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A new species of Paraboea (Gesneriaceae) from a karst cave in Guangxi, China, and observations on variations in flower and inflorescence architecture

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Abstract

A new species of Gesneriaceae, Paraboea trisepala W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui, from a karst cave in Guangxi, China is described and illustrated. The new species differs from other species of Paraboea by its three-lobed calyx. Variation in flower and inflorescence architecture was observed under cultivation. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 158, 681–688.

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... (Gesneriaceae), including about 90 species, mainly occurs in Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam (Xu et al. 2008). Recently, several new species have been published (Chen et al. 2008(Chen et al. , 2012Kiew 2010;Xu et al. 2012;Wen et al. 2013;He et al. 2018). Most of them are distributed in the karst regions in South China and Indo-China (Li 1987;Wang 1990;Xu 1993;Fang et al. 1995;Zhu et al. 2003;Li and Wang 2004;Shui and Chen 2006;Zhu 2007;Shui et al. 2017). ...
... From 2001 to 2005, during our botanical exploration to Caryota forests in karst areas in the southeast of Yunnan Province, China, we collected some species of the genus Paraboea in Gesneriaceae in Hekou County of SE Yunnan, China (Figure 1). Amongst them, one species with up to 0.9 m tall habit, produces a compound dichasium with hundreds of flowers (Shui and Chen 2006;Chen et al. 2008). With further observation, it is similar to P. glanduliflora Barnett in glandular hairs outside the corollas and different in the basal leaves (Wang et al. 2012). ...
... With further observation, it is similar to P. glanduliflora Barnett in glandular hairs outside the corollas and different in the basal leaves (Wang et al. 2012). After careful comparison with the other species of Paraboea in China (Li 1987;Wang 1990;Fang et al. 1995;Li and Wang 2004;Chen et al. 2008Chen et al. , 2012Chen et al. , 2017He et al. 2018) and bordering countries (Thúợngtiền 2000;Xu et al. 2008), we confirmed that the species represents an undescribed species of Paraboea in Gesneriaceae. After a complete examination to the main worldwide herbaria, we confirmed several additional specimens collected in the adjacent karst regions in China during the 2001-2018 period. ...
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Two new species of Gesneriaceae, Paraboea myriantha sp. nov. and P. brevipedunculata sp. nov. are described and illustrated with photos. They grow in the Caryota obtusa forests from Yunnan Province of China. P. myriantha is closely related to P. glutinosa (Hand.-Mazz.) K.Y.Pan, but differs mainly in corolla outside glandular-puberulent, adaxial corolla lobes semicordate, corolla tube obliquely campanulate, and filaments glandular-puberulent. P. brevipedunculata is closely related to P. crassifolia (Hemsley) B. L. Burtt, but different mainly in simple dichasia with 1 and 2 flowers, peduncles 0.5–2 cm long and capsules slightly twisted. The geographical relationship between the two new species and their similar species has been discussed.
... and Trisepalum C.B.Clarke (Puglisi et al. 2011), with the reduction of five taxa constituting the new genus Middletonia C.Puglisi (Puglisi et al. 2016). More than 30 new species have also been described since the revision by Xu et al. (2008), almost all narrowly distributed endemic from limestone karsts (Chen et al. 2008(Chen et al. , 2012Kiew 2010;Triboun andMiddleton 2012, 2015;Xu et al. 2012a;Triboun 2013;Wen et al. 2013;Puglisi et al. 2015;Guo et al. 2016;Wen and Wei 2016). Because a great proportion of Asian limestone karsts remain unexplored or underexplored, it is fully expected that additional new species of Paraboea will be unearthed given that further field investigations and herbarium work are conducted (Puglisi et al. 2015). ...
... During the course of extensive floristic surveys in limestone karsts of southern and southwestern China in recent years, we collected three species of Paraboea with spectacular flowers and/or fruits not known previously. After consulting the relevant literature (Burtt 1984;Wang et al. 1990Wang et al. , 1998Li and Wang 2004;Chen et al. 2008Chen et al. , 2012Xu et al. 2008Xu et al. , 2012aKiew 2010;Triboun and Middleton 2012;Wen et al. 2013;Guo et al. 2016;Wen and Wei 2016), as well as herbarium specimens of E, GXMI, HITBC, IBK, IBSC, KUN, and PE (herbarium acronyms according to Index Herbariorum; Thiers 2017), they were identified as three new species of Paraboea based on detailed examination of salient morphological and anatomical features and molecular phylogenetic analyses. ...
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Background The limestone karsts of Southeast Asia and South China are a major biodiversity hotspot of global terrestrial biomes. With more than 130 described species, Paraboea has become one of the most characteristic plant groups in the Southeast Asian limestone flora. During the course of extensive field work on the limestone formations of southern and southwestern China, three unknown species of Paraboea were collected. ResultsMolecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast trnL-F sequences strongly confirm the placements of the three new species in Paraboea sensu Puglisi et al. (Taxon 65:277–292. https://doi.org/10.12705/652.5, 2016). Moreover, these three novelties can be distinguished from known Paraboea species with distinct morphological characters, further supporting their recognition as new species. Conclusions With the support of detailed morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic analyses, Paraboea dushanensis, P. sinovietnamica and P. xiangguiensis are recognized as three species new to science.
... Paraboea includes at least 130 species distributed from South to Southwest China, Indo-China Peninsula to Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines ( Burtt 1948Burtt , 1984Xu and Burtt 1991;Xu et al. 2008Xu et al. , 2012Chen et al. 2008Chen et al. , 2012Kiew 2010;Puglisi et al. 2011;Triboun and Middleton 2012;Triboun 2013;Xu et al. 2012 Chen et al. 2008Chen et al. , 2012Xu et al. 2012;Wen et al. 2013). This region includes the Guangdong province, a global plant diversity hotspot, whose karst formations contribute to 3.5% (6, 208 km 2 ) of its total area ( Davis et al. 1995). ...
... Paraboea includes at least 130 species distributed from South to Southwest China, Indo-China Peninsula to Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines ( Burtt 1948Burtt , 1984Xu and Burtt 1991;Xu et al. 2008Xu et al. , 2012Chen et al. 2008Chen et al. , 2012Kiew 2010;Puglisi et al. 2011;Triboun and Middleton 2012;Triboun 2013;Xu et al. 2012 Chen et al. 2008Chen et al. , 2012Xu et al. 2012;Wen et al. 2013). This region includes the Guangdong province, a global plant diversity hotspot, whose karst formations contribute to 3.5% (6, 208 km 2 ) of its total area ( Davis et al. 1995). ...
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Paraboea yunfuensis F. Wen & Y.G. Wei (Gesneriaceae) is described as a new species endemic to the Guangdong Province, China. This species is one of two peltate-leaved Paraboea species in China. It is distinguished from the similar-looking P. peltifolia by the presence of longer pedicel and filaments, shorter staminodes, linearlanceolate calyx lobes, and an indumentum on peduncles, pedicels, and calyx lobes. A detailed description, photographs of a specimen from the type location, and a table of comparative characters are provided.
... It was then revised by Burtt (1984) who separated the genus based on differences in indumentum, but it has now been redefined to accommodate species from Trisepalum Clarke (1883: 138) and Phylloboea Bentham (1876Bentham ( : 1020, following a molecular phylogenetic study (Puglisi et al. 2011). The genus currently includes 120 species (Puglisi et al. 2010) and is known from southern China, northeastern India, the eastern Himalayas, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia east to Sulawesi, occurring mostly in limestone karst habitats (Burtt 1984, Xu & Burtt 1991, Xu et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2008, Kiew 2010, David 2010, Puglisi et al. 2011, Xu et al. 2012. In China and Taiwan 21 species are currently known to occur, of which eleven taxa are endemic (Li et al. 2004, Wei et al. 2010, Xu et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2012. ...
... The genus currently includes 120 species (Puglisi et al. 2010) and is known from southern China, northeastern India, the eastern Himalayas, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia east to Sulawesi, occurring mostly in limestone karst habitats (Burtt 1984, Xu & Burtt 1991, Xu et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2008, Kiew 2010, David 2010, Puglisi et al. 2011, Xu et al. 2012. In China and Taiwan 21 species are currently known to occur, of which eleven taxa are endemic (Li et al. 2004, Wei et al. 2010, Xu et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2008, Chen et al. 2012. Until now four species have been recorded from Guangdong Province (Zheng et al. 2005, Li et al. 2004, Wei et al. 2010. ...
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A new species of Gesneriaceae, Paraboea tetrabracteata, growing in rocky crevices on a limestone hill in Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to P. rufescens and P. dictyoneura in leaf and flower shape, but can be distinguished by undulate to faintly sinuate blade margins, 3-6 lateral veins on each side, petioles 0.4-1.3 cm, peduncles 4-9 cm, 4 narrowly oblong-ovate bracts, calyx narrowly oblong to lanceolate or linear, a purplish corolla tube, 2 staminodes and straight fruits.
... The southeastern Asian karst limestones are a unique geological formation and also of great conservation importance, because of its species richness and high level of endemic plants (Clements 2006, Williams 2008. Many new taxa of Gesneriaceae were recently discovered and published from subtropical and tropical limestone areas of south-east Asia (Chen et al. 2008, Wei et al. 2010, Middleton & Möller 2012, Rafidah 2019, Li et al. 2019, Sirimongkol et al. 2019, Nguyen et al. 2019. In Vietnam, karst limestone landforms mainly occur in the north and centre, with a small area at Ha Tien-Kien Luong, Kien Giang province, in the south. ...
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Pseudochirita trifoliata, a new Gesneriaceae species from Pu Luong-Cuc Phuong limestone mountain range in northern Vietnam is described and illustrated here. This new taxon is the second species of the narrowly endemic genus Pseudochirita which is known from limestone areas in southern China and northern Vietnam. It is easily distinguished from P. guangxiensis by a set of differences on the leaves, bracts, calyx, external corolla indumentum, staminode number, pistil length, ovary indumentum, style indumentum, and capsule length. A detailed description, illustration, information on distribution, ecology, phenology, provisional conservation assessment using IUCN categories and criteria of the proposed new species, and comparison with its similar species, are also provided.
... Morphological observations and dissections of plant material of this new species were made under a stereoscopic microscope and measured and described using the terminology used by Wang et al. (1998). The literature examined included related monographs and papers (e.g., Wood 1974;Wang et al. 1998;Li and Wang 2004;Weber 2004;Haston and De Craene 2007;Chen et al. 2008;Wei et al. 2010). Specimens stored in herbaria in China, Vietnam, the United States and the United Kingdom (E, GH, HN, IBK, K, KUN, MO, PE, PH, US and VNMN) were examined. ...
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Primulina jiuyishanica K. Liu, D.C. Meng & Z.B. Xin, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Hunan, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to Primulina fimbrisepala (Hand.-Mazz.) Yin Z. Wang, but differs in its elliptic to broadly elliptic leaf blade with broadly cuneate base, peduncle densely pubescent with sparse glandular hairs, corolla throat with no purple spots inside, the yellow patch in the throat densely glandular-pubescent and pistil densely glandular-pubescent. Photographs and descriptions of the new species are provided below.
... To date, Paraboea (C.B.Clarke) Ridley contains approximately 142 species and is distributed in southern China, northeastern India, the eastern Himalayas, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia east to Sulawesi, occurring mostly in limestone regions (Xu and Burtt 1991;Xu 1994;Li and Wang 2004;Xu et al. 2008;Chen et al. 2008;Puglisi et al. 2011;Xu et al. 2012;Wen et al. 2013;Xu et al. 2017a;Puglisi and Phutthai 2018). Xu et al. (2017b) summarised that there are ca. ...
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Here we describe Paraboea dolomitica Z.Y. Li, X.G. Xiang & Z.Y. Guo, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guizhou, China. Based on recent extensive observations, this new species is morphologically similar to Paraboea filipes (Hance) Burtt, in having obovate leaf blades, 1–4-flowered cymes and purplish corolla, but differs from that species by the combination of denticulate leathery leaves, sparsely brown haired peduncles, two woolly bracts, reniform anthers and two glabrous staminodes. Additionally, molecular data support this new species as a member of a clade that includes P. crassifolia , P. tetrabracteata , P. peltifolia , P. vetutina , P. dushanensis , P. dictyoneura , P xiangguiensis and P. guilinensis , but it is distinct from them in leaf position, inflorescence, penduncle, bract and capsule. The conservation status of this species is considered to be “Vulnerable” (VU) according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
... Paraboea was revised by Xu et al. (2008) but since then the genus has been considerably enlarged through the inclusion of Trisepalum C.B.Clarke and Phylloboea Benth. (Puglisi et al., 2011) and by the description of many more species (Chen et al., 2008;Kiew, 2010Kiew, , 2012Chen et al., 2012;Triboun & Middleton, 2012;Xu et al., 2012;Triboun, 2013;Wen et al., 2013). There are now over 130 species in the genus with many species being very locally endemic (Xu et al., 2008) which brings with it conservation concerns (Xu et al., 2008;Triboun & Middleton, 2012). ...
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A new species, Paraboea maculata C.Puglisi, is described. It is compared to similar species and the habitat on granite rocks, unusual for the genus, is highlighted.
... Many new taxa of this genus have been discovered and published in recent years (Chen et al. 2008, Kiew 2010, Wei et al. 2010, Chen et al. 2012, Wen et al. 2013, Wen and Wei 2016. Paraboea is restricted to Asia and includes about 130+ species (Weber 2004, Wen andWei 2016). ...
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Paraboea wenshanensis is a new species of Gesneriaceae from Yunnan, China and is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically similar to P. angustifolia, P. martinii and P. glutinosa, but the congeners of this new taxon can be distinguished by several salient characters. A description of P. wenshanensis, together with illustrations and photographs, a distribution map and conservation assessment are presented.
... Paraboea (C.B.Clarke) Ridl. is one of the larger genera in the Gesneriaceae (Weber, 2004) and has recently been revised by Xu et al. (2008) who recognised 89 species and five varieties. Since the publication of the revision three more species have been described (Chen et al., 2008;Kiew, 2010). In addition the genera Phylloboea Benth. ...
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A new species of Gesneriaceae, Ancylostemon hekouensis Y.M. Shui & W.H. Chen, is described and illustrated from Yunnan, China. The new species is similar to A. notochlaenus (H. Léveillé & Vaniot) Craib in the leaves and flower shape, but differs by its longer calyx lobes and longer corolla lobes.
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 The inflorescence development in Whytockia has been studied in order to explore the developmental basis for inflorescence architecture. The developmental pattern of the pair-flowered cyme in Whytockia basically conforms to that of most members in Gesneriaceae. However, the additional flower beside the terminal one in Whytockia is not equivalent to the frontal flower as in other Gesneriaceae because the former is located in the front-lateral position while the latter is in the front-median position. Also, the zigzag monochasial branching system in Whytockia represents the consecutive front-lateral branches rather than the lateral branches as in other Gesneriaceae. The inflorescence in Whytockia is flowering in a basipetal sequence, and its seemingly acropetal flowering sequence is due to the vigorous development of the consecutive front-lateral branches. In addition, the inflorescence of Whytockia does not represent the basic unit of the inflorescence in Epithemateae, and it is derived as compared to that of Rhynchoglossum. The development relationships of the inflorescence between Whytockia and its allies in Epithemateae are discussed on the basis of developmental and comparative evidence.
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Article
Homology assessment of cycloidea -like genes was carried out in Gesneriaceae, a predominantly zygomorphic family in which several independent reversals to actinomorphy have occurred, as a basis for further investigation of the control and evolution of floral symmetry. Phylogenetic analysis of Gesneriaceae cycloidea(Gcyc) suggests that independent duplication and gene loss events have occurred during the evolution of this family after the split from Scrophulariaceae. Comparison of Gcyc sequences between zygomorphic and naturally occurring actinomorphic taxa does not suggest that reversals to actinomorphy were caused in these cases by loss of function of cyc -like genes. Examination of floral development in the nearly actinomorphic Ramonda myconi did not reveal any evidence of residual unequal dorso-ventral differentiation indicative of expression of Gcyc. This suggests that Gcyc may be expressed before primordia initiation in R. myconi, or may have additional functions not directly related to floral symmetry. Copyright 2000 Annals of Botany Company
Article
Dorsoventral asymmetry in flowers is thought to have evolved many times from a radially symmetrical ancestral condition. The first gene controlling floral asymmetry, cycloidea in Antirrhinum, has been isolated. The cycloidea gene is expressed at a very early stage in dorsal regions of floral meristems, where it affects growth rate and primordium initiation. Expression continues through to later stages in dorsal primordia to affect the asymmetry, size and cell types of petals and stamens.
Article
The asymmetric shape of the Antirrhinum corolla is determined by genes acting differentially along the dorsoventral axis of the flower. Genes so far identified determine asymmetry by acting in dorsal regions. We describe a gene, divaricata, which in contrast to previously identified genes acts in ventral regions of the flower. We show by the analysis of mutant combinations that the divaricata gene is negatively regulated by the dorsal genes cycloidea and dichotoma. In addition, we show by the analysis of chromosomal duplications that the divaricata gene acts in a dosage-dependent manner, suggesting that the level of its product is critical for determining ventral identities.
Article
Gesneriaceae is a pantropical plant family with over 3000 species. A great variety of pollination mechanisms have been reported for the neotropical members of the family, but the details of buzz-pollination and enantiostyly for the family have not been described. We investigated the floral biology and pollination ecology of Paraboea rufescens in Xishuangbanna, south-west China, considering three aspects: (1) the type of enantiostyly exhibited; (2) whether the species is self-compatible; and (3) whether pollinator behaviour could enhance the precision of pollen transfer between flowers of contrasting stylar orientation. Flowering phenology was monitored once a month during vegetative growth, and once a week during flowering both in the field and under cultivation. Pollination manipulations and pollinator observation in the field were conducted. Anthesis occurred early during the morning, and flowers remained open for 1-5 d, depending on weather conditions. Controlled pollinations revealed that P. rufescens is self-compatible, and exhibited inbreeding depression in seed set. Plants were pollinator limited in natural populations. The similar stylar deflection among flowers within a plant limits autonomous self-pollination as well as pollination between flowers. Two species of bumble bees (Bombus spp.), Amegila malaccensis and Nomia sp. effectively pollinated P. rufescens. These pollinators visited flowers in search of pollen with almost the same frequency. None of the pollinators appeared to discriminate between left- or right-handed flowers. Paraboea rufescens exhibits monomorphic enantiostylous flowers and a buzz-pollination syndrome. Floral morphology in P. rufescens and pollinator foraging behaviour seems likely to reduce self-pollination and pollinations between flowers of the same stylar deflection.
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