Article

Overall Successful Aging: Its Factorial Structure and Predictive Factors

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Abstract

As the concept of successful ageing (SA) tends to take different meanings among researchers, there is a lack of consensus on how to measure SA. In order to address this gap, the present study aims to explore the factor structure of SA involving SA indicators presented in the literature. Using Americans’ Changing Lives study (ACL), a second-order confirmatory factor analysis on factors constituting an overall SA measure and a SEM regression model to examine the predictive factors of the overall SA measure were estimated. A second-order confirmatory factor model including three latent constructs of SA – Physical Domain (diseases, functional health, and physical activity), Mental Domain (depression, self-efficacy, and cognitive impairment), and Social Domain (formal social integration, informal social integration, and social support) – fits the data properly. The findings of a SEM regression model replicates the findings of previous SA research, suggesting the overall SA latent construct is a valid measure for SA.

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... 이와 (Jeong, 2008;Kahng, 2008;Yoon & Yoo, 2006 (Jeong, 2008;Kahng, 2008;Kim, 2008;Yoon & Yoo, 2006). 우리나라에서는 특히 년 이 2000 후 학문적 관심이 커지고 있다 성공적 노화에 대한 선 . ...
... 이와 (Jeong, 2008;Kahng, 2008;Yoon & Yoo, 2006 (Jeong, 2008;Kahng, 2008;Kim, 2008;Yoon & Yoo, 2006). 우리나라에서는 특히 년 이 2000 후 학문적 관심이 커지고 있다 성공적 노화에 대한 선 . ...
... 행연구에서 일부 성공적인 노화에 영향을 미치는 요인 이 탐색 되었다 성공적 노 (Hong, 2005;Kahng, 2008). ...
Article
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate successful aging (SA) in elderly individuals and to determine the factors that influence SA. Methods: The subjects included 207 elderly individuals from D city, Korea. The data were obtained between July 1 and August 30, 2008. The participants were assured of anonymity and confidentiality. For the evaluation, Kim & Shin's SA scale, Lawton's instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale, Jon's self-esteem scale, Kee's geriatric depression scale short form-Korean (GDSSF-K), and Hong's productive activities scale were used. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficients; multiple regression analysis was performed using the SPSS/WIN 10.0 program. Results: The maximum score for SA was 34, and the mean score was 22.62. It was found that SA was significantly correlated to IADL, self-esteem, depression, and productive activity. Depression was the most powerful predictor of SA and it accounted for 40.6% of the total variance in SA. Self-esteem, productive activity, living situation, economic status, and age together accounted for 62.1% of the total variation in SA. Conclusion: Depression, self-esteem, and productive activity were identified as variables that influence SA. On the basis of these results, we conclude that nurses should assist elderly individuals in order to facilitate SA. Moreover, individualized nursing management strategies must be developed in order to facilitate SA.
... Fiske, Kitayama, Markus and Nisbett (1998) argue that European-Americans are more likely to value independence in contrast to East Asians who value interdependence. Previous scholars noted the cognitive domain is the most important indicator of SA among the elderly in Western countries (Kahng, 2008;Pietrzak, Tsai, Kirwin & Southwick, 2014;Gutiérrez, Tomás & Calatayud, 2018). It may be that such cultural differences lead to different core constructs of SA. ...
... Thai older individuals can be described as aging successfully when they have fewer chronic diseases or disabilities, better physical and cognitive functioning, and are more actively engaged in life. Furthermore, consistent with previous literature (Kahng, 2008;Rowe & Kahn, 1998;, the findings reveal that many measures significantly contribute to SA suggesting they are good indicators of their respective domains. However, some observed variables do not have a strong relationship with their respective domains (i.e., giving and receiving support) suggesting that they are poorly measured indicators of continuing engagement with life among Thai older people. ...
... The findings of these studies and the current one differ, however, from those conducted in other countries. For example, in the U.S., the cognitive domain is the most salient aspect of SA (Kahng, 2008;Pietrzak et al., 2014). Similarly, in a study among the elderly in Spain, Gutiérrez et al. (2018) discover that the cognitive domain has the strongest link to SA. ...
Article
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Objectives: This research aims to examine the components of Rowe and Kahn’s model of successful aging as applied to the Thai population who are categorized as: young-old (60-69), old-old (70-79), and oldest-old (80 and over). Method: The study is based on the Survey of Older Persons in Thailand of the National Statistical Office, 2011 (n = 24,433). Confirmatory Factor Analysis is used to test whether Rowe and Kahn’s model, which comprises three domains - avoiding disease and disability, maintaining physical and cognitive functioning, and continuing engagement with life, is confirmed by these data. Multiple group analysis is performed to determine factor loading differences among age groups. Results: Rowe and Kahn’s model has a good statistical fit when applied to data of the current study. Factor loadings for three age groups is statistically different (p<0.001). Of the three domains, continuing engagement with life is the domain most strongly associated with successful aging, particularly among the old-old and the oldest-old. Implications: Programs to support health and social engagement should be promoted and enhancing active engagement should be a priority since older Thai people have low levels of social participation.
... The Functional Health Index, previously used in several studies (Janke et al., 2006;Kahng, 2008), was created from individual variables measuring bed-or chairbound status, self-bathing difficulties, difficulty climbing stairs, difficulty walking several blocks, and difficulty doing heavy housework. The index was scaled such that respondents who reported being functionally impaired on bed or bath were not asked about the next lower levels of impairment, and so on. ...
... Cases missing data on more than 50% of input items were imputed using an OLS regression technique. This measure has been used in previous studies (e.g., Janke et al., 2006;Kahng, 2008). The index score was dichotomized such that participants with standardized scores ≥0 (the same or improved CES-D scores from Wave I to Wave IV; reference group) were compared with those with standardized scores below 0 (worse scores in Wave IV compared with Wave I). ...
Article
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The authors examined factors related to participation in walking, gardening or yard work, and sports or exercise in 686 community-dwelling adults 60-95 years of age from Wave IV of the population-based Americans' Changing Lives Study. Logistic regression revealed that male gender, being married, and better functional health were associated with greater likelihood of participating in gardening or yard work (p < .05). Male gender, better functional health, and lower body-mass index were independently associated with greater likelihood of walking (p < .05). Increasing age, male gender, higher education, and better functional health were associated with greater likelihood of participating in sports or exercise (p < .05). Subsequent analyses yielded an interaction of functional health by gender in sport or exercise participation (p = .06), suggesting a greater association between functional health and participation in men. Gender and functional health appear to be particularly important for physical activity participation, which may be useful in guiding future research. Attention to different subgroups may be needed to promote participation in specific activities.
... To ensure that a broad range of current SA operationalizations were evaluated in our study, we relied on previous studies that examined the dimensionality of SA (Kahng, 2008;Lee, Lan, & Yen, 2011;Pruchno, Wilson-Genderson, & Cartwright, 2010;Tyrovolas et al., 2014) as well as on the review by Cosco and colleagues (2014), which identified physiological, social, and well-being facets as the most frequently used components of SA. From these facets, we formed five SA definitions: a general SA construct: a psychophysiological construct (exclusion of social facet); a psychosocial construct (exclusion of physiological facet), a physiosocial construct (exclusion of well-being facet); and, a purely physiological SA construct (exclusion of wellbeing and social facets). ...
... The present study compared five different SA operationalizations in a sample of German general practice patients aged 75 years and older, using psychometric construct validation with CFA. The SA operationalizations included different combinations of the physiological (physical illness, health problems, mental disorder, functionality, cognition), social engagement (social activities and social support) and well-being (negative affect and satisfaction with life) facets of SA that are frequently used for its operationalization (Cosco et al., 2014;Kahng, 2008;Lee et al., 2011;Pruchno et al., 2010;Tyrovolas et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background and objectives: We examined the validity of 5 successful aging (SA) operationalizations that assessed different facets of the SA construct (cognitive and physical health and disability; well-being; social engagement). Research design and methods: A total of 2,478 participants (mean age = 82.5 years, standard deviation [SD] = 3.47) were studied. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the relationships between facets and to determine the convergent validity as well as short-term (1.5 years) and long-term (4.5 years) predictive validity of the 5 SA operationalizations for measures of quality of life (QoL) and objective health outcomes. Results: A general SA operationalization that included all SA facets but also allowed differences between them showed the best model fit and construct validity. A biomedical operationalization of SA that excluded either the well-being or the social engagement facet showed lower convergent and predictive validity for subjective measures (e.g., QoL) but higher associations with objective measures (e.g., health). A purely psychosocial SA operationalization that excluded the physiological facet did not allow good prediction of objective health outcomes. Discussion and implications: Our results suggest that a well-balanced SA operationalization should include measures assessing health, disability, well-being, and social engagement.
... Previous studies have emphasized the need for qualitative research to gain indepth insight into old people's representations and experience of aging (Torres and Hammarström 2009) as opposed to a mainly quantitative approach applied up till now (Byrnes and Dillaway 2004). The present research brings its contribution by lending support to existing models of successful aging: being healthy and engaged with life Kahn 1997, 1998), enjoying good physical, mental and social health (Kahng 2008) and successfully adapting to aging (SOC; Baltes and Baltes 1990;Schulz and Heckhausen 1996). Moreover, it highlights new aspects such as deriving social support from religious beliefs and the importance of adaptive cognitive coping mechanisms in dealing with aging problems. ...
Article
Latest statistics show that the number of elderly individuals has increased in Romania but little is known about their perceptions of ageing and their strategies in coping with this issue. The present study set out to explore representations, experiences and perceptions of aging in Romanian elders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 men and 11 women, aged 65 to 90 years old. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants had predominantly negative representations of old age, associating it with illness, loneliness, disability and lack of purpose in life and needing a high amount of social support. However, elders talked about how one could be happy in old age by undergoing a continuous learning process, planning for a future and accepting one’s past and present. Findings show that the elderly have a negative view of ageing and old age but also have representations of how to age well. Results can inform interventions for promoting health assets for successful aging.
... 1,2 Helping elders to age successfully is important not only for improving the quality of life of elders, but it is also important for the well-being of their family as well as the society as a whole. 3 Old age is seen as the period of life that is associated with wisdom, philanthropic attitude, and spirituality. Spiritual practices seem to help an individual cope with various aging-related illnesses and losses and help them build up in themselves an important resource for resilience. ...
Article
Subjective memory complaints are very common among elderly. They can be due to depression, cognitive decline, or be a part of normal aging process. Spirituality is another important dimension in elderly, and it is believed to help them cope with various adversities. This study was done to find out whether any relation exists between these 2 variables in elderly. A total of 120 elderly individuals, presenting with subjective memory complaints, were divided into 3 groups - controls, elderly with depression, and elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Spirituality in them was studied by dividing it into the subdomains of self-transcendence, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, and locus of control. Spirituality was the highest in controls, followed by MCI group, and then depression group. Spirituality had a direct negative relationship with severity of depression, while relationship of spirituality with severity of cognitive decline was more complex. Relationship of spirituality with mental health status in elderly patients seemed bidirectional, that is, cause as well as effect relationship. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Pero también ha aparecido un nuevo matiz, el de la desigual importancia que el ocio tiene en españoles y taiwaneses. Explicar la satisfacción de las personas mayores es un objetivo de primera magnitud, pues contribuir a que envejezcan satisfactoriamente no es solo importante para su propia calidad de vida, sino para la de sus familias y la sociedad (Kahng, 2008). ...
Article
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Increasingly, research on the aging process tends to adopt a dual perspective emic (specific to a culture) and etic (universal), requiring further studies to address this cross-cultural approach. The aim is to obtain an empirical answer to the question of whether a model of successful aging raised from a different context such as the Taiwanese context, is suitable to represent this process in our elders. The sample consisted of 737 elderly. Socio-demographic-data and different scales to assess life satisfaction, leisure, health, and social support were collected. A structural equation model taken from Lee et al. (2011), in which leisure, health and social support predicted life satisfaction, was tested. Results showed a proper fit. In particular, it was observed that, in the context of other factors theoretically influential -health and social support-, this new aspect of how older people manage their leisure time, although explanatory, is not such a determining factor as in the study of reference.
... For the elderly, leisure activities play an important role in social interaction, health promotion, health care, and the prevention of social isolation [22]. Research has shown that leisure activities are important for good health in old age [23] because they can help to improve quality of life for the elderly, their families, and their communities [24], and help them to cope with stress [25]. Therefore, leisure activities play an important role in elderly people's life satisfaction, mental health, and quality of life. ...
Article
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This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging. The results show that, while consumers with different awarenesses of virtual reality leisure activities have different decision-making processes, they share creating "good memories" as the terminal value with the most significant effect. This presents a potential opportunity to promote virtual reality leisure activities. Relevant bodies or enterprises can seek to create good memories in consumers by developing activities that are safe and fun, promote good health, and provide good service, thereby attracting the interest of elderly consumers.
... Sin embargo, estos trabajos previos se han centrado principalmente en personas jóvenes y de mediana edad, por lo que el uso de la RV entre turistas mayores ha sido poco estudiado hasta la fecha. Respecto a lo segundo, diversos trabajos empíricos han demostrado que la participación en actividades de ocio puede beneficiar a las personas mayores de 65 años en la prevención del aislamiento social (Tinsley & Croskeys, 2002), desempeñando un papel importante en su salud mental y calidad de vida (Kahng, 2008). Así, el uso de la RV puede ayudar a estas personas a disfrutar de actividades de ocio, aunque impliquen una actividad física (como recorrer la ciudad a pie, deportes, etc.) que pueden no realizar actualmente debido a algún impedimento físico. ...
... Previous research, however, has only focused on young and middle-age tourist, and the role that VR plays among senior tourists is quite unknown. Regarding the second, several empirical studies have shown that the participation in leisure activities can benefit older adults in prevention of social isolation (Tinsley & Croskeys, 2002), playing an important role in mental health, and quality of life (Kahng, 2008). In this sense, the use of VR can help them to enjoy leisure activities, especially those involving a physical activity (such as going about the city on foot, sports and so on). ...
Conference Paper
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Virtual reality (VR) has an increasing impact on the tourism industry, thus a growing number of destinations have begun to adopt this technology to create a more immersive experience for visitors (Wei et al., 2019). VR is very effective as a tourist attraction (Marasco et al., 2018) and in the context of cultural heritage tourism it can be used as a powerful tool to improve the user experience in museums or art galleries, get attention to the particular destination and even help to avoid the degradation of cultural heritage sites (Han et al., 2018). Additionally, the use of VR by elderly people in the tourism sector can aim to a twofold objective: promoting a specific tourism destination among this segment and offering entertainment during the experience. Regarding the former, VR as a marketing tool to promote tourism destinations has recently received much academic attention (Wei, 2019). It has been found that this technology can help customers to make better informed decisions and have more realistic expectations about their future vacation, which in turn may lead to a more satisfactory experience (Guttentag, 2010). Previous research, however, has only focused on young and middle-age tourist, and the role that VR plays among senior tourists is quite unknown. Regarding the second, several empirical studies have shown that the participation in leisure activities can benefit older adults in prevention of social isolation (Tinsley & Croskeys, 2002), playing an important role in mental health, and quality of life (Kahng, 2008). In this sense, the use of VR can help them to enjoy leisure activities, especially those involving a physical activity (such as going about the city on foot, sports and so on). It is much easier for older people to get involved in VR leisure activities than in physical ones (Jeng et al., 2017). To enrich the current understanding of the impacts of VR in the promotion of cultural heritage tourism, and to better understand the VR technology usage behaviour of older consumers, this research aims to identify the factors that influence their acceptance and usage of VR for cultural heritage tourism experiences.
... In addition to the above, one of the most important applications of VR is to improve the quality of life in the elderly through sport, exercises and leisure activities in a safe and virtual environment [24], since they deal with some physical and mental disabilities, they have problems with their social relationships which may lead to loneliness [25]. While leisure activities are crucial to maintaining good health at an early age, VR as an alternative solution can help older people do leisure activities indoors without worrying about outside constraints or weather conditions. ...
Article
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With the increasing population of the elderly, the use of new solutions and technologies to assist their rehabilitation in physical and mental disorders seems vital. One of the new technologies that has been successfully applied in helping the elderly is Virtual Reality (VR). Considering real-world problems and limitations for old people, this technology helps them to cope with their disorders and to control or treat them as much as possible. Also, it may help them to perform a variety of motivational activities without the help of others. This work presents an overview of the recent advances in the research on using VR for helping the elderlies.
... Participation in recreational activities can have a positive impact on the mental health of the elderly and improve their quality of life [40,41]. These activities also contribute to improving social interaction, promoting health and preventing isolation [42]. It also helps deal with stress, improves life satisfaction and mental health [43]. ...
Article
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Background: It is well known that advancing age is accompanied by many negative feelings due to the feeling of loneliness and psychological emptiness, which leads to the individual feeling that society does not need him due to his weak physical abilities and thus this, will negatively affect healthy aging. Objective: The study aimed to investigate the effect of the leisure activities on the psychological stress among the elderly during Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak. Design: To achieve this, we used the quasi-experimental approach on a sample consisting of 54, with the average age of (65.4±2.3) years. Divided into two groups 27 as a control group and 27 as the experimental group and this sample was purposively selected. Because of the home quarantine and to reduce face-to-face interaction, we used a questionnaire to measure the psychological stress level by using the Google form. The study tool consisted of 7 paragraphs associated with depression and 6 paragraphs associated with anxiety, finally 6 paragraphs associated with aggression. Before applying the experiment, the psychological stress was measured among the study sample, and then the leisure activities program was sent to the experimental group by the WhatsApp application. The researchers used means, standard deviations, paired and independent sample t-test by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95% (p<0.05). Results: The results of the study have shown that the level of the psychological stress among both groups came with a high average in the pre-measurement, as well as the anxiety domain that were the most affected in a positive way through leisure activities practicing. Additionally, there were statistically significant differences between the pre and post measurement among experiment group and favor of the post measurement. Conclusion: the leisure activities practicing among the elderly have contributed positively to reducing the level of psychological stress represented by depression, anxiety.
... Pero también ha aparecido un nuevo matiz, el de la desigual importancia que el ocio tiene en españoles y taiwaneses. Explicar la satisfacción de las personas mayores es un objetivo de primera magnitud, pues contribuir a que envejezcan satisfactoriamente no es solo importante para su propia calidad de vida, sino para la de sus familias y la sociedad (Kahng, 2008). ...
Article
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Cada vez más, la investigación sobre el proceso de envejecimiento tiende a adoptar una doble perspectiva emic (específico a una cultura) y etic (universal), necesitándose más estudios que atiendan un enfoque transcultural. El objetivo es obtener respuesta empírica a la pregunta de si un modelo de envejecimiento con éxito planteado desde un contexto diferente como es el taiwanés, es adecuado para representar este proceso en nuestros mayores. La muestra estuvo formada por 737 personas mayores. Se recabaron datos de variables socio-demográficas y diversas escalas para evaluar satisfacción con la vida, ocio, salud y apoyo social. Se puso a prueba un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales tomado de Lee et al. (2011), en el que ocio, salud y apoyo social predecían satisfacción con la vida. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron un ajuste adecuado. En concreto, se observó que, en el marco de otros factores que teóricamente influyentes -salud y apoyo social-, este novedoso aspecto sobre cómo las personas mayores gestionan su tiempo de ocio, aunque explicativo, no es un factor tan determinante como en el estudio de referencia.
Article
In this study, we examine the behavioral intentions of the elderly, with regard to experiencing virtual reality leisure activities, and propose a new experience model with experience value as a mediating variable. We gathered 294 effective samples consisting of elderly people. Each elderly respondent experienced the activities for ten weeks. The results show that experience value is not only able to effectively predict behavioral intentions (including purchases and ongoing participation), but it is also a mediating variable in the relationship between experience quality and behavioral intentions. These findings fully confirm the importance of “giving consumers a satisfaction experience” advocated in the literature on the experience economy. The present study also shows that experience seeking and experience quality both have a significant positive relationship with experience value, and that experience value in turn influences behavioral intentions, providing empirical support for the conceptualization of virtual reality leisure activity for elderly people.
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This article presents a theoretical review on aging, moving from a biomedical perspective focused on deficit and loss, towards a perspective that promotes aging generatively, integrating the cultural and psychosocial implications of “good living” in the Chilean context. This approach seeks to promote an education for life (De Souza, 2011), through the emergence of behaviors and relational dynamics based on a multidimensional and heterogeneous conception of human development, prompting awareness of how people can take charge of themselves (Escobar, Franco & Duque, 2011) to the extent that they develop generative behaviors, achieving a sense of integrity, autonomy and maturity throughout the life cycle. For this, a set of cultural practices and generative actions are systematized, such as the maintenance of healthy lifestyles (González & De la Fuente, 2014), the permanent cognitive and emotional stimulation (Brown, Peiffer & Martins, 2013), the self-care (Hernández, 2019), attention to requests of help and care of their peers (Erikson, 2000), as factors that would contribute to their active involvement in their communities, promoting the recognition and evaluation of the elderly as human being autonomous and flexible, capable of contributing with their experience and wisdom in the construction of an inclusive, respectful and fair society.
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This study is to verify and analyze the influencing factors of successful aging with social support, self-efficacy and subjective health status on middle-aged women from an aesthetic point of view. The survey was performed to the women between the ages of 50 and 64 in Seoul and Kyunggi province, Korea. 321 questionnaires were collected and analyzed by SPSS 18.0 program. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of successful aging. The most influencing factor for successful aging was social support, the second was self-efficacy, the third was subjective health status. This regression model explained 56.7% of the variance in successful aging. The result shows it can be an important consideration in intervention and program of successful aging for middle-aged women. Our investigation of this study may provide the basic data for the knowledge system of aesthetic theory including the arena of physical, psychological and social health.
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Objectives: To characterize the inclusion of cognition in definitions of successful aging (SA) according to empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Methods: A systematic review across ISI Web of Knowledge. Results: Of the 74 included studies, there were 65 studies (87.8%) analyzing cognition as one component of multicomponent SA model (cognitive component studies), and 9 studies (12.2%) focusing solely on successful cognitive aging (SCA studies). Most of the studies operationalized cognition in SA by defining SA group and analyzing single SA indicators. A minority of the studies calculated the SA index. Finally, emergent techniques to operationalize SA as a latent variable and emergent field of cognition in SA in pathology were identified. Conclusions: The results highlight that cognition is being included in SA using different levels of complexity. Even though research investigating SA in pathology is emerging, there is currently a lack of utilization of the concept in pathological and at-risk populations. Clinical implications: The current research of cognition in SA provides several valid options to evaluate if a person is aging successfully. The emerging research indicates that people from at-risk and pathological populations can age successfully.
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Aim: To investigate the conditions of successful ageing in Taiwan. Methods: The respondents included two age groups, namely, 45-64 years (n = 1143), and 65 years and older (n = 1309), from a cross-section national representative survey conducted in 2007. Results: Older people faced more problems that cause depression than their counterparts. Eleven per cent of older people were in the labour market. Neither middle-aged people nor older people were actively involved in volunteer services. Those who lived longer had less social support. Over 50% felt their financial preparations for later life were not adequate. Educational levels and family income were the significant factors affecting the levels of successful ageing. Conclusions: Improvement in the four dimensions of successful ageing must be re-emphasised for both age groups.
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The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and leisure activity. Structural equation modeling analysis shows in addition to the three supporting variables, leisure activities is a significant factor related to successful aging process. The findings of the study verified that the proposed model is well supported by the data and fits well for both female and male populations. The findings of the study also suggest that, for gerontological researchers, leisure activities of old people deserve their attention when helping the old generation age well.
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The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and social problems related to depression, schizophrenia, social anxiety, and borderline personality disorder and consider how the emotional disturbances related to these disorders disrupt interactions and relationships, thus contributing further to the maintenance of the disorder. They conclude by discussing research strategies relevant to the study of emotion, social interaction, and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To lay the foundation for our model, we first describe existing conceptions of successful aging, underlying assumptions of development, and criteria for success. The model presented extends the discourse on this topic in three directions: (a) It frames the discussion of successful aging in the broader context of life course development; (b) it accounts for both normative and nonnormative (i.e., exceptional) success; and (c) it integrates motivational processes into a theory of successful aging. Successful aging is equated with the development and maintenance of primary control throughout the life course, which is achieved through control-related processes that optimize selection and failure compensation functions. Selection processes regulate the choice of action goals so that diversity is maintained and positive and negative trade-offs between performance domains and life stages are taken into account. Compensation mechanisms serve to maintain, enhance, and remediate competencies and motivational resources after failure experiences. Both compensation and selection processes are motivated by desires for primary control and can be characterized in terms of primary and secondary control processes.
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The usefulness of self-reported processes of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) for predicting on a correlational level the subjective indicators of successful aging was examined. The sample of Berlin residents was a subset of the participants of the Berlin Aging Study. Three domains (marked by 6 variables) served as outcome measures of successful aging: subjective well-being, positive emotions, and absence of feelings of loneliness. Results confirm the central hypothesis of the SOC model: People who reported using SOC-related life-management behaviors (which were unrelated in content to the outcome measures) had higher scores on the 3 indicators of successful aging. The relationships obtained were robust even after controlling for other measures of successful mastery such as personal life investment, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, control beliefs, intelligence, subjective health, or age.
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Successful aging is a worldwide aim, but it is less clear which indicators characterize elderly persons as successfully aged. We explored the meaning of successful aging from 2 perspectives. Analysis of data from the first cross-sectional part of the longitudinal Leiden 85-plus Study, conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands. All inhabitants of Leiden aged 85 years were eligible. Data were obtained from 599 participants (response rate, 87%). Successful aging from a public health perspective was defined as a state of being. All participants were classified as successful or not successful based on optimal scores for physical, social, and psychocognitive functioning and on feelings of well-being, using validated quantitative instruments. Qualitative indepth interviews on the perspectives of elderly persons were held with a representative group of 27 participants. Although 45% (267/599) of the participants had optimal scores for well-being, only 13% (79/599) had optimal scores for overall functioning. In total, 10% (58/599) of the participants satisfied all the criteria and could be classified as successfully aged. The qualitative interviews showed that most elderly persons viewed success as a process of adaptation rather than a state of being. They recognized the various domains of successful aging, but valued well-being and social functioning more than physical and psychocognitive functioning. If successful aging is defined as an optimal state of overall functioning and well-being, only a happy few meet the criteria. However, elderly persons view successful aging as a process of adaptation. Using this perspective, many more persons could be considered to be successfully aged.
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As increasingly more people experience old age as a time of growth and productivity, theoretical attention to successful ageing is needed. In this paper, we overview historical, societal and philosophical evidence for a deep, long-standing ambivalence about human ageing that has influenced even scientific views of old age. In recent years, however, discussion of the psychological and behavioural processes people use to maintain and reach new goals in late life has gained momentum. We contribute to this discussion the metamodel of selective optimisation with compensation, developed by Baltes and Baltes. The model is a metamodel that attempts to represent scientific knowledge about the nature of development and ageing with the focus on successful adaptation. The model takes gains and losses jointly into account, pays attention to the great heterogeneity in ageing and successful ageing, and views successful mastery of goals in the face of losses endemic to advanced age as the result of the interplay of the three processes, selection, compensation, and optimisation. We review evidence from the biological and social science literatures for each component and discuss new research avenues to study the interaction of the three processes.
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
This study evaluated the sensitivity of maximum likelihood (ML)-, generalized least squares (GLS)-, and asymptotic distribution-free (ADF)-based fit indices to model misspecification, under conditions that varied sample size and distribution. The effect of violating assumptions of asymptotic robustness theory also was examined. Standardized root-mean-square residual (SRMR) was the most sensitive index to models with misspecified factor covariance(s), and Tucker-Lewis Index (1973; TLI), Bollen's fit index (1989; BL89), relative noncentrality index (RNI), comparative fit index (CFI), and the ML- and GLS-based gamma hat, McDonald's centrality index (1989; Mc), and root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA) were the most sensitive indices to models with misspecified factor loadings. With ML and GLS methods, we recommend the use of SRMR, supplemented by TLI, BL89, RNI, CFI, gamma hat, Mc, or RMSEA (TLI, Mc, and RMSEA are less preferable at small sample sizes). With the ADF method, we recommend the use of SRMR, supplemented by TLI, BL89, RNI, or CH. Finally, most of the ML-based fit indices outperformed those obtained from GLS and ADF and are preferable for evaluating model fit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Effects of age on the distribution of specific life events experienced during the past year by community-based adults were examined controlling for sex, race, education, marital status, and place of residence. The controlled analyses were done using logistic regression. Data were gathered via personal interview from 3,798 respondents ages eighteen years and over who participated in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA), community survey from North Carolina. Respondents were placed in one of four age groups. The percentage of respondents reporting each of the nineteen events examined ranged from 0.5 percent for death of spouse to 19.1 percent for death of loved one. Age was an important predictor in the controlled analysis for thirteen of the seventeen life events examined. A majority of differences occurred between the youngest and oldest age groups. Age differences were not found for illness of one week or more involving activity limitation.
Article
Research in aging has emphasized average age-related losses and neglected the substantial heterogeneity of older persons. The effects of the aging process itself have been exaggerated, and the modifying effects of diet, exercise, personal habits, and psychosocial factors underestimated. Within the category of normal aging, a distinction can be made between usual aging, in which extrinsic factors heighten the effects of aging alone, and successful aging, in which extrinsic factors play a neutral or positive role. Research on the risks associated with usual aging and strategies to modify them should help elucidate how a transition from usual to successful aging can be facilitated.
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This study defined and examined the interrelationships among four multicategory definitions of robust aging: productive involvement, affective status, functional status, and cognitive status. Data are from a sample of 1,644 adults aged 60 and older who participated in a nationwide household survey in 1986. The four robust aging indicators were minimally correlated, suggesting that they tap a multidimensional phenomenon. Several personal characteristics were found to distinguish robustly aging individuals from their less-well-functioning counterparts for at least one robust aging criterion. The most robustly aging individuals reported greater social contact, better health and vision, and fewer significant life events in the past three years than their less robustly aging counterparts. The data also indicated a linear age-related decrease in the proportion of respondents found in the most robust aging categories, but membership in the oldest-old cohort did not preclude one from being identified as aging robustly.
Article
Drawing on both evolutionary and ontogenetic perspectives, the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development is outlined. Three principles are involved. First, evolutionary selection pressure predicts a negative age correlation, and, therefore, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever-increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity, the efficiency of culture is reduced as life span development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the life span architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Degree of completeness can be defined as the ratio between gains and losses in functioning. Two examples illustrate the implications of the life span architecture proposed. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of 3 component processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The second considers the task of completing the life course in the sense of achieving a positive balance between gains and losses for all age levels. This goal is increasingly more difficult to attain as human development is extended into advanced old age.
Article
This study investigated the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in health status change can largely be explained by the higher prevalence of individual health-risk behaviors among those of lower socioeconomic position. Data were from the Americans' Changing Lives study, a longitudinal survey of 3,617 adults representative of the US non-institutionalized population in 1986. The authors examined associations between income and education in 1986, and physical functioning and self-rated health in 1994, adjusted for baseline health status, using a multinomial logistic regression framework that considered mortality and survey nonresponse as competing risks. Covariates included age, sex, race, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Body Mass Index. Both income and education were strong predictors of poor health outcomes. The four health-risk behaviors under study statistically explained only a modest portion of the socioeconomic differences in health at follow-up. For example, after adjustment for baseline health status, those in the lowest income group at baseline had odds of moderate/severe functional impairment in 1994 of 2.11 (95% C.I.: 1.40, 3.20) in an unadjusted model and 1.89 (95% C.I.: 1.23, 2.89) in a model adjusted for health-risk behaviors. The results suggest that the higher prevalence of major health-risk behaviors among those in lower socioeconomic strata is not the dominant mediating mechanism that can explain socioeconomic disparities in health status among US adults.
Article
This research evaluates the utility of two different definitions of successful aging in predicting well-being. We assessed the definitions of (a) self-rating and (b) Rowe and Kahn's criteria of absence of disease, disability, and risk factors; maintaining physical and mental functioning; and active engagement with life. We made associations with well-being for each definition using data from 867 Alameda County Study participants aged 65-99 years. The percentage of those rating themselves as aging successfully was 50.3% compared with 18.8% classified according to Rowe and Kahn's criteria. Although absence of chronic conditions and maintaining functioning were positively associated with successful aging for both definitions, many participants with chronic conditions and with functional difficulties still rated themselves as aging successfully; none were so classified according to Rowe and Kahn's criteria. On 14 of 15 measures, self-rated successful aging resulted in sharper contrasts for well-being. Understanding criteria used by older persons to assess their own successful aging should enhance the conceptualization and measurement of this elusive concept.
Article
Purpose: This research evaluates the utility of two differ- ent definitions of successful aging in predicting well-being. Design and Methods: We assessed the definitions of (a) self-rating and (b) Rowe and Kahn's criteria of absence of disease, disability, and risk factors; maintaining physical and mental functioning; and active engagement with life. We made associations with well-being for each defini- tion using data from 867 Alameda County Study partic- ipants aged 65-99 years. Results: The percentage of those rating themselves as aging successfully was 50.3% com- pared with 18.8% classified according to Rowe and Kahn's criteria. Although absence of chronic conditions and maintaining functioning were positively associated with successful aging for both definitions, many partici- pants with chronic conditions and with functional difficul- ties still rated themselves as aging successfully; none were so classified according to Rowe and Kahn's criteria. On 14 of 15 measures, self-rated successful aging resulted in sharper contrasts for well-being. Implications: Understanding cri- teria used by older persons to assess their own successful aging should enhance the conceptualization and mea- surement of this elusive concept.
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