Article

Antioxidant properties of raw and cooked spears of green asparagus cultivars

Authors:
  • CRA-NUT - Agricultural Research Council - Research Centre on Food and Nutrition
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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties, including phenolics, ascorbic acid and carotenoids of four green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears cultivars (UC 157, AM 822, Gijnlim, and Grande) grown under greenhouse conditions and to asses their changes during cooking process. The highest spear production of category ‘extra’ and ‘first’ was recorded on ‘UC 157’, whereas the higher production of “second” class spears was recorded on ‘UC 157’ and ‘Gijnlim’. The Grande cultivar has provided a higher total phenol, quercetin, rutin and lutein + zeaxantin contents in comparison to ‘UC 157’, ‘Gjinlim’ and ‘AM 822’ cultivars. The results also indicate that the effect of cooking process was significant and more pronounced than the effect of cultivars. The cooking process increased the antioxidant activity, total phenols, quercetin, rutin, β-carotene and lutein + zeaxantin contents by, 16%, 23%, 98%, 32%, 24% and 25%, respectively, but decreased the total ascorbic acid content by 52%.

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... Contradictory data have been reported concerning the effect of cooking process on phenolic compounds of vegetables [6]; it has been proposed that this effect is strongly dependent upon the vegetable species and the cooking conditions [7]. According to a recent study [8], total phenolic content of green asparagus was increased after boiling. ...
... However, most of the available information on asparagus phenolic content and its antioxidant capacity has been focused on the green asparagus [4,8,9]. It is important to mention that there are many differences on physiology and composition of green and white asparagus [10,11] since in green asparagus, the spears are grown in the presence of sunlight, while white asparagus is produced in the absence of sunlight. ...
... Total phenolic (mg gallic acid equivalents/g f.w.), total flavonoid (mg rutin equivalents/g f.w.), ascorbic acid (mg/100 g f.w.) content, DPPH (mg ascorbic acid equivalents antioxidant capacity/100 g f.w.) and FRAP (μM/g f.w.) of asparagus spears (cv. 'Grolim') as affected by spear tip color (white or violet) and spear portion: apical (0-7), middle (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14) and basal (14-21 cm from the tip). ...
Article
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The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color) and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking) on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP) were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.
... The effect of the harvest period on plant antioxidant capacity was also documented for basil, lettuce and cichorium (Carillo et al., 2020;Nicoletto et al., 2013;Petropoulos et al., 2017). Several studies demonstrated that antioxidant capacity, hence the health-promoting properties of asparagus, is mainly due to the high presence of various polyphenols in the spears (Fanasca et al., 2009;Siomos, 2018). The correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenol content has also been shown to be significant even after cooking (Fanasca et al., 2009;Sergio et al., 2020). ...
... Several studies demonstrated that antioxidant capacity, hence the health-promoting properties of asparagus, is mainly due to the high presence of various polyphenols in the spears (Fanasca et al., 2009;Siomos, 2018). The correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenol content has also been shown to be significant even after cooking (Fanasca et al., 2009;Sergio et al., 2020). However, independent of their antioxidant properties, once absorbed, molecules with strong putative antioxidant activity, such as phenols, do not act necessarily as antioxidants, but can also interact with various metabolic activities to the benefit of human health (Guo et al., 2020). ...
... However, in contrast to our results, extending asparagus harvest to the summer months was reported also to decrease spear ascorbic acid content (Esteve et al., 1995). In this study, as in other studies, cultivar differentiation was also recorded since ascorbic content in 'Giove' spears was lower than in 'Italo' and 'Vittorio' (Anastasiadi et al., 2020;Fanasca et al., 2009). Given the significant correlation of antioxidant capacity with phenolic content (rutin in particular) and ascorbic acid content, it would be expected that asparagus antioxidant properties would follow a similar pattern across harvest periods to the aforementioned compounds. ...
Article
Rising temperature and solar radiation drive the mobilization and depletion of crown-deposited metabolites harnessed for asparagus spear regeneration during the spring harvest season. We presently examined how successive same-season harvests impact the sensory, nutritive and bioactive composition of select green asparagus genotypes. Soluble carbohydrates were analyzed by HPLC-RI, organic acids and polyphenols by HPLC-DAD and metals by ion chromatography. Higher sugars and lower acids accentuated sweetness and lower polyphenols contributed to reduced astringency at the beginning of the harvest season. This trend was reversed as the season advanced and spear sensory quality was compromised by declining sugars and rising acids; however, functional quality improved as antioxidant capacity increased along with the concentrations of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and ascorbic acid. The compositional changes presently described were uniform across all genotypes examined and thus contribute toward our understanding of seasonal variation in the sensory and functional quality of this acclaimed health-promoting product.
... The effects of cooking on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of asparagus have not been well-studied. After boiling, spear rutin concentrations have increased (Fanasca et al., 2009) and decreased (Makris & Rossiter, 2001); other methods, as well as the effects of cooking on GSH concentrations, have not been investigated. Reports of antioxidant activity in cooked asparagus spears are also contradictory; increases and decreases have both been reported after either boiling or pan-frying (Fanasca et al., 2009;Gę bczyń ski, 2007;Jiménez-Monreal et al., 2009;Pellegrini et al., 2009). ...
... After boiling, spear rutin concentrations have increased (Fanasca et al., 2009) and decreased (Makris & Rossiter, 2001); other methods, as well as the effects of cooking on GSH concentrations, have not been investigated. Reports of antioxidant activity in cooked asparagus spears are also contradictory; increases and decreases have both been reported after either boiling or pan-frying (Fanasca et al., 2009;Gę bczyń ski, 2007;Jiménez-Monreal et al., 2009;Pellegrini et al., 2009). Resolving these contradictions and establishing ideal cooking guidelines could maximize health benefits for consumers. ...
... Decreased spear rutin concentrations associated with increased boiling duration have been described previously for asparagus; when boiling water was analyzed, the majority of lost rutin was recovered (Lu et al., 2010;Makris & Rossiter, 2001). Moderate increases for both total phenolic and rutin concentrations after boiling have also been reported (Fanasca et al., 2009), and likely resulted from incomplete extraction of rutin from raw spears due to the effects of the plant tissue matrix rather than rutin forming as a degradation product. Increased extractability of compounds, induced by thermal treatments, has previously been implicated to increase phytochemical concentrations (Navarre, Shakya, Holden, & Kumar, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Green asparagus spears are a good source of phytochemical antioxidants which may positively affect human health. Cooking conditions should be optimized for retention and availability of beneficial compounds in order to benefit consumers. The objectives of this study were to identify the cooking method(s) and duration(s) that allow the greatest retention of rutin and glutathione and antioxidant activity. Spears were baked, boiled, pan-fried, grilled, microwaved, and steamed, each for three durations, and compared to raw spears. Rutin was heat-stable for all methods and durations, but boiling leached up to 22% of that found in uncooked spears. Glutathione concentrations decreased with increasing cooking duration for methods using dry heat: baking, pan-frying, and grilling. Antioxidant activity increased or remained unchanged after cooking regardless of method or duration. The results suggest that green asparagus is moderately resistant to phytochemical losses during cooking, though minimizing duration may optimize the benefits from consumption.
... Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds have been the focal point of many analyses of asparagus materials [see Table S1], motivated by their potential antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties [59]. Evaluation of these properties was performed through the analyses of the total phenols [60][61][62] or specific phenolic subclasses such as flavonoids, comparing different varieties and/or cultivation systems [63,64]. Fuentes-Alventosa analysed 32 commercial hybrids of green asparagus and 65 genotypes of the Spanish asparagus variety Triguero, which is a wild green-purple asparagus consumed in Southern Spain [63]. ...
... Being a rich source of phytochemicals with antioxidant attributes has highlighted asparagus shoots as being a valuable dietary component [23,61,110]. Asparagus spear extracts have been correlated to suppressive effect on elevated blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats [111]. ...
... Asparagus is a crop which has long been at the centre of attention due to its unique cultivation requirements, its typical flavour and its health-promoting potential. For A. officinalis there are many reports of not only its characteristic unique flavour [49,50,73,74,98,99,123,124] but also its medicinal properties [1,13,23,33,[46][47][48]61,62,76,108,109]. All of these features, as well as visible differences between e.g., varieties, cultivation strategy etc. are directly related to the biochemical composition of the spears. ...
Article
Full-text available
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is one of the world’s top 20 vegetable crops. Both green and white shoots (spears) are produced; the latter being harvested before becoming exposed to light. The crop is grown in nearly all areas of the world, with the largest production regions being China, Western Europe, North America and Peru. Successful production demands high farmer input and specific environmental conditions and cultivation practices. Asparagus materials have also been used for centuries as herbal medicine. Despite this widespread cultivation and consumption, we still know relatively little about the biochemistry of this crop and how this relates to the nutritional, flavour, and neutra-pharmaceutical properties of the materials used. To date, no-one has directly compared the contrasting compositions of the green and white crops. In this short review, we have summarised most of the literature to illustrate the chemical richness of the crop and how this might relate to key quality parameters. Asparagus has excellent nutritional properties and its flavour/fragrance is attributed to a set of volatile components including pyrazines and sulphur-containing compounds. More detailed research, however, is needed and we propose that (untargeted) metabolomics should have a more prominent role to play in these investigations.
... In particular, rutin has antioxidant properties which strengthen capillary walls and protect against damage induced by ischemia (Khan et al., 2009). Asparagus also contains ascorbic acid and carotenoids, represented by α-, βand γ-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin (Fanasca et al., 2009). ...
... The contents of lutein, β-carotene and total carotenoids were not affected by cooking treatments (Table 4). The values of βcarotene found in asparagus are in agreement with those reported in literature showing a range of 320-500 μg 100 g −1 FW (Fanasca et al., 2009;Granado et al., 1992), while lutein content found in our green cultivar was far higher than values found in literature (1935 vs 600-700 μg 100 g −1 FW). Overall, no statistically significant differences were observed in the total carotenoid content after cooking treatments. ...
... Rutin concentration was not statistically affected by the cooking treatments, giving an average value of 4.2 mg g −1 DW (Table 4), comparable with the value of 3.8 mg g −1 DW found by Parks (2016). Rutin content in raw asparagus (380 mg kg −1 FW) was higher than values found in different cultivars, ranging from 163 to 293 mg kg −1 FW (Fanasca et al., 2009). Similar effects of cooking methods on rutin concentration were reported by Drinkwater et al. (2015), except for boiling that gave significant losses after 7.5 min. ...
Article
Asparagus represents a nutritious and refined food being very popular to consumers. The effects on the quality of spears cooked by conventional (boiling, steaming and microwaving) and different sous vide (using hot water or microwave) methods were analyzed. Physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared. Microwaving caused the largest weight change, the highest dry weight increase and the highest Total Color Difference in cooked samples compared to raw asparagus spears. Sous vide-microwaving showed an increase in greenness (the highest value of h°), better than the raw spears, and the lowest reduction in chlorophyll contents. After sous vide microwawing violaxanthin increased by about 42%, while after steaming neoaxanthin decreased by about 57%. Following sensory analysis, all cooked samples generally resulted acceptable (scores > 5 in a 1–9 hedonic scale), nevertheless sous vide-microwaved asparagus satisfied consumer acceptability more than the other cooked samples, especially when compared to steamed samples. Results indicate the sous vide-microwaving technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including the organoleptic ones, essential for the quality of cook-chilled asparagus spears. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial area of ready-to-eat vegetables.
... Lee et al. [116] reported that only 58% of the ascorbic acid of peas was retained after processing. It was also reported that ascorbic acid of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) was greatly reduced by the cooking process [61]. ...
... Kon and Sanshuck [108] found that an increase in the phytic acid content of beans was co-related with a decrease in cooking time. Fanasca et al. [61] found 23% increase in total phenols in cooked asparagus. They also reported that the effect of cooking process was significant and more pronounced than the effect of cultivars. ...
... Bioactive compounds found in significant concentrations in asparagus and having attracted attention for their potential health benefits are rutin, a flavonoid derivative of the flavonol aglycone quercetin, protodioscin, a furostanol saponin, and glutathione, a biothiol (Mills et al., 1997;Chin et al., 2002;Demirkol et al., 2004;Schwarzbach et al., 2006;Chin and Garrison, 2008;Demirkol, 2009). Rutin has been found to be the most abundant flavonoid or polyphenolic compound in green asparagus Wang et al., 2003;Maeda et al., 2005;Chin and Garrison, 2008;Fuentes-Alventosa et al., 2008;Guillén et al., 2008;Fanasca et al., 2009;Maeda et al., 2010;Motoki et al., 2012), while protodioscin accounted for the majority of the saponin content in white asparagus (Wang et al., 2003). Although protodioscin has been found in significant amounts in many plants, only white asparagus is regularly consumed vegetable among them Chin and Garrison, 2008). ...
... Some other phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic and caffeic acids Guillén et al., 2008), carotenoids and vitamins E and C Demirkol et al., 2004;Fanasca et al., 2009;Lee et al., 2010) are also important from a nutritional point of view. Phenolic compounds (rutin, anthocyanins, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids) as well as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and glutathione contribute to the antioxidant capacity of asparagus Rodríguez et al., 2005;Maeda et al., 2008;Rodkiewicz, 2008), which is classified accordingly as the richest or one of the richest among commonly consumed vegetables (Vinson et al., 1998;Pellegrini et al., 2003;Chun et al., 2005). ...
Article
Asparagus quality is very important for both growers and consumers. Among the commercial grading standards, the appearance (shape, size and color) of the spear is the most critical quality attribute. However, organoleptic attributes (texture, taste, aroma, flavor and bitterness) determine whether asparagus is accepted or rejected by the consumer, while the presence of bioactive compounds, beneficial for human health, is becoming increasingly valued. This review details the effect of genetic, environmental, agronomic and harvest factors on asparagus quality attributes, especially the organoleptic ones and describes the related physiological mechanisms. Finally, the challenges and opportunities related to develop branded asparagus as superior source of potential benefits to consumers' health are highlighted.
... Regarding the phenolic composition of wild asparagus, our findings are in agreement with results previously reported; actually, the presence of chlorogenic and chicoric acids, together with rutin and I-3-rutinoside as the main phenolic components, has been reported in wild asparagus [26,32]. Regarding cultivated asparagus, the presence of rutin as the main phenolic component has already been reported [7,23,24]. Changes in the content of individual phenolics as a consequence of the steaming were also found in good accordance with data previously reported [26], confirming the goodness of the choice of steaming as the cooking method with the least impact on the phenolic compounds [26]. ...
... reported in wild asparagus [26,32]. Regarding cultivated asparagus, the presence of rutin as the main phenolic component has already been reported [7,23,24]. Changes in the content of individual phenolics as a consequence of the steaming were also found in good accordance with data previously reported [26], confirming the goodness of the choice of steaming as the cooking method with the least impact on the phenolic compounds [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Asparagus is highly appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics and wild genotypes are valuable components of traditional dishes. In this study, the physical and chemical traits of wild (green and violet) and cultivated asparagus (‘Grande’, ‘Purple Passion’, and ‘Bianco di Bassano del Grappa’), both raw and steamed, were evaluated. Steaming did not affect the total phenols content with the exception of wild green (+49%) and ‘Grande’ (−31%). Only for wild violet asparagus steaming increased the total antioxidant activity (+46%). Chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid were found only in wild asparagus, while rutin was generally higher in colored cultivated asparagus than wild ones. The highest content of isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside was found in wild violet asparagus while only traces of this compound were detected in the cultivated ones. Steaming influenced the content of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in asparagus, also resulting in changes in the color parameters in cooked spears. Overall, the sugar content in wild asparagus was lower than in the cultivated ones and steaming had a low impact on this chemical trait. Principal component analysis highlighted the most evident separation between wild asparagus and cultivated ones. These results indicate that wild asparagus can be considered a nutritious and refined food, and provide specific information required for cooking process strategies in the agri-food industrial sector.
... Extracts from asparagus (ASP) have colon cancer inhibitory effects in vitro and in vivo [31] and induce anti-inflammatory effects in vitro [32], thereby demonstrating its potential to influence the colonic microenvironment and reduce colon-associated disease risk. Amongst 23 commonly consumed vegetables, ASP has the greatest antioxidative potential [30], which in addition to rutin (RUT), may be attributed to increased carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations [33]. ASP also contains dietary fiber and oligosaccharides [34] which may impact the colonic microbial composition and activity (e.g. ...
... ASP, a commonly consumed food worldwide, contains an array of human health promoting components including antioxidant flavonoids (e.g. RUT), micronutrients, carotenoids, and dietary fiber [29,33,34], yet research demonstrating health effects of ASP are lacking. This study has demonstrated for the first time, the potential for cooked ASP spears to mitigate colonic mucosal damage and promote mucosal healing after exposure to an inflammatory insult; an effect which is likely a result of its high RUT content. ...
... A decrease in TAA values in artichoke heads blanched in a boiling acidic water solution was reported by Sergio et al. [42]. Moreover, Fanasca et al. [43] reported a significant increase with boiling in TAA values in four cultivars of green asparagus, while Mazzeo et al. [44] found that steaming was able to preserve TAA of several vegetables, in particular increasing it in spinach. Finally, Renna et al. [38] reported an increase in TAA values in MW-cooked stems of two local variety of chicory. ...
... In a similar manner to findings described in the present study, good correlations between TAA and polyphenol content as affected by cooking have been reported for other vegetables. In effect, it has been reported that in four green asparagus cultivars the boiling treatment caused an increase in TAA, total phenols, quercetin, and rutin content [43]. Moreover, in artichoke it caused an increase in the TPC, CA, CHLA, and cynarin contents as well as TAA [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to assess the influence of three cooking methods (boiling, steaming, and microwave-cooking) on (i) composition in individual phenolic compounds, (ii) total phenolic content (TPC), and (iii) total antioxidant activity (TAA) of eight Mediterranean wild edible species (Asparagus acutifolius, Asphodeline lutea, Beta vulgaris, Helminthotheca echioides, Sonchus oleraceus, Taraxacum officinale, Urospermum picroides, Urtica dioica). In raw greens, several caffeic acid derivatives (chicoric, caftaric, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, 1,5-and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol) were identified. Cooking treatments did not affect qualitative phenolic composition, while quantitative changes were recorded in some phenolic compounds and in TPC. Generally, boiling decreased TPC and TAA, while chicoric, caftaric, chlorogenic acids and quercetin-3-rutinoside increased in some species after steaming and microwave-cooking, showing positive correlation with TAA. Results confirmed steaming and microwave-cooking as mild procedures able to increase antioxidant capacity of some species, producing beneficial effects on their nutraceutical properties.
... In fact, as already showed in other frozen vegetables (Mazzeo et al., 2011;Pellegrini et al., 2010;Prabhu & Barrett, 2009), FB asparagus, green beans and zucchini lost 44%, 34% and 9% of ascorbic acid, respectively with respect to FS vegetables. Accordingly, B vegetables lost between 16 and 60% of ascorbic acid, in agreement with previous results (Fanasca et al., 2009;Miglio et al., 2008;Pellegrini et al., 2010). Interestingly, frozen vegetables retained more ascorbic acid than fresh ones and, as a consequence, FB asparagus and zucchini had a similar content of ascorbic acid as their B counterpart. ...
Article
In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content of asparagus, green beans and zucchini. In addition, the domestic boiling of raw samples was compared with the boiling of frozen storage vegetables.Results showed that the blanching treatment retained phytochemicals in all studied green vegetables and the frozen storage up to 2. months did not negatively affected phytochemicals, in particular lutein and flavonoids in almost all samples. On the contrary, colour significantly changed during blanching and frozen storage. The changes of b* (yellowness) and the shift of H° (hue angle) were not coherent with the increase of pheophytin. In addition, the greenness (- a*) was found to increase with the exception of boiled samples in all vegetables. Generally, in boiled frozen vegetables there was a better or comparable retention of bioactive compounds with respect to raw ones, and this was especially true for green beans and zucchini. Colour changes after cooking did not exhibit the same trends among vegetables, being more remarkable for frozen asparagus in comparison with those boiled from raw, but overall comparable for green beans and zucchini.In conclusion, the overall results of the present study suggest that, when the industrial freezing process is well performed, the boiled frozen vegetables do not have a lower nutritional value than the fresh ones.
... Note: Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation) and values within a column with the same letter are not significantly different (P > .05) tannin and nontannin) content of green asparagus was found to be increasing by approximately 23% after heat treatment (Fanasca et al., 2009). This may be due to the inactivation of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme during the precipitation process leading to polyphenol degradation (Yamaguchi et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Blanching is a pretreatment method that is often applied in fruit and vegetable processing to inhibit enzyme activity and reduce loss of food quality. It was recently discovered that well‐controlled microwave volumetric heating could improve the blanching efficiency and retain nutritional and sensorial values of product. This study was conducted to investigate effects of microwave blanching conditions on the quality of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) butt segments, a rich source of fiber and antioxidants but are often discarded during processing. The experiments were designed by one‐factor‐at‐a‐time method with two varying factors including blanching time (2, 4, 6, and 8 min) and microwave power output (150, 300, 450, and 600 W). Quality of product was evaluated by sensory, retention of phenolics, and free‐radical scavenging activity retention. The results showed that longer blanching time or higher microwave power was associated with reduced quality of green asparagus butt segment. Besides, the appropriate parameters for microwave blanching of the green asparagus butt segment was found at 300 W for 4 min. This study aims to assess the effects of blanching conditions on various indicators of the asparagus butt segment including the color, texture, the residual percentages of total phenolic, and free‐radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the total phenolic content of the fresh samples was significantly reduced by 53.43% ± 1.03 (8 min, 300 W) and 57.15% ± 2.68 (300 W, 4 min), respectively.
... These results are in agreement with those reported by many authors in the literature. Indeed, Fanasca et al. (2009) observed a 23% increase in polyphenol content in asparagus after cooking. Similarly, Bushra et al. (2014) and Dusyant (2015) reported a significant increase in the total phenol content of ginger, saffron and cloves after 15 to 60 min of oven heat treatment. ...
Article
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This study was carried out to determine the effects of heating time and temperature on the nutritional composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of T. tetraptera fruit pulp. The pulp were extracted from mature dried fruits, grinded into powder and baking at different temperatures (75, 90 and 100°C) and times (10, 20 and 30 min). The heat-treated samples were then analysed using standard methods. The results revealed that when both time and temperature of heating increased, the moisture (10.88 to 9.33 %), ash (5.42 to 3.84 %) and protein (7.01 to 4.00 %) rates in samples decreased while carbohydrates (74.05 to 77.53 %), fat (1.18 to 2.25 %) and fibres (11.77 to 15.78 %) rates increased. In addition, the increase in temperature and heating time has led to significant decreases in the levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron and copper, reducing considerably the spice's contribution of these minerals to a diet. Furthermore, it was observed that total phenols and flavonoids contents, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity increased significantly with increase in heating time from 10 to 30 minutes at the tested temperatures. In contrast, total tannins (55.11 to 32.26 mg /100g), phytates (9.99 to 5.38 mg/100g) and oxalates (300.62 to 171.53 mg/100g) contents in samples decreased significantly with increase in heating temperature and time in comparison to unheated samples. It is therefore suggested that cooking of this spice should be done within the shortest possible temperature and time to retain most of its nutrients or around 100°C for an optimum time in order to obtain significant antioxidant effect.
... 스, 독일, 이탈리아, 스페인, 멕시코, 미국, 페루 및 호주는 6,000 ha 이상이다 (Benson, 2012 (Choi et al., 1981;Seong et al., 2001) (Motoki et al., 2008). 그 결과 일본에서 아스파라 거스 생산량은 10 a 당 4~6톤으로 국내 보다 현저히 높은 수준 이다 (Maeda et al., 2010) (Fanasca et al., 2009;Lee et al., 2015;Sun et al., 2007). 최근 연구에 의하면 비가림 하우스에서 재배 된 아스파라거스 순은 폐암세포 증식 억제 효과 등이 보고되었 다 (Lee et al., 2015). ...
Article
In the present study, we investigated the plant growth characteristics and biological activity of four asparagus cultivars grown using two cultural methods and tested the possibility of domestic open field. The number of shoots, buds, roots, shoot and root fresh and dry weights, and total dry weight of the four asparagus cultivars grown in a plastic house were higher than those of the same cultivars grown in an open field. Of the cultivars grown in the open field, Jersey Giant had greater shoot number than the other cultivars. In plastic house cultivation, the number of buds in Jersey Supreme was greater than the other cultivars. The total flavonoid content of the Jersey Giant was greater than the other cultivars, but cultural method was unaffected. The total polyphenol contents in asparagus cultivars grown in the plastic house were higher than those of cultivars grown in the open field. The total polyphenol content of the Jersey Giant grown the plastic house was significantly higher than those of other cultivars. Antioxidant activity such as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) did not differ significantly with cultural methods and among the cultivars. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of asparagus cultivars grown in the open field was higher than that of cultivars grown in the greenhouse; the highest APX activity was detected in UC157. Thus, greenhouse cultivation is expected to improve plant growth characteristics and biological activities of asparagus cultivars; each cultural method should be considered when selecting a suitable cultivar for high yield and high bioactive compound content.
... Several studies have reported decreased TPC with elevated temperatures on vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli and beans, 35 while a study on the herb misaim kucing (Orthosiphon staminiues Benth.) showed no increase in TPC with increasing temperature from 50 to 70 ∘ C. 36 Some examples of increased TPC correlated with heat treatment include green asparagus, 37 citrus peels 38 and persimmon leaves. 12 Increases in total phenolics might be attributed to the enhanced openness and interconnectivity of dried leaves, leading to improved surface area thereby enhancing extractability. ...
Article
Background: The influence of convective drying and ball-mill treatment of celery stalk on particle size distribution, physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities were analyzed in this study. Results: Ball-milling of celery stalk dried at the temperatures of 50, 75 and 100 °C resulted in decreasing average particle sizes of 48.8, 10.5 and 7.2 µm, respectively. Bulk density was increased with reduced particle size. Darker (L*) and reddish (a*) powders were formed at higher temperatures while ball-milling increased greenness (-a*) of powders dried at 50 and 75 °C. Total content of phenol compounds increased with increasing temperature. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power were affected by ball-milling for 24 h and drying at elevated temperatures. Iron chelating ability was unaffected by increasing temperature or reduced particle size. Conclusion: Increasing drying temperatures not only decreased the average particle size of powders, but also increasingly reduced particle size after ball-milling. Micronization of celery stalk dried at the highest temperature had the best antioxidant activities. Drying and ball-milling were not highly deleterious to the major phenolic structures.
... Boiling increased TAC compared to R samples, but this increase was significant only when TAC values were determined by the FRAP test (Fig. 6). The same effect was already observed for boiled asparagus stems by Fanasca et al. (2009) using the FRAP assay, in relation to an increase of bioactive compounds, such as total phenols, rutin, quercetin and carotenes (i.e. β-carotene and lutein). ...
Article
In thiswork, the impact of the industrial freezing process on structure, texture and total antioxidant capacitywas studied using green asparagus stems, zucchini and green beans. Samples were analysed as raw/uncooked, blanched, raw/boiled and industrially frozen/boiled. A consistent damage of the vegetable tissue was revealed by the histological analysis on vegetables boiled after freezing. The cells appeared to be dehydrated, contracted and separated at different levels depending on the anatomical structure of each vegetable. The initial textural qualitywas partially retained in all blanched vegetables, and enhanced in cut tested asparagus stems, in relation to the action of phenolic acids at cellwall level. Raw/boiled and industrially frozen/boiled asparagus stems exhibited comparable forces of penetration and cut tests. On the other hand, zucchini, both raw and frozen, completely softened after boilingmaking the texturemeasurement impossible. Industrially frozen/boiled green beans showed higher values of cut and penetration forces, probably due to a higher presence of swollen cell walls, in comparison to those raw/boiled. Blanching and boiling significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power values of asparagus stems and green beans compared to uncooked/raw samples, while boiling after the freezing process significantly deprived both vegetables of the initial antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, boiling the frozen zucchini proved to be detrimental to the antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, manufacturers and researchers should join together to develop specific industrial freezing process conditions according to the matrix of each vegetable.
... Extensive data were collected on changes in the contents of the flavonols quercetin and Q3Rut due to different processing methods [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. Both boiling and frying caused considerable losses of quercetin derivatives from broccoli (RF = 0.22 and 0.21, respectively), but fewer were lost upon steaming (0.64; Fig. 4A). ...
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Scope: The Phenol-Explorer web database (http://www.phenol-explorer.eu) was recently updated with new data on polyphenol retention due to food processing. Here, we analyze these data to investigate the effect of different variables on polyphenol content and make recommendations aimed at refining estimation of intake in epidemiological studies. Methods and results: Data on the effects of processing upon 161 polyphenols compiled for the Phenol-Explorer database were analyzed to investigate the effects of polyphenol structure, food, and process upon polyphenol loss. These were expressed as retention factors (RFs), fold changes in polyphenol content due to processing. Domestic cooking of common plant foods caused considerable losses (median RF = 0.45-0.70), although variability was high. Food storage caused fewer losses, regardless of food or polyphenol (median RF = 0.88, 0.95, 0.92 for ambient, refrigerated, and frozen storage, respectively). The food under study was often a more important determinant of retention than the process applied. Conclusion: Phenol-Explorer data enable polyphenol losses due to processing from many different foods to be rapidly compared. Where experimentally determined polyphenol contents of a processed food are not available, only published RFs matching at least the food and polyphenol of interest should be used when building food composition tables for epidemiological studies.
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The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.
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Vegetables are valuable sources of nutrients and they are also being recognised for their antioxidant properties. To assess the benefits and value of phenolic compounds in extracts, it is imperative to evaluate the effects of different processing methods applied to foods on the ultimate quantities/activities of the phenolics. In this study, the effects of thermal treatment on some vegetables is reviewed.
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This study was designed to determine and compare the effect of boiling and microwave cooking methods on the contents of vitamin C,β -carotene and total phenolic as well as the antioxidant activities in selected vegetables. Total vitamin C and β-carotene contents of fresh vegetables ranged from 33.83 to 92.65 mg/100g edible portion and from 41.40 to 340.51 μg/100g edible portion, respectively. Total phenolic contents of the investigated vegetables were in the order of broccoli > cauliflower > white cabbage. Boiling for 6 minutes reduced significantly the amount of β-carotene in the all tested vegetables. Meanwhile, the boiling for 4 minutes and microwaving for 2 or 3 minutes caused a non-significant decrease of β-carotene in the same vegetables. The effect of the two employed cooking methods on vitamin C and total phenolic were significant (p<0.05) for all tested vegetables. After cooking, total antioxidant activities decreased significantly depending on the type of vegetable and cooking method. In conclusion, microwave cooking is preferable to processing by boiling with regard to vitamin C, β-carotene, total phenolic and antioxidant activities retentions in the all tested vegetables.
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Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a perennial plant which belongs to the Asparagaceae family native to Asia, North Africa and Europe. This variety is an economically important crop with a high value in terms of food, drug activity and industry. Asparagus is rich in functional components such as Flavonoids, Saponin and Glutathione with high antioxidation activity. In comparison to 23 analyzed vegetables commonly consumed, it has been found that asparagus is the first in terms of total quality and quantity of antioxidants as a functional food. This plant has been used in a variety of (fresh or dried) foods and also as a traditional medicinal herb in both Asia (as a tonic, anticancer, and antitussive drug, especially in China) and Europe (as treatment for urinary tract inflammation). This study reviewed the most important chemical constituents in asparagus and its therapeutic properties. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis L., Spear, Rutin, Saponin, Antioxidant
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The aim was to evaluate morpho-biochemical traits in four asparagus cultivars (‘Early California’, ‘Grande’, ‘Purple Passion’, and ‘Vegalim’), and qualitative changes in ‘Grande’ and ‘Purple Passion’ during storage in air or passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 15% O2 – 5% CO2), at 4 °C for 28 days. ‘Early California’ showed the highest total phenolic (TPh) and quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) content, and the highest total antioxidant activity (TAA). 'Purple Passion' was the richest in glucose and total sugars, while 'Early California' the least rich in sucrose. The nitrate content was lower than 100 mg kg⁻¹ FM and potassium on average 280 mg 100 g⁻¹ FM. The MAP reduced weight loss, ensuring product turgidity and mitigating the cold storage stress. In the first 7 days in storage, ‘Purple Passion’ showed higher values of TPh, rutin and TAA. Afterwards, TPh content increased in both cultivars in MAP. During storage, sugars gradually decreased, except sucrose in ‘Purple Passion’, increased by almost 40% after 14 days. ‘Grande’ and ‘Purple Passion’ spears showed optimal overall quality up to 14 days-storage, but they could not be stored for more than 21 days. Moreover, MAP allowed to preserve or enhance antioxidant properties of asparagus during the whole storage.
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Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) may be cultivated either for white or for green spears, the latter method started to prevail in the world in the last years. The aim of the study was a comparison of yielding of white and green asparagus cv. 'Ravel' in the open. field and in the PE tunnel. The weight, number and diameter of spears in the total, marketable and non-marketable yields in the first and second harvest year were assessed. Total and marketable yield of white asparagus was higher than that of green one, but the latter formed significantly more spears in the total and nonmarketable yield. The yield and number of spears obtained in the tunnel was significantly higher than with no cover. Marketable spears constituted on average 77.8% of yield weight and 63.0% of the total number of spears and the values for both cultivation methods were similar. Mean weight and diameter of white spears were higher than those of the green ones.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of phytochemicals in vegetables with insight into their distribution, chemical characteristics, bioactivities, and potential health effects. Vegetables are rich in phytochemicals that can reduce platelet aggregation, modulate synthesis and absorption of cholesterol, and reduce blood pressure. The composition and stability of plant-based bioactive compounds is highly diversified and contributes significantly to the apparent health benefits associated with these products. The content of phenolic compounds in vegetables is influenced by various factors, namely variety, climatic conditions and agricultural practices, maturity at harvest, and storage conditions. Phenolic compounds such as tannins have the ability to bind and precipitate macromolecules such as protein, carbohydrates, and digestive enzymes, thus causing harmful nutritional effects. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables confer defense functions to the plants and provide a source of bioactive compounds that are important to human nutrition and health.
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The scientific community continues to be interested in potential links between flavonoid intakes and beneficial health effects associated with certain chronic diseases such as CVD, some cancers and type 2 diabetes. Three separate flavonoid databases (Flavonoids, Isoflavones and Proanthocyanidins) developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service since 1999 with frequent updates have been used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes, and investigate their health effects. However, each of these databases contains only a limited number of foods. The USDA has constructed a new Expanded Flavonoids Database for approximately 2900 commonly consumed foods, using analytical values from their existing flavonoid databases (Flavonoid Release 3.1 and Isoflavone Release 2.0) as the foundation to calculate values for all the twenty-nine flavonoid compounds included in these two databases. Thus, the new database provides full flavonoid profiles for twenty-nine predominant dietary flavonoid compounds for every food in the database. Original analytical values in Flavonoid Release 3.1 and Isoflavone Release 2.0 for corresponding foods were retained in the newly constructed database. Proanthocyanidins are not included in the expanded database. The process of formulating the new database includes various calculation techniques. This article describes the process of populating values for the twenty-nine flavonoid compounds for every food in the dataset, along with challenges encountered and resolutions suggested. The new expanded flavonoid database released on the Nutrient Data Laboratory's website would provide uniformity in estimations of flavonoid content in foods and will be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies to assess dietary intakes.
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The present study investigated the plant growth characteristics, dormancy breaking, yield, and biological activity properties (contents of flavonoid and phenolic compounds, nitrite scavenging activity, and the survival rate of lung cancer) of four asparagus cultivars. It aimed to examine selection possibilities for high efficacy cultivar to promote biological activity in asparagus cultivation in South Korea. The results showed that the number of asparagus buds and root fresh and dry weight of 'Jersey Giant', 'Jersey Supreme', and 'NJ4953' were higher than those of 'UC157' cultivar, and there were no differences in the number of roots. The dormancy breaking period of 'jersey Supreme' was prolonged compared to the other cultivars. 'jersey Giant' and 'NJ953' had more total spears, and greater spear diameter, and yield than other cultivars. Total flavonoid content was unaffected by cultivar and was higher in ethanol extraction than in hot water extraction. Total phenolic compound content was the lowest in 'NJ953' for both hot water and ethanol extracts, whereas in the ethanol extraction, 'UC157' had the highest, with 39.23 mg.L-1. Jersey Giant', 'Jersey Supreme', and 'NJ953' all showed greater than 70% nitrite scavenging activity. In the case of ethanol extraction, the survival rates of lung cancer in extracts from 'Jersey Giant', 'Jersey Supreme', and 'UC157' were lower than 'NJ 953' cultivar, regardless of extraction concentration. The survival rate of lung cancer was lower in hot water extraction than in ethanol extraction, so that the consumption of asparagus is also expected to be helpful in preventing lung cancer. The growth characteristics and biological activity effects of edible asparagus that were identified in the present study are expected to be useful in selection of high efficacy cultivars for biological activity and utilization.
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Ready-to-eat asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a tasty food with excellent nutraceutical properties. In order to realize a new ready-to-eat product, in this study asparagus's spears were cooked by blanching or microwave, and then dehydrated until they reached a weight loss of 25%, and packaged in air or in modified atmosphere (30% CO2 + 70% N2). Sensorial, physico-chemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated during a 30 days storage period at 4 °C. The microwave cooking proved to be the most effective method to preserve green colour, improving the overall acceptability of the product. Moreover, the storage in the absence of O2 and in the presence of high CO2 percentage was the most effective method to preserve phytochemical composition, total antioxidant capacity, and hygienic quality. In conclusion, asparagus spears cooked by microwave, semi-dried, packaged in modified atmosphere and stored at 4 °C for 30 days retained their quality and sensorial properties.
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Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears contain numerous phytochemicals, including rutin (a flavonoid) and glutathione (a biothiol), that are beneficial to human health due to antioxidant or other activities. To assess the potential to increase phytochemical content through breeding, genetic variability was surveyed in diverse germplasm adapted to southern Ontario. Selected female and supermale genotypes were also hybridized in a partial diallel to estimate heritability and identify parents with good combining ability. Genetic variation for rutin (3.30 to 8.14 mg g(-1) dry weight) was observed, while glutathione concentrations (5.37 to 7.86 mu mol g(-1) dry weight) did not differ significantly among tested genotypes. Combining ability effects were significant for rutin concentration and heritability was also moderate. From these results, breeding to improve the concentration of rutin, rather than that of glutathione, is most achievable in the germplasm tested.
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Fruits and vegetables in the diet have been found in epidemiology studies to be protective against several chronic diseases. Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoid consumption in the diet is protective against heart disease. Phenols in 23 vegetables have been measured by extraction with and without acid hydrolysis to determine the percent of conjugated and free phenols. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin−Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard. The extracts' antioxidant quality was assayed by the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by cupric ions. Vegetables had antioxidant quality comparable to that of pure flavonols and were superior to vitamin antioxidants. The phenol antioxidant index, measuring both the quantity and the quality of antioxidants present, was used to evaluate 23 vegetables. Isolated lower density lipoproteins from plasma spiked with two vegetable extracts were enriched with phenol antioxidants and showed decreased oxidizability. The average per capita consumption of vegetable phenols in the United States was estimated to be 218 mg/day of catechin equivalents. This is 3 times higher than the recommended intake of vitamin antioxidants. Keywords: Phenols; antioxidants; vegetables; lipoprotein oxidation
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Lycopene and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids in human blood and tissues. Although lacking provitamin A activity, lycopene may be biologically active by contributing to the antioxidative defense system of the organism. We studied the uptake of lycopene from processed (boiled with 1% corn oil for 1 h) and unprocessed tomato juice in humans. Lycopene concentrations in human serum increased only when processed tomato juice was consumed. Lycopene uptake varied with individuals, but peak serum concentrations were always reached between 24 and 48 h. The carotenoid was eliminated from serum with a half-life of 2-3 d. The increase in peak serum concentrations was dose-dependent but not linear with the dose. Repeated doses led to a continual rise of lycopene in human serum. Of the different geometrical isomers (all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis), the cis isomers seemed to be somewhat better absorbed than the all-trans form.
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The present study investigated whether storage under modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) affected the antioxidant properties of fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Eleven healthy volunteers (six men, five women) consumed 250 g fresh lettuce, and blood was sampled before (0 h) and 2, 3 and 6 h after consumption. The protocol was repeated 3 d later with the same lettuce stored at 5 degrees C under MAP conditions (O2-N2 (5:95, v/v)). Results showed that after ingestion of fresh lettuce, plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), measured as area under the curve, was significantly higher (1.3 (sem 0.3) mmol/l per 6 h; P<0.05) than the value obtained with MAP-stored lettuce (0.1 (sem 0.2) mmol/l per 6 h). Plasma TRAP, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were significantly different from baseline values (P<or=0.05) 2 and 3 h after fresh lettuce ingestion. Caffeic acid increased significantly at 3 h (P<0.05). Plasma beta-carotene levels increased significantly at 6 h (P<0.05). Vitamin C concentrations (mg/l) rose from 10.9 (sem 2.0) to 12.7 (sem 3.0) (P<0.001), 12.7 (sem 2.0) (P<0.01) and 12.9 (sem 3.0) (P<0.05) at 0, 2, 3 and 6 h respectively. No changes were observed after ingestion of MAP-stored lettuce for all the measured markers. Our present results showed that ingestion of MAP-stored lettuce does not modify plasma redox status in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to develop post-harvesting techniques able to preserve the bioactive molecule content of plant food.
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It has been estimated that 30-40 percent of all cancers can be prevented by lifestyle and dietary measures alone. Obesity, nutrient sparse foods such as concentrated sugars and refined flour products that contribute to impaired glucose metabolism (which leads to diabetes), low fiber intake, consumption of red meat, and imbalance of omega 3 and omega 6 fats all contribute to excess cancer risk. Intake of flax seed, especially its lignan fraction, and abundant portions of fruits and vegetables will lower cancer risk. Allium and cruciferous vegetables are especially beneficial, with broccoli sprouts being the densest source of sulforophane. Protective elements in a cancer prevention diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, chlorophyll, and antioxidants such as the carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits orally, but could be very beneficial intravenously. Supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics also has merit as anticancer dietary measures. When a diet is compiled according to the guidelines here it is likely that there would be at least a 60-70 percent decrease in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers, and even a 40-50 percent decrease in lung cancer, along with similar reductions in cancers at other sites. Such a diet would be conducive to preventing cancer and would favor recovery from cancer as well.
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The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between diet and cancer development. It has been estimated that 30-40% of all kinds of cancer can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. A low use of fibres, the intake of red meat and an imbalance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats may contribute to increase the risk of cancer. On the other hand, the assumption of lots of fruit and vegetables may lower the risk of cancer. Protective elements in a cancer-preventive diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, chlorophyll and antioxidants such as carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits if taken orally, but it effective through intravenous injection. A supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics is also an anticancer dietary measure. A diet drawn up according to the proposed guidelines could decrease the incidence of breast, colon-rectal, prostate and bronchogenic cancer.
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The antioxidation capacities of green 'Welcome', green and white 'Gijnlim', and purple 'Purple passion' asparagus spears were evaluated. Analyses of rutin and total polyphenols, and assays of DPPH radical absorbing and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidation were conducted. Varietal differences associated with the colors of spears were observed both in the amounts of rutin, total polyphenols and in DPPH radical absorbing activities, although not in LDL antioxidation activities. DPPH radical absorbing activities seemed to be affected by both rutin and other polyphenolic compounds. However, LDL antioxidation activities were likely to be influenced more by other polyphenolic compounds than by rutin. Total polyphenol content showed a fairly close relationship with rutin content, DPPH radical absorbing activity and LDL antioxidation activity. To determinate total polyphenol content using the Folin-Denis' method seemed to be useful for selecting the breeding lines that show high antioxidative capacities.
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This study was carried out to determine the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected common vegetables. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant activity and phenolic content were also studied. Kale, spinach, cabbage, swamp cabbage and shallots were used in this study. Among all the vegetables (fresh and thermally treated), shallots showed the highest total antioxidant activity followed by spinach, swamp cabbage, cabbage and kale. Spinach had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by swamp cabbage, kale, shallots and cabbage. Except for shallots and cabbage, the antioxidant activities of kale, spinach and swamp cabbage were significantly decreased (p
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The major carotenoid constituents of extracts from several raw and cooked green vegetables (broccoli, green beans, spinach), red ripe tomatoes, and tomato paste have been identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 reversed-phase column. The predominant carotenoids in raw green vegetables were neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein epoxide, lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene. The carotenoids in tomatoes and tomato paste were lutein, 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrolycopene, lycopene 1,2-epoxide, lycopene 5,6-epoxide, lycopene, neurosporene, gamma-carotene, zeta-carotene, beta-carotene, phytofluene, and phytoene. The effect of various means of cooking on the levels of carotenoids in raw and cooked (microwaved, boiled, steamed, stewed) green vegetables and tomatoes has been extensively studied. It was shown that while the epoxycarotenoids were somewhat sensitive to heat treatment, lutein and hydrocarbon carotenoids such as neurosporene, alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, zeta-carotene, phytofluene, and phytoene survived the heat treatments.
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The effects of induction boiling, conventional boiling and microwave steaming on the sensory qualities and carotenoid retention of broccoli, carrots, green beans and sweet potatoes were investigated. Significantly higher cooking yields were obtained for vegetables that were induction and conventionally boiled. No differences in the retentions of alpha-carotene (-carotene), beta-carotene (β-carotene) and lutein/zeaxanthin were observed for vegetables by the cooking method, with the exception of β-carotene retention in broccoli and sweet potatoes where retentions were higher for those that were induction boiled (90.3 and 86.1%, respectively) than those that were microwave steamed (62.2 and 66.4%, respectively). A trained panel judged the color scores of three vegetables by the cooking method as similar. The mean flavor scores (1 = extremely bland; 9 = extremely intense) for three vegetables that were conventional (4.7–5.4) and induction (5.3–5.5) boiled were lower than those that were microwave steamed (5.9–7.0). The mean texture scores (1 = extremely mushy/tender; 9 = extremely firm/tough) for all induction-boiled (5.0–6.0) vegetables were higher than those that were conventionally boiled (3.4–5.2) and lower than those that were microwave steamed (5.1–6.6).
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Asparagus (Asparagus Officinalis L.) spears were packaged in ordinary and microperforated oriented polypropylene (OPP) films and were stored at 15C and 75% RH for up to 10 days. CO2 concentrations ranged from 15.5 to 23% at 10 days of storage. Weight loss was less than 1.2% in microperforated film packages compared with 15% in air storage under similar conditions. Ascorbic acid content was found to be adversely affected at all the O2 levels (1–6%) prevailing in microperforated film packages, but it was retained to the extent of 45–55% of its original concentration in ordinary OPP film packaged asparagus. the O2 concentrations in microperforated film packages were also associated with higher glutathione concentrations in packed asparagus spears. Results of the study indicated that to preserve ascorbic acid and glutathione simultaneously in stored asparagus through MAP under high CO2 and low O2 conditions, O2 concentration levels must be selected between 1 and 6% in such a way so as to get acceptable retention levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione.
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Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity and polyphenol concentrations decreased during maturation and remained relatively constant during cold storage. However, there was no set pattern of changes in degree of browning during maturation and cold storage. Not all cultivars showed the same relationship between degree of browning and enzyme activity. In some cultivars (Classic Delicious, RI Greening, McIntosh and Cortland), PPO activity was directly related to degree of browning while in others (Empire, Rome and Golden Delicious), degree of browning was related more to phenolic concentration. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the phenolics in apples showed that the types of phenolic compounds in all cultivars were similar and that no one particular compound could account for the differences observed in browning.
Article
The first of a two-part review of the recent and classical literature reveals that loss of nutrients in fresh products during storage and cooking may be more substantial than commonly perceived. Depending on the commodity, freezing and canning processes may preserve nutrient value. The initial thermal treatment of processed products can cause loss of water-soluble and oxygen-labile nutrients such as vitamin C and the B vitamins. However, these nutrients are relatively stable during subsequent canned storage owing to the lack of oxygen. Frozen products lose fewer nutrients initially because of the short heating time in blanching, but they lose more nutrients during storage owing to oxidation. Phenolic compounds are also water-soluble and oxygen-labile, but changes during processing, storage and cooking appear to be highly variable by commodity. Further studies would facilitate the understanding of the changes in these phytochemicals. Changes in moisture content during storage, cooking and processing can misrepresent changes in nutrient content. These findings indicate that exclusive recommendations of fresh produce ignore the nutrient benefits of canned and frozen products. Nutritional comparison would be facilitated if future research would express nutrient data on a dry weight basis to account for changes in moisture. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
In this second part of our review, we examine the literature for changes in carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals, and fiber due to processing, storage, and cooking of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables. While inconsistencies in methodology and reporting methods complicate interpretation of the data, the results show that these nutrients are generally similar in comparable fresh and processed products. The higher levels of carotenoids typically found in canned as compared to fresh products may be attributed to either reporting results on a wet rather than dry weight basis, greater extractability, or differences in cultivars. There are relatively few studies on processing, storage, and cooking effects on vitamin E in fruits and vegetables. Further research is needed to understand nutritional changes in those few fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin E, such as tomatoes. Minerals and fiber are generally stable to processing, storage, and cooking, but may be lost in peeling and other removal steps during processing. Mineral uptake (e.g., calcium) or addition (e.g., sodium) during processing can change the natural mineral composition of a product. Sodium concerns in canned food can be addressed by choosing products with no salt added. Since nutrient content varies considerably by commodity, cultivar, and postharvest treatments, inclusion of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in the diet is encouraged. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
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The diversity and depth of the body's antioxidant protection system is reviewed. Components of both endogenous and exogenous origins contribute protection, and new data suggests that some components interact to spare or replace each other. Evidence from both animal and human studies shows that glutathione and vitamin C can act in concert to alleviate a variety of oxidant stresses. Results from in vitro and animal studies indicate that vitamin C regenerates tocopherol in the lipid phase, but this interaction has not yet been shown to be important to human nutrition and metabolism. Newer evidence suggests that β-carotene and tocopherol may act synergistically against lipid peroxidation, and that polyphenols, such as flavonoids provide antioxidant protection which is enhanced by vitamin C. The diverse roles of iron and copper in redox biochemistry is illustrated by their incorporation in protective metalloenzymes and by some proposed interactions with vitamins. The emerging picture of synergisms and interactions suggests that antioxidant protection may be more flexible and efficient than indicated by studies of single nutrient effects. The apparent versatility of the oxidant defense system implys that it is capable of taking advantage of diverse antioxidants provided by the diet, as well as excesses of a particular antioxidant nutrient.
Article
Antioxidant components, including phenolics, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, of broccoli floret and stem, antioxidant activity, and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking, were investigated. Broccoli florets and stem were cooked by conventional boiling or by microwave over up to 300 s. Total phenolics were retained by up to 28.1–28.4% in the cooked florets and 55.6–57.8% in the cooked stems, and ascorbic acid by 34.1–34.4% and 29.1–29.5%, respectively. Total carotenoids were retained better compared to total phenolics and ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was retained at 34.7–35.0% in the cooked florets and 34.6–34.7% in the cooked stems and phenolic antioxidant activity was retained at 37.4% and 64.7%, respectively. The results showed that antioxidant components and antioxidant activity in broccoli were lost heavily during the cooking. These losses need to be taken into account when calculating the dietary intake of these compounds from the cooked broccoli.
Article
This paper reports on the amino acid, in vitro protein digestibility and dietary fiber changes in green asparagus during development and processing. Green asparagus spears were classified into fine (F, ≤8 mm), middle (M, 9–11 mm), thick (T, 12–14 mm), very thick (VT, 15–19 mm) and extra thick (ET, ≥20 mm). This plant food was found to be a good source of protein (> 30% DW), containing most of the essential and nonessential amino acids. However, the arginine, cystine, γ-amino-butyric acid, glutamine, lysine, ornithine, phenylethanolamine, serine and taurine contents decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with blanching and canning. Green asparagus protein showed an adequate amino acid score according to FAO/WHO recommendations, and seemed to contribute most of the essential amino acids, except histidine and lysine, which were limiting amino acids. In-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) tended to decrease during development (77.30% at F to 71.43% at ET), improving during processing, mainly after blanching. The increase in soluble dietary fiber and decrease in insoluble dietary fiber during processing might relate to the improvement of IVPD noted.
Article
Freshly harvested white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears (about 500 g per package) were over-wrapped with a 16 μm stretch film. Packages were kept at 2.5°C, 5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C and 25°C under continuous darkness or light (15 ± 1.9 W m−2) for 6 days. At all temperatures, an atmosphere of 4.5–6.9% CO2 and 3–6.7% O2 developed during the first hour; after 8 h, CO2 increased to a maximum of 5.8–9.8%, whereas O2 decreased to a minimum of 0.7–1%. At equilibrium, the atmosphere had 4.6–7% CO2 and about 1% O2. Bract opening (‘feathering’), toughening, anthocyanin synthesis and ascorbic acid breakdown were suppressed in the packages during 6 days. However, at temperatures above 15°C visual deterioration and development of severe off-odors occurred. The presence of light in the storage environment had no significant effect on spear quality.
Article
Vitamin C, including ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, is one of the most important nutritional quality factors in many horticultural crops and has many biological activities in the human body. The content of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables can be influenced by various factors such as genotypic differences, preharvest climatic conditions and cultural practices, maturity and harvesting methods, and postharvest handling procedures. The higher the intensity of light during the growing season, the greater is vitamin C content in plant tissues. Nitrogen fertilizers at high rates tend to decrease the vitamin C content in many fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C content of many crops can be increased with less frequent irrigation. Temperature management after harvest is the most important factor to maintain vitamin C of fruits and vegetables; losses are accelerated at higher temperatures and with longer storage durations. However, some chilling sensitive crops show more losses in vitamin C at lower temperatures. Conditions favorable to water loss after harvest result in a rapid loss of vitamin C especially in leafy vegetables. The retention of vitamin C is lowered by bruising, and other mechanical injuries, and by excessive trimming. Irradiation at low doses (1 kGy or lower) has no significant effects on vitamin C content of fruits and vegetables. The loss of vitamin C after harvest can be reduced by storing fruits and vegetables in reduced O2 and/or up to 10% CO2 atmospheres; higher CO2 levels can accelerate vitamin C loss. Vitamin C of produce is also subject to degradation during processing and cooking. Electromagnetic energy seems to have advantages over conventional heating by reduction of process times, energy, and water usage. Blanching reduces the vitamin C content during processing, but limits further decreases during the frozen-storage of horticultural products.
Article
For the first time, a database of the antioxidant capacities of both the lipophilic and hydrophilic components of foods has been developed using the modified oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL) assay and a peroxyl radical generator. For lipophilic components, randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin was used as a solubility enhancer. Four representative samples were extracted directly with the hydrophilic solvent (acetone:water:acetic acid, 70:29.5:0.5). Their ORACFL values were similar to that obtained for hydrophilic ORACFL (H-ORACFL) following lipophilic extraction with hexane:dichloromethane (1:1). Lipophilic ORAC values (L-ORACFL) were relatively low compared to H-ORACFL, ranging from 0.11±0.06 to 154.70±3.58 μmol TE/g of fresh or dry weight, whereas H-ORACFL ranged from 1.23±0.17 to 175.24±10.36 μmol TE/g of fresh or dry weight. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated as the sum of the lipophlic and hydrophilic ORACFL values. L-ORACFL as a percentage of TAC ranged from 0.27% to 63.70%. Sampling time during the year significantly influenced lipophilic and/or hydrophilic ORACFL values in some food samples. In order to get an accurate total antioxidant capacity of a given food sample, both lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions need to be measured. Food processing, such as cooking or peeling, need to be considered as additional factors which can introduce variation in antioxidant capacity measurements of foods.
Article
Harvesting season for green asparagus can be extended by the use of the mother fern method and greenhouse cultivation. To evaluate seasonal variations in nutritional quality of green asparagus, the compositional profiles of fresh spears (Asparagus officialis L. cv. UC157 F1) harvested each month from March to October were compared in two locations of China using mother fern method. During the harvest season, dry matter content, soluble sugar, crude fiber, rutin and total soluble phenol in spears exhibited marked variation. Although there was no significant difference in total amino acid contents among most of months throughout the season, but quantitative changes in some specific amino acids occurred. Fresh spears harvested in warm season (from June to July) contained lower level of soluble sugars, dry matter, ascorbic acid and higher nitrate, crude fiber, total phenolics and rutin contents compared with those in cooler months. Asparagus harvested in spring accumulated relatively higher level of soluble sugar, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents than those in autumn, but total phenol and rutin contents were higher in autumn than in spring. The relationships between weather data and nutritional quality parameters of asparagus spear during harvest season were also discussed.
Article
A rapid method based on RP-HPLC with UV detection is presented for the quantitative determination of five major flavonoid aglycons, viz. quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, luteolin, and apigenin, in freeze-dried vegetables and fruits, after acid hydrolysis of the parent glycosides. Completeness of hydrolysis and extraction have been optimized by testing systematically different conditions such as acid concentration, reaction period, and methanol concentration in the extraction solution using samples containing various types of flavonoid glycosides. Optimum hydrolysis conditions are presented for flavonol glucuronides, flavonol glucosides, and flavone glycosides. Identity of the flavonoids was confirmed with diode array. Repeatability of the method was good, with coefficients of variation of 2.5-3.1 % for quercetin, 4.6-5.6 % for kaempferol, 4.6 % for myricetin, 3.3 % for luteolin, and 2.8 % for apigenin. CV of the within-laboratory reproducibility was less than 2 times the CV of repeatability. Recoveries of the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin ranged from 77 to 110 %, and recoveries of the flavones apigenin and luteolin ranged from 99 to 106 %. The method presented allows a fast, quantitative, and reproducible determination of five flavonoids in freeze-dried foods.
Article
Ames, Shigenaga, and Hagen recently published a thorough review of the relationship between oxidants, antioxidants, and degenerative diseases of ageing. They point out that only 9% of Americans daily consume the two fruits and three vegetables recommended by the National Cancer Institute and the National Research Council/National Academy of Science. In addition to antioxidants, these foodstuffs contain many essential micronutrients. To date, specific recommendations for antioxidant supplementation have not been made by any governmental agency or professional association. A number of clinical, basic, and epidemiological studies have implicated free radical induced lipid peroxidation in various ocular disorders. It would seem prudent that those persons at greatest risk for these disorders take some precautions, which could include sunglasses that filter ultraviolet light; hats that shield the eyes from direct sunlight; and the ingestion of fruits, vegetables, and antioxidants.
Article
A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
Article
In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2383 Baby Food Composite. This SRM can be used as a control material when assigning values to in-house control materials and when validating analytical methods for the measurement of proximates, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements in baby foods and similar matrixes. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2383 provides certified and reference values for concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and retinyl palmitate for 2 types of sample preparation--extraction and saponification. The assigned values were based on the agreement of measurements made by NIST and collaborating laboratories. The Certificate of Analysis also provides reference and information values for concentrations of proximates, minerals, and additional vitamins; assignment of these values is discussed in a companion paper (this issue, page 276).
Article
The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and cooking on the flavonoids and vitamin C content (ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acid; AA + DHAA) of fresh-cut spinach was evaluated. The total flavonoid content (approximately 1000 mg kg(-)(1) f.w.) remained quite constant during storage in both air and MAP atmospheres, while vitamin C (750 mg kg(-)(1)f.w.) was better preserved in MAP-stored spinach. AA was transformed to DHAA during storage, and its concentration was higher in MAP-stored tissues. The free-radical scavenging activity of the isolated flavonoids was tested, and only those flavonoids with either a dihydroxyl grouping or acylated with ferulic acid showed significant activity. A decrease in the total antioxidant activity was observed during storage, particularly important in MAP-stored spinach. The higher content of DHAA and lower content of both AA and antioxidant flavonoids in the MAP-stored samples could explain this antioxidant activity decrease. Boiling extracted 50% of total flavonoids and 60% vitamin C in the cooking water. However, flavonoid glucuronides were extracted more in the cooking water than the other glycosides. The vitamin C content of the cooked tissue was higher in those samples stored in MAP.
Article
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and morbidity and mortality from degenerative diseases. The antioxidant content of fruits and vegetables may contribute to the protection they offer from disease. Because plant foods contain many different classes and types of antioxidants, knowledge of their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which is the cumulative capacity of food components to scavenge free radicals, would be useful for epidemiologic purposes. To accomplish this, a variety of foods commonly consumed in Italy, including 34 vegetables, 30 fruits, 34 beverages and 6 vegetable oils, were analyzed using three different assays, i.e., Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). These assays, based on different chemical mechanisms, were selected to take into account the wide variety and range of action of antioxidant compounds present in actual foods. Among vegetables, spinach had the highest antioxidant capacity in the TEAC and FRAP assays followed by peppers, whereas asparagus had the greatest antioxidant capacity in the TRAP assay. Among fruits, the highest antioxidant activities were found in berries (i.e., blackberry, redcurrant and raspberry) regardless of the assay used. Among beverages, coffee had the greatest TAC, regardless of the method of preparation or analysis, followed by citrus juices, which exhibited the highest value among soft beverages. Finally, of the oils, soybean oil had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by extra virgin olive oil, whereas peanut oil was less effective. Such data, coupled with an appropriate questionnaire to estimate antioxidant intake, will allow the investigation of the relation between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress-induced diseases.
Article
As part of a project directed toward the discovery of new cancer chemopreventive agents from plants, two new natural products, asparagusic acid anti-S-oxide methyl ester (1) and asparagusic acid syn-S-oxide methyl ester (2), a new acetylenic compound, 2-hydroxyasparenyn [3',4'-trans-2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl]-benzene] (3), as well as eleven known compounds, asparenyn (4), asparenyol (5), (+/-)-1-monopalmitin (6), ferulic acid (7), 1,3-O-di-p-coumaroylglycerol (8), 1-O-feruloyl-3-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (9), blumenol C, (+/-)-epipinoresinol, linoleic acid, 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol, and 1,2-O-diferuloylglycerol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Asparagus officinalis (Asparagus), using a bioassay based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, with the most active compound being linoleic acid.
Article
It has been shown that thermal processing of tomatoes and sweet corn results in increased antioxidant activities despite the loss of vitamin C. Until now, it is unclear whether this positive effect of thermal processing occurs with all crop produce. Therefore, analysis of a root vegetable (beets) and of a legume (green beans) was undertaken to address this question. Antioxidant activity of beets processed under typical commercial processing conditions remained constant despite an 8% loss of vitamin C, a 60% loss of color, and 30% loss of dietary folate. There was a slight but significant 5% increase in phenolic content of processed beets. In contrast, vitamin C and dietary folate content of green beans remained constant, whereas a 32% reduction in phenolic compounds occurred after typical commercial processing conditions. The antioxidant activity of green beans was reduced by 20%. These findings along with previous works suggest that the effects of thermal processing vary with the respective produce crop type. It also reinforces the concept that optimal health benefits may be achieved when a wide variety of plant foods (fruits, vegetables and whole grains) and preparation methods are incorporated into the diet.
Article
Epidemiological data showed that tomato and tomato product (sauce, paste) consumption is associated with a protective effect against the development of some chronic-degenerative diseases. Tomato antioxidant bioactive molecules such as carotenoids and polyphenols could be responsible, at least in part, for the healthy effect observed. The bioavailability of these compounds is an essential requirement to sustain their in vivo role. While it is well known that many factors can influence the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from the food matrix, there is little information about the factors affecting phenolic compounds' bioaccessibility. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of domestic cooking on the bioavailability in humans of antioxidant molecules after the administration of a test meal containing cherry tomatoes. A cross-over design was conducted. Subjects (3 females and 2 males) consumed experimental meals containing fresh and cooked cherry tomatoes. Blood collection was performed at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h). Carotenoid and phenol plasma concentrations were measured. Plasma levels of lycopene and beta-carotene were not significantly different with respect to the baseline after ingestion of both the test meals, while plasma concentrations of naringenin and chlorogenic acid increased significantly with respect to the baseline (P<0.05) after administration of cooked cherry tomatoes, but not after administration of fresh cherry tomatoes. The present study indicated that domestically cooked tomatoes significantly increase naringenin and chlorogenic acid plasma levels. Considering that both naringenin and chlorogenic acid are widely studied for their potential healthy properties, evidence of their bioavailability and of the factors influencing their bioaccessibility is an important tool to sustain the possibility that these polyphenols play a biological role in human physiology.
Article
Carotenoids comprise a class of natural fat-soluble pigments which are found in numerous fruits and vegetables. The consumption of a diet rich in carotenoids has been epidemiologically correlated with a lower risk for several diseases. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids and biochemical properties influencing signaling pathways have been discussed as basic mechanisms of prevention. Conflicting data from intervention studies with beta-carotene to prevent cancers and cardiovascular disorders have challenged the concept. However, there is convincing evidence that carotenoids are important components of the antioxidant network. Photooxidative damage is suggested to be involved in the pathobiochemistry of several diseases affecting the skin and the eye, and carotenoids may protect light-exposed tissues. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the predominant carotenoids of the retina and are considered to act as photoprotectants preventing retinal degeneration. The unique distribution, localization and high levels of both carotenoids within the macula lutea as well as their physicochemical properties make them suitable candidates for photoprotection. beta-Carotene is used as an oral sun protectant for the prevention of sunburn and has been shown to be effective either alone or in combination with other carotenoids or antioxidant vitamins. Protective effects are also achieved with a diet rich in lycopene.
Article
Three different methods (antiradical activity, inhibition of primary oxidation, and ferric reducing power) have been used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of eight different asparagus cultivars and byproducts: white and green asparagus from Alcalá del Río (Guadalquivir Valley, Seville) and American hybrids, native spears, and their byproducts from Huétor-Tájar (Vega de Granada). The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenol content was studied. Six standards were also tested to validate the modified methods for antioxidant activity determination. Results obtained for antiradical capacity and reducing power were very similar, and a high correlation with phenols was found (R > or = 0.9 for both tests). Sample origin was an important factor, spears from Huétor-Tájar having higher values (ARC between 7 and 10 and P(R) of 0.25-0.33) than those from Alcalá del Río (ARC 0.6-2 and P(R) of 0.05-0.07). Significant differences were found between spears with the same origin, suggesting that genetics are another factor to take into account. Asparagus inhibits lipid primary oxidation, but no correlation between the inhibition percentage and phenols was observed. Asparagus origin was the only factor that led to significant differences: samples from Huétor-Tájar had higher values (POIC between 18 and 32) than those from Alcalá del Río (POIC of 5-9). Byproducts from the canning industry at Huétor-Tájar were also assayed for antioxidant activity; the results obtained suggested that byproducts could be considered as an excellent source of natural antioxidants.
Article
Vascular biology assumes a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension and target organ damage sequelae. Endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, remodeling) are initial events that start hypertension. Nutrient-gene interactions determine a broad array of phenotypic consequences such as vascular problems and hypertension. Optimal nutrition, nutraceuticals, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation, and moderate restriction of alcohol and caffeine in addition to other lifestyle modifications can prevent, delay the onset, reduce the severity, treat, and control hypertension in many patients. An integrative approach combining these lifestyle suggestions with the correct pharmacological treatment will best achieve new goal blood pressure levels, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve vascular biology and vascular health, and reduce target organ damage including coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and renal disease. The expanded scientific roles for nutraceutical supplements will be discussed in relation to the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension with emphasis on mechanisms of action and clinical integration with drug therapy as indicated based, in part, on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, the European Society of Hypertension, the European Society of Cardiology, the International Society of Hypertension, the Canadian Society of Hypertension, and other hypertension guidelines.
Article
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three common cooking practices (i.e., boiling, steaming, and frying) on phytochemical contents (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, glucosinolates, and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant capacities (TAC), as measured by three different analytical assays [Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] and physicochemical parameters of three vegetables (carrots, courgettes, and broccoli). Water-cooking treatments better preserved the antioxidant compounds, particularly carotenoids, in all vegetables analyzed and ascorbic acid in carrots and courgettes. Steamed vegetables maintained a better texture quality than boiled ones, whereas boiled vegetables showed limited discoloration. Fried vegetables showed the lowest degree of softening, even though antioxidant compounds were less retained. An overall increase of TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP values was observed in all cooked vegetables, probably because of matrix softening and increased extractability of compounds, which could be partially converted into more antioxidant chemical species. Our findings defy the notion that processed vegetables offer lower nutritional quality and also suggest that for each vegetable a cooking method would be preferred to preserve the nutritional and physicochemical qualities.
Effects of different cooking methods on nutritional and Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • C Miglio
  • E Chiavaro
  • A Visconti
  • V Fogliano
  • N Pellegrinino
Miglio, C., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V. & Pellegrinino, N. (2008). Effects of different cooking methods on nutritional and Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 139–147.
Optimization of a qualitative HPLC determination of a potentially anticarcenogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits
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Hertog, M.G.L., Hollman, C.H. & Vanema, D.P. (1992). Optimization of a qualitative HPLC determination of a potentially anticarcenogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 40, 1591-1598.
Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2
  • D S Jang
  • M Cuendet
  • H Fong
  • J M Pezzuti
  • A D Kinghorn
Jang, D.S., Cuendet, M., Fong, H., Pezzuti, J.M. & Kinghorn, A.D. (2004). Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 52, 2218-2222.
Effect of food preparation on qualitative and quantitative distribution of major carotenoid constituents of tomatoes and several green vegetables
  • F Khachick
  • M B Goli
  • G R Beecher
Khachick, F., Goli, M.B., Beecher, G.R. et al. (1992). Effect of food preparation on qualitative and quantitative distribution of major carotenoid constituents of tomatoes and several green vegetables. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 40, 390-398.
Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on glutathione and ascorbic acid content of asparagus spears
  • Sato