and quality of life when respondents referred to people in their lives. Social conflict significantly correlated with the same outcome measures when respondents referred to people and some one person. Social support buffered the effects of social conflict on affect and life quality when respondents referred to some one person. The theoretical and methodological implications of these findings are discussed.
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Over the past decade Israel has experienced dramatic change in the legitimization of same-sex relationships. In recent years the LGBT social movement has succeeded in mobilizing public support not only for the rights and well-being of adults, but also for the younger generation–LGBT youth. Using a large-scale survey of the Israeli LGBT community (N = 2,853), we explore two theoretical theses that are commonly used in research on LGBT youth. The first thesis, Cohort thesis, claims that LGBT youth today are different from previous cohorts and are more like other youth, regardless of sexual orientation. This thesis is reflected in the work of Savin-Williams (2005)35. Savin-Williams , R. C. 2005. The new gay teenager, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [CrossRef]View all references and is also known as the New Gay Teenager hypothesis. In contrast, the Ageing thesis claims that LGBT youth today face experiences similar to their counterparts in the past, and thus they are still considered to be high-risk youth with special needs in terms of social services. This thesis explains differences between age-groups within the framework of ageing. We analyzed self-reported needs and preferences for social services across three cohorts: youngest (born after 1985); intermediate (born 1979–1985) and oldest (born before 1979). The main difference between cohorts is that respondents who were young adults during the 2000s (born after 1985) are more inclined to be engaged and involved within the LGBT community than other respondents (born before 1985). This finding is consistent with the Ageing thesis rather than with the Cohort thesis. We argue that the New Gay Teenager hypothesis can not be generalized to the Israeli case. We conclude the article with policy implications for targeted services to LGBT youth and with suggestions for further research.
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The description and explanation of racial and ethnic health disparities are major initiatives of the public health research establishment. Black Americans suffer on nearly every measure of health in relation to white Americans. Five theoretical models have been proposed to explain these disparities: a racial-genetic model, a health-behavior model, a socioeconomic status model, a psychosocial stress model, and a structural-constructivist model. We selectively review literature on health disparities, emphasizing research on low birth weight and high blood pressure. The psychosocial stress model and the structural-constructivist model offer greatest promise to explain disparities. In future research, theoretical elaboration and operational specificity are needed to distinguish among three distinct factors: (a) genetic variants contributing to disease risk; (b) ethnoracial or folk racial categories masquerading as biology; and (c) ethnic group membership. Such elaboration is necessary to move beyond t...
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This study examined victimization during high school based on sexual orientation of 350 lesbian, gay, or bisexual (lgb) youths aged 21 and younger. Experiences of direct victimization as well as knowledge of other lgb youths' victimization were assessed. Over half reported verbal abuse in high school because of their sexual orientation, and 11% said they had been physically assaulted. Youths who were more open in high school about their sexual orientation and who had a history of more gender atypical behavior were victimized more often. Male youths were targeted significantly more often than females, Youths' current mental health symptoms, especially traumatic stress reactions, were associated with having experienced more verbal abuse in high school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and resources to choosing a sampling approach and executing the sampling plan. The authors describe probability and nonprobability sampling methods used in LGB populations and critically discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the sampling methods they review. The authors conclude that no single sampling methodology is correct or incorrect for use in LGB populations; rather, researchers must evaluate advantages and disadvantages of each sampling methodology in the context of the specific research question and the research design. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths (aged 15–21 yrs) were studied to determine the impact of verbal abuse, threat of attacks, and assault on their mental health, including suicide. Family support and self-acceptance were hypothesized to act as mediators of the victimization and mental health-suicide relation. Structural equation modeling revealed that in addition to a direct effect of victimization on mental health, family support and self-acceptance in concert mediated the victimization and mental health relation. Victimization was not directly related to suicide. Victimization interacted with family support to influence mental health, but only for low levels of victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Past research of relationship quality in same–sex couples has emphasized similarities with heterosexual couples. The present study examined both general and gay–specific intra– and interpersonal factors as predictors of gay men's relationship durability and relationship satisfaction. Our proposed path model postulated effects of contextual variables on self and relationships (i.e., social support/acceptance as context for attachment security, self–acceptance, and intimate relationships). The data, collected from an Israeli sample of gay men (N = 121), supported this model. All hypothesized paths were significant: Attachment security mediated the association of perceived friends’ support and self–acceptance with relationship quality, self–acceptance mediated the association of self–definition and perceived friends’ acceptance with relationship quality, and income had a direct association with relationship quality.
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Self-perceived maturation related to service in the Israeli army was analyzed according to gender, rank, service trajectory (type of unit for men and role for women) and the environment of socialization (urban vs. kibbutz). Respondents attributed to their military service increasing independence, self-confidence, self-control, efficacy, self-awareness, social sensitivity, and ability for intimate relationships. Greater change was perceived in the instrumental rather than in the expressive direction of maturity. Unexpectedly, only few significant gender differences were shown. Effects that are more significant were found related to rank (an advantage to officers), trajectory (an advantage to servicemen in the infantry and servicewomen who graduated from premilitary courses), and the socialization environment (an advantage to kibbutz-born soldiers, mainly in the more expressive dimension of maturation). We conclude that army service contributes to the maturation of Israeli youth, and that maturation is moderately affected by the quality of service and the predispositions that conscripts carry into the army. Results indicate that the arguments for the nonmoratorial nature of military service need revision.
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This paper examines the application of concepts of normal adolescence pioneered by Offer and colleagues to the study of gay and lesbian youth. Adolescent development among this population demonstrates remarkable historical variability along the lines of generation-cohort, revealing the utility of a life-course approach to the study of normal adolescence. Concepts of normal adolescence appear to shift with changing narratives of identity for sexual minority youth. We contrast two narratives of gay youth identity development that have emerged since the inception of substantive research programs on gay adolescence: (1) the narrative of struggle and success that came to dominate the literature in the 1980s and 1990s and (2) the narrative of emancipation that has emerged from the work of Savin-Williams and others who argue for a recognition of the diversity of adolescent development for this population. In relating this contrast to Offer’s seminal contributions to the study of adolescence, we suggest that the most normative feature of human development, particularly during adolescence, is its connection to discourses of identity through the formation of personal narratives that anchor the life course and provide meaning to conceptions of self-development. The example of shifting narratives of gay youth identity development is meant to exemplify this characteristic feature of human development.
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Using a social stress perspective, the authors studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual vs. gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, the authors examined whether LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. The authors found different patterns when looking at social versus psychological well-being and positive versus negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Although no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. The authors conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model.
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We examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems both generally and among coupled participants independent of outness and community connectedness. Depressive symptoms mediated the association between internalized homophobia and relationship problems. This study improves current understandings of the association between internalized homophobia and relationship quality by distinguishing between the effects of the core construct of internalized homophobia and its correlates and outcomes. The findings are useful for counselors interested in interventions and treatment approaches to help LGB individuals cope with internalized homophobia and relationship problems.
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Describes the development of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI), a 38-item measure of psychological distress and well-being, developed for use in general populations. The MHI was fielded in 4 large samples (N = 5089) of Ss aged 13–69 yrs. One data set was used to explore the MHI's factor structure, and confirmatory factor analyses were used for cross validation. Results support a hierarchical factor model composed of a general underlying psychological distress vs well-being factor; a higher order structure defined by 2 correlated factors––Psychological Distress and Well-Being; and 5 correlated lower order factors––Anxiety, Depression, Emotional Ties, General Positive Affect, and Loss of Behavioral Emotional Control. Summated rating scales produced high internal consistency estimates and substantial stability over a 1-yr interval. Results provide strong psychometric support for a hierarchical model and scoring options ranging from 5 distinct constructs to reliance on 1 summary index. (36 ref)
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Studied 194 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth aged 21 and younger who attended programs in 14 community centers to determine the personal challenges they face due to their sexual orientation and their responses to these stresses. First awareness of sexual orientation typically occurred at age 10, but disclosure to another person did not occur until about age 16. There was much variability in sexual behavior, and many youths reported both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual experiences. Although most had told at least one family member about their sexual orientation, there remained much concern about family reactions. Suicide attempts were acknowledged by 42% of the sample. Attempters significantly differed from nonattempters on several milestones of sexual orientation development, social aspects of sexual orientation, parents' knowledge of sexual orientation, and mental health problems.
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This article presents demographic, lifestyle, and mental health information about 1,925 lesbians from all 50 states who participated as respondents in the National Lesbian Health Care Survey (1984-1985), the most comprehensive study on U.S. lesbians to date. Over half the sample had had thoughts about suicide at some time, and 18% had attempted suicide. Thirty-seven percent had been physically abused as a child or adult, 32% had been raped or sexually attacked, and 19% had been involved in incestuous relationships while growing up. Almost one third used tobacco on a daily basis, and about 30% drank alcohol more than once a week, 6% daily. About three fourths had received counseling at some time, and half had done so for reasons of sadness and depression. Lesbians in the survey also were socially connected and had a variety of social supports, mostly within the lesbian community. However, few had come out to all family members and coworkers. Level of openness about lesbianism was associated with less fear of exposure and with more choices about mental health counseling.
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Structural equation analyses were used to examine the impact of social support vs. social undermining (conflict) on mental health in longitudinal data from 1,087 recently unemployed respondents. The results demonstrated that social support and social undermining were not the opposite poles of the same factor, each having some impact independent of the other. Social undermining had statistically significant and strong adverse impact at each concurrent level of mental health. It also predicted improvement (but not a high level) in mental health in subsequent time waves. In contrast, social support had a significant beneficial impact on mental health only at Time 1. Compared with the volatile and extreme effects of social undermining, those of social support appear weaker but more stable. These findings are consistent with literature on the impact of life events (S. E. Taylor, 1991) and on marital interactions and satisfaction (J. M. Gottman & L. J. Krokoff, 1989).
Article
A model is proposed and explored that links the coming‐out process to the psychological functioning (i.e., self‐esteem and distress) and sexual behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths recruited from gay‐focused community‐based and college organizations in New York City. The coming‐out process is multidimensional, consisting, as defined here, of involvement in gay/lesbian activities, attitudes toward homosexuality, comfort with homosexuality, self‐disclosure of sexual identity to others, and sexual identity. The coming‐out dimensions were related to self‐esteem, distress, and unprotected sexual behaviors. In addition, the relations between the coming‐out dimensions and unprotected sexual behaviors were explained by psychological functioning. In particular, limited involvement in gay/lesbian activities was associated with more unprotected sex. Negative attitudes toward homosexuality were related directly to more unprotected sex, and they were related indirectly to more unprotected sex by means of increasing emotional distress. These and other findings have implications for designing preventive interventions to increase the youths' psychological functioning and reduce their unprotected sexual behaviors.
Chapter
In the last decade, the concept of “social support” has become increasingly prominent in both scientific and applied or policy-related discussions of stress and health. By the mid-1970s in the United States, social support was the topic of invited addresses to the American Public Health Association and Psychosomatic Society by two of our most distinguished social epidemiologists, the late John Cassel (5) and Sidney Cobb (6) respectively. The very first recommendation of the 1978 report of our President’s Commission on Mental Health (28, p. 15) was that: “A major effort be developed in the area of personal and community supports which will: (a) recognize and strengthen the natural network to which people belong and on which they depend; …”.
Chapter
Western mental health professionals are required to work within a framework that accommodates the essentialist thinking of their clients, while recognizing the constructed nature of the issues on which their work is based / the author's theory of lesbian and gay identity formation, described in this chapter, lies within such a framework / known as social constructionist psychology . . . , this perspective seems most able to integrate these seemingly contradictory perspectives / the theory of homosexual identity formation can be a useful tool for understanding and helping individuals in Western cultures who confront the concept of gay, lesbian, or bisexual in a personal way stages in lesbian and gay identity formation [prestage 1, stage 1—identity confusion, stage 2—identity comparison, stage 3—identity tolerance, stage 4—identity acceptance, stage 5—identity pride, stage 6—identity synthesis] / implications for counseling and psychotherapy (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Home as a concept has several dimensions and aspects of theoretical importance. From a family and individual perspective “being at home” can mean a variety of different statuses and experiences. In the global society the question arises as to how families and their members are able to negotiate establishing a home and having a place as well as group identity. Understanding of mobility includes decision making as both an individual and a family activity that moves one from being a potential migrant or immigrant into an actual one, and from a temporary worker to a long term resident. Clashes of interest and different perceptions of opportunity are important at different points in the process. The globalization of the economic system and the growth of world political and non-governmental agencies and movements have challenged the way macro-systems are understood. These macroprocesses are mediated and interpreted at the micro level by individuals and their families. Two aspects at this micro level are newly developed in this model for family mobility and migration decisions in this model: -The relative attachment of families to place and culture and how their worldviews influence their negotiation skills and their understanding of mobility or stability options. -The many inputs from family and social networks at different points in the mobility decision making process and its implementation. Home and family are altered in the dynamic process of decision-making and the resulting new situation may be evaluated by families and society around the critical social values. In this context assimilation, integration, or continued multiple loyalties are not simple policy and program plans, but familial choices in their search for a secure and satisfactory survival of family and home.
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths 15 to 21 years old were studied to determine the impact of verbal abuse, threat of attacks, and assault on their mental health, including suicide. Family support and self-acceptance were hypothesized to act as mediators of the victimization and mental health-suicide relation. Structural equation modeling revealed that in addition to a direct effect of victimization on mental health, family support and self-acceptance in concert mediated the victimization and mental health relation. Victimization was not directly related to suicide. Victimization interacted with family support to influence mental health, but only for low levels of victimization.
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This paper introduces the ecological theory of gay male identity. The model incorporates both developmental stages and process components in explaining identity formation, and it seeks to identify all psychosocial influences affecting the person, including internal psychological factors and external factors (social and environmental). The ecological theory addresses a number of the criticisms directed at stage models while also providing a psychosocial explanation for why some homosexually-oriented men eventually self-identify as gay. The development of a positive gay identity represents the final achievement in the model. Conceptual definitions for sexual orientation and gay identity are provided, in addition to implications for continuing research and counselling practice.
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This study examined variations in "coming out" for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths (N = 72), ages 16 to 27. To indicate the timing and sequence of developmental stages, the respondents reported the ages at which they had completed 10 milestone events involving self-awareness, sexual experiences, and disclosure to others, and also reported on current immersion in gay/lesbian/bisexual social networks. Cluster analysis identified five patterns of experiences. Three groups had generally early trajectories, two of which had specific delays in either sexual activity or disclosure. Two other clusters had relatively late trajectories, one of which also reported the lowest levels of gay/lesbian/bisexual social immersion. Comfort with sexual orientation was greatest in persons with early patterns and lowest within the group with late trajectories and limited gay/lesbian/bisexual social immersion.
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Two studies investigated the relations among negative social interactions, perceived and enacted support, cognition about the self and others, and psychological distress through the use of a new measure of negative interactions. Although both negative social interactions and perceived support were consistent predictors of psychological distress, negative interactions were weakly or unrelated to perceived and enacted support. Further, factor analyses revealed that negative social interactions loaded on a negative affectivity factor, whereas enacted and perceived support loaded with positive affectivity, suggesting that positive affectivity may play an important role in social support processes. In addition, negative social interactions were related to low self-esteem, low interpersonal trust, external control beliefs, and many dysfunctional attitudes. Further, the link between negative interactions and distress could be accounted for by self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes and external control beliefs. Although negative social interactions were related to stressful life events and hassles, negative interactions had incremental validity beyond these in predicting psychological symptoms.
Article
In the last decade, research of increasing sophistication has appeared concerning adolescents and young adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (lgb) (see D'Augelli & Patterson, 2001, for reviews of current research). These youths made their first appearance in the psychological research literature nearly thirty years ago (Roesler & Deisher, 1972), and a non-pathologized conceptual analysis of their life challenges did not appear until the early 1980's (Malyon, 1981). The publication of several papers by Remafedi in 1987 (Remafedi, 1987a, b) launched the contemporary empirical interest in lgb youths. These papers, although based on a small sample of adolescents in Minneapolis, not only focused on their mental health problems, but also attended to the circumstances of their lives, including mistreatment by others because of their sexual orientation. These landmark studies were followed by studies conducted on college campuses (e.g., D'Augelli, 1991) as well as descriptive survey-based studies that included youth from diverse community settings (e.g., D'Augelli & Hershberger, 1993; Savin-Williams, 1990). Several core studies were conducted in urban social service agencies that deal with lgb youths (Herdt & Boxer, 1993; Hunter, 1991). These interview-based studies had the advantage of being able to obtain detailed information unavailable in survey research, but they had the inevitable problem of generalizability. Generalizability to the larger population of youths who have same-sex attractions is a major strength of the population-based surveys that have been the most recent additions to the literature (e.g., Faulkner & Cranston, 1998; Remafedi, Resnick, Blum, & Harris, 1992). These studies use large representative samples of high school students; such studies sort youths by sexual orientation on the basis of questions about same-sex sexual orientation, same-sex sexual behavior, or the gender of youths' sexual partners. These population-based surveys share with other survey research on lgb youths limits on the nature of information obtained; for instance, in some of these studies, only data on sexual behavior are available. Research on lgb youths has endeavored to elucidate the processes of development they undergo as they move through puberty to young adulthood. From the perspective of developmental research, these youths provide information about how sexual orientation evolves prior to puberty and crystallizes thereafter, providing critical insights into how adolescents experience the emergence of sexual identity (Graber & Archibald, 2001; McClintock & Herdt, 1998). In contrast to earlier generations of lgb people who self-identified as non-heterosexual in early adulthood as they established independence from their families of origin, many lgb youths currently self-identify during early adolescence. The earlier timing of contemporary lgb youths' self-identification highlights the importance of the social context on these youths' development (D'Augelli, 1998). These youths are, for the most part, still at home and in school, two crucial social contexts for adolescent development. Thus, they are adolescents whose cognitive, emotional, and social development is still occurring; they are confronting the challenge of disclosing a stigmatized identity; and, their primary social contexts--the home and the school–are often problematic settings. Lgb youths, then, can provide an important population for the study of how social context influences development. Unfortunately, little psychological research on the impact of contextual factors on the development of sexual orientation has occurred (D'Augelli, 1989), despite the crucial role contextual factors have played in the emergence of lgb communities (Garnets & D'Augelli, 1994). This chapter will review research on developmental and contextual factors on the lives of lgb youths. A comprehensive review of the research is beyond the scope of the chapter, and the reader is referred to D'Augelli and Patterson (2001). Instead, this chapter will highlight findings from several studies the author has completed on lgb youths, using the results to demonstrate the importance of employing developmental-contextual thinking in such research.
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The study examines separation-individuation during adolescence and young adulthood for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, and evaluates the consequences of parent-youth relationships for well-being and sexual orientation identity development. Seventy-two youths completed interview and questionnaire measures of relatedness, autonomy, and conflictual independence in relation to mothers and fathers, along with self-reports of parent attitudes, identity consolidation, and well-being. When youths perceived that their parents had relatively accepting attitudes regarding sexual orientation they demonstrated closer relatedness and greater conflictual independence with parents, but not greater autonomy. Both accepting parental attitudes and greater separation-individuation predicted more positive well-being for the youths, though only parental attitudes predicted greater consolidation of sexual orientation identity. Although mothers were generally closer and more supportive than fathers, relationships with both parents were important, independent predictors of personal adjustment. The discussion proposes mutual influences among separation-individuation, perceived acceptance by parents, identity consolidation and well-being.
Article
This exploratory study found that gay male youths develop strengths that enable them to successfully cope with the challenges and stresses associated with their overall development. These internal and external resources were (1) protective in nature, (2) indicated the presence of resilience, and (3) assisted participants in managing their sexual orientation in adolescence. Bivariate analysis revealed participants had positive self-esteem and an internal locus of control comparable to, or better than, youths overall. Age, social support from gay, lesbian, and bisexual friends and from family, and a preadolescent sense of difference were significantly correlated with self-esteem and/or locus of control.
Article
The goals of this study were to (i) examine the association of social support and strain with psychological well-being and health, (ii) investigate whether these associations depended on relationship-type (partner, family, friend), (iii) examine the buffering effects of support on strain (both within and across relationship-type), and (iv) test the extent to which these associations differed by age and sex. The sample contained 2,348 adults (55% male) aged 25 to 75 years (M � 46.3), who were married or cohabitating. Positive and negative social exchanges were more strongly related to psychological well- being than to health. For both sexes, partner support and strain and family support were predictive of well-being measures; partner strain was also predictive of health prob- lems. However, family strain was predictive of well-being and health outcomes more often for women. Further, while we did find evidence that supportive networks could buffer the detri- mental effects of strained interactions, friends and family served a buffering role more often for women than for men.
Article
Although there is growing recognition that social strain can be a source of considerable distress, few studies to date have examined the ways in which social support may moderate social strain. In this study, social strain was conceived of as a stressor in its own right, whose adverse effects were expected to be alleviated by social support. Participants were 157 pregnant, minority teenagers, all of whom were attending an alternative school for pregnant students. Life events and social strain were positively related to depression. In addition, a significant interaction between social strain and cognitive guidance was found. The pattern of findings suggests that cognitive guidance may intervene between the experience of problematic social exchanges and the onset of depression. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed.
Article
This study examined variations in “coming out” for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths (N= 72), ages 16 to 27. To indicate the timing and sequence of developmental stages, the respondents reported the ages at which they had completed 10 milestone events involving self-awareness, sexual experiences, and disclosure to others, and also reported on current immersion in gay/lesbian/bisexual social networks. Cluster analysis identified five patterns of experiences. Three groups had generally early trajectories, two of which had specific delays in either sexual activity or disclosure. Two other clusters had relatively late trajectories, one of which also reported the lowest levels of gay/lesbian/bisexual social immersion. Comfort with sexual orientation was greatest in persons with early patterns and lowest within the group with late trajectories and limited gay/lesbian/bisexual social immersion.
Article
Lesbian and gay young adults can experience adverse life conditions associated with their sexual minority status. It is not always easy for them to obtain the necessary social support to cope with these challenges. We used short-term longitudinal data from a survey of 197 lesbian and gay young adults (121 males and 76 females) to investigate how and to what extent the availability of confidants affects depression, hopelessness and self-esteem. We also investigated whether and to what extent mental health outcomes are related not only to initial levels of confidant support but also to changes regarding the availability of confidants. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and hierarch-ical stepwise regression analysis. Results showed that confidant support at base level correlated only with the perceived quality of lesbian and gay friendships and not with parental acceptance. Also, change in confidant support over time seemed to be more important than its initial levels.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
This article summarizes findings from two ongoing studies charting the development of 167 adolescent and young adult sexual-minority women. Resultsdocument considerable variation in the quality, relative distribution, and context of women's same-sex and other-sex attractions. Furthermore, contrary to conventional wisdom, the timing of a woman's first same-sex attractions is not systematically related to subsequent features of sexual identity development. Rather, the quality and context of a woman'searly attractions and behavior is more important. We argue that variability in sexual-minority and heterosexual women's development is best explained by interactions between personal characteristics and environmental contexts, and we urge future studies of the sexual-minority life course to include women with same-sex attractions that do not identify as lesbian or bisexual.
Chapter
Conceptually defining populations, such as those defined by race and ethnicity, and developing methods to identify members of those populations operationally have continually challenged researchers (LaVeist, 2002). Today, as scientists begin to treat sexual orientation as a demographic variable like race and ethnicity, it is important to examine critically and clarify our conceptualizations of sexual orientation as well as critically examine measures used for operationally identifying the sexual orientation of research subjects.
Chapter
Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) vary in sociodemographic characteristics such as cultural, ethnic or racial identity, age, education, income, and place of residence as well as in the degree to which their LGB identities are central to their self-definition, their level of affiliation with other LGB people, and their rejection or acceptance of societal stereotypes about and prejudice against homosexuality. In that diversity, it is difficult to describe many common themes. Despite the many differences that separate them, LGB people share remarkably similar experiences related to prejudice, stigma, discrimination, rejection, and violence directed toward them across cultures and locales (Espin, 1993; Fullilove & Fullilove, 1999; Herek, 2000; Diaz et al., 2001). Even after a historic U.S. Supreme Court ruling that the criminalization of homosexuality is unconstitutional, gay men and lesbians continue to be subjected to legal discrimination in housing, employment, and basic civil rights—most prominent in recent years are discrimination related to family law, including marriage and adoption.